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The companies are located at near Coimbatore. The company workers are working
Washing materials are made from different types of natural and synthetic raw materials.
Soaps derived from vegetable oils were used traditionally for centuries. However,
shortage of vegetable oils, need for better cleaning material for variety of fabrics and to
reduce the cost, synthetic cleaning materials came in big way in 1960s and till
it dominates the market.

Detergent powder & cake have now become very popular in India due to better
cleaning properties, reduce cost, ease of application and possibility of mass production.
They are formulated using synthetic forming material (acid slurry), soda ash,
fillers, etc. Moreover, detergents work well with hard water which is a problem in
many parts of the country. Synthetic detergent in powder form is widely used in
household cleaning of cloth and other articles. Detergent powder can be formulated to
suit washing machine application. Detergent cake is marketed as detergent material in
India due to century old practice of washing cloth using soap bar. It has somewhat
different formulations than powder. However, main ingredients remain same. In cake
form it is easy to use and transport.

Synthetic detergent is not only used as household cleaning material but also
have industrial applications in textiles, pesticide industry as carriers, etc.
This report is based on “Organisation Study” conducted at SRM Soaps &
Detergents Limited ; COVAI . Organisation is defined as the “A s s o c i a t i o n
of various departments in the firm in which all work collectively in attaining the goals
& objectives of the company by rendering the valuable services towards it by both
employers and management
The objectives of the research are to:
Study the production and sales operations of the selected chemical factories.
Identify and discuss the internal and external challenges and prospects of the selected large-scale
factories with reference to production and sales.
Identify and assess the measures put in place by the government, chemical industries and
stakeholders to mitigate the challenges.
 To study the benefits of this product provided by the customers in the chemicals.
 To use the product benefits in the chemicals market.
 To know the customer feedback.
 To increase a production and to achieve an organizational goals.
 To improve our profit per year ended.
 To improve the company relationship.
 To analysis the working conditions.
 To working with coordinately.
 To create a good image for rural areas.
 To improve a quality of product.
 To create a good relationship with their consumer.
 To increase our customer satisfaction.
 To improving with the facility of employees
 To increase the competition in this sector so that the common people has
the advantage of enjoying quality services at a reasonable cost
 To know the people are getting right reorganization by the company.
Since the research is a multiple case study, there was an obvious indication of the unwillingness
of the factory authorities to release certain vital data with the fear of getting their production and
sales secrets into the public domain due to competition that exists between the local chemicals
factories. Photographs and video documentation were generally a prohibition in all the factories
and that also affected the graphical presentation of data.
Timing of Production:-

The goal in time scheduling of manufacture is to integrate all the tasks in the chain of
production so that no unnecessary waiting occurs and each task is given enough time, adding that
methods of scheduling include the standards of productivity and task programming techniques
and the critical path method. Explicit scheduling is indispensable especially in the case that the
product consists of several parts that have to be made in different places. Besides, in many fields
of production the company gets an advantage over competitors if it can deliver the product
quickly. This can be related to the domestic factories as they operate on horizontally another
integrated system where production is discontinuous with the processing of production, soda
,acid slurry manufacture, , taking place in different places and therefore explicit scheduling
becomes indispensable. This is to minimize time wasting which occurs as a result of movement
of material from one section, factory or region to another for the next process to be carried out.
Amidst competitive market, it can asserted that, quick delivery or meeting deadlines should be
one of the common goals or priorities of the local chemicals factories to attain competitive edge
over other companies producing the same products.
Customer satisfaction:-
Customers energize the operations function like electricity does to light bulb. A Customer
arrives at a bank, hardware store, hears a greeting “May I help you”, conveys a want or need and
has it fulfilled. That, according to Schonberger and Knod should be the case.
However, the current customer needs and wants never get to the light bulb or do so too slowly.
Both external and internal customers have many of the same general demands which include
Quality, speed, and flexible response.
A competitor is a firm vying with another for sales and customers as well as for Employees,
permits, funding, and supplier loyalty. In this sense pleasing customers becomes the most basic
level of operations management that gains its allegiance and brings revenue. This, modernly
According to Schonberger & Knod, could even drive competitors out of the market or production
Line. These scenarios presume, of course, that sales and marketing and other functions are also
doing their part. Customer satisfaction builds competitiveness which is judged by rate of
productivity improvement. Productivity is measured by the value of goods produced divided by
number of hours worked.

In any activity that requires investigation into a phenomenon to reach concrete results, a well-
defined and systematic methodology for achieving authentic results become very imperative. In
this chapter, therefore, the research design used, the data collecting instruments, the population
for the study, the sampling techniques used and the data collection procedures have been
Research Design:-
The study was based on the phenomenological perspective of qualitative approachadoptedthe
descriptive observational and multiple case study methods to investigate the challenges and
prospects of four major chemicals factories and implication thereof for education in Ghana. As
epitomized in phenomenological study the description of structure and experience as they
presented themselves in the operations of the selected chimicalsfactories were carried out. The
qualitative enquiry allowed close interactions with the respondents, observation of their settings
and interpretation of findings.
The Sriram chemicals (p) Ltd., are a part of the reputed VIP Group companies that produce
variety of products. This particular concern was found in 1995 and it was called as Sriram
chemicals (p) Ltd., by June 2000, it was renamed as SRM chemicals (p) Ltd. It is located at from
A State of the art promoted by the eminent men of vision, Mr. M. DURAISAMY
Managing director at the factory. Have its branches at Erode, Tirupur, Bangalore, Calcutta, and
And Hosur. The head office is at Tirupur.
The main raw materials required for the manufacturing of detergent powder & cake are acid
slurry, soda ash, soda bicarb, sodium tripolyphosphate, soap stone, sodium silicate, sodium
sulphate, synthetic dye etc. All these raw materials are produced & available in major parts of
India without any difficulty. The choice of raw material and formula may vary according to
the market condition and affordability of the consumers The SRM Chemical (Pvt) Ltd are an
ISO 9002 company so the products are as per quality standards. There are 17 branches all over
India and head is at Tirupur. The total investment of this plan at 120 crores. The total area of the
plant covers about 19.5 crores and there are 405 laborers and 50 staffs are working in the
The factory is interested with latest modern machineries from Lakshmi machine works and
gets financial support from the state bank of India (covai branch).
The company exports its product to Korea, Srilanka, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Dubai and it
also has merchants to sell. The aim of the concern is to deliver best quality soap, chemicals to the
world and it is able to meeting the aim successfully. The concern has got ISO 9002 standard
from quality assurance department of India, which ensures that the produced degerntants soup is
of best quality.
Organizational Design may define in different ways;
More specifically, Organization Design is a formal, guided process for integrating the
people, information and technology of an organization. It is used to match the form of the
organization as closely as possible to the purpose(s) the organization seeks to achieve.
"Organization design" can be defined narrowly, as the process of reshaping
organization structure and roles, or it can more effectively be defined as the alignment of
structure, process, rewards, metrics and talent with the strategy of the business.
The design of an organization is much more than the boxes on an organization chart and the lines
that connect them.
This type of industrial organizational structure divides a staff into departments by duties. A
director or vice president in charge of each function reports directly to the CEO or president.
Functions include manufacturing, engineering, marketing and finance. Each department handles
functions such as human resources if a separate department for such does not exist. Managers
take charge of the divisions under functions such as budgeting and accounting under finance, and
sales and advertising under marketing.
Decision making authority was informally delegated from the Cabinet to the Sub-Committee
bypassing the Planning and Finance Departments. Such dilution of the decision making, process
was not justified as there was no proper accountability for putting the public funds at risk due to
unwarranted assistance to loss making units.
 They define the levels of management in organizations.
 Organization structures define relationships between jobs.
 They define the centers of decisions in any organization.
 They help to achieve organizational goals by grouping jobs, defining relationship
between positions as well as who takes the responsibility in organization.

Name of the company : SRM CHEMICALS PVT LTD,

Address : Nehru Street

Coimbatore (DT)

Start with : 1995

Director : Mr. M.Duraisamy

Manager : Mr. R.Velusamy

Phone : 04285-223530, 423530

E-mail : srmchimicals@yahoo.com

Bank : Indian Overseas Bank

Group Name : VIP Groups

Investment : 120 crores.

Certificate : ISO 9002

Branches : Erode, Tirubur, Kolkata.

Raw Materials Purchased : Andhra, Tamil nadu.

System Usage : ISO 9000

Monthly Purchase : 15 lacks

Monthly Sales : 25 lacks

Total employees : 402

Female employees : 152

Male employees : 250

Staffs : 50

Company export : Korea, Srilanka, China.







Finance department is concerned with planning, directing, monitoring, organizing and

controlling monetary resources of an organization. Finance management is that specialized
function of general management, which is related to the procurement of finance and its effective
utilization for the achievement of common goals of the organization.
Business activities should be not only harmonized but also planning determine and
implementation offer analysis of finance. All activities resolve around the finance. So finance
planning and control are important function.
The effective and efficient utilization of financial resource. It means creating a balance among
financial planning, procurement of funds, profit administration and sources funds.
The primary goal of both investment and financing decisions is to maximize shareholder value.
Investment decisions revolve around how to best allocate capital to maximize their value.
Financing decisions revolve around how to pay for investments and expenses. Companies can
use existing capital, borrow, or sell equality.
Method of costing refers to the techniques and processes employed in the ascertainment of costs.
The method of costing to be applied in a particular concern depends upon the type and nature of
manufacturing activity.
1. Job costing:
Cost unit in job order costing is taken to be a job or work order for which costs are separately
2. Process costing:
This is used in mass production industries manufacturing standardized products in continuous
processes of manufacturing. Cost are accumulated for each process or department..
Direct Cost:
These are the costs which are incurred for and conveniently identified with a particular
cost unit, process or equipment. For a chemicals factory, costs of raw material used, packing
material, freight etc. are direct costs.
Indirect Cost:
These are general costs and are incurred for the benefit of a number of cost units,
processes or departments. In a chemical factory, power cost, administrative wages, managerial
Fixed and Variable Cost:
Costs behave differently when level of production rises or falls. Certain costs change in
sympathy with production level while other costs remain unchanged. As such on the basis of
behavior or variability, costs are classified into fixed, variable and sem-variable.
Fixed Cost:
These costs remain constant in "total" amount over a wide range of activity for a
specified period of time. They do not increase or decrease when the volume of production
Variable Cost:
These costs tend to vary in direct proportion to the volume of output. In other words,
when volume of output increases, total variable cost also increases and vice-versa.
Elements of Cost:
A cost is composed of three elements i.e. material, labor and expense. Each of these
elements may be direct or indirect.
Direct Material:
Direct material is that which can be conveniently identified with and allocated to cost
units. Direct materials generally become a part of the finished product. For example, soda used in
a chemical factory is a direct material.
Indirect Material:-
Is that which cannot be conveniently identified with individual cost units. In a chemical mill,
engineering department spares, maintenance spares, lubricating oils, greases, and ring travelers.
Direct Labour:-
Cost consists of wages paid to workers directly engaged in converting raw materials into finished
Products. These wages can be conveniently identified with a particular product, job or process.
Indirect Labour:-
Indirect labors of general character and cannot be conveniently identified with a particular cost
unit. In other words, indirect labor is not directly engaged in the production operations but only
to assist or help in production operations. For example in a chemical factory, for detergent
powder, first of all powder raw materials are screened in the required quantity and mixed
uniformly. After this, acid slurry with dye is slowly poured on the mixture and mixed in a
ribbon blender. The machine is run for about 15 minutes and then material is taken out,
screened if required and packed in plastic bag.
 Management of investment of company.
 Management of taxes.
 Management of financial risks.
 Merge or Acquisition.
 Investment decision.
 Financing decision.
 Dividend policy decision.
 Liquidity decision.
 Dividend for shareholders
 Retained profits
 Estimation of capital requirements
 Determination of capital composition
 Choice of sources of funds
 Investment of funds
 Disposal of surplus
 Management of cash
 Financial controls
At SRM chemicals (p) Ltd there is a personnel department. The personnel officer
Time office and Security in charge.
Security Office:-
a) Maintain the security office records.
b) Material inward register.
c) Soda outward register.
d) Material outward register.
e) Waste cotton outward register.
f) Material outward non-returnable registers.
g) Key register.
h) Company vehicle register.
i) Private vehicle register.
j) Visitors slip.
k) Lamoure’s visitors note.
Time office:-
At SRM Chemicals (p) Ltd there is a time office under the head of the personnel officer. There
are two members in time office.
The main functions of the personnel officer are as follows;-
i. Man power planning.
ii. Recruitment.
iii. Training.
iv. Placement.
v. Records maintenance
vi. The personnel officer is responsible for the following:
vii. Payment of wages.
viii. Payment of provident fund.
ix. Accident Benefit.
x. Welfare Facility
xi. Safety Facility.
Success or failure of an organization depends on the effective coordination of the resources such
as money, material, machinery and men. Among these, the role and operation of men is the most
complex. All the activities of an organization are initiated and completed by the persons who
make up the organization. Therefore, people are the most significant resources of any
organization. HRM is known by different names – Personal management, personal
administration, man power management.
Contribution of HRM to Organization:
 Helping the organization to search its goal.
 Employing the skills and the activities of the workforce efficiently.
 Providing the organization with well trained and well-motivated employee.
 Increasing to the fullest the employee’s job satisfaction.
 Developing and maintaining quality of work life
 Communication
 Helping to other department and function
 The basic concept of HRM is to attract and retain the right person at right place in right
time with right remuneration. In textile HRM should appoint the skillful employ at the
right, appropriate & correct place where HR can express capabilities.
 A simple human transform as an asset by selection of right person for right place &
trained him and provide adequate career development opportunity. In textile a major
issues are the wages and salaries, lack in transparency in promotion and increments
.Hence HR should take care about that and make structure in such way that it satisfies
both worker(employees) and management . HR plays just like a bridge between
management and employees.
 The HRD department of any company is responsible recruiting skilled labors and
executives, allocation and planning of work, monitoring of workforce and performance
appraisal. It is also responsible to timely up gradation of skills of the workforce by
organizing educative professional workshops or seminars. If HRD activities are carried
out in proper professional manner it could result into minimization of cost and wastage,
right recruitment of workforce, increased stability of the company, flexible enough to
cope up with futuristic developments and most important maximizes production.
The time officer maintains the following stator records:-
Form (1) - Permanent workers.
Form (2) - Adult workers.
Form (15) - Leave with wages.
Form (26) - Accident report.
Form (26) (b) - Dangerous accidents
Form (k) - Maternity benefits.
Form (i) - Fine reports.
Form (5) - For declared holidays.
Form (25) - Attendance register.
Form (25) (b) - Time card for workers.
Form (6) - Register of holidays.

Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that
the goals of each are met. It is that part of the management process which is concerned with the
management of human resources in an organization. I t tries to secure the best from people by
winning their whole hearted cooperation. Human resource management may be defined as the art
of procuring, developing, motivating and maintain competent workforce to achieve
organizational goals efficiently.
Organizations are social systems, composed of roles interactions and relationships among
people occupying various positions in its structure. Every organization is formed to achieve its
primary objectives. AS the industrial world is becoming more and more globalized and
informationalised, fulfillment of objectives lies in the hands of the people of the organization. No
matter how sophisticated technology, plant, and machinery an organization has, eventually much
of the results depend upon human inputs. Out of all the factors of production like land, capital,
 Procurement of manpower.
 Training and development of manpower.
 Compensation
 Employment
 Transfer and promotions
 Working conditions
 Employee Services and Welfare
 Industrial Relations.
 Integration of interests of manpower and the organization.
 Maintenance of manpower.
 Provision of welfare facilities.
 Miscellaneous function.
 Maintained of service records of employees.
 Promotion and transfer of employees.
 Maintaining cordial industrial relations.
 Introduction of rational grievance procedure.
 Performance evaluation of employees.
 Career planning of employees.
 Restructuring of the organization.
An organization usually has different types of stores like which it refers by different names on
the basis of material nature such as:-
Raw Materials Store
Processed or Semi-Finishing Materials Store
Finished Goods Store
Chemicals Store

Stores have a process and a space within, to receive the incoming materials keep them for
as long as they are not required for use (Custody) and then to move those out of stores for use
In a manufacturing firm this process forms a cycle to maintain and run the activities of Stores.
The basic responsibilities of stores are to act as custodian and controlling agent for parts,
supplies, and materials, and to provide service to users of those goods.
The basic job of the Stores Manager hence is to receive the goods and act as a caretaker of the
materials and issue them as and when Production demands it. Needless to say storekeeping
activity does not add any value to the product.
Different types of Stores on the basis of storage nature are:
Closed Stores:
Closed systems are utilized when close control and accounting for inventories are desirable. In
such cases, storage area is kept locked and entry is limited to stores employees or to others only
on an authorized basis. Goods enter inventory through a formal receiving process and leave
through an authorized requisition or bill of materials.
Closed systems typically include industrial or business stores operations, and involve
repair parts, consumables, tools, and materials or components for assembly where ongoing
control and accuracy. is essential.
Open Stores:
There are instances where the cost of closely controlling inventories outweighs expected
losses in an uncontrolled environment. In such cases, inventory storage areas may be left open or
kept close to the point of use for efficient user access. Such inventories are available for use as
needed, with emphasis on expediting production, or operations rather than on security.
Random Access:-
In random access systems, goods are stored without regard for commodity groupings.
Instead, goods are stored in the next or nearest available space of suitable size. However, it is
good planning to select from available storage spaces with consideration for the anticipated
frequency of issue. Locating items in random access storage usually requires a computerized
system. Random access systems tend to be used in conjunction with a closed stores system.
Automated Store:-
A variety of automatic storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) are being used today. ASRS
systems have the capability of bringing goods from storage or placing goods into storage upon
computer entry of the item identification and/or storage location. Such systems may range in size
from small rooms to whole warehouses, and may handle items ranging from small parts in tote
pans to large materials on pallets.

Where business volume is sufficiently large, suppliers may operate a firm's supply or inventory
storage facility using supplier personnel, under contract with the using organization. Depending
on the agreement, a contractor may either acquire on-site inventories or just manage them.
In some cases, supply contractors have branches built next door to industrial plants, for
the sole purpose of supplying all needs of the plant. In some cases, the two facilities are
separated by a common wall and supplies are issued through an opening in the wall. This is an
emerging trend for MRO and office supply goods.
 Receiving of incoming consignments (goods)
 Safe keeping of goods (Custody)
 Disposal of undesirable goods
 Inventory Management
 Housekeeping
 and record maintenance
 Receipt of incoming goods
 Inspection of all receipts
 Storage and preservation
 Identification of all materials stored
 Materials handling

SRM as 3 main production plants:

 Fatty Acid Plant

 Soap Plant
 Detergent Plant

Fatty Acid Plant:

The basic raw materials, Oil & fats undergo the splitting & refining process
including hydrogenation at the fatty acid plant.

It is also obtained & used for soap making. The plant has a capacity to process
10,000mt of oils 1 fat.

Soap Plant:

The soap plant is one of the largest production plants in the country with an installed
capacity of 26,000 tons per annum.

SRM’s soap plant has its uniqueness been in a position to process as many as ten
different varieties of soap simultaneously. The sophisticated plant from Italy has a wholly
integrated straight line facility that links up process sequence for higher

It is a stream line flow through right from raw material preparation to end or the
line collation with the built in facility for continuous fat bleaching & saponification.
The finishing touches are given or high tech universal wrapping machine. This
high speed auto wrapper has the capability to handle soaps of virtually & size or shape.

Detergent Plant:
It has installed capacity of 10,000 tons per annum. To produce spray dried,
powder & a syntax plant for detergent cakes & bars. It produces industrial detergent
which is used in the formulation of wet table pesticide powders .
 The functions of production management are as follows:-
 Selection of product and design.
 Selection of production process.
 Selection right production capacity.
 Production planning.
 Production control.
 Quality and cost control.
 Inventory control.
 Maintenance and replacement of machine.
 Draw Frame
Quality Control is concerned with sampling, specifications and testing as well as the
organization, documentation and release procedures which ensure that the necessary and relevant
tests are carried out, and that materials are not released for use, nor products released for sale or
supply, until their quality has been judged satisfactory.
The company has a long reputation for quality, performance and innovation. Quality of final
product is determined with quality of raw material. sales, marketing, financial, customer service,
technical and manufacturing personnel combine expertise with experience into a service group
that we believe is unmatched and uniquely qualified to help our customers achieve their goals.
The quality products that our customers demand long-term. Capital investment and re-equipping
with state-of-the-art processing equipment is central to our strategy to provide yarn products that
consistently meet our customers' quality and value expectations.
The factory invests in on-line and real-time quality control, monitoring, and assurance systems
that are integral to consistency of product quality.
 Raw material checking.
 Blow room checking.
 Packing material checking.
 Combed oil fat checking.
 Final produced the label checking the quality of the detergents soap cake capacity.

Manager QA (Quality Assurance):

Manager Quality assurance is working directly under General Manager (R&D). His
responsibilities are:

i) Raw Material Testing (Bale Management)

Oil fat and chemicals samples received will be tested against mill norms and a decision
regarding purchase of the lot or rejection will be taken by QA Manager. Lots which fulfill the
quality norms will be purchased, and 100% testing of the bales from the lot will be carried out
Bale Management should be strictly followed.
ii) In-Process Testing & Process Optimization
In-process material at every process stage must be checked and wherever deviations are
observed, the process must be optimized by conducting trials.
iii) Finished Product Testing
Before the final product is being dispatched to the customer, the same should be checked
against the norms specified by customer. Non-conforming product must be packed separately
and given separate lot/batch number.
Calibration of Testing Equipment
To arrive at reliable results, the testing instruments must be calibrated (Internally or by
service engineer as the case may be) as per the prescribed method and schedule.
Good R&D Laboratory Practice
a. Documentation:
Following details should be readily available to the Quality Control Department:
 Specifications.
 Sampling procedures.
 Testing procedures and records (including analytical worksheets and/or laboratory
 Analytical reports and/or certificates.
 Data from environmental monitoring, where required.
 Validation records of test methods, where applicable.
 Procedures for and records of the calibration of instruments and maintenance of
b. Sampling
The sample taking should be done in accordance with approved written procedures that describe:
 Method of sampling.
 Equipment to be used.
 Amount of the sample to be taken.
 Identification of containers sampled.
 Storage conditions.
c. Testing
Analytical methods should be validated. All testing operations should be carried out
according to the approved methods. The tests performed should be recorded and the records
should include:
 Name of the material or product.
 Batch number.
 References to the relevant specifications and testing procedures.
 Dates of testing.
 Initials of the persons who performed the testing.
 Initials of the persons who verified the testing and the calculations.
 Status decision and the dated signature of the designated responsible person.


 Purpose
 Objective
 Scope
 Responsibility
 Procedure
 Activity of quality control department.
 Calibration of laboratory instrument.
 Performing stability study.
 Control sample storage.
 Analytical method validation.
 Maintain Working/reference standard record of products.
 Maintain labeling procedure at all the stages and records.
 Analysis of complaint samples as and when required.
 To conduct technical audit/self-inspection.
Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and
distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that will satisfy individual and
organizational objectives. Marketing is not only about providing products or services but also
about providing changing benefits to the changing needs and demands of the customer.
Marketing is thus the sum total of all the activities and processes including creating,
communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customer, clients,
partners, and society at large. Marketing is one of the important one the spinning on cotton
yarns. The marketing department helps to promote and build awareness about a company, its
products and its services. The department also works with internal stakeholders, like the sales
team, to provide tools to help them do their jobs better.
 Satisfaction of customer’s needs.
 Increase in sales volume.
 Increase in organizational profile.
 Primary Market
 In primary markets is sold by the grower to the village merchant without the intervention
of any intermediaries.
 Secondary Market
 A majority of the growers now disposing of the secondary markets, i.e. important trade
 In the secondary wholesale markets, the business is conducted in accordance with local
customs and practices Open auction system for each individual seller's produce is
generally followed in most of the secondary markets.


 Focus on the customer.
 Monitor the competition.
 Own the brand.
 Find & Direct outside vendors.
 Create new ideas.
 Communicate internally.

 Factory in total control for the electrical department.

 Sometime power cutting time only lights working electrician 63 KVA (Kilo Volt
 Diesel generator running the 1 unit cost rs.14, EB to running the power rs.6.50.
 One day working the EB 1100 voltage needed to the transforming the power.
 Department vice to control electrical.
 Electrical department is called the power house.
 Compressor air to running these machines.
 OCB, ACB, MV Pannier (Medium Voltage.)

Electronics & computer control systems in the textile industry include primarily the
machine panels, the systems for regulating, controlling and the data recording. Productivity,
quality, operational profit of the industry and therefore the competitiveness depends on the
technology. Due to the increase in performance of electronic systems in recent years, it is now
possible to realize solutions, which in the past had to be rejected for cost reasons.

This allows us to quickly identify and systematically eliminate weak points in the
production process. Since the use of it has given economically feasible for many mills, a major
part of the new plants will be equipped with such systems.
Now day’s modern weaving machines are equipped with the various control systems like
electronic take up and let off, permanent insertion control (PIC), slim through-light sensor,
electronic color selector, ECOWEAVE /RTC, automatic picks finding, electronic yarn tension
control, automatic pre winder switch off, automatic start-mark prevention, E-shed, CAN-bus ,
etc. Some of them are discussed briefly in this paper.
 Transformer with on load tap changes 1600KVA (Kilo Volt Ampere)
 Diesel /SKO/LDO Operates generator 1250 KVA.
 MV Panel SSB, LSB, LDB, FDB for electrical distribution.
 Stabilizers for lighting, winding machines and drawing machine.
 Fire safety system requirements.
 Fuel storage tank 50KL.
 Load manager.
 Multi meter.
 Clap on meter.
 Digital Anemometer.


i. High Production Rates
ii. Consistency in Quality
iii. Flexibility
iv. Technical Information
v. Electronic Yarn Tension Control
vi. Easy Operation
vii. Electronic Take Up and Let Off
viii. Reduction in Man Power.












Soaps Noodles

Container Mixer

Simplex Plodder

It Becomes NOODLES


Becomes Soap Ribbons

Duplex Plodder

Cutting Machine

Cakes are fed into Stamping Machine

Wrapping Machine

Soap and detergent manufacturing consists of a broad range of processing and packaging

operations. The size and complexity of these operations vary from small plants employing a few

people to those with several hundred workers. Products range from large-volume types like
laundry detergents that are used on a regular basis to lower-volume specialties for less frequent

cleaning needs.

Cleaning products come in three principal forms: bars, powders and liquids. Some liquid
products are so viscous that they are gels. The first step in manufacturing all three forms is the

selection of raw materials. Raw materials are chosen according to many criteria, including their

human and environmental safety, cost, compatibility with other ingredients, and the form and

performance characteristics of the finished product. While actual production processes may

vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, there are steps which are common to all products of a
similar form.
The stepping stone in case of India was difficult for tide as there were major companies like
HUL and ITC already present in the country. The start-up was slow but steady. Tide was
supposed to be a premium product when initially launched n India. Gradually it gradually it
understood that what had worked elsewhere would not work in India as the major portion of the
country is not very rich. so and important element of marketing i.e, price was taken care off.
P&G worked on making something that catered to the lowered segment . Tide Naturals took
birth and thus the market, which was then being lead HUL’s Wheel, Nirma etc, now had a
competition. so gradually started eating up HUL’s market share and created a market for itself.

Tide has also launched small sachets that cater to the demand of all the people of the society. The
best part about the sachets is that they are available in the denomination of as low as rs 2. So the
consumer does not have to think a before parting with Rs. 2. In order to boost up sales in the
rural area has created an icon named sangeeta bhabhi, an educated and dedicated dual
proposition called “kamyab Jodi”. the highlight of the marketing strategy was to educate .

Soap/ appropriate raw materials are crucial to highly transparent soap that is easy on the
skin. The fatty acid composition determines the lathering and cleansing force of the soap,
and it is obviously an important component, but the proportions of other raw materials are
also key, for example, the glycerin and sugar that reduce drying.

The frame kneading method is used for transparent soap. Hot gel-form transparent soap
body is poured into a frame for cooling and hardening. It is important to manage the
hardening temperature and time very carefully in order to bring out the beauty of the
transparent soap.
After hardening, the rod-shaped soap is extracted from the frame. From there, it is cut
with piano wire (stainless copper wire) and then individually arrayed on a drain board.
The soap is not yet transparent at this stage; a bit of cloudiness remains

After drying and maturation, the soap moves to the finishing process. Each piece of
transparent soap is polished by hand. This may seem like a mindless task, but it requires a
great deal of skill to bring out the beauty of the transparent soap, and polishers must be
extraordinarily careful about how they hold it.
After polishing, the soap is stamped. Stamping ion type of forming process. The soap is
warmed to body temperature, and each piece is individually stamped. This is an essential
task, not only for bringing out the visual beauty of the product, but for making sure that
the form and size of the soap are suited to the hand.

From there the soap moves to final testing, checking for pH and volatility, as well as the
scratches, deformation and transparency. Only products that pass all tests are shipped and
delivered to customers

Inventory Control System

ABC analysis for stock control.

FIFO method for issuing materials.

Computerized accounting system for stores.

The first in first out method (“FIFO”) simply means that what comes in first will be
handled first, what comes in next waits until the first one is finished. In other words, FIFO is a
method of inventory valuation based on the assumption that goods are sold or used in the same
chronological order in which they are bought.
FIFO describes the principle of a queue processing technique or servicing conflicting
demands by ordering process by first come, first serve behavior.
FIFO is a method of inventory accounting in which the oldest remaining items are
assumed to be the first sold. In a period of rising prices, this method results in a higher ending
inventory, a lower cost of goods sold, a higher gross profit, and a higher taxable income.
The FIFO method of costing is used to introduce the subject of materials costing. The
FIFO method of costing issued materials follows the principle that materials used must carry the
actual experienced cost of the specific units used.
The FIFO method assumes that the materials are issued from the oldest supply in stock
and that the cost of those units when placed in stock is the cost of those same units when issued.
However, FIFO costing can be used although physical withdrawal is in a different order.
The following are considered to be some of the advantages of FIFO method.
1. Materials used are drawn from the cost record in a logical and systematic manner;
2. Movement of materials in a continuous, orderly manner that represents a condition that is
necessary and consistent with the efficient materials control.
3. However, there are some disadvantages also for the FIFO method. It is to be noted that if
frequent purchases are made at different prices and if units from several purchases are on hand at
the same time, it will definitely lead to a loss.
For example, take a purchase that is made for $500 first and $2000 subsequent to that. As
per the FIFO method, the purchase made for $500 has to be sold first. Therefore, the purchase
made for $2000 cannot be sold out until the first one is finished. This can sometimes lead to a
loss .It is to be noted that the FIFO method is usually recommended whenever ,The size and cost
of units are large Materials are categorized under a particular purchased lot;



SRM has well- managed stores department for each of the three divisions viz, soaps,
detergent & fatty acid division in the factory, there are separate miscellaneous stores
department for raw material, finished goods and tools.


 Assuring the availability of raw material at right quantity.

 Maintenance of economical and uninterrupted flow of production activities
and finally to ensure minimum blockage.
 Achieving maximum efficiency in production and sales with least investment
in inventory.

Projected energy use trends in the commercial sector show stable shares for all fuels, with
growth in overall consumption slowing from its pace over the past two decades. Slow growth (0.8
percent a year) is expected in the sector, for two reasons. Commercial floor space is projected to
grow by only 0.9 percent a year between 1978 and 2020 compared with an average of 1.5 percent
a year over the past two decades. Lower growth in floor space reflects the labor force growth
expected later in the forecast. Additionally, energy consumption per square foot is projected to
decline by 0.1 percent a year, as a result of efficiency standards, voluntary government programs
aimed at improving efficiency, and other technology improvements13.

Projected energy use trends in the commercial sector show stable shares for all fuels, with
growth in overall consumption slowing from its pace over the past two decades. Slow growth
(0.8 percent a year) is expected in the sector, for two reasons. Commercial floor space is
projected to grow by only 0.9 percent a year between 1998 and 2020 compared with an average
of 1.5 percent a year over the past two decades. Lower growth in floor space reflects the labor
force growth expected later in the forecast. Additionally, energy consumption per square foot is
projected to decline by 0.1 percent a year, as a result of efficiency standards, voluntary
government programs aimed at improving efficiency, and other technology improvements13.

Electricity accounts for three-fourths of commercial primary energy consumption

throughout the forecast. Expected efficiency gains in electric equipment are offset by continuing
penetration of new technologies and greater use of office equipment. Natural gas accounts for 20
percent of commercial energy consumption in 1998 and maintains that share throughout forecast.
Distillate fuel oil makes up only 2 percent of commercial demand in 1998, down from 6 percent
in the years before deregulation of the natural gas industry. The fuel share projected for distillate
remains at 2 percent in 2020, as natural gas continues to compete for space and water heating
The highest growth rates are expected for end uses that have not yet saturated the
commercial market. Energy use for personal computers grows by 2.4 percent a year and for other
office equipment, such as fax machines and copiers, by 2.1 percent a year. The growth in
electricity use for office equipment reflects a trend toward more powerful equipment, the
response to a projected decline in real electricity prices, and an increase in the market for
commercial electronic equipment. Natural gas use for such miscellaneous uses as cooking,
district heating, and self-generated electricity is expected to grow by 0.9 percent a year16..
From these paragraphs, it becomes hard to project rapid growth in the office buildings sector for
commercial-scale boilers. In particular, we must consider the growth of .free heating. from the
electric energy dissipated by the increasing amounts of office equipment installed17. The effect
of these heating sources is to push down the building balance point, the outside temperature at
which there is the first heating call to the thermostat. As heating becomes a smaller fraction of the
building energy demand, the designer will predict that the boiler will be dispatched less often.
Since savings from more efficient equipment are projected to be a smaller fraction of the
energy budget, owners and designers may tend to pay less attention to it.

We believe that condensing boilers of commercial scale will account for a small fraction
of all boilers installed in office buildings. In addition to the arguments above with respect to the
declining share of the office building energy budget represented by heating, the economics do not
look overwhelmingly attractive. Consider the example from Chapter 7. Assume the CBECS
average 15,000 ft2 building with heating energy intensity of 24,300 Btu/ft2-year. Assume that its
boiler has a seasonal average efficiency18 of 50% (that is, the efficiency of fuel conversion, as
seen by the heat distribution system over the heating season). In this case, the distribution system
would receive 12,250 Btu/ft2-yr. This demand could be met with a condensing boiler system
whose seasonal average efficiency was 80% by using only 15,200 Btu/ft2 delivered to the boiler,
a savings of 9100 terms, or $750/year at $0.55/therm. This is likely to have a payback longer than
8 years, which is unlikely to be attractive to private sector office building owners. For
commercial-scale boilers, the incremental cost is likely to be much greater.
We thus conclude that office buildings in the commercial sector are unlikely to be high
priority targets for a market transformation program. This does not exclude the possibility of
programs directed toward public sector offices, for which different arguments may be compelling
61.2 to 73.8 billion square feet 14 between 1998 and 2020.

However, EIA also projects:

Electricity accounts for three-fourths of commercial primary energy consumption
throughout the forecast. Expected efficiency gains in electric equipment are offset by continuing
penetration of new technologies and greater use of office equipment. Natural gas accounts for 20
percent of commercial energy consumption in 1998 and maintains that share throughout forecast.
Distillate fuel oil makes up only 2 percent of commercial demand in 1998, down from 6 percent
in the years before deregulation of the natural gas industry. The fuel share projected for distillate
remains at 2 percent in 2020, as natural gas continues to compete for space and water heating
The highest growth rates are expected for end uses that have not yet saturated the
commercial market. Energy use for personal computers grows by 2.4 percent a year and for other
office equipment, such as fax machines and copiers, by 2.1 percent a year. The growth in
electricity use for office equipment reflects a trend toward more powerful equipment, the
response to a projected decline in real electricity prices, and an increase in the market for
commercial electronic equipment. Natural gas use for such miscellaneous uses as cooking,
district heating, and self-generated electricity is expected to grow by 0.9 percent a year16..
From these paragraphs, it becomes hard to project rapid growth in the office buildings sector for
commercial-scale boilers. In particular, we must consider the growth of .free heating. from the
electric energy dissipated by the increasing amounts of office equipment installed17. The effect
of these heating sources is to push down the building balance point, the outside temperature at
which there is the first heating call to the thermostat. As heating becomes a smaller fraction of the
building energy demand, the designer will predict that the boiler will be dispatched less often.
Since savings from more efficient equipment are projected to be a smaller fraction of the

Full, clear, and exact description of the same, reference being had to the accompanying
drawings, forming part of this specification and arrangement for application to a steam boiler of
a metallic disk or plate, weaker than any part of the boiler, to be burst and blown away when the
pressure in the boiler rises to near a dangerous point. It also consists in the arrangement of a
fusible plug in said disk or plate. It also consists in the employment below and in combination
with such disk or plate of a valve so applied as to be capable of closing the boiler after the
blowing away of such disk or plate to permit the said disk or plate to be replaced by a new one
without waiting for the steam to subside in the.

It also consists in combining the said valve with the said disk or plate by means of a
guard pin which prevents the closing of the valve While the said disk or plate remains perfect,
and it further consists in a certain arrangement of a steam whistle or other alarm, and a pressure
valve in combination with such disk or plate whereby an alarm may be given before the pressure
of the steam becomes so high as to cause the explosion of the said disk or plate.

To enable those skilled in the art to make and use my invention I will proceed to describe
its construction and operation.

A is a short tubular column having a spherical enlargement as shown at a, a and flinches

b, c, at bottom and top intended to be placed in an upright position over an opening in the upper
part of a boiler to which it is to be bolted by screw-bolts passing through its lower firanch.

B is a short tube having its interior as large or somewhat larger than the interior of the
upper part of the column A, set upright on the said casting and provided with a fianch cl, at its
lower end which is bolted to the flanch c, by bolts 7', r This tube B, "as attached to it a pipe C, of
the same or of. a larger internal diameter and of any length.
D is the safety disk whose margin rests upon an india rubber gasket 6, in a recess
provided in the upper part of the column A, and is clamped between the said casting and the tube
B, the india rubber gasket making the joint steam-tight. The said disk may be made of boiler-
plate or other metal, and has a concentric groove 7', turned or cast in each side to reduce its
strength just with in the circles of the tube B, and column A, to such a degree as shall have been
proved by experiment to make it capable of being burst or torn apart by a pressure of steam less
than the highest which the boiler is capable of bearing with safety. The grooved portion of the
disk being the, weakest potion, when the disk gives way it does so in that portion, and the whole
of the portion within the grooves is torn out and blown through the tube B, and pipe 0, leaving an
opening for the escape of steam nearly equal to the whole area of the said tube and pipe. The disk
D ,has a hole drilled in the center for the reception of a fusible plug g", which is of such metal or
alloy as to be melted by a heat due to the same or a less pressure of steam than is sufficient to
explode the disk, so that it is only in case of the failure of the fusible plug to melt or the failure of
its fusion to afford a sufficient relief, that the disk will be burst. The disk constitutes a very
convenient receptacle for the fusible plug as by unscrewing and removing the tube B, the plug
can be replaced by a new one. The removal of the said tube is also necessary when the disk
requires to be replaced by a new one.

E is a puppet valve arranged within the column A, to close upward against a seat a, 7,
within the said casting, and having a horizontal slot 2', in a flattened portion of its stem for the
reception of a crank F, one end of which is fitted to a bearing provided for it in one side of the
column A, and the other end of which passes through a stuffing-box z", in the opposite side of
the column, and is furnished .Outside with a lever G, by which to turn it to open and close the
valve E. The stem 79, of the said valve is fitted to guides j, and is, within the column A; and the
said stem is made hollow and open at the top for the reception of the guard pin L, which is to
prevent the valve from being closed until the disk or plate has been burst or blown away and thus
to place the apparatus beyond the control of the engineer. The pin L, is made with a shoulder .9,
near the bottom, and is split to make it externally elastic that it may be forced past its shoulder .9,
into the valve stem. Spring is applied within the stem to press the pin L, upward. When the valve
is opened the spring t, forces up the pin L, from the valve-stem and brings the shoulder 8, above
the stem and the lateral elasticity of the stem keeps it so spread that the shoulder cannot enter the
stem again and hence the pin coming in contact with the disk or plate 9', prevents the closing of
the valve

. when the disk or plate has been blown away the valve is to be closed, and in order to
permit the replacement of the disk or plate while the valve remains closed it is necessary to press
the sides of the pin L, together sufficiently to allow the shoulder 8, to pass down into the valve
stem. hen the disk has been replaced and the valve opened the spring 25, forces out the pin until
the shoulder 8, comes above the valve stem.

F is a horizontal socket screwed into one side of the column A, having on the top of it a
steam whistle G, and having screwed on to its outer end a cap H. WVithin this socket F, is a
puppet valve I, and its seat Z, said valve closing by a movement toward the column A. To the
stem of this valve is attached a piston J, against which bears a spiral spring 112', whose pressure
on the said piston and valve is adjusted by a screw K, which passes through the head of the cap
H, and screws into a loose nut it, placed within the cap, said nut being held in place and
prevented from turning by the pressure of the spring holding it in a suitably formed recess in the
interior of the head of the cap.

The screw is made with a long neck which is fitted with a square sleeve L, which is fitted
to slide through a square hole in the head. This sleeve is so fitted to the neck of the screw as to
prevent it moving longitudinally thereon so that it moves with the screw as the latter is screwed
in or out to increase or diminish the tension of the spring and pressure on the valve 1. The

A spiral said sleeve has upon its exterior a graduated scale upon which the outer edge of
the head of the cap marks the pressure produced on the valve by the spring. The screw K, is
adjusted to make the spring produce a pressure on the valve I, less than that to which there is due
a temperature suficient to fuse the plug g, or burst the disk or plate so that the said valve may be
opened and an alarm sounded by the whistle before the pressure in the boiler is high enough to
fuse the plug. The fusion of the plug and bursting of the disk or plate can therefore only take
place in case of neglect to take notice of the alarm, or the sticking of the valveI.

Instead of a single disk or plate D, several of such disks or plates may be used, and such
disks or plates may be secured within openings in a larger plate applied and arranged within a
column in substantially the same manner as that in which the disk or plate D, is applied in the
column A B.

I do not claim broadly the fitting of a boiler with a plate so much weaker than any portion
of the boiler itself as to be burst by a pressure below the highest which may be carried by the
boiler with safety; but

What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is

1. The employment of one or more explosive disks or plates D, constructed as clescribed with a
concentric groove, or grooves f, f, near the margin andapplied substantially as herein specified in
combination with the fusible plug (g) as set forth.

2. The valve E, applied below and in combination with the explosive disk D, substantially as and
for the purpose herein set forth.

3. The alarm whistle G, and pressure valve 1, employed in connection with the disk D,
substantially as and for the purpose herein described.

4. The guard pin L, applied in combination with the valve E, and disk or plate Substantially as
and for the purpose herein specified.

All combustion equipment must be operated properly to prevent dangerous conditions or
disasters from occurring, causing personal injury and property loss. The basic cause of boiler
explosions is ignition of a combustible gas that has accumulated within the boiler. This situation
could arise in a number of ways, for example fuel, air, or ignition is interrupted for some reason,
the flame extinguishes, and combustible gas accumulates and is reignited. Another example is
when a number of unsuccessful attempts at ignition occur without the appropriate purging of
accumulated combustible gas.
There is a tremendous amount of stored energy within a boiler. The state change of
superheated water from a hot liquid to a vapor (steam) releases an enormous amount of energy.
For example, 1 ft3 of water will expand to 1600 ft3 when it turns to steam. Therefore, “if you
could capture all the energy released when a 30 gallon home hot water tank flashes into explosive
failure at 332oF, you would have enough force to send the average car (weighing 2,500 lbs) to a
height of nearly 125 feet. This is equivalent to more than the height of a 14 story apartment
building, starting with a lift off velocity of 85 miles per hour!” (5).
Boiler safety is a key objective of the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.
This organization reports and tracks boiler safety and the number of incidents related to boilers
and pressure vessels each year. Their work has found that the number one incident category
resulting in injury was poor maintenance and operator error (5). This stresses the importance of
proper maintenance and operator training.
Boilers must be inspected regularly based on manufacturer’s recommendations. Pressure
vessel integrity, checking of safety relief valves, water cutoff devices and proper float operation,
gauges and water level indicators should all be inspected. The boiler’s fuel and burner system
requires proper inspection and maintenance to ensure efficient operation, heat transfer and correct
flame detection. The Federal Energy Management Project (FEMP) O&M Best Practices Guide to
Achieving Operation Efficiency is a good resource describing a preventive maintenance plan and
also explaining the importance of such a plan. This document is available here: Mechanical
jackshaft control is the simplest type of modulating burner control, typically used on smaller

Al so called single point control because one mechanical linkage assembly controls both
air and fuel. These controls cannot measure airflow or fuel flow. The range of control is limited,
resulting in excessive levels of excess air to ensure safe operation under all conditions and firing
rates. Slop in the linkages makes accurate and repeated control difficult t, and requires regular
maintenance and adjustment.
Parallel positioning controls use separate motors to adjust fuel flow and airflow allowing
each to be adjusted over the entire firing range of the boiler. During setup, many points are
“mapped,” typically 10 to 25 points, to create a curve of airflow and corresponding fuel flow.
The air-fuel ratio can therefore vary across the entire firing range to provide the optimal ratio
under all firing conditions. Also, with the use of electronic servo-motors, this method of control
is highly repeatable.
Cross-limiting controls, usually applied to larger boilers, use controls to sense and
compensate for some of the factors that affect optimum air to fuel ratio. Air flow and fuel flow
are measured and adjusted to maintain the optimum value determined during initial calibration.
Oxygen trim control is used in conjunction with standard parallel positioning or cross-
limiting controls. It analyzes the oxygen in the flue gas and adjusts the air-fuel ratio accordingly
to maintain a set amount of excess oxygen. These controls are usually installed on larger boilers
with high annual fuel usage, and can increase energy efficiency by one or two percent beyond
what is achieved with the standard control alone. Water Chemical Treatment Plan Good boiler
water chemical treatment is essential to maintain efficient operation.
Each chemical treatment plan must be customized based on the dissolved minerals in the
make-up water, the percentage of condensate returned, and the presence or absence of a de-
aerator. Dissolved solids in the boiler water and the level of treatment chemicals should be tested
daily in small low pressure plants and hourly in larger high pressure plants. Instruments should
be calibrated monthly. Annual inspections of boilers should include a thorough examination of
the water side surfaces for evidence of scaling and corrosion. Even a thin layer of scale interferes
with heat transfer and thereby decreases combustion efficiency.
An upward trend in flue gas temperatures over weeks or months usually indicates that a
deposit has built up on either the fireside or waterside of the boiler heat exchange surfaces. If this
condition is observed the boiler should be inspected promptly.


 High popularity of brand name- SRMsoap

 No adulteration.
 High popularity for quality.
 Highly skilled employees.
 High demand for SRM products.
 Varity of products.


 Lack of man power.

 Lack of awareness among pouring members.
 Increasing number of dormant societies.
 Improper staffing.
 Lack of sales promotions.
 Competition from private organizations.


 Huge demand for chemicals products.

 Product diversification.
 Attracting foreign customers.


 Continuous reduction of chemicals to union from pouring members.

 New player in market with high advertisement.
 Political interfeIncreasing level of alteration. Increasing number of documented societies

The overall study of the organization has helped in knowing the corporate world, how
each department in an organization functions. It has also helped in knowing the duties and
responsibilities of various department heads and how the process takes place in each department.
The study has also helped in knowing why the quality of sriram chemicals soap is so good and
what are the reasons for the brand to stay on top of its competitor’s list.