Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
Sorsogon State College
Bulan, Sorsogon


Topic: Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction
Subject: Educational Innovation and Technology
Professor: Mr. Ruel G. Grafia


Robert Gagne was an educational psychologist who created a nine step process called the Events
of Instruction.
The model is a systematic process that helps them develop strategies and create activities for
instructional classes. It provides a framework for an effective learning process. Each step addresses a form
of communication that supports the learning process When each step is completed, learners are much more
likely to be engaged and to retain the information or skills that they are being taught.
The steps essentially give designers an outline or prototype to use prior to performing teaching or
training activities.

GAGNE (1977) identified five major categories of learning:

1. Verbal Information
2. Intellectual Skills
3. Cognitive Strategies
4. Motor Skills
5. Attitude

According to Gagne, the following steps should be clearly thought out when designing instruction:
 Identify the types of learning outcomes
 Each outcome may have prerequisite knowledge or skills that must be identified
 Identify the external conditions or instruction needed to achieve the outcomes
 Specify the learning context
 Record the characteristics of the learner
 Select the media for instruction
 Plan to motivate the learners
 The instruction is tested with learners in the form of formative evaluation
 After the instruction has been used, summative evaluation is used to judge the effectiveness of the

The nine events of instruction can be divided into three segments:

1. Preparation
a) Gaining attention
b) Informing the learners of the objectives
c) Stimulating recall of prior knowledge
2. Instruction and Practice
a) Presenting the stimulus
b) Providing learning Guidance
c) Eliciting Performance
d) Providing feedback
3. Assessment and Transfer
a) Assessing Performance
b) Enhancing retention and transfer


1. Gaining Attention (Reception)

Begin the learning session by gaining the attention of the learners. Ensure that the learners are motivated
to learn and participate in the activities by presenting a stimulus to gain their attention. This can be
accomplished by presenting the learners with an introductory activity.
 Techniques for gaining learners attention include:
o Stimulate learners with novelty and surprise
o Pose thought-provoking questions
o Have learners pose question to be answered by other learners
o Present an intriguing problem
o Present a new and interesting situation that provokes curiosity
o Present meaningful and relevant challenge
2. Informing Learners of the Objective (Expectancy)
After gaining their attention, inform the learners of the learning objectives to help them understand what
they will be learning after the session. State what the learners will be able to accomplish during the session
and how they will be able to use the knowledge in the future. This allows the learners to organize their
thoughts on what they will learn and help them place a proper mind set.
 Techniques for stating objectives include:
o Describe what they will be able to do at the completion of the session
o Describe required performance
o Describe criteria for standard performance
o Explain how their learning will benefit them
3. Stimulating Recall of Prior Knowledge
Help the learners make sense of new information by relating it to something they already know or
something they have already experienced. To accomplish this, present the learners with an experience or
cue that stimulates their prior knowledge. Make connections between what they are learning, and their
previous learning. When people learn something new, it is best to correlate the new information with related
information or topics they have learned in the past.
 Methods for stimulating recall include:
o Ask if they have any previous experiences with the topic
o Ask questions about previous experiences
o Ask about their understanding of previous concepts
o Give them an example of an experience similar to what they are learning
 Ways to activate learner processing include:
o Have the learners do something with the newly acquired behavior
o Have the learners demonstrate practicing skills
o Have the learners apply knowledge to a scenario or a case study
o Ask questions so that they can show their knowledge
o Ask the learners to demonstrate how to use it
o Have them complete a role playing exercise
4. Presenting Stimulus
Present the learners with new information using learning strategies to provide effective and efficient
instruction. Organize and chunk content in a meaningful way. Provide explanations after demonstrations.
 Ways to present session content include:
o Organize your information in a logical and easy-understand-manner
o Chunk information
o Provide example
o Utilize multiple delivery method (e.g. video, demonstration, lecture, podcast, group work)
o Use a variety of approaches (such as visual cues, verbal instruction, and active learning) to
suit people with different learning styles/preferences.
5. Presenting the Stimulus
Offer the learner guidance by providing coaching on how to learn the skill. Give examples and advise of
strategies to aid them in the learning content. Also, provide guidance using cues, hints, and/or prompts to
help them understand and remember what they are learning.
 Ways to provide learning guidance include:
o Concept mapping for associations
o Mnemonics to cue and prompt learning
o Role playing for visualization of application
o Analogies to help knowledge construction
o Graphics to make visual associations
6. Eliciting Performance (Responding)
Let the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, and knowledge. Provide them with
practice activities to activate the learning process. This activity allows the learner to internalize the new
information (skills and knowledge) and to ensure correct understanding and application of the
7. Providing Feedback (Reinforcement)
After the learners attempt to demonstrate their knowledge, provide immediate feedback of learner’s
performance to assess and facilitate learning. This is also a good time to reinforce any important points. This
stage helps reinforcement of correct answer, gives guidance as to the degree of correctness of the task,
and/or provides corrective feedback if the response or behavior is incorrect.
 Tips on providing feedback
o Be positive
o Be objective
o Use first-hand observation
o Deliver focus and concise feedback
o Focus on areas the student can control
8. Assessing Performance (Retrieval)
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional events, administer a test to determine if the
expected learning outcomes have been achieved. Performance should be based on previously stated
 Methods for assessing learning performance include:
o Written test
o Short questionnaires
o Short essays
o Oral questioning
o Other measurements to show that they’ve learned the material or skill effectively
9. Enhancing Retention and Transfer (Generalization)
Give the learner resources that enhance retention and transfer so that they are able to internalize the
knowledge and enhance his or her expertise. Repeated practice with effective feedback is the best way to
ensure that people retain information and use it effectively.
 Methods for helping learners internalize new knowledge include:
o Having them summarize content
o Having them generate examples
o Having them create mind maps or concept maps
o Having them create outlines
o Having them create job-aids
o Having them create other types of reference materials