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2017

Computer Project

By,
Razaul Akhtar
Table of Contents

Introduction ……………………………….. 2
Types of Computer ………………………. 6
Different parts of Computer …………. 9
Monitor ………………………………. 10
Mouse …………………………………. 11
Keyboard ……………………………….. 12
Desktop Cabinet ……………………… 14
Speakers ………………………………... 16
U.P.S ……………………………………… 17
Website …………………………………….. 19
Email ………………………………………….. 21
Printer …………………………………………. 23

1
Introduction
Today’s generation could never ever imagine in their wildest
dreams about the world, ages before, when there were no
computers or any other technologies. So much we have advanced
that now every information is just a click away and is in your
hands 24/7. All this advancement was possible only with the
introduction of a small device called the “Computer”.

Basically, computer is a device that accepts the message by the


imputer and processes this message and stores the information at
the storage devices and later gives an output of the message
through the output devices.

A simple explanation of the computer. Normally, a computer


consists of a processing unit called the Central Processing Unit or
the CPU and a form of memory. In the years between 1940 and
1945 were the first electronic digital computers developed. The
initial sizes were as big as a room and consumed power as much
as today’s personal computers.

Initially, computer was related to a person who carries out


calculations or computations and as such the word computer was
evolved in 1613 and continued till the end of 19th century. Later it
as re-described as a machine that carries computations.
:

The early computers were limited in their functions. It was the


fusion of automatic calculation and programmability that

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produced the first computers that were recognized in 1837. Charles
Babbage in 1837 was the first to introduce and design a fully
programmed mechanical computer, his analytical engine. Due to
limited finances and inability of resisting tinkering with the
design, he could not complete his work and it was later completed
by his son Henry Babbage who made it into a simplified version of
the analytical engine’s computing unit.

The original objective of inventing a computer was to create a fast


calculating machine. During the World War II, it became very
essential to understand and locate the direction and speed of the
enemy weapons. Calculations had to be done accurately and
mathematically and without an advanced machine it would not be
possible. To defend the enemy, the front line soldiers required
firing tables and only a computer could produce such firing tables
with speed and accuracy at that time.

To produce the technology then, high sums of money and brain


power was required. The first computer was produced by the
Moore School of Engineering called the ENIAC, on behalf of the US
Army which was in 1946. The ENIAC was able to produce the
firing tables, by carrying out large number of calculations
accurately.

Over a period of time computers have evolved and toady with the
Artificial Intelligence technology, we use the most advanced kind
of computers that have helped man in every sectors of life. At every
generations of the computers or in fact during the evolution, each
time computers are being launched that are lighter, smaller,
speedier and more powerful. The computers have been a

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dominating factor since the 1970`s and today it has conquered
almost all walks of life.

Computers are being used for various purposes today like weather
forecasting, machinery operations, guidance of spacecraft and
technology. Apart from these in the medical sector, it provides a
great helping hand in storing information that could be referred
later, in space technology, automation in banks, ticket booking
through the net, traffic control, and even games could be played in
computers on and many more. All these are possible only because
of the characteristics that a computer possess like speedy,
accuracy, reliability and integrity. It could executive over a billion
instructions per second without committing any mistakes is
completely reliable. The memory of the computer is so vast that it
could hold in a large amount of data.

To run a computer, it is the programming that decides and it


should be run in a computer. Programming is defined as a set of
instructions allotted to the computer that accepts it in order to
solve a problem. There are many different languages that are
being used to program a computer. Some of the languages are
BASIC, COBOL, C, C++, JAVA are a few to name.

With the introduction of computers, attaining information has


become a lot more easier. Computers have become the backbone of
Information Technology and a major application in this sector is
the Internet. With the Internet, nothing is impossible today. Apart
from acquiring information, one could stay connected to friends
and family, a great platform for business expansions, purchasing,
studying and the list just goes on, it is endless.

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Computerization in almost all sectors, have created job opening for
thousands. Computer education has been introduced at school
levels and in primary classes, as such is the importance of
acquiring the knowledge of computers. Every year there are
thousands of students step out from universities and colleges
across the globe into the world of computer technology and this
youth is what is tomorrow’s assets in getting technology into the
next level of advancement.

The computer has proved in all roles that it has been assigned. A
great helping hand, in every sector that has been applied with
computers. Telecommunication and satellite imagery are also
computer based, which is added to the long list of applications
computer holds in other fields.

5
Types of Computer

There are mainly two types of computer:

1. Desktop Computer
2. Laptop Computer

Desktop Computer:

A desktop computer is a personal computer designed


for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or

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table due to its size and power requirements. The most
common configuration has a case that houses
the power supply, motherboard (a printed circuit
board with a microprocessor as the central processing
unit (CPU), memory, bus, and other electronic
components), disk storage (usually one or more hard
disk drives, optical disc drives, and in early models
a floppy disk drive); a keyboard and mouse for input;
and a computer monitor, speakers, and, often,
a printer for output. The case may be
oriented horizontally or vertically and placed either
underneath, beside, or on top of a desk.

Laptop Computer:

A laptop, often called a notebook or "notebook


computer", is a small, portable personal computer with a

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"clamshell" form factor, an alphanumeric keyboard on
the lower part of the "clamshell" and a
thin LCD or LED computer screen on the upper part,
which is opened up to use the computer. Laptops are
folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable
for mobile use. Although originally there was a
distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former
being bigger and heavier than the latter, as of 2014,
there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are
commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work,
in education, in playing games, Internet surfing, for
personal multimedia and general home computer use.

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Different parts of Computer:

There are many different parts of a


Computer, such as:

 Monitor

 Mouse

 Keyboard

 C.P.U

 Speakers

 U.P.S

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 Monitor:

A computer monitor is an output device which displays


information in pictorial form. A monitor usually comprises
the display device, circuitry, casing, and power supply.
The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin
film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) with LED
backlighting having replaced cold-cathode fluorescent
lamp (CCFL) backlighting.

Older monitors used a cathode ray tube (CRT). Monitors


are connected to the computer via VGA, Digital Visual
Interface (DVI), HDMI, Display Port, Thunderbolt, low-
voltage differential signalling (LVDS) or other proprietary
connectors and signals.

Originally, computer monitors were used for data


processing while television receivers were used for

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entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers
(and their monitors) have been used for both data
processing and entertainment, while televisions have
implemented some computer functionality. The
common aspect ratio of televisions, and computer
monitors, has changed from 4:3 to 16:10, to 16:9.

Mouse:

A computer mouse is a pointing device (hand control)


that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a
surface. This motion is typically translated into the
motion of a pointer on a display, which allows a smooth
control of the graphical user interface.

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Physically, a mouse consists of an object held in one's
hand, with one or more buttons. Mice often also feature
other elements, such as touch surfaces and "wheels",
which enable additional control and dimensional input.

Keyboard:

In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-


style device which uses an arrangement of buttons
or keys to act as a mechanical lever or electronic switch.
Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape,
interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the
main input device for computers.

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A keyboard typically has
characters engraved or printed on the keys (buttons)
and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single
written symbol. However, to produce some symbols
requires pressing and holding several keys
simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard
keys produce letters, numbers or signs (characters),
other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce
actions or execute computer commands.

Despite the development of alternative input devices,


such as the mouse, touchscreen, pen devices, character
recognition and voice recognition, the keyboard remains
the most commonly used device for direct (human) input
of alphanumeric data into computers.
In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry
interface to type text and numbers into a word
processor, text editor or other programs. In a modern
computer, the interpretation of key presses is generally
left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes
each physical key from every other and reports all key
presses to the controlling software. Keyboards are also
used for computer gaming, either with regular keyboards
or by using keyboards with special gaming features,
which can expedite frequently used keystroke
combinations.

A keyboard is also used to give commands to the


operating system of a computer, such
as Windows' Control-Alt-Delete combination, which
brings up the system security options screen.
A command-line interface is a type of user

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interface operated entirely through a keyboard, or
another device doing the job of one.

Desktop Cabinet:

A desktop cabinet is consists of many parts, such as:

1. Motherboard:-

The motherboard is the part of your computer that wires all of


the other parts together. It is a printed circuit board and
includes the CPU and memory. Every component of your

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computer connects directly into the motherboard. It typically
includes expansion options for high-end graphic displays and
additional devices. Motherboard specifications are designed
around which CPU your computer uses. For example, if your
computer uses an Intel processor, you need an Intel-compatible
motherboard.

2. Processor (CPU) :-

The processor, or Central Processing Unit, of a computer is


basically the brains of the computer. The processor is
responsible for interpreting every code it receives from the other
computer components, and making it usable to your operating
system. Though it's simply a single chip, the processor's speed
determines the overall speed of your computer. The CPU
contains a control unit and the Arithmetic Logic Unit, or ALU.

3. Hard Drive :-

The hard drive part of your computer is also called the


hard disk. Essentially, it is the part of the computer that stores
your information. If you upload a picture to your computer, it is
stored on the hard drive. Hard drive capacity is measure in
megabytes, or MB, though some massive computer store in
terabytes, or TB. The hard drive is set of disk platters that sit
inside the computer housing. Though other devices may store
data, such as thumb drives, the hard drive is resident in your
computer and cannot be removed.

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Speakers:

Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers,


are speakers sold for use with computers, although usually
capable of other audio uses, e.g. for an MP3 player. Most such
speakers have an internal amplifier and consequently require a
power source, which may be by a mains power supply often via
an AC adapter, batteries, or a USB port (able to supply no more
than 2.5W DC, 500mA at 5V). The signal input connector is
often a 3.5 mm jack plug (usually color-coded lime green per
the PC 99 standard); RCA connectors are sometimes used,
and a USB port may supply both signal and power (requiring
additional circuitry, and only suitable for use with a computer).
Battery-powered wireless Bluetooth speakers require no
connections at all. Most computers have speakers of low power
and quality built in; when external speakers are connected they
disable the built-in speakers. Altec Lansing claims to have
created the computer speaker market in 1990.[1]
Computer speakers range widely in quality and in price.
Computer speakers sometimes packaged with computer
systems are small, plastic, and have mediocre sound quality.
Some computer speakers have equalization features such as
bass and treble controls.

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More sophisticated computer speakers can have
a subwoofer unit, to enhance bass output. The larger
subwoofer enclosure usually contains the amplifiers for the
subwoofer and the left and right speakers.
Some computer displays have rather basic speakers built-
in. Laptop computers have built-in integrated speakers, usually
small and of restricted sound quality to conserve space.
Instead of using a computer speaker for better sound, a
computer can be connected to any external sound system,
typically a high-power high-quality setup.

U.P.S:

An uninterruptible power supply, also uninterruptible


power source, UPS or battery/flywheel backup, is an

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electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load
when the input power source or mains power fails. A UPS
differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby
generator in that it will provide near-instantaneous protection
from input power interruptions, by supplying energy stored in
batteries, supercapacitors, or flywheels. The on-battery runtime
of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short (only a
few minutes) but sufficient to start a standby power source or
properly shut down the protected equipment.
A UPS is typically used to protect hardware such
as computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or
other electrical equipment where an unexpected power
disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business
disruption or data loss. UPS units range in size from units
designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor
(around 200 volt-ampere rating) to large units powering entire
data centers or buildings.

The world's largest UPS, the 46-megawatt Battery Electric


Storage System (BESS), in Fairbanks, Alaska, powers the
entire city and nearby rural communities during outages.

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Website:

Fig: Google Website

A website, or simply a site, is a collection of related web


pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a
common domain name, and published on at least one web
server. A website may be accessible via a public Internet
Protocol (IP) network, such as the Internet, or a private local
area network (LAN), by referencing a uniform resource
locator (URL) that identifies the site.
Websites have many functions and can be used in various
fashions; a website can be a personal website, a commercial
website for a company, a government website or a non-profit
organization website. Websites are typically dedicated to a
particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment
and social networking to providing news and education. All
publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World
Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's
website for its employees, are typically a part of an intranet.

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Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites,
are documents, typically composed in plain text interspersed
with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language
(HTML, XHTML). They may incorporate elements from other
websites with suitable markup anchors. Web pages are
accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption
(HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the
user. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the
page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto
a display terminal.
Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site
structure and guides the navigation of the site, which often
starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web
content. Some websites require user registration
or subscription to access content. Examples of subscription
websites include many business sites, news
websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-
sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social
networking websites, websites providing real-time stock
market data, as well as sites providing various other services.
As of 2016 end users can access websites on a range of
devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet
computers, smartphones and smart TVs.

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Email:

Fig: Email show in Google’s Gmail

Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of


exchanging messages between people using
electronics. Email first entered substantial use in the
1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now
recognized as email. Email operates across computer
networks, which today is primarily the Internet. Some
early email systems required the author and the
recipient to both be online at the same time, in common
with instant messaging. Today's email systems are
based on a store-and-forward model.
Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store
messages. Neither the users nor their computers are
required to be online simultaneously; they need to
connect only briefly, typically to a mail server or

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a webmail interface, for as long as it takes to send or
receive messages.
Originally an ASCII text-only communications medium,
Internet email was extended by Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extensions (MIME) to carry text in other character
sets and multimedia content attachments. International
email, with internationalized email addresses using UTF-
8, has been standardized, but as of 2017 it has not been
widely adopted.[2]
The history of modern Internet email services reaches
back to the early ARPANET, with standards for
encoding email messages published as early as 1973
(RFC 561). An email message sent in the early 1970s
looks very similar to a basic email sent today. Email had
an important role in creating the Internet,[3] and the
conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early
1980s produced the core of the current services.

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Printer:

In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a


persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on
paper or similar physical media. The first computer printer
design was a mechanically driven apparatus by Charles
Babbage for his difference engine in the 19th century; his
mechanical printer design was not built until 2000.
The first electronic printer was the EP-101, invented by
Japanese company Epson and released in 1968. The first
commercial printers generally used mechanisms from electric
typewriters and Teletype machines. The demand for higher
speed led to the development of new systems specifically for
computer use. In the 1980s were daisy wheel systems similar
to typewriters, line printers that produced similar output but at
much higher speed, and dot matrix systems that could mix text

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and graphics but produced relatively low-quality output.
The plotter was used for those requiring high quality line art
like blueprints.
The introduction of the low-cost laser printer in 1984 with the
first HP LaserJet, and the addition of PostScript in next
year's Apple LaserWriter, set off a revolution in printing known
as desktop publishing. Laser printers using PostScript mixed
text and graphics, like dot-matrix printers, but at quality levels
formerly available only from commercial typesetting systems.
By 1990, most simple printing tasks like fliers and brochures
were now created on personal computers and then laser
printed; expensive offset printing systems were being dumped
as scrap.

The HP Deskjet of 1988 offered the same advantages as laser


printer in terms of flexibility, but produced somewhat lower
quality output (depending on the paper) from much less
expensive mechanisms. Inkjet systems rapidly displaced dot
matrix and daisy wheel printers from the market. By the 2000s
high-quality printers of this sort had fallen under the $100 price
point and became commonplace.
The rapid update of internet email through the 1990s and into
the 2000s has largely displaced the need for printing as a
means of moving documents, and a wide variety of reliable
storage systems means that a "physical backup" is of little
benefit today. Even the desire for printed output for "offline
reading" while on mass transit or aircraft has been displaced
by e-book readers and tablet computers. Today, traditional
printers are being used more for special purposes, like printing
photographs or artwork, and are no longer a must-have
peripheral.

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Starting around 2010, 3D printing became an area of intense
interest, allowing the creation of physical objects with the same
sort of effort as an early laser printer required to produce a
brochure. These devices are in their earliest stages of
development and have not yet become commonplace.

End of Project

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