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Vol. XXXV No. 2 February 2017


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8 Maths Musing Problem Set - 170


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mathematics today | February‘17 7


M aths Musing was started in January 2003 issue of Mathematics Today with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Maths
Musing is to augment the chances of bright students seeking admission into IITs with additional study material.
During the last 10 years there have been several changes in JEE pattern. To suit these changes Maths Musing also adopted the new
pattern by changing the style of problems. Some of the Maths Musing problems have been adapted in JEE benefitting thousand of our
readers. It is heartening that we receive solutions of Maths Musing problems from all over India.
Maths Musing has been receiving tremendous response from candidates preparing for JEE and teachers coaching them. We do hope
that students will continue to use Maths Musing to boost up their ranks in JEE Main and Advanced.

2 u2
(c) u sin2 a
jee main
(d) cos2 a
1. If the tangent at the point (a, b) on the curve 2g 2g
x3 + y3 = a3 + b3 meets the curve again at the point 8. Its focus is
(p, q), then  u2 u2 
(a) ap + bq + ab = 0 (b) bp + aq + ab = 0 (a)  sin 2a, cos 2a 
(c) ap + bq – pq = 0 (d) bp + aq – pq = 0  2g 2g 
 u2 −u 2 
 an +1   3 + 1 1 − 3   an  (b)  sin 2a, cos 2a 
2. Let  =    , n ∈ N.  2g 2g 
bn +1   3 − 1 1 + 3  bn 
 u2 −u 2 
If a1 = b1 = 1, then a22 = 2
cos2 a 
(c)  sin a,
(a) 231 (b) 232 (c) 233 (d) 333  2g 2g 
3. In a triangle ABC, if tan A : tan B : tan C = 2 : 3 : 4,  u2 
∆ 2 −u 2
then 2 = (d)  cos a, sin2 a 
R  2g 2g 
integer match
9 6 18 6 36 2 18 3
(a) (b) (c) (d) 9. I is the incentre of the triangle ABC. AI, BI, CI
35 35 35 35
when produced meet the opposite sides at D, E, F
3 −i
4. If z = , then (i101 + z101)103 = respectively. Then the value of
2 AI BI CI  AI BI CI 
(a) z (b) z (c) iz (d) iz ⋅ ⋅ − + + is
ID IE IF  ID IE IF 
5. Let m be the number of 5-element subsets that
can be chosen from the set of the first 15 natural matrix match
numbers so that at least two of the five numbers are 10. List-I contains S and List-II gives last digit of S.
consecutive. The sum of the digits of m is List-I List-II
11
(a) 11 (b) 12 (c) 13 (d) 14
jee advanced
P. S = ∑ (2n − 1)2 1. 0
n =1
4 6 6 10

6. Let A = 1 3 2  . A value of l, such that


 Q. S = ∑ (2n − 1)3 2. 1
  n =1
 −1 −5 −2  18
AX = lX, where X is a non-zero column vector, is R. S = ∑ (2n − 1)2 (−1)n 3. 5
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3 n =1
15
comprehension
The parametric equations of a parabola are x = u cos a⋅t,
S. S = ∑ (2n − 1)3(−1)n−1 4. 8
n =1
1
y = u sin a⋅t − gt2, t is a parameter. P Q R S
2 (a) 4 2 1 3
7. Its latus rectum is (b) 4 2 3 1
2u2 2 2u2 (c) 2 1 4 3
(a) sin a (b) cos2 a (d) 1 2 3 4
g g
See Solution Set of Maths Musing 169 on page no. 89

8 mathematics today | FeBruary‘17


Exam Dates
OFFLINE : 2nd April
ONLINE : 8th & 9th April

1. Th ree numbers are chosen at random from 2 3 20 21


1, 2, ..., 30. What is the probability that they will (a) (b) (c) (d)
5 5 25 25
form a G.P.? 7. If two independent events A and B are such
12 10 19 20
(a) (b) (c) (d) 3 8
4060 4060 4060 4060 that P ( A  BC )  and P ( AC  B)  and
1 25 25
2. If n balls are distributed into m boxes, so that each P ( A)  , the value of P(A) + P(B) =
ball is equally likely to fall in any box, the probability 2
that a specified box will contain r balls is 8 4
nr n nr
(a) (b)
n
Cr (m  1) Pr (m  1) 5 5
(a) n
(b) n 7
Cm Cm (c) (d) None of these
n nr n nr 5
Cr (m  1) Cr (m  1)
(c) n
(d) 8. If two events A and B are such that P(AC) = 0.3,
m nm P(B) = 0.4, P(ABC) = 0.5, then P(B|A  BC) is
3. Th e probability that at least one of the eventsA and 1 4 1
1
B occur is 0.4. If A and B be occur simultaneously (a) (b) (c) (d)
4 5 5 2
with probability 0.1, then probability of AC or BC is
equal to 9. Th e independent probabilities thatA, B, C can
(a) 1.2 (b) 1.4 (c) 1.5 (d) 1.8 1 1 1
solve the problem are , , respectively. Th e
2 3 4
4. In an attempt to land an unmanned rocket on the probability that just two of them only solve the
moon, the probability of a successful landing is 0.4 problem is
and the probability of monitoring system giving the 3 2
(a) (b)
correct information of landing is 0.9 in either case. Th e 4 3
probability of a successful landing, it being known that 1
(c) (d) None of these
the monitoring system indicated it correctly 4
2 4 9 6 10. A bag A contains 2 white and 3 red balls and bag B
(a) (b) (c) (d)
5 25 10 7 contains 4 white and 5 red balls. One ball is drawn
5. Each of N + 1 identical urns marked 0, 1, 2, ..., N at random from one of the bags and is found to be
th
contains N balls so that the i urn contains i black red. Th e probability that it was drawn from bagB is
and N – i white balls (0  i  N). An urn is chosen 25 13 8 25
at random and n balls are drawn from it one after (a) (b) (c) (d)
52 27 17 51
another with replacement. If all the n balls turn out
11. Th e set of equations
to be black, the probability that the next ball will
x − y + (cos)z = 0
also black [assume that N is large] is
3x + y + 2z = 0
n 1 n 1 n n (cos)x + y + 2z = 0
(a) (b) (c) (d)
n2 n 1 n 1 n2 0   < 2, has non−trivial solutions
6. Th e probability that a teacher will give a surprise (a) for no value of  and 
test during any class meeting is 3/5. If a student is (b) for all values of  and 
absent on two days, the probability that he will miss (c) for all values of  and only two values of 
at least one test is (d) for only one value of  and all values of .

10 MATHEMATICS TODAY | FEBRUARY ‘17


12. Orthogonal trajectories of family of parabolas 20. If f (x) = xn, then the value of
2
y2 = 4a(x + a) where ‘a’ is an arbitrary constant is 2
 f ′(1)   f ′′(1) 
2
 f (1) 
n
2
(a) ax2 = 4cy { f (1)} +   +  + .... +  
 1!   2 !   n ! 
(b) x2 + y2 = a2 is given by

x (a) 2nCn (b) 2nCn – 1
(c) y = ce 2a 2n
(c) Cn + 1 (d) 2nC1
(d) axy = c2, where c is a constant. 21. For the three events A, B and C, P(exactly one of
the events A or B occurs) = P (exactly one of the
5z1 2z1 + 3z2
13. If is purely imaginary, then = events B or C occurs) = P(exactly one of the events
7 z2 2z1 − 3z2 C or A occurs) = p and P(all the three events occurs
simultaneously) = p2, where 0 < p < 1/2. Then the
(a) 5/7 (b) 7/5 (c) 25/29 (d) 1
probability of at least one of the three events A, B
14. The mean daily profit made by a shopkeeper in a and C occurring is
month of 30 days was ` 350. If the mean profit for 1 1
2
the first twenty days was ` 400, then the mean profit (a) (3 p + 2 p ) (b) ( p + 3 p2 )
2 4
for the last 10 days would be 1
1 2
(a) ` 200 (b) ` 250 (c) ` 800 (d) ` 300 (c) ( p + 3 p2 ) (d) (3 p + 2 p )
2 4
15. Consider points A(3, 4) and B(7, 13). If P be a point 22. The area of the smaller region bounded by the
on the line y = x such that PA + PB is minimum, curves x2 + y2 = 5 and y2 = 4x is
then coordinates of P are π 1 π 1
(a) + (b) −
 12 12   13 13  4 6 4 6
(a)  ,  (b)  , 
7 7 7 7  1 5 −1 2   1 5 −1 2 
 31 31  (c) 2  − sin  (d) 2  + sin 
(c)  ,  (d) (0, 0) 3 2 5 3 2 5
7 7 x + a2 ab ac
log(2 + x 2 ) − log(2 − x 2 ) 23. If a, b, c are real, then f (x ) = ab x + b2 bc
16. lim = k , the value of k is
x →0 x2 is decreasing in ac bc x + c2
(a) –1 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 0
 2 
3 5 7 (a)  − (a2 + b2 + c 2 ), 0
+ + + ...∞  3 
17. The sum of the series
12 ⋅ 22 22 ⋅ 32 32 ⋅ 42  2 
is equal to (b)  0, (a2 + b2 + c 2 ) 
 3 
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) –1 (d) 2  a 2 + b2 + c 2 
(c)  , 0  (d) None of these
18. If f : R → R, f (x + y) = f (x) · f (y). If f (1) = 1, then  3 
n 24. If P(n) : n2 + n is an odd integer. It is seen that truth
∑ f (k) = of P(n) ⇒ the truth of P(n + 1). Therefore, P(n) is
k =1 true for all
(a) n (b) n(n + 1)(2n + 1)/6 (a) n > 1 (b) n
(c) 1 (d) n(n + 1)/2 (c) n > 2 (d) none of these
 sin(a + 1)x + sin x
 , for x <0 2 2 2
25. If y = cos x + cos x + cos x + ...... to ∞ ,
 x
19. If f (x ) =  c , for x =0 dy
 2 1/2 1/2 then is
 (x + bx ) − x , forr x >0 dx
 bx 3/2 − sin x 2 −2 x sin x 2
is continuous at x = 0, then a = (a) (b)
(a) 3/2 (b) –3/2 (c) 1/4 (d) –1/4 x(2 y − 1) 2y −1

12 mathematics today | February ‘17


− sin x 5/2 (4, 10, 25)
(c) (d) none of these
2y −1 4/3 (9, 12, 16)
26. Area lying between the curves y2 = 4x and y = 2x is 5/3 (9, 15, 25)
(a) 2/3 (b) 1/3 5/4 (16, 20, 25)
(c) 1/4 (d) none of these Thus among 30C3 triplets, there are 19 triplets, whose
27. If f(x) is a continuous function satisfying terms form a G.P.
f(x) f(1/x) = f(x) + f(1/x) and f (1) > 0, then lim f ( x) 19 19
x →1 \ Required probability P ( A) = 30 =
is equal to C3 4060
(a) 2 (b) 1 2. (c): The total number of ways of distributing n balls
(c) 3 (d) none of these into m boxes is mn which are assumed to be equally
28. For any integer n, the integral likely.
π Since r balls which should go to the specified box
cos 2 x
∫e cos 3 x( 2n + 1)x dx has the value can be chosen in n C r ways and for any such way
0 the remaining (n – r) balls can be distributed to the
(a) π (b) 1 (m – 1) boxes in (m – 1)n – r ways.
(c) 0 (d) none of these
n 
29. Let E and F be two independent events. The \ The number of favourable cases =   (m − 1)n−r
r 
probability that both E and F happen is 1/12 and n  n−r
the probability that neither E nor F happens is 1/2.  r  (m − 1)
Then \ P ( A) =
(a) P(E) = 1/3, P(F) = 1/4 mn
(b) P(E) = 1/2, P(F) = 1/6 [where A is the event that a specified box will contain
(c) P(E) = 1/6, P(F) = 1/2 r balls]
(d) P(E) = 1/8, P(F) = 1/3 3. (c): Given that P(A ∪ B) = 0.4 and P(A ∩ B) = 0.1
30. If nCr denotes the number of combinations of \ P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) = 0.4
n things taken r at a time, then the expression or P(A) + P(B) = 0.4 + 0.1 = 0.5
n −1 or 1 – P(AC) + 1 – P(BC) = 0.5
n
C0 + ∑ n+ k
Ck +1 equals or P(AC) + P(BC) = 2 – 0.5 = 1.5
k =0
4. (d) : Let A denote the event of a successful landing
(a) 2nC (b) 2nCn + 1
n–1 of the rocket, B1 denote the event of the monitoring
(c) 2nC
n (d) nCn – 1 system indicating it correctly and B2 denote the event of
its indicating unsuccessful landing.
SOLUTIONS
\ P(A) = 0.4, P(B1 |A) = 0.9, P(B2|AC) = 0.9
1. (c): Let A be the event that the numbers of the P (B1 | A) P ( A)
triplets form a G.P. The required probability = P(A|B1) =
Since 3 numbers can be selected from 30 numbers in P (B1 )
30C ways, therefore total number of triplets = 30C Now, P(B1) = P(A ∩ B1) + P(AC ∩ B1)
3 3
Now we count the triplets (arranged in increasing order) = P(B1|A)P(A) + P(B1|AC) P(AC)
whose terms form a G.P. by listing them as follows. = P(B1|A)P(A) + [1 – P(B1C|AC)] P(AC )
= P(B1|A) P(A) + [1 – P(B2|AC)] P(AC )
Common ratio Triplet
= 0.9 × 0.4 + (1 – 0.9) × 0.6 = 0.42
2 {(i, 2i, 4i), 1 ≤ i ≤ 7} 0. 9 × 0. 4 6
Hence the required probability = =
3 {(i, 3i, 9i), 1 ≤ i ≤ 3} 0.42 7
4 (1, 4, 16) 5. (a) : Let Ai be the event of choosing ith urn and
B the event of choosing n black balls in succession
5 (1, 5, 25)
and C the event of drawing (n + 1)th ball as black.
3/2 (4, 6, 9), (8, 12, 18), (12, 18, 27) The required probability is

mathematics today | February‘17 13


P (B ∩ C ) 1 3 4
P (C | B) = As P ( A) > , we must have P ( A) = and P (B) =
P ( B) 2 5 5
N 7
Now, P (B) = ∑ P ( Ai ) ⋅ P (B |Ai) \ P ( A) + P (B) =
5
i =0
N n 1 8. (a) : P(AC) = 0.3, P(B) = 0.4, P(ABC) = 0.5
1 i  \ P(A ∪ BC) = P(A) + P(BC) – P(A ∩ BC)
=∑   = ∫ x dx when N → ∞
n

i =0
N +1  n  = 0.7 + 0.6 – 0.5 = 0.8
0
Similarly, Now, P(B |A ∪ BC)
N n +1 1 P[B ∩ ( A ∪ BC )] P[(B ∩ A) ∪ (B ∩ BC )]
1 i  = =
P (B ∩ C ) = ∑   =∫x n +1
dx when N → ∞ P ( A ∪ BC ) P ( A ∪ BC )
i =0
N +1  N 
0
P ( A ∩ B) P ( A) − P ( A ∩ BC )
Hence the required probability = =
N n +1 1 P ( A ∪ BC ) P ( A ∪ BC )
i
∑  n  ∫x
n +1
dx 0. 7 − 0 . 5 0 . 2 1
i =0 0 = = =
= N n
= 1
if n is large 0.8 0.8 4
i
∑  n  ∫ x dx
n 1 1
9. (c): Given that P ( A) = , P (B) = , P (C ) =
1
i =0 0 2 3 4
\ Probability that only two of them can solve the
n +1
= problem
n+2 = P(A ∩ B ∩ CC) + P(A ∩ BC ∩ C) + P(AC ∩ B ∩ C)
6. (d) : Required probability 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 6 1
= 1 – P (no test is missed) = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = =
2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 24 4
= 1 – P (no test on his first day of absence and no test
of his second day of absence) 1
10. (a) : P (E1 ) = P (E2 ) =
= 1 – P (no test of his first day of absence) × P (no test 2
of his second day of absence) 3 5
and P (R |E1) = , P (R |E2 ) =
 2   2  21 5 9
= 1−     = By Bayes' theorem
 5   5  25
P (E2 ) ⋅ P (R | E2 )
3 P (E2 | R) =
7. (c): Given that P ( A ∩ BC ) = P (E1 ) ⋅ P (R | E1 ) + P (E2 ) ⋅ P (R | E2 )
25
8 1 1 5 5
and P ( AC ∩ B) = , P ( A) > , ⋅
2 9 25
25 2 = = 9 =
1 3 1 5 3 5 27 + 25
Let P(A) = x, P(B) = y ⋅ + ⋅ +
2 5 2 9 5 9
\ We are given that
25
P(A ∩ BC) = P(A) – P(A ∩ B) P (E2 | R) =
52
3
= x − P ( A)P (B) 11. (a) : Determinant of coefficients
25
3 λ −1 cos θ
= x − xy [Q A and B are independent]
25 = 3 1 2 = cos θ − cos2 θ + 6
Also, P(AC ∩ B) = P(B) – P(A ∩ B) cos θ 1 2
8 1
⇒ = y − xy. Hence y = x + and this is positive for all θ since |cosθ| ≤ 1. The only
25 5 solution is therefore the trivial solution.
1 2
\ Solving x and y we get x = , y = dy dy 2a
5 5 12. (c): 2 y ⋅= 4a ⇒ =
3 4 dx dx y
or x = and y =
5 5 For orthogonal trajectory,

14 mathematics today | February ‘17


mathematics today | February‘17 15
dx 2a dy 1 19. (b) : f (0 − 0) = lim f (0 − h)
− =
dy y
⇒ ∫ y = ∫ − 2a dx h→0
sin(a + 1)(−h) + sin(−h) (a + 1 + 1)(−h)
x = lim = lim =a+2
x − h→0 0−h h→0 ( − h)
⇒ ln y = − + k ⇒ y = ce 2a
2a (h + bh2 )1/2 − h1/2
f (0 + 0) = lim f (0 + h) = lim
5z1 z  7K  h→0 h→0 bh3/2
13. (d) : Let = Ki (K ∈ R), then 1 =  i
7 z2 z2  5   bh 
b1/2 1 + − 1
z   2 =1
2  1  + 3 14 K i + 3 = lim
2z1 + 3z2  z2  h→0 bh ⋅ h1/2 2
Consider = = 5 =1
2z1 − 3z2  z1  14 K \ The given function is continuous f (0 – 0) = f (0 + 0).
2  −3 i−3
 z2  5 1 3
\ a+2= , a = −
14. (b) : 30 × 350 = 20 × 400 + 10 × x 2 2
⇒ 10x = 10500 – 8000 ⇒ 10x = 2500 ⇒ x = 250 f r (1) n
20. (a) : f (x ) = x n ⇒ = Cr
15. (c): Consider a point A′, the image of A through r!
n
y=x
\ Coordinates of A′ = (4, 3)
∑ (n Cr )2 = 2nCn
r =0
[Notice that A and B lie to
the same side with respect 21. (a) : P( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = ∑ P( A) − P( AB) − P(BC ) − P( AC ) + P( A ∩ B ∩ C )
P( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = ∑ P( A) − P( AB) − P(BC ) − P( AC ) + P( A ∩ B ∩ C )
to y = x].
Then PA = PA′  P ( A) − P ( AB) + P (B) − P (BC ) + P (B)
Thus, PA + PB is minimum, 1 
= − P ( AB) + P (C ) − P (BC ) + P ( A) − P ( AC ) + P ( ABC )
if PA′ + PB is minimum, if P, A′, B are collinear. 2
 + P (C ) − P ( AC )
13 − 3
Now, AB is y − 3 = (x − 4) ⇒ 3 y − 10 x + 31 = 0 1
7−4 = {P ( AB ) + P ( AB) + P ( AC ) + P (BC ) + P (BC ) + P ( AC )}
2
 31 31 
It intersects y = x at  ,  , which is the required + P(ABC)
7 7
point P. 1 1
= (3 p) + p2 = (3 p + 2 p2 )
1 2 2
16. (c): lim 2 [log(2 + x 2 ) − log(2 − x 2 )]
x →0 x

1   2 + x2   2 − x2 
= lim 
x →0 x 2 
log  
 2 
− log   WEST BENGAL at
2 
 1/ x 2 1/ x 2 
 
= lim log 1 + x 2  x 2

  − log 1 − 
x →0 
 2  2  

1 1
= log e1/2 − log e −1/2 = + = 1
2 2
17. (a) : The given series is,
∞ ∞ ∞
(2r + 1) 1 1
∑ r 2 (r + 1)2 = ∑ r 2 − ∑ (r + 1)2 = 1
r =1 r =1 r =1
18. (a) : f(1) = 1 ⇒ f(2) = 1 ⇒ f(3) = 1
f(r) = 1 ∀ r = 1, 2, ...., n
n
∑ f (k) = n
k =1

16 mathematics today | February ‘17


mathematics today | February‘17 17
(2x)2 = 4x ⇒ 4x2 = 4x
⇒ 4x2 – 4x = 0 ⇒ 4x(x – 1) = 0 ⇒ x = 0, 1
1

22. (d) : Required area = ∫ (2 x − 2 x )dx


0
1
2 4 1
= 2 ⋅ x 3/ 2 − x 2 = − 1 =
3 0 3 3
2 27. (a) : Since f is continuous function so,
 y 2  dy
Area = ∫  5 − y2 −
4 
 lim f ( x ) = f (1).
−2 x →1

2 Put x = 1 in the given equation we have


 2 1 5  2 
= 2 ∫  5 − y 2 − y  dy = 2  + sin −1  (f (1))2 = 2f (1), so f(1) = 0 or 2.
 4  3 2  5   Since f (1) > 0, so f (1) = 2.
0
23. (a) : 28. (c)
1 0 0 x + a2 ab ac 1
29. (a) : Let P(E) = x, P(F) = y, xy =
12
f ′(x ) = ab x + b2 bc + 0 1 0
1 1
(1 − x )(1 − y ) = , or 1 − (x + y ) + xy =
ac bc x + c2 ac bc x + c 2 2 2
x + a2 ab ac 1 1 7 7 1
x+y= + = ; x + y = , xy =
2 12 12 12 12
+ ab x + b2 bc 1 1
0 0 1 P (E ) = and P (F ) =
3 4
1 1
= (x + b2)(x + c2) – b2c2 + (x + a2)(x + c2) – a2c2 or, P (E ) = and P (F ) =
+ (x + a2)(x + b2) – a2b2 4 3
2 2 2 2 n −1
= 3x + 2x(a + b + c )
30. (c): C0 + ∑
n+ k
n
Ck +1 = (n C0 + nC1 ) + n+1C2
f (x) will be decreasing when f ′(x) < 0
k =0
⇒ 3x2 + 2x(a2 + b2 + c2) < 0 + n + 2C3 + .... + n + n – 1Cn
 2  = (n + 1C1 + n + 1C2) + n + 2C3 + .... + 2n – 1Cn
⇒ x ∈  − (a2 + b2 + c 2 ), 0 
 3  = ( n + 2C 2 + n + 2C 2n – 1C
3) + .... + n
Similarly, 2n – 1C 2n – 1C 2nC
24. (d) : The sufficient condition for the statement : n–1 + n = n
P(n) to be true for n ≥ a is 
(i) truth of P(n) ⇒ truth of P(n + 1) Exam Dates 2017
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18 mathematics today | February ‘17


SECTION-1 6. Let A, B, C, D be distinct points on a circle with
Single OPTiOn CORReCT TyPe centre O. If there exists non-zero real numbers x
   
1. Consider the two statements. and y such that | x OA + y OB | = | x OB + y OC |
   
S 1 : The number of solutions to the equation = | x OC + y OD | = | x OD + y OA |, then ABCD is
ex = x2 is 1. (a) a square (b) a trapezium
S 2 : The number of solutions to the equation (c) a rectangle (d) none of these
ex = x3 is 1. 7. An ellipse has foci at (9, 20) and (49, 55) in the
(a) S1 is true, S2 is false. xy plane and is tangent to x-axis. The length of its
(b) S1 is true, S2 is true. major axis is
(c) S1 is false, S2 is true. (a) 70 (b) 75 (c) 80 (d) 85
(d) S1 is false, S2 is also false. 8. A rectangular box has faces parallel to co-ordinate
2. The probability that a random chosen divisor of planes. If two of its vertices are (1, –1, 0) and
3039 is a multiple of 3029 is (2, 3, 6) then volume of the box is
3 3
(a) 20 (b) 22 (c) 24 (d) 26
11 21
(a)   (b)   9. The number of distinct real number pairs (a, b)
 40   40 
such that a + b ∈ integers and a2 + b2 = 2 is/are
5 5
11 21 (a) 10 (b) 6 (c) 2 (d) 4
(c)   (d)  
 40   40   2p 
10. Let n ≥ 3 be an integer and z = cis   . Consider
3. 4 persons are playing a game of toy-gun shooting. n 
At exactly midnight, each person randomly the sets A = {1, z, z2, ....., zn –1} and
chooses one of the other three and shoots him. The B = {1, 1 + z, 1 + z + z2, ..., 1 + z + z2 + ... + zn – 1}.
probability that exactly 2 persons are shot is The number of elements in the set (A ∩ B) when
n is even is
8 4 1
(a) (b) (c) 2 (d) (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
27 9 3 4
11. Let a and b be positive real numbers such that
4. In a certain lottery, 7 balls are drawn at random from a[a] = 17 and b[b] = 11 then (a – b) =
n balls numbered 1 through n. If the probability (a) 3/7 (b) 4/7 (c) 7/12 (d) 5/12
that no pair of consecutive numbers is drawn ([·] denotes greatest integer function]
equals the probability of drawing exactly one pair
12. Let a function f(x), x ≠ 0 be such that
of consecutive numbers, then n =
1 1
(a) 50 (b) 60 (c) 54 (d) 64 f (x) + f   = f (x) ⋅ f   then f (x) can be
x x
5. If B is an idempotent matrix satisfying the condition (a) 1 – x4 + x3 (b) | x | −x +1
(I – aB)–1 = I – 3B, where I is unit matrix of same
p 2x
order as B and a ∈ R then 2a = (c) (d)
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) –1 (d) 3 2 tan −1 | x | 1 + λ log | x |

By : Tapas Kr. Yogi, Mob : 9533632105.

mathematics today | february ‘17 19


13. Assume that a (> 1) is a root of the equation 21. 4r22 – 4r24 =
x3 – x – 1 = 0 then 3
3a2 − 4a + 3 3a2 + 4a + 2 = (a) r12 (b) r22 (c) r32 (d) r32 – r12
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 2a (d) a1/3 22. r12 + s22 =
14. The maximum and minimum of the function (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 8
6sinx cosy + 2sinx siny + 3cosx is SOLUTIONS
(a) 7 and –7 (b) 5 and –5 1. (a) : For x < 0, e x = x 2 has one solution and
(c) 6 + 13 and 6 − 13 ex = x3 has no solution.
(d) 5 + 2 and 5 − 2 x
For x > 0, consider the function f (x) =
log x
15. For a real number a, let log x − 1
p \ f ′(x) =
I(a) = ∫ log(1 − 2a cos x + a2 ) dx then I(a) = (log x)2
0
1 So, for x > e, f(x) increases and for x < e, f (x) decreases
(a) I(a2) (b) I(a2 ) and moreover x = 1 is an asymptote.
2
So, graph of f (x) is
(c) 2I(a2) (d) I(–a2)
16. The minimum of the expression
 2 16   4 
 x + 2  − 2 (1 + cos q)x + (1 + sin q)
x x
+ (3 + 2cosq + 2sinq)
Now, y = 2 does not intersect the graph but y = 3 meets
for x > 0 and q ∈ [0, 2p] is
the graph at 2 different points.
(a) 2 2 − 1 (b) 2 2 + 3 Hence, in total ex = x2 intersects once and ex = x3
(c) 2 2 + 1 (d) none of these intersects twice.
17. The area of the region contained by all the points 2. (a) : 3039 = 239 × 339 × 539. So, 40 × 40 × 40 divisors
(x, y) such that x2 + y2 ≤ 100 and sin(x + y) ≥ 0 is in total.
(a) 10p (b) 25p (c) 50p (d) 100p 2 a 3 b 5 c to be a multiple of 30 29 , we must have
SECTION-2 a ∈ [29, 39], b ∈ [29, 39], c ∈ [29, 39] i.e. 11 choices
COmPRehenSiOn TyPe for each a, b, c. 3
11 × 11 × 11  11 
Passage-1 Hence, required probability = = 
40 × 40 × 40  40 
Let a be a fixed real number, a ∈(0, p) and
a
3. (a) : Let the 4 persons were A, B, C, D. First, we
1 − r cos u choose which two were shot = 4C2. Let C, D were shot.
Ir = ∫ 2
du
−a 1 − 2r cos u + r Then C D and A → C or D and B → C or D. Any
18. I1 = person shooting any other person has probability = 1/3.
(a) 0 (b) a (c) 2a (d) –a So, probability that C, D were shot
1 1 2 2 4
19. lim Ir = = × × × =
+
r →1 3 3 3 3 81
[for C, D] [for A, B]
(a) a – p (b) a + p (c) a (d) –a Hence, probability that exactly 2 persons were shot
20. lim Ir = 4 8

r →1 = 4C2 × =
81 27
(a) a – p (b) a + p (c) a (d) –a 4. (c) : There are n – 6C7 ways to draw 7 balls so that
Passage-2 no two balls are consecutive and (n – 6) × n – 7C5 ways
Let r1 < 0 < r2 < r3 be the real roots of 8x 3 − 6x + 3 = 0 to draw 7 balls so that there is exactly one pair of
and let s 1 < 0 < s 2 < s 3 b e t he re a l ro ots of consecutive balls. Hence, n – 6C7 = (n – 6) × n – 7C5 gives
8x3 – 6x + 1 = 0, then n = 54

20 mathematics today | february ‘17


5. (d) : From given relation, I = (I – 3B)(I – aB) 12. (2) : Rearranging the given fractional equation, we
i.e., I = I – aB – 3B + 3aB = I + 2aB – 3B have
Hence, 2a = 3 1 1
    f   −1 = ,
6. (a) : Squaring, | x OA + y OB |2 = | x OB + y OC |2 x f (x) − 1
      p
which is satisfied by only f (x) = , out of the
⇒ x 2OA ⋅ OA + y 2OB ⋅ OB + 2xy OA ⋅ OB 2 tan −1 x
      four options.
= x 2OB ⋅ OB + y 2OC ⋅ OC + 2xy OB ⋅ OC 13. (b) : Since, a3 – a – 1 = 0, we have
 
i.e., x 2r 2 + y 2r 2 + 2xy OA ⋅ OB 3
3a2 − 4a = 3 3a2 − 4a − (a3 − a − 1) = 3 (1 − a)3 = 1 − a
 
= x 2r 2 + y 2r 2 + 2xy OB ⋅ OC
and 3 3a2 + 4a + 2 + a3 − a − 1 = 3 (1 + a)3 = 1 + a
Hence, ABCD is a square.
Hence, given expression = 2
7. (d) : Let F1 and F2 be the foci and P be the point
14. (a) : Using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality
of tangency. Let F1′ be the image of F1 in x-axis then \ (x1y1 + x2y2 + x3y3)2 ≤ (x12 + x22 + x32)
F1P + F2P = F1′P + F2P = F1′F2 = 2a (y12 + y22 + y32)
We have, (6sinx cosy + 2sinx siny + 3cosx)2
= (40)2 + (75)2 = 85
≤ (62 + 22 + 32) ((sinxcosy)2 + (sinx siny)2 + cos2x)
8. (c) : Vertices are (1, –1, 0) and (2, 3, 6). Notice that i.e. (6sinx cosy + 2sinx siny + 3cosx)2 ≤ 49
these must be diagonal vertices. Hence, maximum = 7 and minimum = –7
Making (1, –1, 0) as origin, we have (2, 3, 6) as (1, 4, 6).
Hence, dimensions of the box are 6 × 4 × 1
i.e. Volume = 24 cubic units
9. (b) : Using, R.M.S ≥ A.M., we have |a + b| ≤ 2
So, a + b ∈ {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2} and a2 + b2 = 2 gives
1± 3 1 3 
(a, b) = (1, –1), (–1, 1),  , ,
 2 2 
 −1 ± 3 −1  3 
 , 
2 2 
10. (c) : Clearly, 1 ∈ A ∩ B. Let w ∈ A ∩ B, w ≠ 1
As an element of B, for some k = 1, 2, 3, ... (n – 1)
1 − z k +1
w = 1 + z + z2 + .... + zk =
1− z
For w ∈ A, we have |w| = 1
1 − z k +1 (k + 1)p p
⇒ = 1 ⇒ sin = sin  
1− z n n
i.e. k = n – 2
1 − 1 / z −1
So, w = =
1− z z

So, A ∩ B = 1, { } −1
z
11. (c) : a[a] = 17 ⇒ a ∈ (4, 5). So, [a] = 4
17 11
and a = . Similarly, b[b] = 11 ⇒ b =
4 3
7
Hence, a − b =
12

mathematics today | february ‘17 21


15. (b) : We have, I(a) = I(–a) by putting x = p – y. Putting tan(u/2) = t and simplifying
Now, we have
4  1+ r  a 
(1 – 2acosx + a2)(1 + 2acosx + a2) Jr = tan −1  tan   
2
|1 − r |  1− r  2 
= 1 – 2a2 cos2x + a4
p
So, I(a) + I(−a) = ∫ log(1 − 2a2 cos 2x + a 4 ) dx (1 − r 2 ) 4  1+ r a
So, Ir = a + ⋅ tan −1  tan 
0 2 2
|1 − r |  1− r 2
1 2p 1+ r a
= 2 4
∫ log(1 − 2a cos y + a ) dy, ( y = 2x) So, lim Ir = a − 2 tan −1  tan 
2 0 r →1+  r −1 2  r →1
1 1 2p p
= I(a2 ) + ∫ log(1 − 2a2 cos y + a 4 ) dy = a − 2⋅ =a−p
2 2 p 2
Putting y = 2p – t we have
−1  1 + r a
2p 20. (b) : lim− Ir = a + 2 tan  tan 
2
cos y + a 4 ) dy = I(a2) 1− r 2
∫ log(1 − 2a r →1 r →1
p p
1 1 = a + 2⋅ =a+p
Hence, I(a) + I(−a) = I(a2 ) + I(a2 ) 2
2 2
1 21. (c) : Putting x = sinq in 8x 3 − 6x + 3 = 0 , we have
So, I(a) = I(−a) = I(a2 )
2 3
sin 3q =
16. (d) : The given expression can be rearranged as 2
p 2p 7p 8p 13p 14p
4 
2 ⇒ q= , , , , , in [0, 2p]
[x − (1 + cos q)]2 +  − (1 + sin q) 9 9 9 9 9 9
x 
 4 13p 4p p 2p
which is square of distance between point  x,  Hence, r1 = sin = − sin , r2 = sin , r3 = sin
 x 9 9 9 9
on hyperbola xy = 4 and point (1 + cosq, 1 + sinq) Similarly, putting x = cosq in 8x3 – 6x + 1 = 0,
on a circle centre (1, 1) and radius 1. Clearly the 1
minimum distance occurs at (2, 2) on the hyperbola we have, cos 3q = −
2
 1 1  8p p
and 1 + , 1+  on the circle. So, s1 = cos = − cos , and
 2 2 9 9
2
  1  4p 2p
So, minimum distance = 2  2 − 1 +  = 2 −1 s2 = cos , s3 = cos
  2  9 9
17. (c) : Using the symmetry, required area of the region p p 2p 2
Hence, 4r22 − 4r24 = 4 sin2 − 4 sin 4 = sin2 = r3
1 9 9 9
is × 100p = 50p sq. units
2
4p 4p
a
1 − cos u
a
1 22. (a) : r12 + s22 = sin2 + cos2 =1
18. (b) : I1 = ∫ du = ∫ du = a 9 9
−a
2 − 2 cos u −a
2

a
1 du MPP-8 CLASS XII ANSWER KEY
19. (a) : For r > 0, Ir = a + (1 − r 2 ) ⋅ ∫ 2
2 −a 1 − 2r cos u + r 1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (b)
(1 − r 2)
Ir = a + ⋅ J r (let) 6. (c) 7. (a,b,c) 8. (a,b,c) 9. (c,d) 10. (a,b)
2
11. (a,b,c,d) 12. (a,b) 13. (b,c) 14. (a)
a
du 15. (d) 16. (d) 17. (2) 18. (1) 19. (1)
Jr = ∫ 2
−a 1 − 2r cos u + r 20. (3)

22 mathematics today | february ‘17


Y U ASK In DA1OB,
AB
r
R
= cos ∠A1OB = cos
π
and 1 = tan , i.e., A1B = r tan
π
n
π
...(1)

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just can’t get
OB n
\ A1A2 = 2A1B = 2r tan
π
n
n
...(2)
π  r  π
answered? Now, 2(R + r) tan =2 + r tan , (from (1))
2n  π  2n
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the  cos 
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly, n
 π π
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the 1 + cos 1 − cos
 
n ⋅ n  q 1 − cos q 
questions, easy and tough. = 2r   tan = 
π  π 2 sin q 
the best questions and their solutions will be printed in  cos  sin 
this column each month.  n  n
π π
1. The base of a D is divided into three equal parts. If 1 − cos2 sin2
t1, t2, t3 be the tangents of the angles subtended by these = 2r ⋅ n = 2r ⋅ n
parts at the opposite vertex, prove that: π π π π
cos ⋅ sin cos ⋅ sin
 1 1  1 1   1 n n n n
 t + t   t + t  = 4 1 + 2  (Yogesh, Delhi) π
1 2 2 3  t2  = 2r tan = A1A2, (from (2)).
n
Ans. Let the points P and Q divide A
3. In how many ways can two distinct subsets of the
the side BC in three equal parts α γ
β set A of k(k ≥ 3) elements be selected so that they have
such that BP = PQ = QC = x
exactly two common elements? (Akhil, Assam)
Also let, ∠BAP = a, ∠PAQ = b,
∠QAC = g and ∠AQC = q
θ Ans. Let the two subsets be called P and Q. The elements
B P Q C
From question, for the two sets will be selected as follows:
tan a = t1, tan b = t2, tan g = t3. (i) 2 elements out of k elements for both the sets.
Applying, m : n rule in triangle ABC we get, This can be done in kC2 ways.
(2x + x) cot q = 2x cot (a + b) – x cot g ...(1) (ii) r elements for the subset P from k – 2 elements
From DAPC, we get and any number of elements for Q from the remaining
(x + x) cot q = x cot b – x cot g ...(2) k – 2 – r elements. Here r can vary from 0 to k – 2.
Dividing (1) by (2), we get For a fixed r, the number of selections
3 2 cot (a + b) − cot g = k – 2Cr ⋅ 2k – 2 – r, (because the number of selections
= of any number of things from n
2 cot b − cot g things is 2n.)
4 (cot a ⋅ cot b − 1) If r varies from 0 to k – 2, the total number of selections
or 3 cot b – cot g = k−2
cot b + cot a k−2 k−2−r
or 4 + 4 cot2 b = cot2 b + cot a ⋅ cot b + cot b ⋅ cot g = ∑ Cr ⋅ 2 − 1,
r =0
+ cot g ⋅ cot a
or 4(1 + cot2 b) = (cot b + cot a)(cot b + cot g) excluding the case when both the subsets are equal
 1   1 1  1 t  having only the two common elements.
or 4 1 + 2  =  +   +  But every pair of P, Q is appearing twice like {a1, a2, a3},
 t2   t1 t2   t2 t3  {a1, a2, a4, a5} and {a1, a2, a4, a5}, {a1, a2, a3}.
2. If a regular polygon of n sides has the Hence, the required number of ways
circumradius R and inradius r then prove 1
k−2
k−2 k−2−r 
that each side of the polygon is equal to = k C2 ×  ∑ Cr ⋅ 2 − 1
2 r = 0 
π
2(R + r)tan . (Raman, Gujarat) 1 k(k − 1) k – 2
2n = ⋅ ⋅ [( C0 ⋅ 2k – 2 + k – 2C1 ⋅ 2k – 3
Ans. Let A1A2 be a side and O be the centre. Let 2 2
OB ⊥ A1A2. + k – 2C2 ⋅ 2k – 4 + ... + k – 2Ck – 2) – 1]
Clearly, OA1 = R and OB = r. k(k − 1) k−2 k(k − 1) k − 2
2π π = ⋅ {(2 + 1) − 1} = ⋅ (3 − 1).
Also, ∠A1OA2 = and ∠A1OB = . 4 4
n n 
mathematics today | February‘17 23
*ALOK KUMAR, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur
single option correct type 3p/ 4
e p/ 4dx p /2
7. If ∫ =k ∫ sec xdx ,
1. If f(x) = 0 is a cubic equation with positive and x
+ e p/ 4 )(sin x + cos x)
− p/ 4 (e − p /2
distinct roots a, b, g such that b is the H.M. of the
roots of f ′(x) = 0. Then a, b, g are in then the value of k is
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. 1 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d) −
(c) H. P. (d) none of these 2 2 2 2 2
2. All the roots of the equation 8. A line meets the co-ordinate axes at A and B. A circle
11z10 + 10iz9 + 10iz – 11 = 0 lie is circumscribed about DOAB. If the distances from
(a) inside |z| = 1 (b) on |z| = 1 A and B of the tangent to the circle at the origin be
(c) outside |z| = 1 (d) none of these m and n respectively, then diameter of the circle is
(a) m(m + n) (b) m + n
3. Let y = f(x) be a continuous and differentiable (c) n(m + n) (d) m2 + n2
curve. The normals at (1, f (1)), (2, f (2)) and
101
(3, f (3)) make angles p/3, p/4 and p/6 with dx
9. If I1 = ∫ and
positive x-axis respectively. Then value of
−100 (5 + 2x − 2x
2
)(1 + e 2− 4x )
2 3
101
∫ ( f (x) + xf ′(x)) dx + ∫ f ′(x) f ′′(x) dx is equal to
I2 =
dx I
, then 1 is
1 2 ∫ 2
I
−100 5 + 2x − 2x 2
(a) f ′(2) + f (1) + 1 (b) 2f (2) – f(1) + 1
(a) 1/2 (b) 2
(c) f (3) – f (2) + 1 (d) none of these
(c) 0 (d) none of these
sin(p cos2(tan(sin x))) | x |, for 0 < | x | ≤ 3
4. lim is equal to 10. Let f (x) =  , then at x = 0 f(x)
2
x →0 x  1, for x =0
(a) p (b) p/4 has
(c) p/2 (d) none of these (a) a local maximum (b) no local maximum
5. If a = x + y + z + w and b = (xy + yz + zw + wx + wy + xz), (c) a local minimum (d) no extremum
then which of the following statement(s), is/are  15 5 3 
true? 11. If x 2 + 9 y 2 + 25z 2 = xyz  + +  , then x, y, z
are in  x y z
(a) 8a2 ≥ 3b (b) 3a2 ≥ 8b
2
(c) a b ≥ 27 (d) none of these (a) A.P. (b) G.P.
(c) A.G.P. (d) H.P.
 ^ ^ ^     ^ ^ 
6. If a = i + j + k , a ⋅ b = 1 and a × b = j − k , then b 12. The set of values of ‘r’ for which
is equal to 23
^ ^ ^ ^ Cr + 2 ⋅ 23Cr +1+ 23 Cr +2 ≥ 25C15 contains
(a) 2 i (b) i − j + k
(a) 3 elements (b) 4 elements
^ ^
(c) i^ (d) 2 j − k (c) 5 elements (d) 6 elements

* Alok Kumar is a winner of INDIAN NATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD (INMO-91).


He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

24 mathematics today | February ‘17


13. In an equilateral triangle inradius(r), circumradius   
(a) parallel to plane containing a, b and c
(R) and exradius (r1) are in (b) perpendicular to the plane formed with the
(a) A.P. (b) G.P.  
(c) H.P. (d) none of these vectors AB and AC
(c) perpendicular to the plane containing
14. If tanA, tanB are the roots of the quadratic equation   
abx2 – c2x + ab = 0 where a, b, c are sides of the a, b and c
DABC then sin2A + sin2B + sin2C is (d) none of these
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 3/2 22. 271 should be split into how many parts so as to
15. The real function maximize their product?
f (x) = cos −1 x 2 + 3x + 1 + cos −1 x 2 + 3x (a) 99 (b) 10
is defined on the set (c) 105 (d) none of these
(a) {0, 3} (b) (0, 3) more than one option correct type
(c) {0, –3} (d) (–3, 0)
p
23. If 0 ≤ a, b ≤ and cos a + cos b = 1 , then
16. If a function satisfies f (x + 1) + f (x − 1) = 2 f (x) , 2
then the period of f(x) can be p
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8 (a) a + b ≥ (b) cos(a + b) ≤ 0
2
17. If (1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1x + nC2x2 + .... + nCn xn where p
nC , nC , nC , ... are binomial coefficients. Then the (c) a + b ≤ (d) cos(a + b) ≥ 0
0 1 2 2
value of 2(C0 + C3 + C6 + ...) + (C1 + C4 + C7 + ...)(1 + w)
+ (C2 + C5 + C8 + ...)(1 + w2), where w is the cube root ae 2x − b cos 2x + ce −2x − x sin x
24. If lim = 1 and
of unity and n is a multiple of 3, is equal to x →0 x2
(a) 2n + 1 (b) 2n – 1 + 1 f (t) = (a + b)t2 + (a – b)t + c, then
(c) 2 n + 1 –1 (d) 2n – 1 (a) a + b + c = 1 (b) a + b + c = 2
18. The chords of contact of the pair of tangents drawn (c) f (1) = 3/4 (d) f (1) = 1
from each point on the line 2x + y = 4 to x2 + y2 = 1 25. If the conics whose equations are
pass through the point S1 : (sin2q)x2 + (2htanq)xy + (cos2q)y2
(a) (1, 2) (b) (1/2, 1/4) + 32x + 16y + 19 = 0
(c) (2, 4) (d) none of these S2 : (cos2q)x2 + (2h′cotq)xy + (sin2q)y2
a b c + 16x + 32y + 19 = 0
19. If −2= + , where a, b, c > 0, then family
bc c b  p
intersect in four concyclic points, where q ∈ 0,  ,
 2
of lines ax + b y + c = 0 passes through the then the correct statement(s) can be
fixed point given by (a) l = 0 (b) l = 0
(a) (1, 1) (b) (1, –2) (c) q = p/4 (d) none of these
(c) (–1, 2) (d) (–1, 1)
26. ABCD is a square of side 1 unit. P and Q lie on the
20. If f(x) is continuous such that |f(x)| ≤ 1 " x ∈ R and side AB and R lies on the side CD. The possible
e f (x) − e f (x) , then range of g(x) is values for the circumradius of triangle PQR is ?
g (x) =
(a) 0.5 (b) 0.6
e f (x ) + e f (x )
(c) 0.7 (d) none of these
 e2 + 1 
(a) [0, 1] (b) 0, 2   ^ ^ ^     ^ ^ ^
27. If a = i + j + k, a ⋅ b = 2 and a × b = 2 i + j − 3 k, then
 e − 1    ^ ^ ^
(a) a + b = 5 i − 4 j + 2 k
 e2 − 1  1 − e2    ^ ^  ^
(c) 0,  (d)  , 0 (b) a + b = 3 i + 2 k (c) b = 2 ^i − ^j + k
2
 e + 1  1 + e
2
  ^
(d) b = ^i − 2 ^j − 3 k
21. Let three non-collinear points A, B and C have 28. The solution of x1/3 + (2x – 3)1/3 = [3(x – 1)]1/3 is
  
position
  vector a , b and c , then the vector (a) 0 (b) 3/2
   
a × b + b × c + c × a is (c) 1 (d) none of these

mathematics today | February ‘17 25


29. Let a1, a2, a3, ..., an are in G.P. such that 36. Match the following.
3a1 + 7a2 + 3a3 – 4a5 = 0, then common ratio of Column I Column II
G.P. can be 24
(a) 2 (b) 3/2 (c) 5/2 (d) –1/2 (A) The area enclosed between the P.
2
curves |x| + |y| = 2 and x = y (in 5
30. The diagonals of a square are along the pair
represented by 2x2 – 3xy – 2y2 = 0. If (2, 1) is the sq. units) is
vertex of the square, then the other vertices are 7
(B) The maximum value of the function Q.
(a) (–1, 2) (b) (1, –2) (c) (–2, –1)(d) (1, 2) 3
7
f (x) = 3 sin x − 4 cos x −  
x 3
 ∫ (5 + | 1 − t |) dt , if x >2
31. Let f (x) =  0 then the will be given by
 5x + 1, if x ≤2 16
 (C) The length of common chord of R.
function is two circles of radii 3 and 4 units 3
(a) continuous at x = 2 which intersect orthogonally is
(b) differentiable at x = 2 8
(c) discontinuous at x = 2 (D) The length of chord intercepted by S.
(d) not differentiable at x = 2 the parabola y2 = 4(x + 1) passing 3
through its focus and inclined at
comprehension type
Let ABCD be a parallelogram whose diagonals equations 60° with positive x-axis is
are AC : x + 2y = 3; BD : 2x + y = 3. If length of diagonal integer type
AC = 4 units and area of ABCD = 8 sq. units.
37. If the normal to the curve x = t – 1, y = 3t2 – 6 at the
32. The length of other diagonal BD is point (1, 6) make intercepts a and b on x and y-axes
10 a +12b
20 respectively, then the value of is______
(a) (b) 2 (c) (d) none of these 146
3 3
38. Let S(n) denotes sum of first n terms of an A.P.,
33. The length of side AB is equal to
n f (r )
2 58 4 58 3 58 5 58 then the value of S = lim ∑ , where
(a) (b) (c) (d) n→∞ r =−n n
3 9 9 9 S(3n) , is ______
f (n) =
34. The length of BC is equal to S(2n) − S(n)

4 10 39. If f (u, v, w, x) = u2 + v2 + w2 + x2 – 2(u + v + w + x) + 10


2 10 8 10
(a) (b) (c) (d) none of these with u, w ∈ [–3, 3] and v, x ∈ [1, 3] then
3 3 3 1
max ⋅ f (u, v, w, x) is
matriX match type 23
35. Match the following. 
40. If a = 2, b = 3, and c = 4 then
Column I Column II
sin 1 sin 5  2  2  2
(A) − P. positive a −b + b −c + c −a
cannot exceed _____
sin 2 sin 6 87
3 9
(B) tan − Q. negative solutions
2 4
1. (b) : f(x) = (x – a)(x – b)(x – g)
 e x − 1 ⇒ f ′(x) = 3x2 – 2x(a + b + g) + ab + bg + ga
(C) lim   (where [⋅] denotes R. 1
x →0  x  2a1b1
⇒ b= (where a1, b1 are the roots of f ′(x) = 0)
the greatest integer function) a1 + b1
S. d o e s n ot 2(ab + bg + ga)
exist ⇒ b= ⇒ b2 = ga
2(a + b + g)

26 mathematics today | February ‘17


 
9 11 − 10iz 9 Also a ⋅ b = 1 ⇒ a + b + g = 1
2. (b) : z (11z + 10i) = 11 − 10iz ⇒ z =
11z + 10i ⇒ b+1+b+b=1 ⇒ b=0
11i + 10z \ a = 1, g = 0
⇒ | z9 | =  ^
11z + 10i \ b=i
⇒ | 11i + 10z |2 − | 11z + 10i |2 = 21(1− | z |2 ) 3p/ 4
dx
9
7. (c) : I = ∫
⇒ if | z | < 1, then | z | > 1 (not possible)  p
− p/ 4 2(e x − p/4 + 1)cos  x − 
 4
and if | z | > 1 ⇒ | z 9 | < 1 (not possible)
1 p /2 dt
⇒ |z| = 1 = ∫ t
2 − p/2 (e + 1)cos t
2 2
3. (b) : ∫ xf ′(x) dx = xf (x)|12 − ∫ f (x) dx
1 p /2 et dt
1 1 I= ∫
So, 2 − p/2 (et + 1)cos t
2 3 2 3
2 ( f ′(x)) 1 p /2
∫ ( f (x) + xf ′(x))dx + ∫ f ′(x) f ′′(x) dx =xf (x) 1 +
2
Adding, 2I = ∫ sec tdt
1 2 2 2 − p /2
1 p /2
= 2 f (2) − 1 f (1) + [( f ′(3))2 − ( f ′(2))2] 1
\ I= ∫ sec xdx
2 2 2 − p /2
1
= 2 f (2) − f (1) + [3 − 1] = 2 f (2) − f (1) + 1 a b
2 8. (b) : Circumcentre of DOAB ≡  , 
2 2
4. (a) : lim
(
sin p (1 − sin2 ( tan(sin x))) )
2 a 2 b2
x →0 x Circumradius = + (0, b) B
4 4
sin ( p sin (tan(sin x)))  p sin ( tan(sin x)) 
2 2
Equation of circle
m
= lim  
x →0 p sin2 ( tan(sin x))  tan2(sin x)  x2 + y2 – ax – by = 0
M

 tan2 (sin x )   sin2 x  \ Equation of tangent at B(a, 0)


n
 2  2  = p origin ax + by = 0 L
 sin x   x 
a2 b2
5. (b) : Since, 3(x2 + y2 + z2 + w2) – 2(xy + yz + zx AL = , BM = ,
+ zw + wx + wy) a 2 + b2 a 2 + b2
= (x – y)2 + (x – z)2 + (x – w)2 + (y – z)2 + (y – w)2 AL + BM = m + n = a2 + b2 = diameter of circle.
+ (z – w)2 ≥ 0
2 2 101
dx
⇒ 3Sx2 – 2Sxy ≥ 0 ⇒ Sx ≥ Sxy 9. (a) : I1 =
3 ∫
−100 (5 + 2x − 2x
2
)(1 + e 2− 4x )
2 2 2
Now, (x + y + z + w) = Sx + 2Sxy ≥ Sxy + 2Sxy 101
3 dx
⇒ I1 = ∫ 2 2 − 4(1− x)
8 8 −100 (5 + 2(1 − x) − 2(1 − x) )(1 + e )
⇒ (x + y + z + w)2 ≥ Sxy ⇒ a2 ≥ b
3 3 101
dx
I 1
 ^ ^ ^ ⇒ 2I1 = ∫ = I2 ⇒ 1 = 2
6. (c) : Let b = a i + b j + g k, −100 5 + 2x − 2x
I2 2
^ ^ ^
i j k (0, 1)
  ^ ^ ^ ^ 10. (a) :
a ×b = j −k ⇒ 1 1 1 = j −k
a b g �3 3

⇒ b – g = 0, a – g = 1, a – b = 1 11. (d) : We have, + x2 9y2


+ 25z2 = 15yz + 5zx + 3xy
2 2 2
⇒ (x) + (3y) + (5z) – (x)(3y) – (3y)(5z) – (x)(5z) = 0
⇒ b = g, a = 1 + g, a = 1 + b,

mathematics today | February ‘17 27


1 f (x + 8) = –f (x + 4) = f (x) " x
⇒ 2(x)2 + 2(3 y)2 + 2(5z)2 − 2(x)(3 y) − 2(3 y)(5z) − 2(x)(5z)\
 = 0f(x) is periodic with period 8.
2 
1 2 2 2 17. (d) : (1 + w)n = C0 + C1w + C2w2 + ... + Cnwn
2(x) + 2(3 y) + 2(5z) − 2(x)(3 y) − 2(3 y)(5z) − 2(x)(5z) = 0
2  (1 + 1)n = C0 + C1 + C2 + ... + Cn
1 (1 + w)n + (1 + 1)n = 2C0 + C1(1 + w) + C2(1 + w2)
⇒ (x − 3 y)2 + (3 y − 5z)2 + (x − 5z)2  = 0
2  
+ C3(1 + w3) + C4(1 + w) + C5(1 + w2) + C6(1 + w3)
⇒ x – 3y = 0, 3y – 5z = 0, x – 5z = 0
1 1 5 1 1 1 + ... + Cn(1 + wn)
⇒ = , = and = = 2(C0 + C3 + C6 + ....) + (C1 + C4 + C7 + ...)(1 + w)
x 3y 3y z 5z x
1 1 1 5 2 + (C2 + C5 + C8 + ...)(1 + w2) = –w2n + 2n
⇒ + = + = ⇒ 2n – 1 (Q n is a multiple of 3, wn = 1)
x z 3y 3y y
1 1 1 18. (b) : Let (h, k) be any point on the given line
⇒\ , , are in A.P. ⇒ x, y, z are in H.P. \ 2h + k = 4 and the chord of contact hx + ky = 1
x y z
hx + (4 – 2h)y = 1 ⇒ (4y – 1) + h(x – 2y) = 0, p + lq = 0, it
12. (d) : 23Cr + 2 · 23Cr + 1 + 23Cr + 2 = 24Cr + 1 + 24Cr + 2 passes through the intersection of p = 0, q = 0 or
= 25Cr + 2 ≥ 25C15 (1/2, 1/4).
\ (r + 2) can be 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15. So, 6 a b c
19. (d) : −2= + ⇒ a = b + c + 2 bc
elements. bc c b
13. (a) : In an equilateral triangle r = R/2
⇒ a = ( b + c )2 ⇒ ( a − b − c )( a + b + c ) = 0
A B C
Also ex-radius r1 = 4R sin cos cos ⇒ a − b − c = 0, a + b + c ≠ 0 (Q a, b, c > 0)
2 2 2
1 3 3 3 Comparing with ax + b y + c = 0
= 4R . . = R Hence x = –1, y = 1.
2 2 2 2
⇒ r, R, r1, are in A.P. e f (x) − e| f (x)|
20. (d) : We have, g (x) = f (x) | f (x)| , −1 ≤ f (x) ≤ 1
c2 e +e
14. (b) : Here, tan A + tan B = and tan A·tan B = 1
ab For 0 ≤ f(x) ≤ 1, g(x) = 0
tan A ⋅ tan B = 1 ⇒ tan A = cot B For –1 ≤ f (x) < 0,
⇒ A = 90° – B ⇒ A + B = 90° ⇒ C = 90° e f (x ) − e − f (x ) e 2 f (x ) − 1 2
a b g (x) = f (x) − f (x) = 2 f (x) = 1 − 2 f (x )
⇒ sin A = , sin B = e +e e +1 e +1
c c 1 − e2 
a 2 b2 For –1 ≤ f (x) < 0, g (x) ∈  2
, 0
\ sin2 A + sin2 B + sin2 C = 2 + 2 + 1 = 2 1 + e 
c c
2
1 − e2 
15. (c) : Obviously, 0 ≤ x + 3x + 1 ≤ 1 For –1 ≤ f (x) < 1, g (x) ∈  , 0 .
2
and 0 ≤ x2 + 3x ≤ 1 ⇒ x2 + 3x = 0 ⇒ x = 0, –3 1 + e 

16. (d) : By replacing x = x + 1 and x = x – 1, we get 21. (c) : Let r be the position vector of any point on
...(1)         
f (x + 2) + f (x) = 2 f (x + 1) the plane of a, b and c ⇒ (r − a) ⋅ (b − a) × (c − a) = 0
       
f (x) + f (x − 2) = 2 f (x − 1) ...(2) ⇒ (r − a) ⋅ (a × b + b × c + c × a) = 0
       
Adding (1) & (2) gives, Thus a × b + b × c + c × a is perpendicular to r − a and
 
f (x + 2) + f (x − 2) + 2 f (x) = 2 [ f (x + 1) + f (x − 1)] thus is perpendicular to a, b and c .
22. (d)
= 2 2 f (x)
\ f (x + 2) + f (x – 2) = 0 23. (a, b) : 0 ≤ a, b ≤ p and cos a + cos b = 1
On replacing x by x + 2 we get f(x + 4) + f(x) = 0 2
Finally replacing x by x + 4, we get a +b a −b 1
⇒ cos  cos  =
f (x + 8) + f (x + 4) = 0,  2   2  2

28 mathematics today | February ‘17


mathematics today | February ‘17 29

a +b a −b 1  (a × b ) × a + 2a
⇒ atleast one of cos  and cos  ≥
 2   2  2
\ b= 
| a |2
p    ^ ^ ^ 
⇒ atleast one of a + b and a − b ≥ Now, (a × b ) × a = 4 i − 5 j + k and | a | = 3
2
p p  (4 ^i − 5 ^j + k^) + 2(^i + ^j + k^) ^ ^ ^
but a − b ≥ and a + b ≥ and cos(a + b) ≤ 0 \ b= = 2 i − j + k.
2 2 3

ae 2x − b cos 2x + ce −2x − x sin x 28. (a, b, c) : a1/3 + b1/3 = (a + b)1/3 is true,


24. (a, c) : lim =1 when either a = 0 or b = 0 or a + b = 0
x →0 x2
3
⇒ x = 0, , 1
 (2x)2   (2x)2 (2x)4  2
a 1 + 2x + + ...  − b 1 + + − ... 
 2!   2! 4!  29. (b, d) : Given 3a1 + 7a2 + 3a3 – 4a5 = 0
 (2x)2  ⇒ 7(a1 + a2 + a3) = 4(a1 + a3 + a5)
+c 1 − 2x + − ... 
 2!  ⇒ 7(1 + r + r2) = 4(1 + r2 + r4)
⇒ lim 2
=2
x →0 x ⇒ 7 = 4(r2 – r + 1) ⇒ 4r2 – 4r + 1 = 4
⇒ a–b+c=0 ...(1)
⇒ (2r – 1)2 = 4
2a – 2c = 0 ...(2)
3 1
2a – 2b + 2c = 2 ...(3) ⇒ 2r – 1 = ±2 ⇒ r= ,−
⇒ a = c and b = 2a 2 2
1 1 30. (a, b, c) : Since the diagonals
D
⇒ a + 2a + a = 1 ⇒ a = =c \ b= intersect at origin and are at
4 2 O
(0, 0)
right angles. Let B and D be the
2
3 1 1 3t − t + 1 points adjacent to A.
Now, f (t ) = t 2 − t + = A B
4 4 4 4 2 2 (2, 1)
Also OA = 2 + 1 = 5
25. (b, c) : Curve through the intersection of S1 and S2
is given by S1 + lS2 = 0 Let affix of B and D are z2 and z1 respectively.
⇒ x2(sin2 q + l cos2 q) + 2(h tan q – lh′ cot q)xy  z  p
\ arg  2  =
2+i  2
+ (cos2 q + l sin2 q)y2 + (32 + 16l)x + (16 + 32l)y
+ 19(1 + l) = 0 ⇒ z2 = (2 + i)i = –1 + 2i ⇒ B(–1, 2)
The above equation will represent a circle if  z  p
Also, arg  4  = −
sin2 q + l cos2 q = cos2 q + l sin2 q 2+i  2
⇒ sin2 q – l sin2 q = cos2 q – l cos2 q ⇒ z4 = (2 + i)(–i) = 1 – 2i ⇒ D(1, –2)
⇒ (1 – l)sin2 q = (1 – l)cos2 q x 1 x
p 31. (c, d) : x > 2∫ (5 + | 1 − t |) dt = ∫ (6 − t )dt + ∫ (4 + t ) dt
⇒ (1 – l)(sin2 q – cos2q) = 0 ⇒ l = 1 or q =
4 0 0 1
h tan q – lh′ cot q = 0 ⇒ h tan q = lh′ cot q 2
x
which is satisfied if l = 1 and q = p/4 = 1+ 4 +
2
⇒ h = h′
26. (a, b, c) : Let O be the circumcentre. Then
 x2
1 + 4x + , x > 2
OP + OR ≥ PR ≥ AD = 1, so the radius is at least 1/2. P, ⇒ f (x) =  2
 5x + 1, x ≤2
Q, R always lie inside or on the circle through A, B, C, D 
1 1  4 + x, x > 2
which has radius , so the radius is at most .
2 2 f ′(x) = 
 5, x ≤2
27. (b, c) : We have
            f(2+) = f(2–) = 11 continuous at x = 2
(a × b ) × a = (a ⋅ a) b − (b ⋅ a) a = | a |2 b − 2a f ′(2+) ≠ f ′(2–) ⇒ not differentiable at x = 2

30 mathematics today | February ‘17


1 A
− +2 3 3
32. (c) : tan θ = 2 = , sin θ = ,
1+1 4 5 60°
1 20 (1, 0)
area of ∆CPB = × PC × PB sin θ = 2 ⇒ BD =
2 3 B
AP 2 + PB2 − AB2
33. (a) : cos(π − θ) =
2AP ⋅ PB Substituting parametric coordinates in (1)
100 2 2
2  3   r  3r
4 4 + 9 − AB 2 58 r
 2  = 4  + 1  , − 2r − 4 = 0
⇒ − = ⇒ AB =   2  4
5 10 3
2×2×
3 Length of AB = PA − PB = (PA + PB )2 − 4PAPB
PC 2 + PB2 − BC 2
34. (a) : ln ∆CPB, cos θ = 2
2PC ⋅ PB 8 16 16
=   −4× =
2 10 3 3 3
⇒ BC =
3 37. (1) : Given point is corresponding to t = 2 and
35. (A)-(Q), (B)-(P), (C)-(S) dy 1
= 6t ⇒ slope of normal at t = 2 is −
sin1 sin 5 sin x dx 12
(A) − , Take f (x) =
sin 2 sin 6 sin(x + 1) 1
\ Equation of normal is y − 6 = − (x − 1)
sin(x + 1)cos x − cos(x + 1)sin x sin1 12
f ′(x) = 2
= 2 >0 73
sin (x + 1) sin (x + 1) ⇒ a = 73, b = ⇒ a + 12b = 146
12
⇒ f(x) is increasing ⇒ f(1) < f(5).
(B) Take f (x) = tanx – x2 38. (6) : Let a be the first term of A.P. and d be the
f ′(x) = sec2x – 2x, f ′′(x) = 2sec2x tanx – 2 common difference.
f ′(1) > 0 and f ′′(x) > 0 for x > 1 3n S(3n)
S(3n) = {2a + (3n − 1) d}, = 3 = f (n)
 π 3 9 2 S(2n) − S(n)
⇒ f (x) is increasing in 1,  ⇒ tan >
 2 2 4 .
1 n  2n + 1 
 e x − 1
\ S = lim ∑ f (r) = lim 3   = 6
n→∞ n r =−n n→∞ n 
(C) lim   does not exist as left hand and right
x →0  x  39. (2) : f(u, v, w, x) = (u – 1)2 + (v – 1)2 + (w – 1)2
hand limits are not equal. + (x – 1)2 + 6
Clearly f is max when u = w = –3 and v = x = 3
36. (A) - (Q), (B)-(S), (C)-(P), (D)-(R) ⇒ fmax =(–3 – 1)2 + (–3 – 1)2 + (3 – 1)2 + (3 – 1)2 + 6
1 1  = 46
(A) Required area = 2  (2 + 1) × 1 − ∫ x 2dx 
 2       2
0 40. (1) : | a − b |2 + | b − c |2 + c − a = 2(a2 + b2 + c 2)
3 1 7      
= 2  −  = sq. units −2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a)
2 3 3      
= 2(4 + 9 + 16) − 2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a)
7 8      
(B) 5 − = = 58 − 2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a)
3 3   
2r1r2 2 × 3 × 4 24 Now (a + b + c )2 ≥ 0
(C) Length of chord = = =      
r12 + r22 5 5 ⇒ a2 + b2 + c 2 ≥ −2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a)
     
(D) Parabola is y2 = 4(x + 1) ... (i), focus is (0, 0) ⇒ − 2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a) ≤ 29
x −0 y −0      
Equation of AB is = =r ⇒ | a − b |2 + | b − c |2 + | c − a |2 ≤ 87
1/ 2 3 /2 

mathematics today | February ‘17 31


Series-7
The entire syllabus of Mathematics of WB-JEE is being divided in to eight units, on each unit there will be a Mock Test
Paper (MTP) which will be published in the subsequent issues. The syllabus for module break-up is given bellow:
Unit Topic Syllabus In Details
No.
Co-ordinate Direction ratios and direction cosines. Angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the
Geometry-3D shortest distance between them and its equation. Equation of a line and a plane in different
forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
Differential Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean value theorem theorems, Applications of derivatives: Rate of
calculus change of quantities, monotonic-increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima
UNIT NO. 7

of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.


Integral calculus Integral as an anti-derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric,
exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial
fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities.
evaluation of simple integrals of type:
dx dx dx dx dx dx (px + q)dx
∫ 2 2 ,∫ 2 2 ,∫ 2 2 ,∫ 2 2, ∫ 2 ,∫ ,∫ 2
x ±a x ±a a −x a −x ax + bx + c 2
ax + bx + c ax + bx + c

Time : 1 hr 15 min. Full marks : 50


CATEGORY-I 4. The equation of the line joining the points (2, –1, 4)
For each correct answer one mark will be awarded, whereas, and (1, 1, –2) is
for each wrong answer, 25% of total marks (1/4) will be x − 2 y +1 z − 4
deducted. If candidates mark more than one answer, negative (a) = =
marking will be done. 1 2 6
p p x − 2 y +1 z − 4
1. A straight line makes angles and with positive (b) = =
4 3 −1 2 −6
direction of x-axis and z-axis respectively. Then the x −1 y −1 z + 2
acute angle made by the line with y-axis is
(c) = =
1 2 6
(a) p/6 (b) p/4 (c) p/3 (d) cos–1(1/3)
x −1 y +1 z + 2
2. The angle between the lines (d) = =
−1 2 −6
x +1 y − 2 z + 4 x − 3 2y + 3 z − 2
= = and = = is 5. A plane meets the coordinate axes at P, Q, R such
3 −2 1 1 5 2
that the centroid of the triangle PQR is (a, b, c). If
(a) p/3 (b) p/2 x y z
(c) cos–1(3/5) (d) cos–1(4/5) the equation of the plane is + + = m , then the
a b c
3. The coordinates of the foot of perpendicular value of m is
drawn from the point A(2, 4, –1) on the line (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 6
x +5 y +3 z −6 6. The equation of the plane passing through the
= = are
1 4 −9 points (0, 1, 0) and (3, 4, 1) and parallel to the line
(a) (1, –3, 4) (b) (–4, 1, –3) x +3 y −3 z −2
= = is
(c) (4, 1, 3) (d) none of these 2 7 5
By : Sankar Ghosh, S.G.M.C, Kolkata, Ph: 09831244397.

32 mathematics today | February ‘17


(a) 4x – 13y + 15z = 13 (b) 8x – 13y + 15z = 15 (a) 7 cm2/min (b) 10 cm2/min
(c) 8x – 13y + 15z + 13 = 0 (c) 17.5 cm2/min (d) 28 cm2/min
(d) none of these 15. If h(x) = f(x) – (f (x))2 + (f (x))3 and f ′(x) > 0 " x
7. The vector equation of the line passing through the then
points (2, –3, 1) and (–4, 3, 6) is (a) h(x) is an increasing function of x in some
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
specified interval
(a) r = −4 i + 3 j + 6 k + l(2 i − 3 j + k)
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ (b) h(x) is an increasing function " x ∈ R
(b) r = 2 i − 3 j + k + l(−4 i + 3 j + 6 k) (c) h(x) is a decreasing function " x ∈ R
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ (d) h(x) is a decreasing function of x in some
(c) r = −6 i + 6 j + 5 k + l(2 i − 6 j − 5 k)
specified interval .
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
(d) r = 2 i − 3 j + k + l(−6 i + 6 j + 5 k) 16. Electric current C, measured by a galvanometer,
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ is given by the equation C = k tanq, where k is a
8. If the line r = 2 i − j + 3 k + l(2 i + j + 2 k) is parallel constant. Then the percentage error in the current
 ^ ^ ^
to the plane r ⋅ (3 i − 2 j + p k ) = 4, then the value of p is corresponding to an error 0.7 percent in the
(a) 2 (b) –2 (c) 3 (d) –3 measurement of q when q = 45° is
9. The vector equation of a plane passing through (a) 1.4 (b) 2.8 (c) 1.1 (d) 2.2
the point (1, –1, 2) and having 2, 3, 2 as direction 17. The point on the parabola 2y = x2, which is nearest
number of normal to the plane is to the point (0, 3) is
 ^ ^ ^ 1
(a) r ⋅ (2 i + 3 j + 2 k ) + 4 = 0 
(a) (± 4, 8) (b)  ± 1, 
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 2
(b) r ⋅ (i − j + 2 k ) + (i − j + 2 k ) ⋅ (2 i + 3 j + 2 k ) = 0
 9
 ^ ^ ^ (c) (±2, 2) (d)  ± 3, 
(c) r ⋅ (2 i + 3 j + 2 k ) + 5 = 0 2
 ^ ^ ^
(d) r ⋅ (2 i + 3 j + 2 k ) = 3 18. If m be the slope of the tangent to the curve
10. The distance of the point (–3, 2, 4) from the plane ey = 1 + x2, then
 ^ ^ ^ (a) |m| > 1 (b) |m| < 1
r ⋅ (2 i − 3 j + 6 k ) + 7 = 0 is (c) m < 1 (d) |m| ≤ 1
29
(a) 5 units (b) units 19. The normal to the curve x = a(cosq + qsinq),
7
y = a(sinq – q cosq) at any point q is such that
18 19 (a) it passes through the origin
(c) units (d) units
7 7 (b) it passes through (a, –a)
11. In the mean value theorem f(b) – f(a) = (b – a)f ′(c) (c) it is at a constant distance from origin
(a < c < b), if a = 4, b = 9 and f (x) = x , then the p 
(d) it makes angle  + q  with the x-axis.
value of c is 4 
(a) 8 (b) 5.25 (c) 4 (d) 6.25 20. values of a for which the function (a + 2)x3 – 3ax2
12. If the function f (x) = 4x3 + ax2 + bx – 1 satisfies + 9ax – 1 decreases monotonically throughout for
1 all real values of x, are
all the conditions of Rolle’s theorem in − ≤ x ≤ 1 (a) a < –2 (b) a > –2
4
1 (c) –3 < a < 0 (d) a ≤ –3
and if f ′   = 0 , then the values of a and b are
2 sin x
(a) a = 2, b = –3 (b) a = 1, b = –4 21. If ∫ dx = Ax + B log |sin(x − a)| + c, then the
sin(x − a)
(c) a = –1, b = 4 (d) a = –4, b = –1
value of (A, B) is
13. Let f (x) be a continuous in (–∞, ∞) and f ′(x) exists (a) (cosa, sina) (b) (–sina, cosa)
in (–∞, ∞). If f (3) = –6 and f ′(x) ≥ 6 for all x ∈ [3, 6] (c) (sina, cosa) (d) (–cosa, sina)
then
x
(a) f (6) ≥ 24 (b) f (6) ≥ 12 22. ∫e dx is
(c) f (6) ≤ 24 (d) f (6) ≤ 12
(a) e x + c (b) 2( x − 1)e x + c
14. A spherical balloon is being inflated at the rate of
35 cm3/min. Then the rate of increase of surface 1
(c) e x + c (d) 2( x + 1)e x + c
area of the balloon when its diameter is 14 cm, is 2

mathematics today | February ‘17 33


−1
e tan x x−a
23. cos
∫ dx is dx  2 
1 + x2 30. If ∫ = f (a)log + C , then
cos x + cos a x+a
1 cos
(a) tan–1x + C (b) +C  2 
1 + x2 the value of f (a) is
tan −1 x (a) sina (b) cosa (c) coseca (d) seca
−1 2xe
(c) e tan x + C (d) +C CATEGORY-II
(1 + x 2 )2
Every correct answer will yield 2 marks. For incorrect response,
2
24. ∫ f (x)dx = f (x), then ∫ { f (x)} dx is equal to 25% of full mark (1/2) would be deducted. If candidates mark
more than one answer, negative marking will be done.
1
(a) { f (x)}2 + C (b) {f (x)}3 + C x y z x −1 y − 2 z − 3
2 31. If the lines = = , = = and
1 2 3 3 −1 4
{ f (x)}3 x + k y −1 z − 2
(c) +C (d) {f (x)}2 + C = = are concurrent. Then,
3 3 2 h
dx
25. The value of ∫2 is (a) h = –2, k = –6 (b) h = 1/2, k = 2
x (x + 1) (c) h = 6, k = 2 (d) h = 2, k = 1/2
1 −1 32. The distance between the plane whose equation is
(a) tan −1( x ) + C (b) 2 tan ( x ) + C  ^ ^ ^
2 r ⋅ (2 i + j − 3 k) = 5 and the line whose equation is
−1  ^ ^ ^ ^
(c) tan −1( x ) + C (d) tan (2 x ) + C r = i + l (2 i + 5 j + 3 k) , is
3 5
dx (a) unit (b) units
26. The value of the integral ∫ 2
is 14 14
x + 4x + 13
(c) 5 units (d) none of these
1  x +2
(a) tan −1  + C (b) log(x2 + 4x + 13) + C 33. The minimum area of the triangle formed by a
3  3 
x2 y2
1 x +5 x +2 tangent to the ellipse + = 1 and the coordinate
(c) log +C (d) +C axes, is a 2 b2
6 x −1 (x + 4x + 13)2
2
a 2 + b2
(a) ab (b)
 1 + sin x  2
27. The value of ∫ e x  dx =
 1 + cos x  (a + b)2 a2 + ab + b2
(c) (d)
x x 2 3
(a) e x sec2+C (b) e x sec + C
2 2 34. The four common tangents to the ellipses
x x x2 y2 x2 y2
(c) e tan + C (d) ex tanx + C + = 1 and + = 1 form
2 9 4 4 9
n (a) a rectangle of area 13 unit2
28. In = ∫ ( log x ) dx, then the value of (In + nIn−1) is
(b) a parallelogram which is neither a square nor a
(a) (logx)n–1 + C (b) n(logx)n + C rectangle
n
(c) (xlogx) + C (d) x(logx)n + C (c) a rhombus
(d) none of these
e x dx
29. ∫ is equal to x2 − 1
(e x + 2)(e x + 1) 35. ∫ dx =
x x x 3 ⋅ 2x 4 − 2x 2 + 1
e +1 e +2
(a) log x +C (b) log x +C 1 4 2
e +2 e +1 (a) 2 ⋅ 2x − 2x + 1 + C
x
ex + 1 ex + 2 1
(c) +C (d) +C (b) 3 ⋅ 2x 4 − 2x 2 + 1 + C
ex + 2 ex + 1 x

34 mathematics today | February ‘17


1 p mp
(c) . 2x 4 − 2x 2 + 1 + C  3 
(c) f′(1) = me m (d) f′( 3) =  + 1 e 3
x
m 
1
(d) 2
. 2x 4 − 2x 2 + 1 + C SOLUTIONS
2x
1. (c): Let the line makes an acute angle q with the y-axis.
CATEGORY-III Therefore, the direction cosines are
In this section more than 1 answer can be correct. Candidates p p
will have to mark all the correct answers, for which 2 marks l = cos , m = cos and n = cos q
will be awarded. If, candidates marks one correct and one 4 3
incorrect answer then no marks will be awarded. But if, But l2 + m2 + n2 = 1
candidate makes only correct, without making any incorrect, p p
formula below will be used to allot marks. 2×(no. of correct ⇒ cos2 + cos2 + cos2 q = 1
response/total no. of correct options)
4 3
 1 1 3 1
36. Let A be a vector parallel to the line of intersection ⇒ cos2 q = 1 −  +  = 1 − =
2 4 4 4
of the planes P1 and P2 through the origin. The plane 1
^ ^ ^ ^ ⇒ cos q = [ q is acute]
P1 is parallel to the vectors 2 j + 3 k and 4 j − 3 k 2
^ ^ So, q = p/3
while the plane P2 is parallel to the vectors j − k and
^ ^  ^ ^ ^ 2. (b) : The given equations of the lines are
3 i + 3 j . The angle between A and 2 i + j − 2 k is
(a) p/2 (b) p/4 (c) p/6 (d) 3p/4 x +1 y − 2 z + 4 x − 3 2y + 3 z − 2
= = and = =
3 −2 1 1 5 2
37. f (x) is a polynomial of third degree which has a
local maxima at x = –1. If f (1) = –1, f (2) = 18 and Let the angle between them be q. Then
f ′(x) has a local minimum at x = 0 then 5
3 ⋅1 + (−2) ⋅ + 1 ⋅ 2
(a) f (0) = 5 cos q = 2 =0
(b) f (x) has local minimum at x = 1 2
5
32 + (−2)2 + 12 12 +   + 22
(c) f (x) is increasing in [1, 2 5] 2
(d) The distance between (–1, 2) and (a, f (a)) is Hence, q = p/2
2 5, where a is a point of local minimum. 3. (b) : The general point on the straight line
38. A tangent to the curve y = f (x) at P(x, y) cuts the x +5 y +3 z −6 ... (1)
x-axis and y-axis at A and B, respectively, such that = = = l (say)
1 4 −9
BP : AP = 3 : 1. If f (1) = 1 then is (l – 5, 4l – 3, –9l + 6)
dy Let the foot of perpendicular L ≡ (l – 5, 4l – 3, –9l + 6)
(a) the equation of the curve is x + 3 y = 0
dx \ The direction ratios of AL are l – 7, 4l – 7, –9l + 7
 1  Since AL is perpendicular to the line (1), therefore
(b) the curve passes through  2,  1(l – 7) + 4(4l – 7) – 9(–9l + 7) = 0 ⇒ l = 1
 8
Thus coordinates of foot of perpendicular are (–4, 1, –3)
dy
(c) the equation of the curve is x − 3 y = 0 4. (b) : The equation of the line joining the points
dx
(2, –1, 4) and (1, 1, –2) is
(d) the normal at (1, 1) is x + 3y = 4
x − 2 y +1 z − 4 x − 2 y +1 z − 4
11 cos x − 16 sin x = = i.e., = =
2 − 1 −1 − 1 4 + 2 1 −2 6
39. If ∫ 2 cos x + 5 sin x
dx
x − 2 y +1 z − 4
i.e., = =
= −lx + m log l cos x + d sin x + C, then −1 2 −6
(a) l = 2 (b) m = 3 5. (b) : Let the vertices of the triangle PQR be
(c) d = l + m (d) d = m – l P(x, 0, 0), Q(0, y, 0) and R(0, 0, z)
−1 x y
e 2 tan x (1 + x)2 −1 \ a = ⇒ x = 3a, b = ⇒ y = 3b
40. If f(x) = ∫ 2
dx =xe m tan x + C then 3 3
1+ x z
(a) m = 2 (b) f′(0) = 1 and c = ⇒ z = 3c.
3

mathematics today | February ‘17 35


Thus, the equation of the plane is −6 − 6 + 24 + 7 19
x y z x y z = = units
+ + =1⇒ + + = 3 4 + 9 + 36 7
3a 3b 3c a b c
11. (d) : Here f (x) = x
6. (c) : The equation of the plane passing through the
point (0, 1, 0) is ax + b(y – 1) + cz = 0 ... (1) 1 1
⇒ f ′(x) = ⇒ f ′(c) =
Since (1) is also passing through the point (3, 4, 1) 2 x 2 c
\ 3a + 3b + c = 0 ... (2) Now by mean value theorem, we have
Again the plane (1) is parallel to the line f (b) − f (a)
x +3 y −3 z −2 f ′(c) =
= = b−a
2 7 5
1 f (9) − f (4) 3 − 2 1
\ 2a + 7b + 5c = 0 ... (3) ⇒ = = =
Now solving (2) and (3), we get 2 c 9−4 5 5
a b c a b c 25
= = ⇒ = = = l (say) ⇒ 2 c = 5 ⇒ 4c = 25 ⇒ c = = 6.25 (4 < 6.25 < 9)
15 − 7 2 − 15 21 − 6 8 −13 15 4
\ a = 8l, b = –13l, c = 15l 12. (b) : Here, the given function is
Now (1) becomes f (x) = 4x3 + ax2 + bx – 1
8lx –13ly + 15lz = –13l
⇒ f ′(x) = 12x2 + 2ax + b
⇒ 8x – 13y + 15z + 13 = 0 is the required equation of plane
1
7. (d) : The vector equation of the line passing through Given that f ′   = 0 ⇒ 3 + a + b = 0
2
the points (2, –3, 1) and (–4, 3, 6)
 ^ ^ ^  ^ ^ ^ ⇒ a + b = –3 ... (1)
i.e. a = 2 i − 3 j + k and b = −4 i + 3 j + 6 k
    Since f (x) satisfies all the conditions of Rolle’s Theorem
is r = a + l(b − a)  1 1 a b
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ \ f (1) = f  −  ⇒ 4 + a + b − 1 = − + − − 1
⇒ r = 2 i − 3 j + k + l(−6 i + 6 j + 5 k) 4 16 16 4

8. (b) : Here the given equation of the line is a b 65 15 5 65


⇒ a− +b+ = − ⇒ a+ b=−
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
... (1) 16 4 4 16 4 16
r = 2 i − j + 3 k + l(2 i + j + 2 k)
 ^ ^ ^
⇒ 3a + 4b = –13 ... (2)
And equation of the plane is r ⋅ (3 i − 2 j + p k) = 4 ... (2) Solving (1) and (2) we get a = 1 and b = –4
Since the line (1) is parallel to the plane (2) 13. (b) : Given that f (x) is continuous in (–∞, ∞) and
\ 2(3) + 1(–2) + 2 × p = 0 ⇒ p = –2
f ′(x) exists in (–∞, ∞)
9. (d) : The position vector of the point having f (6) − f (3)
^ ^ ^ \ f ′(c) = where c ∈(3, 6)
coordinates (1, –1, 2) is i − j + 2 k and normal to the 6−3
^ ^ ^
plane is 2 i + 3 j + 2 k f (6) − f (3)
⇒ ≥ 6 ⇒ f (6) − (−6) ≥ 18 ⇒ f (6) ≥ 12
Thus, the equation of the plane is 3
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
r ⋅ (2 i + 3 j + 2 k ) = (i − j + 2 k) ⋅ (2 i + 3 j + 2 k) 14. (b) : Let the volume of the spherical balloon be V
 ^ ^ ^
i.e. r ⋅ (2 i + 3 j + 2 k ) = 3 4 dV dr
\ V = pr 3 ⇒ = 4pr 2
3 dt dt
10. (d) : The position vector of the point having
^ ^ ^ dS dr
coordinates (–3, 2, 4) is −3 i + 2 j + 4 k Again S = 4pr 2 ⇒ = 8pr
 dt dt
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
Let a = −3 i + 2 j + 4 k and n = 2 i − 3 j + 6 k dS
Then the distance of the point (–3, 2, 4) from the plane 2 dS 2 dV 2
Now dt = ⇒ = ⋅ = × 35 = 10
 ^ ^ ^ dV r dt r dt 7
r ⋅ (2 i − 3 j + 6 k) + 7 = 0 is
  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ dt
a ⋅ n + 7 |(−3 i + 2 j + 4 k) ⋅ (2 i − 3 j + 6 k) + 7 |
 = Thus, the rate of increase of the surface area is
n 22 + (−3)2 + 62 10 cm2/min

36 mathematics today | February ‘17


So L2 is minimum when x = ±2
15. (b) :  h(x) = f (x) − ( f (x))2 + ( f (x))3
Therefore the required point is (±2, 2).
\ h′(x) = f ′(x) − 2 f (x) f ′(x) + 3( f (x))2 f ′(x) 18. (d) : The given equation of the curve is
2 e y = 1 + x2 ... (1)
 1 1  1 1
= 3 f ′(x) ( f (x))2 − 2 f (x) ⋅ +   + −  Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
 3  3  3 9  dy dy 2x 2x
2
ey = 2x ⇒ = = = m (using (1))
 1  2 dx dx e y 1 + x 2
= 3 f ′(x)   f (x) −  + 
  3  3  2|x |
⇒ |m| = ... (2)
It is given that f ′(x) > 0 " x 1+ | x |2
Thus h′(x) > 0 for all real values of x. But (1 – |x|)2 ≥ 0 ⇒ 1 + |x|2 – 2|x| ≥ 0
Therefore h(x) is an increasing function for all real ⇒ 1 + |x|2 ≥ 2|x|
values of x.
Thus, from (2) we get |m| ≤ 1
16. (c) : We have, C = k tanq
dC dC 19. (c) : Given that x = a(cosq + qsinq)
⇒ = k sec2 q ⇒ dq = k sec2 qdq dx
dq dq ⇒ = a(− sin q + sin q + q cos q) = aq cos q
dq
 dC 
⇒ dC = k sec2 qdq  dC = dq and y = a(sinq – qcosq)
 dq 
dy
⇒ = a(cos q − cos q + q sin q) = aq sin q
dC k sec2 qdq sec2 q dq
Now, × 100 = × 100 = dq × 100
C k tan q tan q dx cos q
\ =
p dq p dy sin q
=2× × 100 = × 0.7 = 1.57 × 0.7 = 1.099
4 q 2 Therefore, the equation of the normal to the given curve
\ Percentage error in C is 1.1 at q is
17. (c) : Let the point on the parabola 2y = x2 be cos q
 x2 
y − a(sin q − q cos q) = − {x − a(cos q + q sin q)}
sin q
 x,  ⇒ xcosq + ysinq = a(cos2q + qsinqcosq + sin2q
2 
 x2  – qsinq cosq)
Now the distance between the point  x,  and ⇒ xcosq + ysinq = a
 2  ⇒ xcosq + ysinq – a = 0 ... (1)
(0, 3) be L (say)
2 Now the distance of the normal from the origin is
2
 x2
2
 |0 − a |
So, L = x +  − 3  = a(constant)
 2  cos2 q + sin2 q
dL2  x2  1 Therefore the normal (1) is at a constant distance from
= 2x + 2  − 3  × × 2x the origin.
dx  2  2
20. (d) : Given that f (x) = (a + 2)x3 – 3ax2 + 9ax – 1
 x2   x2  \ f ′(x) = 3(a + 2)x2 – 6ax + 9a
= 2x 1 + − 3  = 2x  − 2  2
 2   2   a  a  a2 
= 3(a + 2)  x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ +  −  + 9a
d 2(L2 )  a + 2  a + 2  (a + 2)2 
= 3x 2 − 4
dx 2  a 
2
3a2
2 = 3(a + 2)  x −  + 9a −
dL  a+2 (a + 2)
Now = 0 gives x3 – 4x = 0
dx 2
 a  6a(a + 3)
⇒ x(x2 – 4) = 0 ⇒ x = 0 or x = ±2 = 3(a + 2)  x −  +
 a+2 a+2
d 2(L2 )
\ =8>0 Given that the function decreases monotonically
dx 2 x =±2 throughout for all real values of x.

mathematics today | February ‘17 37


a  6a(a + 3)
2 1 x x
 = ∫ e x  sec2 + tan  dx
\ f ′(x) < 0 ⇒ 3(a + 2)  x −  + <0 2 2 2
 a+2 a+2
x
Clearly the above condition is satisfied for all real values = e x tan + C  ∫ e x { f (x) + f ′(x)} dx = e x f (x) + C 
2  
of x when a ≤ –3
n
sin x 28. (d) : We have, In = ∫ (log x) dx
21. (a) : Let I = ∫ dx
sin(x − a)  1 
= x(log x)n − ∫ n(log x)n−1 ⋅ x dx
Put x – a = z ⇒ dx = dz  x 
sin(z + a) sin z cos a + cos z sin a = x(log x)n − n∫ (log x)n−1dx + C
\ I=∫ dz = ∫ dz
sin z sin z
In = x(log x)n − nIn−1 + C ⇒ In + nIn−1 = x(log x)n + C
= cos a∫ dz + sin a∫ cot zdz = zcosa + sina⋅log(sinz) + c
= (x – a)cosa + sina⋅log|sin(x – a)| + c
e x dx
= xcosa + sina⋅log|sin(x – a)| + k (where k = c – acosa) 29. (a) : Let I = ∫
\ (A, B) = (cosa, sina) (e x + 2)(e x + 1)
22. (b) : Let I = ∫ e x dx Put e x = z ⇒ e x dx = dz
1 dz (z + 2) − (z + 1)
Put x = z ⇒ dx = dz ⇒ dx = 2zdz \ I=∫ =∫ dz
(z + 2)(z + 1) (z + 2)(z + 1)
2 x
dz dz
\ I = ∫ 2ze zdz = 2(ze z − e z ) + c = 2e x ( x − 1) + c =∫ −∫ = log | z + 1 | − log | z + 2 | + C
z +1 z +2
−1
e tan x 1 z +1 ex + 1
23. (c) : ∫ 2
dx put tan −1x = z ⇒ 2
dx = dz = log + C = log +C
1+ x 1+ x z +2 ex + 2
−1
\ I = ∫ e zdz = e z + C = e tan x + C 30. (c) : Let I =
dx
∫ cos x + cos a
24. (a) :  ∫ f (x) dx = f (x) \ f (x) = f ′(x) x 2dz
2 Put tan = z ⇒ dx =
Now ∫ { f (x)} dx =∫ f (x) f (x)dx =∫ f (x) f ′(x) dx 2 1 + z2
1 2dz 2dz
= ∫ f (x) d { f (x)} = { f (x)}2 + C \ I=∫ =∫
2 2
 1− z2  (1 + z )cos a + 1 − z 2
2
(z + 1) cos a + 
dx  1 + z 2 
25. (c) : Let I = ∫2 x (x + 1) dz 2 dz
= 2∫ 2
= ∫
Put x = z ⇒ dx = 2zdz (1 + cos a) − (1 − cos a)z (1 − cos a)   a   2 2
2z dz cot  2   − z
\ I =∫ 2
dz = ∫ = tan −1 z + C = tan −1 x + C
2z(z + 1) 1+ z 2 a
1 1 1 + z tan
= ⋅ log 2 +C
dx
dx
2a a a
26. (a) : We have, ∫ =∫ 2
2 sin 2 cot 1 − z tan
x + 4x + 13 x + 4x + 4 + 9 2 2 2
dx 1 x +2 x a
=∫ = tan −1  +C
2
(x + 2) + 32 3  3  1 + tan tan
2 2 +C
= coseca ⋅ log
x a
x  1 + sin x  1 − tan tan
27. (c) : We have ∫ e  dx 2 2
 1 + cos x 
 x − a 
 x x cos
2 sin cos  2 
 1 = coseca log +C
= ∫e x
+ 2 2  dx x+a
x x  cos
 2 cos
2
2 cos2   2 
2 2 \ f(a) = cosec a

38 mathematics today | February ‘17


31. (d) : The coordinates of any point on the line 34. (d)
x y z 1 1
= = = l (say) − 5
1 2 3 x2 − 1 x 3
x
35. (d) : Let I = ∫ dx = ∫ dx
are given by x = l, y = 2l and z = 3l x 3 2x 4 − 2x 2 + 1 2 1
2− 2 + 4
Thus the coordinates of a general point on first line are x x
(l, 2l, 3l) 2 1  1 1 
The coordinates of any point on the line Put 2 − 2 + 4 = z 2 ⇒ 4  3 − 5  dx = 2zdz
x x x x 
x −1 y − 2 z − 3
= = = m (say) 1 zdz 1 1 1 2 1
3 −1 4 \ I= ∫ = ∫ dz = z + C = 2− 2 + 4 +C
are given by x = 3m + 1, y = –m + 2 and z = 4m + 3 2 z 2 2 2 x x
Thus the coordinates of a general point on second line 1
= 2 2x 4 − 2x 2 + 1 + C
are 2x
(3m + 1, –m + 2, 4m + 3)
36. (a, d) : A vector along the line of intersection of two 
If the lines intersect, then they have a common point. 
So, for some values of l and m, we must have planes one of them being parallel to the vectors a and b

l = 3m + 1, 2l = –m + 2 and 3l = 4m + 3 and theother plane being parallel to the vectors c and d ,
 
or l – 3m = 1, 2l + m = 2, 3l – 4m = 3 is (a × b ) × (c × d ).
 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
Solving two of these equations, we get l = 1 and m = 0. \ A = {(2 j + 3 k) × (4 j − 3 k)} × {(j − k) × (3 i + 3 j)}
So, the point of intersection of the first two lines is ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
(1, 2, 3). It is also lies on the third line. = −18 i × (3 i − 3 j − 3 k) = 54(k − j)
1+ k 2 −1 3 − 2 Let q be an angle between them, then
So, = =
3 2 h ^ ^
54(k − j ) ^ ^ ^ 1 1
1+ k 1 1 1 1 cos q = .(2 i + j − 2 k) = − =
⇒ = ⇒ k= and = ⇒h=2 54 2 2 2
3 2 2 2 h
p 3p
32. (a) : The vector equations of the plane and the So, angle ,
4 4
straight line are respectively
 ^ ^ ^ 37. (b, c) : Let f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d
r ⋅ (2 i + j − 3 k) = 5 ... (1)
f(1) = –1 ⇒ a + b + c + d = –1
 ^ ^ ^ ^
... (2) f(2) = 18 ⇒ 8a + 4b + 2c + d = 18
and r = i + l(2 i + 5 j + 3 k)
  f ′′(0) = 0 ⇒ b = 0 and f ′(1) = 0
Here, b ⋅ n = (2 ^i + 5 ^j + 3 k^) ⋅ (2 ^i + ^j − 3 k^) = 0 ⇒ 3a + 2b + c = 0
  19 57 17
So, b is perpendicular to n . Hence, the given line is Solving, a = , b = 0, c = − , d =
parallel to the given plane. 4 4 2
Let the required distance be d 1
\ f (x) = (19x 3 − 57x + 34)
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
4
(i + 0 j + 0 k) ⋅ (2 i + j − 3 k) − 5 3
d= = unit f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ 57x 2 − 57 = 0 ⇒ x = 1, −1.
2 2
2 +1 + 3 2 14
f ′′(x) = 57 × 2x, f ′′(−1) < 0 and f ′′(1) > 0.
33. (a) : The equation of tangent to the ellipse \ f (x) has a local minimum at x = 1.
x2 y2 x cos q y sin q f (x) is increasing ⇒ f ′(x) ≥ 0
2
+ 2
= 1 at (acosq, bsinq) is + = 1. ⇒ x2 – 1 ≥ 0 ⇒ x ≤ –1 or x ≥ 1
a b a b
\ In [1, 2 5], f (x) is increasing.
The intercepts of the tangent on the axes are asecq and
bcosecq. The distance of (–1, 2) from (1, –1) is not 2 5.
1 38. (a, b) : The equation of tangent to the curve at
\ The area of the triangle = × a sec q × bcosecq
2 P(x, y) is
ab dy dy dy
= ≥ ab Y − y = ( X − x) ⇒ X −Y = x − y
sin2q dx dx dx

mathematics today | February ‘17 39


X Y Let, 11cosx – 16sinx = l(5cosx – 2sinx)
⇒ + =1 + m(2cosx + 5sinx)
dy  dy 
x − y y−x  Now equating the coefficient of cosx and sinx, we get
dx  dx  5l + 2m = 11 .... (1)
dy
and –2l + 5m = –16 ⇒ 2l – 5m = 16 .... (2)
dx
Solving (1) and (2), we get l = 3 and m = –2
 dx   dy 
\ A  x − y , 0  and B  0, y − x  3(5 cos x − 2 sin x) − 2(2 cos x + 5 sin x)
 dy   dx  \ I=∫ dx
2 cos x + 5 sin x
BP 3
Now, = . (5 cos x − 2 sin x)
AP 1 = 3∫ dx − 2∫ dx
2 cos x + 5 sin x
3  dx  1  dy  
So, P =   x − y  ,  y − x   = (x, y) = 3log|2cosx + 5sinx| – 2x + C
 4  dy  4  dx 
= –2x + 3log|2cosx + 5sinx| + C
1 dy  dy \ l = 2, m = 3 and d = 5
⇒  y − x  = y ⇒ 3 y + x =0
4 dx dx −1
dx dy dx dy e 2 tan x (1 + x)2
⇒ 3 + = 0 ⇒ 3∫ + ∫ = 0 40. (a, b, c, d) : We have, f(x) = ∫ dx
x y x y 1 + x2
−1 −1
⇒ 3logx + logy = logc ⇒ x3y = c e2 tan x (1 + x 2 + 2x) 2xe 2 tan x
2 tan −1 x
Now, f (1) = 1 ⇒ (1, 1) is on it. =∫ dx = ∫ e dx + ∫ dx
1 + x2 1 + x2
\ c = 1. Hence, x 3 y = 1 −1
 1 2 tan −1 x tan −1 x 1 2xe 2 tan x
Also  2,  lies on it. = xe − ∫ 2e × xdx + ∫ dx + C
 8 −1 1 + x2 1 + x2
The normal to x3y = 1 at (1, 1) has the equation = xe 2 tan x + C
−1 \ m=2
y −1 = (x − 1)
dy −1 2 −1
Now f′(x) = xe 2 tan x × 2
+ e 2 tan x
dx (11
,) 1+ x

⇒ y −1 =
−1
(x − 1) = x − 3 y + 2 = 0 \ f′(0) = 1, f′(1) = 2e p/2 = me p/m
−3 2p mp
11 cos x − 16 sin x  3   3 
39. (a, b, c) : Let I = ∫ dx and f′( 3) =  + 1 e 3 =  + 1 e 3
2 cos x + 5 sin x  2  m 


40 mathematics today | February ‘17


10 BEST
PROBLE
MS

Math archives, as the title itself suggests, is a collection of various challenging problems related to the topics of IIT-Jee Syllabus. This section
is basically aimed at providing an extra insight and knowledge to the candidates preparing for IIT-Jee. In every issue of MT, challenging
problems are offered with detailed solution. The readers’ comments and suggestions regarding the problems and solutions offered are
always welcome.

−x 3 7. Let A and B be two sets containing 3 and 4 elements


1. If f ( x ) = + x 2 sin6 – xsin4· sin8 – 5sin–1 respectively. The number of subsets of A × B having 2
3
(a2 – 8a + 17) then f ′(sin8) is or more elements is
(a) < 0 (b) > 0 (c) 12 (d) –12 (a) 4083 (b) 4096 (c) 4046 (d) 4076
 ^ ^  ^ ^ ^
8. If the vectors AB = 2 i − 2 k and AC = 4 i + j+ 2 k
2. { }
1
If 2 < x < 3, and if x 2 =   , where {⋅} represents
x are sides of a DABC, then the length of the median
1 through A is
fractional part function, then the value of x − is
x 33 33 37 37
(a) –1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 2 (a) (b) (c) (d)
4 2 4 2
3. If f(x) = a + bcos–1x , (b > 0) has same domain and 5
range then the value of a + b is 9. ∫1 (x − 1) (x − 2) (x − 3) (x − 4) (x − 5) dx =
p 2 p 2 (a) 3 (b) –3 (c) 0 (d) 1
(a) 1 − (b) 1 − (c) − 1 (d) −1
2 p 2 p 10. The number of all possible positive triplets(x, y, z)
4. If x2 + pxy + 4y2 + x – 2y + q = 0 represent the pair such that (2y – x)sinq + (x – z)cos2q – 2xcos2q = 0 for
of parallel lines then p + q may be all q is
(a) –5 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 5 (a) infinite (b) one
(c) zero
5. Consider the circle x2 + y2 = 8. If from point P(2, 2),
(d) greater than 10 but less than 100
two chords PA and PB drawn of length 1 unit then the
equation of AB is soLUtioNs
3
(a) 4x + 4y + 15 = 0 (b) 4x + 4y – 15 =0 −x
1. (b) : f ( x ) = + x 2 sin6 – xsin4 · sin8 – 5sin–1
(c) x + y + 15 = 0 (d) x + y – 15 = 0 3
(a2 – 8a + 17)
x3 − 1
6. Range of the function f ( x ) = is 2
f ′(x) = – x + 2x · sin6 – sin4 · sin8
x −1 f ′(sin8) = –(sin8)2 + 2sin8 · sin6 – sin4 · sin8
3  = –sin28 + 2sin8 · sin6 – sin4 · sin8
(a) 0, ∞ ) (b)  , ∞ 
4  = –sin8[sin8 + sin4 – 2sin6]
3  = –sin8[2sin6 · cos2 – 2sin6] = –2sin6 · sin8[cos2 – 1]
(c)  , ∞  − {3} (d) R
4  = 2sin8 · sin6(1 – cos2) > 0

By : Prof. Shyam Bhushan, Director, Narayana IIT Academy, Jamshedpur. Mob. : 09334870021

mathematics today | February ‘17 41


1 A
2. (c) : Since, 2 < x < 3 and {x 2} =  
1 x
⇒ x 2 − 2 = ⇒ x3 – 2x – 1 = 0
x 8. (c) :
⇒ x3 + x2 – x2 – x – x – 1 = 0
⇒ x2(x + 1) – x(x + 1) – 1(x + 1) = 0
⇒ (x + 1)(x2 – x – 1) = 0 B C
x ≠ –1, x2 – x – 1 = 0    M
Since, AB + BC + CA = 0  
1± 5 1− 5 1+ 5     AC − AB
⇒ x= But x ≠ ⇒ x= ⇒ BC = AC − AB ⇒ BM =
2 2 2    2
1 2 5 −1 5 −1 Again, AB + BM + MA = 0
⇒ = × =  
    AC − AB
x 5 +1 5 −1 2 \ AM = AB + BM = AB +
2
1 5 +1 5 −1 5 +1− 5 +1   ^ ^ ^
\ x− = − = =1 AB + AC 6 i + j ^ j
x 2 2 2 = = = 3 i+
2 2 2
3. (d) : Domain : x ∈ [–1, 1] ...(i)
 1 37
Q 0 ≤ cos–1x ≤ p ⇒ 0 ≤ bcos–1x ≤ bp ⇒ AM = 9 + =
4 4
⇒ a ≤ a + bcos–1x ≤ a + bp ...(ii)
From (i) and (ii), a = –1 9. (c) : Put x – 3 = t ⇒ dx = dt
5
2
⇒ a + bp = 1 ⇒ bp = 2 ⇒ b =
p
\
∫ (x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3)(x − 4)(x − 5)dx
1
4. (a) : For pair of lines to be parallel, h2 – ab = 0 2
⇒ p = –4
Now (x – 2y)2 + (x – 2y) + q = 0, lines to be parallel
= ∫ (t + 2)(t + 1)t ⋅ (t − 1) ⋅ (t − 2) dt
−2
root is real and distinct = 0 (since function is odd).
1
⇒ 1 − 4q > 0 ⇒ q < 10. (c) : 2ysinq – xsinq + (x – z)(1 – sin2q)
4 – 2x (1 – 2sin2q) = 0
⇒ p+q=–5
⇒ 2ysinq – xsinq + x – xsin2q – z + zsin2q
5. (b) : Required equation of AB is S – S′ = 0 – 2x + 4xsin2q = 0
2
⇒ (3x + z)sin q + (2y –x)sinq – x – z = 0
((x – 2)2 + (y – 2)2 – 1) – (x2 + y2 – 8) = 0
⇒ 4x + 4y – 15 = 0 ⇒ (3x + z)sin2q + (2y – x)sinq – (x + z) = 0

6. (b) : f ( x ) = =
2
(
x 3 − 1 ( x − 1) x + x + 1 ) This equation is zero for all values of q.
Thus, 3x + z = 0, 2y – x = 0, x + z = 0
x −1 ( x − 1) So, x =
−z x
, y = , x = −z
2
⇒ f(x) = x + x + 1, x ≠ 1 3 2
 −z   −z −z 
f(x) = x2 + x + 1 So the triplet formed is  −z, , z  and  , , z
 2   3 6 
Thus no positive triplet is formed.

3 3/4 3
MPP-8 CLASS XI ANSWER KEY
x=1
7. (a) : n (A × B) = 12 1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (d)
No. of subset each contain 2 or more elements is 6. (d) 7. (b, c) 8. (a, b) 9 . (a, b, c, d)
= (12C2 + 12C3 + ... + 12C12) 10. (b) 11. (a, b, c) 12. (a, c) 13. (a, b, c)14. (b)
= (12C0 + 12C1 + 12C2 + 12C3 + ... + 12C12) – (12C0 + 12C1) 15. (d) 16. (c) 17. (5) 18. (4) 19. (0)
= 212 – (1 + 12) = 4096 – 13 = 4083 20. (4)

42 mathematics today | February ‘17


ELLIPSE
This article is a collection of shortcut methods, important formulas and MCQs along with their detailed solutions which provides
an extra edge to the readers who are preparing for various competitive exams like Jee(Main & advanced) and other PeTs.

Definition anD StanDarD equation of


ellipSe x2 y2
The ellipse is =1 + ...(1)
An ellipse is the locus of a point in a plane which moves a 2 b2
in such a way that the ratio of its distance from a fixed The foci S and S′ are (ae, 0) and (–ae, 0).
point (called focus) in the same plane to its distance from The equation of its directrices are x = a/e and
a fixed straight line (called directrix) is always constant x = –a/e.
which is less than unity. Let P(x1, y1) be any point on (1),
The constant ratio is generally denoted by e (0 < e < 1)
Now, SP = ePM = e (a/e – x1) = a – ex1
and is known as the eccentricity of the ellipse.
and S′P = ePM′ = e(a/e + x1) = a + ex1
The general equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
\ SP + S′P = (a – ex1) + (a + ex1) = 2a = AA′
represents an ellipse, if D = abc + 2fgh – af 2 – bg2 – ch2 ≠ 0
and h2 < ab. = Length of major axis
The sum of focal distances of any point on the ellipse is
equation of the ellipSe equal to the length of major axis.
z The equation of the ellipse, whose focus is the point note :
(h, k) and directrix is lx + my + n = 0 and having (a) Two ellipses are said to be similar, if they have the
eccentricity e, is same value of eccentricity.
(lh + mk + n)2 (b) Distance of every focus from the extremity of
(x − h)2 + ( y − k)2 = e 2 ⋅
(l 2 + m2 ) minor axis is equal to a, as b2 + a2e2 = a2.
Equation of the ellipse whose focus is (ae, 0) and x2 y2
z z Ellipse + = 1 can also be defined as
directrix is x = a/e and having eccentricity e is a2 b2
given by
y2 x2 a2 − x 2 y2 (a + x )(a − x )
x 2
y 2
x 2
y 2 ⇒ = 1− = ⇒ =
2 2 2 2
+ = 1 or + =1 b a a b a2
2 2 2 2 2
a a (1 − e ) a b
(PN )2 A ′N ⋅ AN (PN )2 b2 (BC )2
where b2 = a2 · (1 – e2) or = or = =
b2 a2 AN ⋅ A ′N a2 ( AC )2
Directrix

Directrix

Y Y
B P
(0, b)B P(x1, y1) p2 p1
M M
N
C X X
X X A C A
A S S A (–a, 0) (a, 0)
(–ae, 0) (ae, 0) (a, 0)
(–a, 0) B
B(0, –b)

x = –a/e Y x = a/e Y

Sanjay Singh Mathematics Classes, Chandigarh, Ph : 9888228231, 9216338231


mathematics today | February‘17 43
z equation of ellipse referred to two perpendicular Let Q be a point on auxiliary circle x2 + y2 = a2 such that
lines QP produced is perpendicular to the x-axis.
x2 y2 Then P and Q are the corresponding points on the ellipse
(a) Ellipse + = 1 can also be defined as and the auxiliary circle respectively.
a2 b2
Y
(L.P. from any point on ellipseto the major axis)2 Q
2 P
(Length of semi minor axis)
(L.P. from any point on ellipseto the minor axis)2 
X X
+ =1 A C NS A
2 (–a, 0) (a, 0)
(Length of semi major axis)
(where L.P. means length of perpendicular) x2 + y2 = a2 x2 + y 2 = 1
a2 b2
p12 p2 Y
⇒ + 2 =1
b2 a2 Let ∠QCA = q (0 ≤ q < 2p)
(b) If L1 : a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and L2 : b1x – a1y + c2 = 0, then i.e., the eccentric angle of P on an ellipse is the angle
2 2 which the radius (or radius vector) through the
   
a x + b1 y + c1 b x − a1 y + c2 corresponding point on the auxiliary circle makes with
 1   1 
 a 2 + b 2   a 2 + b 2  the major axis.
1 1 1 1 \ Q ≡ (a cosq, a sinq) and P ≡ (a cosq , b sinq)
the equation + =1
b2 a2 The equation x = a cosq and y = b sinq taken together
represents an ellipse in the plane such that 2 2
are called parametric equation of ellipse x + y = 1
(i) The cent re of t he el l ip s e is t he p oi nt of
a 2 b2
intersection of the lines L1 = 0 and L2 = 0.
where q is real parameter and P ≡ (a cosq , b sinq ) is
(ii) The major axis lies along L2 = 0 and the minor
any point on the ellipse also known as P(q) or ‘q’ point
axis along L1 = 0, if a > b.
on the ellipse.
If a < b, then the major axis is along L1 = 0 and
note:
minor axis is along L2 = 0.
(i) Eccentric angles of the extremities of latus
P(x, y) L1 x2 y2
p1 rectum of the ellipse + = 1 are given by
2 2
 b  a b
p2 tan −1  ±  .
a  ae 
b
x2 y2
(ii) Area of the ellipse + = 1 is pab sq. units.
a 2 b2
L2 position of points w.r.t. an ellipse
x2 y2
(iii) If a > b, then the lengths of the major and minor Let the ellipse be = 1 and P ≡ (h, k) be any
+
axes are 2a and 2b respectively and if a < b, then a 2 b2
the lengths of major and minor axes are 2b and point then P will lie outside, on or inside the ellipse
2a respectively. x2 y2 2 2
+ = 1 according as h + k >, =, < 1
2 2
z parametric equation of the ellipse a b a 2 b2
The circle described on the major axis of an ellipse as Y
diameter is called the auxiliary circle of the ellipse. P(outside) B
x2 y2
Let the equation of ellipse be + = 1 (a > b). P(inside)
a 2 b2 X
A C A
X
\ Equation of its auxiliary circle is x 2 + y 2 = a 2
B P(on)
(  AA′ is diameter of the circle)
Y

44 mathematics today | February‘17


important points
The equation of the ellipse whose axes are parallel to the coordinate axes and whose centre is at the origin, is
x2 y2
+ = 1 with the following properties :
a2 b2

x2 y2 x2 y2
S. no. ellipse + = 1, a > b + = 1, a < b
Basic fundamentals a2 b2 a2 b2
(i) Coordinates of the centre (0, 0) (0, 0)
(ii) Coordinates of the vertices (±a, 0) (0, ±b)
(iii) Coordinates of the foci (±ae, 0) (0, ±be)
(iv) Length of the major axis 2a 2b
(v) Length of the minor axis 2b 2a
(vi) Equation of the major axis y=0 x=0
(vii) Equation of the minor axis x=0 y=0
(viii) Equations of the directrices x = ±a/e y = ± b/e
(ix) Eccentricity  b2   a2 
e = 1−   e = 1−  
 a2   a2 
(x) Ends of the latus rectum (± ae, ± b2/a) (± a2/b, ± be)
(xi) Length of the latus rectum 2b2/a 2a2/b
(xii) Parametric coordinates (a cosq, b sinq) (a cosq, b sinq)
(xiii) Auxilliary circle x2 + y2 = a2 x2 + y2 = b2
equation of Chord z Locus of mid-points of focal chords of an ellipse
z Equation of the chord joining the points whose x2 y2 x2 y2 ex
2 2 + = 1 (a > b) is + =± .
x y 2 2 2 2 a
eccentric angles are a and b on the ellipse + =1 a b a b
2 2
a b equation of tangents in Different forms
is given by
point form : Equation of tangent to the ellipse
x a +b y a +b a −b x2 y2 xx yy
cos   + sin   = cos  .
a  2  b  2   2  + = 1 at the point (x1, y1) is 1 + 1 = 1.
2
a 2
b 2
a b2
z If the chord joining two points whose eccentric parametric form : Equation of tangent to the
angles are a and b, cut the major axis of the ellipse x2 y2
ellipse +
= 1 at the point (a cosq, b sinq)
x2 y2 b2 a2
+ = 1 (a > b) at the point (ae, 0), then
y
a2 b2 is x cos q + sin q = 1.
a b e −1 a b
tan tan = . Slope form : Equation of tangent of slope m to
z z e +1
x2 y2
z If a and b are the eccentric angles of extremities of the ellipse + = 1 are given by
2 2 a2 b2
x y
a focal chord of the ellipse + = 1 (a > b) , then
a 2
b2 y = mx ± (a2m2 + b2 ) and the coordinates of the
a −b points of contact are
cos 
 2  a b e −1 e +1  
e= ⇒ tan ⋅ tan = or . a2 m b2
a +b 2 2 e +1 e −1  ,±  .
cos 
 2   (a2 m2 + b2 ) (a2 m2 + b2 ) 

mathematics today | February‘17 45


results related to tangents Slope form : Equation of normal of slope m to the
(i) The equations of the tangents to the ellipse at 2 2 m(a2 − b2 )
ellipse x + y = 1 are given y = mx 
points P(a cosq1, b sinq1) and Q(a cosq2, b sinq2) (a2 + b2m2 )
a 2 b2
x y x y
are cos q1 + sin q1 = 1 and cos q2 + sin q2 = 1  a2 b2 m 
a b a b at the points  ± ,± 
and these two intersect at the point  a2 + b2m2 a2 + b2m2 
  q1 + q2   q1 + q2   results related to normals
 a cos  2  b sin  2   (i) If the line lx + my + n = 0 be a normal to the
 , .
  q1 − q2   q1 − q2   ellipse
 cos  2  cos  2   x2 y2 a2 b2 (a2 − b2 )2
+ = 1 then + =
(ii) The line joining two points on an ellipse, the a 2 b2 l 2 m2 n2
difference of whose eccentric angle is constant, (ii) Locus of mid-points of normal chords of an ellipse
touches an other ellipse of same eccentricity. 2
x2 y2  x 2 y 2   a 6 b6 
(iii) The locus of the point of intersection of tangents + = 1 is  +   +  = (a2 − b2 )2
to an ellipse at the points whose eccentric angles a 2 b2  a 2 b2   x 2 y 2 
differs by constant is an ellipse of the same (iii) Four normals can be drawn from a point to an
eccentricity. If the eccentric angles differs by a ellipse.
2 2 intersection of a Circle and an ellipse
right angle then the locus is x + y = 2. (i) The circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 and ellipse
a 2 b2 x2 y2
(iv) The locus of the point of intersection of tangents + = 1 can intersect each other at maximum
a 2 b2
x2 y2 of four points.
to the ellipse += 1 at the points the sum
a 2 b2 (ii) The maximum number of common chord of a
of whose eccentric angles is constant is a straight circle and an ellipse is six.
line passing through the centre of the ellipse. (iii) The maximum number of common tangent of a
(v) If the tangent at P on an ellipse meets the directrix circle and an ellipse is four.
in F, then PF will subtend a right angle at the Director Circle
corresponding focus i.e., ∠PSF = p/2. The locus of the point of intersection of the tangents to
(vi) If SM and S′M′ are perpendiculars from the foci x2 y2
upon the tangent at any point of the ellipse, then an ellipse += 1 which are perpendicular to each
SM ·S′M′ = b2 and the point M & M′ lie on the a 2 b2
auxiliary circle (where a > b). other is called director circle and its equation is given
(vii) The tangents drawn from any point on the director by x2 + y2 = a2 + b2.
circle of a given ellipse to the ellipse are always at Sub-tangent and Sub-normal
right angle. a2
Length of sub-tangent NT = − x1
equations of normals in Different forms x1
poi nt for m : E quat ion of nor ma l to t he
b2
x2 y2 Length of sub-normal GN = |x1| = (1 – e2) |x1|
2
e l l ip s e + = 1 at t h e p oi nt ( x 1 , y 1 ) i s a
a 2 b2 Y
a2 x b2 y
− = a 2 − b2 . T
x1 y1 P(x1, y1)
parametric form : Equation of normal to
X X
C G N
x2 y2 T
the ellipse + = 1 at (a cosq, b sinq) is
a 2 b2
ax sec q – by cosecq = a2 – b2. Y

46 mathematics today | February‘17


reflection property of an ellipse x2 y2
6. Tangent drawn to the ellipse = 1 at +
If an incoming light ray passes through the focus (S) a 2 b2
strike the concave side of the ellipse then it will get point ‘P’ meets the coordinate axes at points A and B
reflected towards other focus (S′) respectively. Locus of mid-point of segment AB is
and ∠SPS′ = ∠SQS′ a2 b2
Y (a) x2 y2 (b) + =2
+ =2
Tang
ent Light ray a2 b2 x2 y2
Q B
Y
P
a2 b2 x2 y2
  (c) + =4 (d) + =4
x2 y2 a2 b2
X X
A S C N S A x2 y2
7. Normals drawn to the ellipse = 1 at +
Normal
a 2 b2
B point ‘P’ meets the coordinate axes at points A and B
Reected ray Y respectively. Locus of mid point of segment AB is
The tangent and normal at any point of an ellipse bisect (a) 4x2a2 + 4y2b2 = (a2 – b2)2
the external and internal angles between the focal radii (b) 4x2b2 + 4y2a2 = (a2 – b2)
to the point. (c) 16x2a2 + 16y2b2 = (a2 – b2)2
problems (d) 16x2b2 + 16y2a2 = (a2 – b2)
1. The line y = mx + c, will be a tangent to the ellipse 8. If the line y = mx + c is a tangent to the ellipse
x 2
y 2 x2 y2
+
= 1 (|b| > |a|) , provided + = 1 then corresponding point of contact is
a 2
b2 a 2 b2
(a) c2 = a2 + b2m2 (b) c2 = b2 + a2m2  2 2  a2 m b2 
2 2 2 2 (a)  a m , b  (b)  − ,− 
(c) c = (a + b )m (d) c2 = (b2 – a2)m2  c c 
 c c 
2. Tangents are drawn to the ellipse x2 + 2y2 = 4
 a2 m b2   a 2 m b2 
from any arbitrary point on the line x + y = 4, the (c)  ,−  (d)  − , 
corresponding chord of contact will always pass through  c c   c c 
a fixed point, whose coordinates are
9. If the line y = mx + c is a normal to the ellipse
 1 1 
(a) 1,  (b)  , 1 x 2
y2
 2 2  + = 1, then corresponding foot of normal is
 1 1 a2 b2
(c) 1, −  (d)  , − 1
 2 2   a2 c b2 c 
3. Equation of the ellipse whose axes are along the (a)  , 
coordinate axes and whose length of latus rectum and  m(b2 − a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) 
eccentricity are equal and equal to 1/2 each , is  a2 c b2 c 
(a) 6x2 + 12y2 = 1 (b) 12x2 + 6y2 = 1 (b)  , 
2 2  m(a2 − b2 ) (a2 − b2 ) 
(c) 3x + 12y = 1 (d) 9x2 + 12y2 = 1
 a2 m b2 c 
4. The line y = x - 1 touches the ellipse 3x2 + 4y2 = 12, at (c)  , 
1 1  c(b2 − a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) 
(a)  , −  (b) (3, 2)
2 2  a2 m b2 c 
(c) (–1, –2) (d) None of these (d)  , 
 c(a2 − b2 ) (a2 − b2 ) 
5. One foot of normal of the ellipse 4x2 + 9y2 = 36,
that is parallel to the line 2x + y = 3, is 10. Locus of the mid-point of chords of the ellipse
9 8  9 8 x2 y2
(a)  ,  (b)  − ,  +
= 1 that are parallel to the line y = 2x + c, is
5 5  5 5 a 2 b2
 9 8 (a) 2b2y – a2x = 0 (b) 2a2y – b2 x = 0
(c)  − , −  (d) None of these 2 2
 5 5 (c) 2b y + a x = 0 (d) 2a2y + b2 x = 0

mathematics today | February‘17 51


11. The locus of the moving point P(x, y) satisfying area of the triangle PS1S2 is equal to
(a) b2e sq. units (b) a2e sq. units
(x − 1)2 + y 2 + (x + 1)2 + ( y − 12 )2 = a
(c) ab sq. units (d) abe sq. units
will be an ellipse if
(a) a < 4 (b) a > 2 (c) a > 4 (d) a < 2 2
y2
19. P is any variable point on the ellipse x + =1
x2 y2 a 2 b2
12. The equation + = 1 will represent an having the points S1 and S2 as its foci. Then Locus of
ellipse if 6 − a a − 2
(a) a ∈ (1, 3) (b) a ∈ (1, 6) incentre of triangle PS1S2 will be
(c) a ∈ (–∞, 2) ∪ (6, ∞) (d) a ∈ (2, 6) ~ {4} (a) a straight line (b) a circle
(c) a parabola (d) an ellipse
13. Foci of the ellipse 16x2 + 25y2 = 400 are
(a) (± 2, 0) (b) (±3, 0) 20. P1 and P2 are the foot of altitudes drawn from the
 24   48  x2 y2
(c)  ± , 0  (d)  ± , 0  foci S1 and S2 respectively of the ellipse +
=1
 5   5  a 2 b2
14. Equation of an ellipse whose focus is S ≡ (1, 0), on one of its variable tangent. Maximum value of (S1P1)
corresponding directrix being the line x + y = 2 and (S2P2) is equal to
1
eccentricity being is (a) b2 (b) b (c) a2 (d) a
2
21. The equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 2) having
(a) 3x2 + 3y2 – 2xy + 4x – 4y = 0
(b) 3x2 + 3y2 + 2xy – 4x + 4y = 0 the point (6, 2) as one of its focus and passing through
(c) 3x2 + 3y2 + 2xy + 4x – 4y = 0 the point (4, 6) is
(d) 3x2 + 3y2 – 2xy – 4x + 4y = 0 2
3( y − 2)2
(a) (x − 1) + =1
15. The equation 3(x + y – 5)2 + 2(x – y + 7)2 = 6 36 64
represents an ellipse, whose centre is
(x − 1)2 ( y − 2)2
(a) (–1, 6) (b) (6, –1) (c) (1, –6) (d) (–6, 1) (b) + =1
18 32
x2 y2
16. Consider an ellipse + = 1, centered at (x − 1)2 7( y − 2)2
2
a b 2 (c) + =1
72 128
point ‘O’ and having AB and CD as it’s major and 2 2
minor axes respectively. If S1 be one of the focus of the (d) (x − 1) + ( y − 2) = 1
ellipse, radius of incircle of triangle OCS1 be 1 unit and 45 20
OS1 = 6 units, then area of the ellipse is equal to 22. The angle between the tangents drawn to the ellipse
65 3x2 + 2y2 = 5, from the point P(1, 2) is equal to
(a) 16 p sq. units (b) p sq. units
4 (a) tan −1 (24 5 ) (b) tan −1 (12 5 )
(c) 65 p sq. units (d) 65 p sq. units
2  24   12 
x2 y2 (c) tan −1  (d) tan −1  
17. Normal drawn to the ellipse + = 1 at the  5   5
42 32
23. The line 5x – 3y = 8 2 is a normal to the ellipse
point P(q) meets the ellipse again at point Q(2q), then
value of cos q can be x2 y2
+ = 1. If ‘q’ be the eccentric angle of the foot of
16 1 25 9
(a) − (b) − (c) − 19 (d) − 21 this normal then ‘q’ is equal to
23 2 23 23
p p
x2 y2 (a) (b)
18. P is any variable point on the ellipse + =1 6 3
a 2 b2 p
(c) (d) None of these
having the points S1 and S2 as its foci. Then maximum 4

52 mathematics today | February‘17


24. The distance of a point P (lying in the first quadrant)
x2 y2
on the ellipse x2 + 3y2 = 6 from the center of the ellipse 30. Length of the focal chord of the ellipse = 1, +
is 2 units. Eccentric angle of the point ‘P’ is a 2 b2
that is inclined at an angle ‘q’ with the x-axis, is equal
(a) p (b) p
6 3 to
(c) p (d) None of these 2b2a 2b2a
4 (a) (b)
x 2 11 y 2 a2 sin2 q + b2 cos2 q a2 cos2 q + b2 sin2 q
25. The tangent drawn to the ellipse + = 1 at
16 256 2a2b 2a2b
(c) (d)
the point P(q), touches the circle (x – 1)2 + y2 = 16. ‘q’ is a2 sin2 q + b2 cos2 q a2 cos2 q + b2 sin2 q
equal to
p 31. The line y = mx + c, will be a normal to the ellipse ,
(a) p (b)
6 3 x2 y2
+ = 1, if
p a2 b2
(c) (d) None of these
4 2
(b2 − a2 )2
a2 (b2 − a2 )2 (b) c
26. There are exactly two points on the ellipse
(a) + b2 = + b2 =
m2 c2 m2 c2
x2 y2
+ = 1 whose distance from the center of the
a 2 b2 2 b2 (b2 − a2 )2 b2 (b2 − a2 )2
a2 + 2b2 (c) a + = (d) c 2 + =
ellipse are equal and equal to . Eccentricity m2 c2 m2 a2
of this ellipse is equal to 2
32. Locus of the point of intersection of tangents
3 1 1 2 2 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 3 2 3 drawn to the given ellipse x + y = 1, at points P(q1)
a 2 b2
27. For all admissible values of the parameter ‘a’ the 2p
and Q(q2), such that q1 – q2 = , is
straight line 2ax + y 1 − a2 = 1 will touch an ellipse 3
whose eccentricity is equal to a2 b2 a2 b2
1 (a) + =4 (b) + =2
(a) 3 (b) (c) 1 (d) 2 x2 y2 x2 y2
2 3 2 3
x2 y2 x2 y2
28. The normal to the ellipse 4x2 + 5y2 = 20 at the point (c) + =4 (d) + =2
‘P’ touches the parabola y2 = 4x, the eccentric angle of a2 b2 a2 b2
the point ‘P’ is x2 y2
p  1  p  1  33. Consider the ellipse = 1, having it’s
+
(a) + cos −1   (b) + tan −1   a 2 b2
2  5 2  5 eccentricity equal to e. P is any variable point on it and
 1   1  P1, P2 are the foot of perpendiculars drawn from P to
(c) p − tan −1  (d) p − cos −1  
 5   5 the x and y-axis respectively. The line P1P2 will always
be a normal to an ellipse whose eccentricity is equal to
x2 y2
29. The tangent drawn to the ellipse + = 1 , at 2e (d) e
a 2 b2 (a) e2 (b) e (c)
1+ e
the point ‘P’ meets the circle x2 + y2 = a2, (a > b) at the
points A and B. The line segment AB subtends an angle x2 y2
34. The normal drawn to the ellipse =1 +
p/2 at the center of the ellipse. If ‘e’ be the eccentricity a 2 b2
of the ellipse and ‘q’ be the eccentric angle of point ‘P’ (a > b) at the extremity of the latus rectum passes
then
(a) e2(1 + sin2q) = 1 (b) e2(1 + cos2q) = 1 through the extremity of the minor axis. Eccentricity of
2 2
(c) e (2 + sin q) = 1 (d) e2(2 + cos2q) = 1 this ellipse is equal to

mathematics today | February‘17 53


(a) 5 −1 (b)
5 −1 (a) p (b) p
2 2 6 3

3 −1 (c) p (d) None of these


(c) 3 −1 (d) 4
2 2
41. The tangent and normal drawn to the ellipse
35. The equation of common tangents of the curves x2 + 4y2 = 4 at the point P, meet the x-axis at A and B
x2 + 4y2 = 8 and y2 = 4x are respectively. If AB = 2 then cosq is equal to, (‘q’ being
(a) y – 2x – 4 = 0, y + 2x + 4 =0 the eccentric angle of point P)
(b) y – 2x – 2 = 0, y + 2x + 2 =0
8 2 5
(c) 2y – x – 4 = 0, 2y + x + 4 =0 (a) 1 (b) (c) (d)
(d) None of these 3 3 3 3
42. The chord joining the points P1(a cosq1, b sinq1)
36. If L is the length of perpendicular drawn from the
and P2(a cosq2, b sinq2) meets the x-axis at A. If
2 2
origin to any normal of the ellipse x + y = 1, then OA = c(‘O’ being the origin), then the value of
maximum value of L is 25 16 q q
tan 1 ⋅ tan 2 is equal to
(a) 5 (b) 4 2 2
(c) 1 (d) None of these c−a c−a c −b
(a) (b) (c) c − b (d)
37. The maximum distance of the centre of the ellipse c+a c +b c +b c+a
2 2
x2 y2 43. A tangent to the ellipse
x y
+ = 1 from the chord of contact of mutually + = 1, having
9 4 4 18 32
perpendicular tangents of the ellipse is slope − cuts the x and y-axis at the points A and B
3
9 3 6 36 respectively. If O is the origin then area of triangle OAB
(a) (b) (c) (d)
13 13 13 13 is equal to
(a) 12 sq. units (b) 24 sq. units
38. Tangents PA and PB are drawn to the ellipse
(c) 36 sq. units (d) None of these
x2 y2
+ = 1 from the point P(0, 5). Area of triangle 44. Which of the following is a common tangent to the
16 9
PAB is equal to x2 y2 x2 y2
ellipses + = 1 and + = 1?
16 256 a 2 + b2 b2 a2 a 2 + b2
(a) sq. units (b) sq. units
5 25 (a) by = ax − a 4 + a2b2 + b 4
32 1024
(c) sq. units (d) sq. units (b) ay = bx − a 4 + a2b2 + b 4
5 25
39. The straight line x – 2y + 4 = 0 is one of the common (c) by = ax − a 4 − a2b2 + b 4
x2 y2
tangents of the parabola y2 = 4x and + = 1. The (d) ay = bx − a 4 − a2b2 + b 4
4 b2
equation of another common tangent of these curves is 45. Maximum length of the chord of the ellipse
(a) x + 2y + 4 = 0 (b) x + 2y – 4 = 0
(c) x + 2y + 2 = 0 (d) x + 2y – 2 = 0 x2 y2
+ = 1, such that eccentric angles of its extremities
a 2 b2
x2 y2
40. Tangent drawn to the ellipse + = 1 at the p
36 9 differ by is (a > b)
2
point ‘P’ meets the y-axis at A and normal drawn to
the ellipse at point ‘P’ meets the x-axis at B. If area of (a) a 2 (b) b 2
27 (c) ab 2 (d) None of these
triangle OAB is sq. units, then eccentric angle of
4 46. Consider an ellipse having its axes along the
point ‘P’ is coordinate axes and passing through the point (4, –1).

54 mathematics today | February‘17


If the line x + 4y – 10 = 0 is one of its tangent, then area 2. (a) : Let the aribitrary point be (a, 4 – a), then
of the ellipse is equal to equation of corresponding chord of contact is,
(a) 20 p sq. units (b) 30 p sq. units x · a + 2y (4 – a) = 4
(c) 15 p sq. units (d) 10 p sq. units ⇒ a(x – 2y) + 8y – 4 = 0
It is indeed a family of concurrent lines. The point of
47. S1 and S2 are the foci of an ellipse. ‘B’ be one of
concurrency being the intersection point of the lines
the extremity of its minor axis. If triangle S1S2B is right
x – 2y = 0 and 8y – 4 = 0
angled then eccentricity of the ellipse is equal to
 1
3 1 \ Required point is 1, 
(a) (b)  2
2 2
2b2 1 b2 1 ...(i) (Given)
3 3. (d) : = ⇒ =
(c) (d) None of these a 2 a 4
2
48. If the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a b2 1
e = 1− = ...(ii)
2 2
x2 y2 a
point P on the ellipse + = 1 touches the circles
a 2 b2 1 2 1
From (i) and (ii), we get, a = , b =
x2 + y2 = c2, then locus of P is 3 12
x2 y2 a2 x2 y2 b4 x2 y2
(a) + = (b) + = \ Equation of ellipse is + =1
a2 b2 c4 1 1
a2 b2 c2
9 12
x2 y2 i.e., 9x2 + 12y2 = 1
1 x2 y2 a4
(c) + = (d) + =
a4 b4 c2 a 2 b2 c 4 2 2
49. The point on the ellipse 4x2 + 9y2 = 1 such that 4. (d) : Given ellipse is, x + y = 1
4 3
tangent drawn to the ellipse at this point is perpendicular and line is y = x – 1
to the line 8x – 9y = 0, is Let the point of contact be (2 cosq, 3 sinq).
 27 16   27 16  x y
(a)  ,−  (b)  − , \ Equation of tangent becomes cos q + sin q = 1
 2 985 3 985   2 985 2 985  2 3
cos q sin q
 27 16  ⇒ = =1
(c)  , (d) None of these 2 − 3
 2 985 3 985 
⇒ cosq = 2, sinq = – 3
x2 y2 which is not possible. Thus, the given line can’t be a
50. Tangents drawn to the ellipse + = 1, from
16 9 tangent to the given ellipse.
the point ‘P’, meets the coordinate axes at concyclic
points, then locus of point ‘P ’ is 2 2
5. (b) : Given ellipse is, x + y = 1
(a) x2 + y2 = 7 (b) x2 – y2 = 7 9 4
2 2
(c) x + y = 25 (d) x2 – y2 = 25 Let the foot of normal be (3 cosq, 2 sinq)
Equation of normal at this point is,
solutions
3x 2y
1. (b) : If the point of contact is P(a cosq, b sinq), − =5
cos q sin q
x y
then equation of tangent cos q + sin q = 1 3
a b Slope = tanq = – 2
and given line y = mx + c will be identical. 2
4
Comparing the coefficients, we get ⇒ tanq = –
3
cos q sin q 1 4 3
= =− or sin q = , cos q = −
am −b c 5 5
am b  9 8
⇒ cos q = − , sin q = ⇒ a2m2 + b2 = c2 Thus foot of normal be  − ,  .
c c  5 5

mathematics today | February‘17 55


6. (c) : Let P ≡ (a cosq, b sinq)
xh yk h2 k2
x y i.e., + = +
\ Equation of tangent is cos q + sin q = 1 a2 b2 b2 a2
a b
 h2 k 2 
⇒ A ≡ (a secq, 0), B ≡ (0, b cosecq)  2+ 2
If the mid-point of segment AB be Q(h, k), then h k a b  b2
2h = a secq, 2k = b cosecq ⇒ =− =− ⇒ k =− ⋅h
2a2 b2 c 2a2
a2 b2 b2
⇒ + =1 Thus the required locus is y = − x or 2a2y + b2x = 0
4h 2 4 k 2 2a2
a 2 b2
\ Locus of Q is + =4 11. (c) : Let A ≡ (1, 0), B ≡ (–1, 12 )
x2 y2 \ Given expression is, PA + PB = a
7. (a) : Let P ≡ (a cosq, b sinq)
Here, AB = 4 + 12 = 4
ax by
\ Equation of normal is − = a 2 − b2 Thus P(x, y) will lie on an ellipse having foci as
cos q sin q A and B, provided a > 4
 a 2 − b2   a 2 − b2  12. (d) : Clearly, 6 – a > 0, a – 2 > 0
⇒ A≡ cos q, 0  and B ≡  0, sin q  and 6 – a ≠ a – 2
 a   b 
⇒ a ∈ (2, 6) ~ {4}
If (h, k) be the mid-point of segment AB, then
x2 y2
2 2 2 2 13. (b) : Equation of the ellipse is + =1
a −b a −b 25 16
2h = cos q, 2k = sin q
a b 16 9 3
⇒ e2 = 1 −= ⇒ e=
⇒ 4h2a2 + 4k2b2 = (a2 – b2)2 25 25 5
Thus, locus of the point is  3   3 
Thus, foci are  5 ⋅ , 0  and  −5 ⋅ , 0 
4a2x2 + 4b2y2 = (a2 – b2)2  5   5 
i.e. (± 3, 0)
8. (d) : Let the point of contact be P(a cosq, b sinq).
x y 14. (d) : If P(x, y) be any point on the ellipse, then
Then equation of tangent is cos q + sin q = 1
a b PS = e · PM, where PM is perpendicular distance of
cos q sin q 1 P from directrix.
Thus on comparing, = =− 2
am −b c 1 x + y −2
⇒ (x − 1)2 + y 2 =  
am b 2 2 
⇒ cos q = − , sin q =
c c Thus required equation is 3x2 + 3y2 – 2xy – 4x + 4y = 0
 a 2 m b2 
Thus the point of contact is  − ,  15. (a) : Given equation can be rewritten as
 c c 
 x + y −5
2
x − y +7
2

9. (a) : Let the foot of normal be P(a cosq, b sinq)    


2 2 
ax by + =1
Equation of normal at P is − = a 2 − b2 1 3/2
m cos q sin q c cos q sin q It is clearly an ellipse whose major and minor axes are
\ = = along the lines
a b (b − a2 )
2
x – y + 7 = 0 and x + y – 5 = 0
ac bc Thus, centre of this ellipse is the intersection point of
⇒ cos q = , sin q = these lines i.e., the point (–1, 6)
2 2
m(b − a ) (b − a2 )
2
16. (b) : OS1 = ae = 6, OC = b (say), CS1 = a
 a2 c b2 c  1
Thus the foot of normal is  ,  DOCS = ⋅ (OS1 )(OC ) = 3b
 m(b2 − a2 ) (b2 − a2 )  1 2
Semi perimeter of triangle OCS1
10. (d) : Let the mid-point of chord be P(h, k). Equation
1 1
of this chord will be T = S1 = (OS1 + OC + CS1) = (6 + a + b)
2 2

56 mathematics today | February‘17


Now, inradius of triangle OCS1 2 2
2 1 2 1
3b x 1 +  y 1 + 
= = 1 (given)  e  e
1 + =1
(6 + a + b) a2e 2 (1 + e)2 b2 e 2
2
⇒ 5b = 6 + a which is clearly an ellipse.
Also b2 = a2 (1 – e2) = a2 – 36 20. (a) : S1 = (ae, 0), S2 = (–ae, 0)
Thus, 25b2 = 36 + a2 + 12a Let the tangent be
⇒ 25(a2 – 36) = 36 + a2 + 12a xb cosq + ay sinq – ab = 0
13 5
⇒ 2a2 – a – 78 = 0 ⇒ a = , b = S1P1 =
| abe cos q − ab |
2 2
65p b2 cos2 q + a2 sin2 q
Hence, area of ellipse = pab = sq. units.
4 ab(1 − e cos q)
⇒ S1P1 =
17. (a) : Equation of normal at P(q) is,
b2 cos2 q + a2 sin2 q
4x 3y
− =7 ab(1 + e cos q)
cos q sin q Similarly, S2P2 =
Since it passes through the point Q(2q), thus b cos2 q + a2 sin2 q
2

16 ⋅ cos 2q 9 ⋅ sin 2q a2b2 (1 − e 2 cos2 q)


− =7 ⇒ S1P1·S2P2 =
cos q sin q
b2 cos2 q + a2 sin2 q
16(2 cos2 q − 1)
⇒ − 18 cos q = 7 a2b2 (1 − e 2 cos2 q) a2b2 (1 − e 2 cos2 q)
cos q =
2 2 2 2
= = b2
a + (b − a )cos q 2 2 2 2
a − a e cos q
⇒ 23 cos2q – 7 cosq – 16 = 0
which is clearly a constant
16
⇒ cosq = – [  as cosq ≠ 1] Thus, (S1P1) (S2P2) = b2
23
18. (d) : In this case, base S1S2 is fixed and PS1 + PS2 is 21. (d) : Let the equation of ellipse having centre
fixed. Hence area will be maximum when PS1 = PS2 (x − 1)2 ( y − 2)2
1 (1, 2) be =1 +
\ Maximum area = (2ae)b = abe sq. units. a2 b2
2
We have, ae = 5 ⇒ a2e2 = 25
19. (d) : Here, S1S2 = 2ae,
9 16
PS1 + PS2 = 2a Also, + =1
2
If the normal to ellipse at P, meets the x-axis at Q, a b2
then incentre of DPS1S2 will lie on segment PQ and Now, b2 = a2(1 – e2) = a2 – 25
PS + PS2 1 9 16
will divide it in the ratio 1 i.e., ⇒ + = 1 ⇒ a4 – 50a2 + 225 = 0
Let P ≡ (a cosq, b sinq) S S
1 2 e a 2 2
a − 25
Equation of normal at ‘P’ is ⇒ a2 = 5, 45
ax by But a2 = 5 is clearly rejected
− = a 2 − b2 = a 2 e 2
cos q sin q \ a2 = 45 ⇒ b2 = 20
⇒ Q ≡ (ae2 cosq , 0) (x − 1)2 ( y − 2)2
Thus, required equation is + =1
Let R(h, k) be the incenter, then 45 20
a cos q ⋅ e + ae 2 cos q b sin q ⋅ e + 0 ⋅1 22. (d) : Tangent to the ellipse is
h= , k=
1 1
1+ 1+ 5m2 5
e e y = mx ± +
3 2
 1  1 5m2 5
⇒ h 1 +  = (ae + ae 2 ) cos q and be ⋅ sin q = k 1 +  If it passes through P(1, 2), then (2 – m)2 = +
 e  e 3 2
⇒ 4m2 + 24m – 9 = 0
Thus locus of R is If it’s roots are m1 and m2 then

mathematics today | February‘17 57


9 2a 1
m1 + m2 = – 6, m1m2 = – We have, y = − x+
4 1 − a2 1 − a2
⇒ | m1 − m2 | = 36 + 9 = 3 5 2 2 2
Comparing it with y = mx ± A m + B , we get
2a
m1 − m2 3 5 12 m=−
\ tan q = = = 1 − a2
1 + m1m2 9 5
1− 1
4 A2m2 + B2 =
 12  1 − a2
⇒ q = tan −1 
 5  4a 2 1
⇒ A2 ⋅ + B2 =
2
23. (c) : Equation of normal at point ‘q’ is 1− a 1 − a2
5x 3y
− = 16 a 2 ( 4 A2 − B 2 ) + B 2 1 1
cos q sin q ⇒ = ⇒ A2 =
2 2 4
1− a 1− a
On comparing with 5x – 3y = 8 2, we get
If ‘e’ be the eccentricity of the ellipse, then
1 p
⇒ cos q = sin q = ⇒ q= A2 = B2(1 – e2)
2 4
1 3
24. (c) : Let the point ‘P’ be ( 6 cos q, 2 sin q) ⇒ 1 − e2 = ⇒ e=
4 2
A.T.Q.
28. (d) : Any normal to the ellipse is
6 cos2q + 2 sin2q = 4
1 5x 2y
⇒ 6 – 4 sin2q = 4 ⇒ sin2q = − =1
2 cos q sin q
p
⇒ q = ( q lies in first quadrant) sin q
4 i.e., y = x . 5 tanq – ...(i)
2 2
25. (b) : Equation of tangent at point ‘q’ is, 2
Since (i) is tangent to y = 4x
x 11 1
cos q + y sin q = 1 \ y = mx +
4 16 m
It will touch the given circle, if
5 1 sin q
cos q ⇒ m= tan q, = −
−1 2 m 2
4
=4
5 sin2 q 1
cos2 q 11sin2 q ⇒ ⋅ = −1 ⇒ cos q = − , and cos q = 5
+ 4 cos q 5
16 256
2
⇒ 4 cos q + 8 cosq – 5 = 0  1   1 
⇒ q = p − cos −1   or p + cos −1 
1  5  5 
⇒ cos q = ⇒ q = p , 5p
2 3 3 29. (a) : Let line AB be bx cosq + ay sinq – ab = 0
26. (c) : The given distance is clearly the length of semi Now, combined equation of lines OA and OB is
major axis 2
x y 
x2 + y2 = a2  a cos q + b sin q 
a2 + 2b2
Thus, =a
2  a2  a
⇒ 2b2 = a2 ⇒ 2a2 (1 – e2) = a2 i.e., x2 · sin2q + y2 1 − sin2 q  − sin 2q · xy = 0
 b2  b
1 1
⇒ e2 = ⇒ e = Since the lines OA and OB are mutually
2 2 perpendicular, hence
x2 y2 a2
27. (a) : Let the equation of ellipse be + =1 sin2 q + 1 − sin2 q = 0
2 2
A B b 2

58 mathematics today | February‘17


 a2  32. (c) : If the point of intersection be R(h, k), then
 1 
⇒ sin q  − 1 = 1 ⇒ sin2 q 
2
− 1 = 1 q +q  q +q 
b 2
 1 − e 2  a cos  1 2  b sin  1 2 
 2   2 
h= , k=
⇒ e2 · sin2q = 1 – e2 ⇒ e2 (1 + sin2q ) = 1 q −q  q −q 
cos  1 2  cos  1 2 
30. (a) : Let the extremities of the focal chord be  2   2 
P1(q1) and P2(q2). q +q 
q +q 
Equation of chord P1P2 is a cos  1 2  b sin  1 2 
 2   2 
x q +q  y q +q  q −q  ⇒ h= , k=
cos  1 2  + sin  1 2  = cos  1 2  1 1
a  2  b  2   2 
2 2
It shou ld p ass t hroug h (ae, 0) and its slop e
should be tan q h2 k2
Thus, + =4
q +q  q −q  a2 b2
⇒ e cos  1 2  = cos  1 2 
 2   2  x2 y2
Hence, locus is, + =4
b q +q 
and − cot  1 2  = tan q a2 b2
a  2 
33. (d) : Let P ≡ (a cosq, b sinq)
q +q  a tan q ⇒ P1 ≡ (a cosq, 0), P2 ≡ (0, b sinq)
⇒ cot  1 2  = −
 2  b x y
Now, P1P2 = P1S1 + P2S1 Thus, equation of line P1P2 is + =1
a cos q b sin q
= a – ea cosq1 + a– ea cosq2 x /a y /b
⇒ − =1
= 2a – ea(cosq1 + cosq2) cos(−q) sin(−q)
q +q  q −q  which is clearly a normal to the ellipse of the form
= 2a – 2ae cos  1 2  cos  1 2 
 2   2  x2 y2 A λ B λ
+ = 1 where, = and =
q +q  2 2 2 2 a 2 2 b
= 2a – 2ae2 cos2  1 2  A B A −B A −B
 2 
If a > b, then B > A
 2 2  Let the eccentricity of the second ellipse be e1
= 2a – 2ae2 ·  a tan q 
 a2 tan2 q + b2  A2 b2
⇒ 1 − e12 = = = 1 − e 2 ⇒ e1 = e
3 2 2 2 2
2a e sin q B a
= 2a −
a2 sin2 q + b2 cos2 q  b2 
34. (a) : Equation of normal at  ae,  is
2a sin2 q(1 − e 2 ) + 2ab2 cos2 q
3
 a 
= a(x − ae)
a2 sin2 q + b2 cos2 q = (ay – b2)
e
2ab2 sin2 q + 2ab2 cos2 q 2ab2
= = It should pass through (0, – b)
a2 sin2 q + b2 cos2 q a2 sin2 q + b2 cos2 q
a(0 − ae)
⇒ = – a2 – b2
31. (a) : Let the foot of normal is (a cosq, b sinq), e
ax by b2 b
then − = a 2 − b2 ⇒ a2 = ab + b2 ⇒ 2 + − 1 = 0
cos q sin q a a
and the given lines will be identical,
b −1 + 5 b2 3 − 5
m cos q sin q c ⇒ = ⇒ = = 1 − e2
Thus, = = a 2 a 2 2
a b (b − a2 )
2
ac bc 5 −1 5 −1
⇒ cos q =
2 2
, sin q = ⇒ e2 = ⇒ e=
m(b − a ) (b − a2 )
2
2 2
1
a2 (b2 − a2 )2 35. (c) : Tangent for y2 = 4x is y = mx +
⇒ + b2 = m
m2 c2

mathematics today | February‘17 59


x2 y2 9 16
and for + = 1 is y = mx ± 8m2 + 2 Distance of P from AB = 5 – =
8 2 5 5
For common tangents we must have
1 32 16 256
1 1 Thus, area of D = ⋅ ⋅ = sq. units
= ± 8m2 + 2 ⇒ m = ± PAB 2 5 5 25
m 2 39. (a) : Other common tangent will clearly be the
Thus, common tangents are
reflection of x – 2y + 4 = 0 in the x-axis.
x x
y = + 2 and y = − − 2 Thus other common tangent will be x + 2y + 4 = 0
2 2
40. (c) : Let the eccentric angle of point ‘P’ be q,
i.e. 2y – x – 4 = 0 and 2y + x + 4 = 0
then equation of tangent and normal at point are
36. (c) : Any normal to the ellipse is respectively
5x 4y x y 6x 3y
− = 9 i.e., 5 secq x – 4 cosecq y – 9 = 0 cos q + sin q = 1 and − = 27
cos q sin q 6 3 cos q sin q
9
\ L=  3   27 
25 sec q + 16 cosec2q
2 Thus, A ≡  0,  and B ≡  cos q, 0 
 sin q  6 
9
= 1 3 27 27
Area of DOAB = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ cos q = (given)
25(1 + tan q) + 16(1 + cot 2 q)
2
2 sin q 6 4
9 p 5p
= ⇒ cotq = 1 ⇒ q = ,
25 tan q + 16 cot 2 q + 41
2 4 4
25 tan2 q + 16 cot 2 q 41. (c) : Let P ≡ (2 cosq, sinq)
Now, ≥ 20 x
2 Equation of tangent at ‘P’ is cosq + y sinq = 1
⇒ 25 tan2q + 16 cot2q + 41 ≥ 81 ⇒ A ≡ (2 secq, 0) 2
9 2x y
⇒ ≤1 ⇒ L ≤ 1 Equation of normal at ‘P’ is − =3
cos q sin q
25 tan q + 16 cot 2 q + 41
2
3 
⇒ B ≡  cos q, 0 
\ Maximum value of L is 1. 2 
3
37. (a) : Clearly, the tangents have been drawn by Now, AB = | 2 secq – cosq | = 2 (given)
taking any point on the director circle of the ellipse. 2
Any point on the director circle can be taken as ⇒ |4 – 3 cos2q| = 4 |cosq| ⇒ 3 cos2q ± 4 cosq – 4 = 0
2 2
( 13 cos q, 13 sin q). ⇒ cosq = , −
3 3
Equation of corresponding chord of contact is
42. (a) : Equation of chord is
13 13
.cos q.x + sin q y = 1 x q +q  y q +q  q −q 
9 4 cos  1 2  + sin  1 2  = cos  1 2 
a  2  b  2   2 
1
\ Distance from the origin =   q1 − q2  
13 2 13  a cos  2  
cos q + sin2 q
81 16 ⇒ A≡ , 0
36 36 9   q1 + q2  
= = =  cos  2  
1053 − 845 cos2 q 208 13
Since OA = c, therefore,
38. (b) : Equation of AB is T = 0, q −q  q +q 
5y 9 a cos  1 2  = c.cos  1 2 
i.e. =1 ⇒ y =  2   2 
9 5 q1 q2 q q
9 ⇒ cos .cos (a − c) = sin 1 .sin 2 (−c − a)
Putting y = in the equation of ellipse, we get 2 2 2 2
5
q q c−a
x2 81 16 32 ⇒ tan 1 . tan 2 =
+ = 1 ⇒ x = ± . Thus, AB = 2 2 c+a
16 25 ⋅ 9 5 5

60 mathematics today | February‘17


mathematics today | February‘17 61
43. (b) : Equation of tangent at point Thus, OS1 = OB = OS2 ⇒ ae = b ⇒ a2e2
x y = a2 – a2 e2
( 18 cos q, 32 sin q) , is cos q + sin q = 1
1
18 32 1
⇒ e2 = ⇒ e=
32 4 2 2
Its slope = – . cotq = – (given)
18 3 48. (c) : Let P ≡ (h, k)
⇒ cotq = 1 xh yk
Equation of chord of contact is + =1
Also, A ≡ ( 18 sec q, 0), B ≡ (0, 32 cosec q ) a 2
b2
1 i.e., xb2h + ya2k – a2b2 = 0
⇒ DOAB = 3 2 sec q ⋅ 4 2cosec q It will touch the circle x2 + y2 = c2 , if
2
= 12 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 24 sq. units a 2 b2
=c
x2 y2 b 4 h2 + a 4 k 2
44. (a) : Any tangent to + = 1 is,
a 2 + b2 b2 Hence, locus of point ‘P ’ is

y = mx ± (a2 + b2 )m2 + b2 a 4b 4 x2 y2 1
b4 x2 + a4y2 = i.e., + =
4 4
It will also be a tangent to second ellipse if c 2 a b c2
a2m2 + (a2 + b2) = (a2 + b2) m2 + b2 9
49. (c) : Slope of tangent must be –
.
a 8
⇒ b2m2 = a2 ⇒ m = ± Slope of tangent at any point P(q) on the ellipse
b
Thus common tangents are x2 y2
+ = 1 is − b cot q
2 2 2
a a a b a
y=± x ± (a2 + b2 ) ⋅ + b2
b b2 9 2 16
Thus, − = − cot q ⇒ tan q =
8 3 27
i.e., by = ± ax ± a 4 + b 4 + a2b2
27 16
45. (a) : Let the extremities of the chord be ⇒ cos q = − , sin q =
P1 ≡ (a cosq, b sinq) and P2 ≡ (–a sinq, b cosq) 985 985
Now, P1P22 = a2 (cosq + sinq)2 + b2(sinq – cosq)2 27 16
or cos q = − , sin q = −
= a2 + b2 + (a2 – b2)2sinqcosq 985 985
≤ a2 + b2 + a2 – b2 = 2a2 Thus, required point is
⇒ P 1P 2 ≤ a 2  27 16   27 16 
2 2  ,  or  − ,− 
x y 2 985 3 985  2 985 3 985 
46. (d) : Let the ellipse be =1+
2
a b2 50. (b) : Let P ≡ (h, k)
If the line y = mx + c be its tangent, then Any tangent to the ellipse is
c2 = a2m2 + b2
Tangent is given to be x + 4y – 10 = 0 y = mx ± 16m2 + 9
m 1 c 1 5 25 a2 If it passes through ‘P’, then
⇒ =− = ⇒m= − ,c = \ = + b2
1 4 −10 4 2 4 16 (k – mh)2 = 16m2 + 9
⇒ m2(h2 – 16) – 2mhk + (k2 – 9) = 0
⇒ a2 + 16b2 = 100
We also have P(4, –1) to be a point on the ellipse, If its roots are m1 and m2, then
16 1 k2 − 9
\ + =1 m1m2 =
a 2 b2 h2 − 16
⇒ a2 + 16b2 = a2b2 ⇒ a2b2 = 100 ⇒ ab = 10 Since, the drawn tangents meet the coordinate axes at
\ Area of ellipse = pab = 10p sq. units concyclic points, thus,
47. (b) : If ‘O’ be the center of ellipse then for triangle m1m2 = 1 ⇒ k2 – 9 = h2 – 16
S1S2B to be right angled, we must have Hence required locus is,
p x2 – y2 = 7.
∠OBS1 = ∠OBS2 = . 
4

62 mathematics today | February‘17


on
Conic Sections *ALOK KUMAR, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur
important facts and formulae
z The area of the triangle inscribed in the parabola z Tangents at the extremities of any focal chord of a
1 parabola meet at right angle on the directrix.
y2 = 4ax is |( y − y )( y − y3)( y3 − y1)|, where
8a 1 2 2 z Area of the triangle formed by three points on a
y1, y2, y3 are the ordinates of the vertices. parabola is twice the area of the triangle formed by
z The length of the side of an equilateral triangle the tangents at these points.
inscribed in the parabola y2 = 4ax is 8a 3. (one z If the tangents at the points P and Q on a parabola
angular point is at the vertex). meet in T, then ST is the geometric mean between
SP and SQ, i.e., ST2 = SP·SQ
z y2 = 4a(x + a) is the equation of the parabola whose
z Tangent at one extremity of the focal chord of
focus is the origin and the axis is x-axis.
a parabola is parallel to the normal at the other
z y2 = 4a(x – a) is the equation of parabola whose axis extremity.
is x-axis and y-axis is directrix.
z The angle of intersection of two parabolas y2 = 4ax
z x2 = 4a(y + a) is the equation of parabola whose
focus is the origin and the axis is y-axis. 3a1/3b1/3
and x2 = 4by is given by tan −1 .
z x2 = 4a(y – a) is the equation of parabola whose axis 2(a2/3 + b2/3)
is y-axis and the x-axis is directrix. z The equation of the common tangent to the parabolas
z The equation of the parabola whose vertex and focus 1 1 2 2
are on x-axis at a distance a and a′ respectively from y2 = 4ax and x2 = 4by is a x + b y + a 3b 3
3 3 =0.
the origin is y2 = 4(a′ – a)(x – a).
z The line lx + my + n = 0 is a normal to the parabola
z The equation of the parabola whose axis is parallel y2 = 4ax, if al(l2 + 2m2) + m2n = 0.
to x-axis is x = Ay2 + By + C and y = Ax2 + Bx + C is
z If the normals at points (at12, 2at1) and (at22, 2at2)
a parabola with its axis parallel to y-axis.
on the parabola y2 = 4ax meet on the parabola,
z If the straight line lx + my + n = 0 touches the then t1t2 = 2.
parabola y2 = 4ax, then ln = am2. z If the normal at a point P(at2, 2at) to the parabola
z If the line xcosa + ysina = p touches the parabola y2 = 4ax subtends a right angle at the vertex of the
y2 = 4ax then pcosa + asin2a = 0 and point of parabola then t2 = 2.
contact is (atan2a, –2atana). z If the normal to a parabola y2 = 4ax, makes an angle
x y f with the axis, then it will cut the curve again at an
z If the line + = 1 touches the parabola
l m 1 
angle tan −1  tan f  .
y2 = 4a(x + b), then m2(l + b) + al2 = 0. 2 
z If the two parabolas y2 = 4x and x2 = 4y intersect at z If the normal at two points P and Q of a parabola
point P, whose absiccae is not zero, then the tangent y2 = 4ax intersect at a third point R on the curve.
to each curve at P, make complementary angle with Then the product of the ordinate of P and Q is
the x-axis. 8a2.
* Alok Kumar is a winner of INDIAN NATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD (INMO-91).
He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

mathematics today | FEBRUARY ‘17 63


z The chord of contact joining the point of contact of z The line xcosa + ysina = p touches the ellipse
two perpendicular tangents always passes through x2 y2
focus. + = 1 , if a2cos2a + b2sin2a = p2 and that
a 2 b2
z If tangents are drawn (at12 , 2at1) Q
 2 2 
from the point (x1, y1) point of contact is  a cos a , b sin a  .
to the parabola y2 = 4ax, (x1, y1)P  p p 
then the length of their z A circle of radius r is concentric with the ellipse
chord of contact is (at22 , 2at2)R
x2 y2
1 + = 1 , then the common tangent is inclined
( y12 − 4ax1)( y12 + 4a2 ) a 2 b2
|a |  r 2 − b2 
z The area of the triangle formed by the tangents to the major axis at an angle tan −1  2 2  .
a −r 
drawn from (x1, y1) to y2 = 4ax and their chord of
The locus of the foot of the perpendicular
( y12 − 4ax1)3/2
z
contact is . drawn from centre upon any tangent to the ellipse
2a
x2 y2
z If one extremity of a focal chord is (at12, 2at1), then + = 1 is (x2 + y2)2 = a2 x2 + b2y2 or r2 =
a 2 b2
 a −2a 
the other extremity (at22, 2at2) becomes  , a2cos2q + b2sin2q. (In terms of polar coordinates)

 t12 t1  z The locus of the mid points of the portion of the
by virtue of relation t1t2 = –1 and length of chord x2y2
2 tangents to the ellipse + = 1 intercepted
 1 a 2 b2
= a t +  .
 t between the axes is a2y2 + b2x2 = 4x2y2.
z The length of the chord joining two points 't1' and 't2' x2 y2
z If y = mx + c is the normal to the ellipse + = 1,
a 2 b2
on the parabola y2 = 4ax is a(t1 − t2 ) (t1 + t2 )2 + 4
The length of intercept made by line y = mx + c between m2(a2 − b2 )2
z then condition of normality is c 2 = 2 2 2 .
4 (a + b m )
the parabola y2 = 4ax is a(1 + m2 )(a − mc) .
m2 z The straight line lx + my + n = 0 is a normal to the
Locus of mid-points of all chords which is inscribed a x2 y2 2 2 2 2 2
if a + b = (a − b ) .
z
ellipse + = 1,
right angle on the vertices of parabola is parabola. a 2 b2 l 2 m2 n2
z The focal chord of parabola y2 = 4ax making an z Four normals can be drawn from a point to an
angle a with the x-axis is of length 4acosec2a and ellipse.
perpendicular on it from the vertex is asina. z If S be the focus Y Normal
z The length of a focal chord of a parabola varies and G be the point P(x1, y1)
inversely as the square of its distance from the where the normal at X X
S C G S T
vertex. P meets the axis of
z If l1 and l2 are the length of segments of a focal chord an el l ip s e, t he n
4l l SG = e. SP, and the Y
of a parabola, then its latus-rectum is 1 2 .
l1 + l2 tangent and normal at P bisect the external and
internal angles between the focal distances of P.
z The semi-latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax is
z Any point P of an ellipse is joined to the extremities
the harmonic mean between the segments of any of the major axis then the portion of a directrix
focal chord of the parabola. intercepted by them subtends a right angle at the
corresponding focus.
z The straight line lx + my + n = 0 touches the ellipse
z The equations to the normals at the end of the latus
x2 y2 rectum and that each passes through an end of the
+ 2 = 1 , if a2l2 + b2m2 = n2.
a2 b minor axis, if e4 + e2 – 1 = 0.

64 mathematics today | FEBRUARY‘17


The area of the triangle formed by the three points, on
y2 x2
z

xy 2 2 z The feet of the normals to − = 1 from (h, k)


the ellipse + 2 = 1 , whose eccentric angles are q, a 2 b2
2
a b lie on a2y(x – h) + b2x(y – k) = 0.
f − y y −q q−f
f and y is 2absin  sin  sin  x2 y2

 2   2    2  z The length of chord cut off by hyperbola 2 − 2 = 1
a b
z If the point of intersection of the ellipses from the line y = mx + c is
x2 y2 x2 y2
+ = 1 and + = 1 be at the extremities 2ab [c 2 − (a2m2 − b2 )](1 + m2 )
a 2 b2 a 2 b2 .
of the conjugate diameters of the former, then (b2 − a2m2 )
a2 b2 z If the chord joining two points (asecq1, btanq1)
+ =2.
a 2 b2 (asecq2, btanq2) passes through the focus of the
The sum of the squares of the reciprocal of two x2 y2 q q 1− e
z hyperbola − = 1 , then tan 1 tan 2 = .
perpendicular diameters of an ellipse is constant. a 2
b 2 2 2 1+ e
z In an ellipse, the major axis bisects all chords z If the polars of (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) with respect
parallel to the minor axis and vice-versa, therefore
major and minor axes of an ellipse are conjugate x2 y2
to the hyperbola − = 1 are at right angles,
diameters of the ellipse but they do not satisfy a 2 b2
the condition m1 · m2 = –b2/a2 and are the only
x1x2 a 4
perpendicular conjugate diameters. then + =0.
y1 y2 b 4
z The foci of a hyperbola and its conjugate are con-
cyclic. z The parallelogram formed by the tangents at the
z Two tangents can be drawn from an outside point extremities of conjugate diameters of a hyperbola
to a hyperbola. has its vertices lying on the asymptotes and is of
z If the straight line lx + my + n = 0 touches the constant area.
x2 y2 z The product of length of perpendiculars drawn
hyperbola − = 1 , then a2l2 – b2m2 = n2.
a 2 b2 x2 y2
from any point on the hyperbola − = 1 to
z If t h e s t r ai g ht l i n e x c o s a + y s i n a = p a 2 b2
x2 y2 a2b2
the asymptotes is .
tou che s t he hy p e r b ol as − 2 = 1 , t he n
2 a 2 + b2
a b
a2 cos2 a − b2 sin2 a = p2 .
 c
z If the line lx + my + n = 0 will be z If the normal at  ct ,  on the curve xy = c2 meets
 t
x2 y2 1
normal to the hyperbola − = 1 , then the curve again in 't', then t ′ = − 3 .
a 2 b2 t
a2 b2 (a2 + b2 )2
− = A triangle has its vertices on a rectangular hyperbola;
l 2 m2 n2
z
then the orthocentre of the triangle also lies on the
z In general, four normals can be drawn to a
same hyperbola.
hyperbola from any point. z All conics passing through the intersection of two
z If a, b, g are the eccentric angles of three points on rectangular hyperbolas are themselves rectangular
x2
y2 hyperbolas.
the hyperbola − = 1 , the normals at which An infinite number of triangles can be inscribed in
a 2 b2
z

are concurrent, then the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 whose all sides


sin(a + b) + sin(b + g) + sin(g + a) = 0 touch the parabola y2 = 4ax.

mathematics today | FEBRUARY ‘17 65


proBlems (a) x2 + y2 = a2 – b2 (b) x2 – y2 = a2 – b2
Single Correct Answer Type (c) x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 (d) x2 – y2 = a2 + b2
2 2
1. The equation of the common tangent of the 10. If the eccentricity of the two ellipse x + y = 1
parabolas x2 = 108y and y2 = 32x, is 2 2 169 25
(a) 2x + 3y = 36 (b) 2x + 3y + 36 = 0 and x + y = 1 are equal, then the value of a/b is
(c) 3x + 2y = 36 (d) 3x + 2y + 36 = 0 a 2 b2
2. The line xcosa + ysina = p will touch the parabola (a) 5/13 (b) 6/13 (c) 13/5 (d) 13/6
y2 = 4a(x + a), if 11. The eccentricity of the curve represented by the
(a) pcosa + a = 0 (b) pcosa – a = 0 equation x2 + 2y2 – 2x + 3y + 2 = 0 is
(c) acosa + p = 0 (d) acosa – p = 0 (a) 0 (b) 1/2 (c) 1 / 2 (d) 2
3. The angle of intersection between the curves
12. The equation of the hyperbola whose conjugate
y2 = 4x and x2 = 32y at point (16, 8), is
axis is 5 and the distance between the foci is 13, is
3 4
(a) tan −1   (b) tan −1   (a) 25x2 – 144y2 = 900 (b) 144x2 – 25y2 = 900
5  5
p (c) 144x2 + 25y2 = 900 (d) 25x2 + 144y2 = 900
(c) p (d)
2 13. The vertices of a hyperbola are at (0, 0) and
4. If y1, y2 are the ordinates of two points P and Q
(10, 0) and one of its foci is at (18, 0). The equation of
on the parabola and y3 is the ordinate of the point of
the hyperbola is
intersection of tangents at P and Q, then
(a) y1, y2, y3 are in A.P. (b) y1, y3, y2 are in A.P. (a) x2 y2 2 2
(b) (x − 5) − y = 1
− =1
(c) y1, y2, y3 are in G.P. 25 144 25 144
(d) y1, y3, y2 are in G.P.
(c) x 2 ( y − 5)2 2 2
(d) (x − 5) − ( y − 5) = 1
5. The equation of the common tangent touching the − =1
25 144 25 144
circle (x – 3)2 + y2 = 9 and the parabola y2 = 4x above 14. The equation of the hyperbola whose foci are (6, 4)
the x-axis, is and (–4, 4) and eccentricity 2 is given by
(a) 3 y = 3x + 1 (b) 3 y = −(x + 3) (a) 12x 2 − 4 y 2 − 24x + 32 y − 127 = 0
(c) 3y = x + 3 (d) 3 y = −(3x + 1) (b) 12x 2 + 4 y 2 + 24x − 32 y − 127 = 0
6. The angle between the tangents drawn from the (c) 12x 2 − 4 y 2 − 24x − 32 y + 127 = 0
points (1,4) to the parabola y2 = 4x is
p p p (d) 12x 2 − 4 y 2 + 24x + 32 y + 127 = 0
p
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 3 4 6 15. The latus rectum of the hyperbola 9x2 – 16y2 + 72x
7. Let a circle tangent to the directrix of a parabola – 32y – 16 = 0 is
y2 =2ax has its centre coinciding with the focus of the 9 9 32 32
parabola. Then the point of intersection of the parabola (a) (b) − (c) (d) −
2 2 3 3
and circle is
16. If m1 and m2 are the slopes of the tangents to the
(a) (a, –a) (b) (a/2, a/2)
(c) (a/2, ± a) (d) (± a, a/2) x2 y2
hyperbola − = 1 which pass through the point
8. An ellipse passes through the point (–3, 1) and its 25 16
(6, 2), then
eccentricity is 2 The equation of the ellipse is
. 24 10
5 (a) m1 + m2 = (b) m1m2 =
(a) 3x 2 + 5 y 2 = 32 (b) 3x 2 + 5 y 2 = 25 11 11
48 11
(c) 3x 2 + y 2 = 4 (d) 3x 2 + y 2 = 9 (c) m1 + m2 = (d) m1m2 =
11 20
9. The locus of the point of intersection of 2 2
2 2 17. Let E be the ellipse x + y = 1 and C be the circle
perpendicular tangents to the ellipse x + y = 1 , is 9 4
a 2 b2 x2 + y2 = 9. Let P and Q be the points (1, 2) and (2, 1)

66 mathematics today | FEBRUARY‘17


respectively. Then Comprehension Type
(a) Q lies inside C but outside E Paragraph for Q. No. 24 to 26
(b) Q lies outside both C and E Consider the circles x2 + y2 = a2 and x2 + y2 = b2 where
(c) P lies inside both C and E b > a > 0. Let A(–a, 0), B(a, 0). A parabola passes
(d) P lies inside C but outside E through the points A, B and its directrix is a tangent
25 3 to x2 + y2 = b2. If the locus of focus of the parabola
18. The value of m, for which the line y = mx + , is a conic then
3
2 2
is a normal to the conic x − y = 1, is 24. The eccentricity of the conic is
16 9 (a) 2a/b (b) b/a (c) a/b (d) 1
2 3 25. The foci of the conic are
(a) 3 (b) − (c) − (d) 1
3 2 (a) (±2a, 0) (b) (0, ±a)
(c) (±a, 2a) (d) (±a, 0)
19. If q is the acute angle of intersection at a real point 26. Area of triangle formed by a latusrectum and the
of intersection of the circle x2 + y2 = 5 and the parabola lines joining the end points of the latusrectum and the
y2 = 4x then tanq is equal to centre of the conic is
1
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 3 (d) a 2 2
3 (a) (b − a ) (b) 2ab
b
20. The equation of the hyperbola in the standard form
(c) ab/2 (d) 4ab/3
(with transverse axis along the x-axis) having the length
of the latus rectum = 9 units and eccentricity = 5/4 is Paragraph for Q. No. 27 to 29
2 2
(a)
x y
(b) x2
y 2
x2 y2
− =1 − =1 P is any point of an ellipse + = 1. S and S′ are
16 18 36 27 a 2 b2
(c) x2 y2 (d) x2 y2 foci and e is the eccentricity of ellipse. ∠PSS′ = a and
− =1 − =1 ∠PS′S = b
64 36 36 64
x2 y2 a b
(e) 27. tan tan is equal to
− =1 2 2
16 9
2e 1+ e
21. The equations of the common tangents of the (a) (b)
curves x2 + 4y2 = 8 and y2 = 4x are 1− e 1− e
(a) x + 2y + 4 = 0 (b) x – 2y + 4 = 0 1− e 2e
(c) (d)
(c) 2x + y = 4 (d) 2x – y + 4 = 0 1+ e 1+ e
22. A straight line touches the rectangular hyperbola 28. Locus of incentre of triangle PSS′ is
9x2 – 9y2 = 8 and the parabola y2 = 32x. An equation of (a) an ellipse (b) hyperbola
the line is (c) parabola (c) circle
(a) 9x + 3y – 8 = 0 (b) 9x – 3y + 8 = 0
29. Eccentricity of conic, which is locus of incentre of
(c) 9x + 3y + 8 = 0 (d) 9x – 3y – 8 = 0
triangle PSS′
23. A hyperbola having the transverse axis of length
1 (a) e (b) 2e
unit is confocal with the ellipse 3x2 + 4y2 = 12, then
2 1+ e 1+ e
x2 y2 1
(a) Equation of the hyperbola is − = 2e e
15 1 16 (c) (d)
(b) Eccentricity of the hyperbola is 4 1− e 1− e
(c) Distance between the directrices of the hyperbola Paragraph for Q. No. 30 to 32
1 A point P moves such that sum of the slopes of the
is units
8 normals drawn from it to the hyperbola xy = 16 is
15
(d) Length of latus rectum of the hyperbola is equal to the sum of ordinates of feet of normals. The
units 2 locus of P is a curve C.

mathematics today | FEBRUARY ‘17 67


30. The equation of the curve C is 36. The equation of the curve on reflection of the
(a) x2 = 4y (b) x2 = 16y (x − 4)2 ( y − 3)2
2
(c) x = 12y (d) y2 = 8x ellipse + = 1 about the line x – y – 2 = 0
16 9
31. If the tangent to the curve C cuts the coordinate
is 16x2 + 9y2 + ax – 36y + b = 0 then the value of
axis in A and B, then the locus of the middle point of AB
a + b – 125 =
is
(a) x2 = 4y (b) x2 = 2y 37. The area of the quadrilateral formed by the
2
(c) x + 2y = 0 (d) x2 + 4y = 0 tangents at the end point of latus rectum to the ellipse
32. Area of the equilateral triangle inscribed in a curve x2 y2
+ = 1 is 3K. Then K is equal to
C having one vertex is the vertex of curve C. 9 5
(a) 772 3 sq. units (b) 776 3 sq. units 38. The equation of Asymptotes of xy + 2x + 4y + 6 = 0
is xy + 2x + 4y + C = 0, then C = ___
(c) 760 3 sq. units (d) 768 3 sq. units
39. If e is the eccentricity of the hyperbola (5x – 10)2 +
Matrix – Match Type 25e
33. Match the following (5y + 15)2 = (12x – 5y + 1)2 then is equal to
13
Consider the parabola y2 = 12x 40. If the angle between the asymptotes of hyperbola
Column I Column II x2 y2 π
2
− 2
= 1 is . Then the eccentricity of conjugate
a b 3
A. Tangent and normal at the P. (0, 0)
hyperbola is
extremities of the latus rectum
intersect the x-axis at T & G soLUtioNs
respectively. The coordinates of
1. (b) : S1 ≡ x2 – 108y = 0
middle point of T & G are
 x2 
B. Variable chords of the parabola Q. (3, 0) T ≡ xx1 − 2a( y + y1) = 0 ⇒ xx1 − 54  y + 1  = 0
passing through a fixed point K  108 
2
S2 ≡ y – 32x = 0
on the axis, such that sum of the
reciprocals of two parts of the  y2 
chord through K, is a constant. T ≡ yy2 − 2a(x + x2 ) = 0 ⇒ yy2 − 16  x + 2  = 0
 32 
Coordinates of K are
x1 54 −x12 54
C. AB and CD are the chords of R. (12, 0) \ = = 2 = r ⇒ x1 = 16r and y2 =
a parabola which intersect at 16 y2 y2 r
a point E on the axis. The 2
−(16r) 9
radical axis of the two circles \ 2
=r ⇒ r =−
(54 / r) 4
described on AB and CD as
diameter always passes through (−36)2 (−24)2
x1 = −36, y2 = −24, y1 = = 12, x2 = = 18
the point 108 32
Integer Answer Type \ Equation of common tangent is
−36
34. A line passing through (21, 30) and normal to ( y − 12) = (x + 36) ⇒ 2x + 3 y + 36 = 0
54
the curve y = 2 x . If m is slope of the normal then
m+6= 2. (a) : xcosa + ysina – p = 0 ...(i)
2ax – yy1 + 2a(x1 + 2a) = 0 ...(ii)
35. A circle concentric to an ellipse
cos a sin a −p
4x 2
4y 2
17  From (i) and (ii), = =
 2a − y1 2a(x1 + 2a)
+ = 1  λ <  passes through foci F1 and F2
289 λ2  2
⇒ y1 = –2a tana and x1 = –pseca – 2a
cuts the ellipse at ‘P’ such that area of triangle P F1 F2 is
\ y2 = 4a(x + a) ⇒ 4a2 tan2a = –4a(pseca + a)
30 sq.units. If F1F2 = 13K where K ∈ Z then K =
⇒ pcosa + a = 0

68 mathematics today | FEBRUARY‘17


3. (a) : Using formula Putting these values in y2 = 2ax, we get,
a
3a1/3b1/3 y = ±a at x =
q = tan −1 , where a = 1 and b = 8 2
2(a2/3 + b2/3) 3a
and y = a −3 at x = −
6 3 2
\ q = tan −1 = tan −1  
2(1 + 4) 5 [Which is imaginary value of y]
\ Required points are (a/2, ±a)
4. (b) : L e t t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f P a n d Q b e
(at12 , 2at1) and (at22 , 2at2 ) respectively. Then y1 = 2at1 and x2 y2
8. (a) : Let the equation of ellipse be 2 + 2 = 1
y2 = 2at2. The coordinates of the point of intersection Q It passes through (– 3, 1) a b
of the tangents at P and Q are {at1t2, a(t1 + t2)} 9 1 a2
\ y3 = a(t1 + t2) So, 2 + 2 = 1 ⇒ 9 + 2 = a2 ...(i)
y +y a b b
⇒ y3 = 1 2 ⇒ y1, y3 and y2 are in A.P. Given eccentricity is 2 / 5
2
1 2 b2 b2 3 ...(ii)
5. (c) : Any tangent to y2 = 4x is y = mx + . It touches So, = 1 − 2 ⇒ 2 =
m 5 a a 5
1 32 32
3m + From equation (i) and (ii), a2 = , b2 =
the circle, if 3 = m 3 5
1 + m2 Hence, required equation of ellipse is 3x2 + 5y2 = 32
9. (c) : Let point be (h, k). Their pair of tangent will
2

2 1 be
⇒ 9(1 + m ) =  3m + 
 m  x 2 y 2   h2 k 2   hx yk  2
1  2 + 2 − 1  2 + 2 − 1 =  2 + 2 − 1
⇒ 2 =3
m a b a b  a b
1 Pair of tangents will be perpendicular, if
\ m=±
3 coefficient of x2 + coefficient of y2 = 0
For the common tangent to be above the x-axis, k2 h2 1 1
⇒ 2 2
+ 2 2
= 2 + 2 ⇒ h 2 + k 2 = a 2 + b2
1 ab ab a b
m=
3 Replace (h, k) by (x, y) ⇒ x2 + y2 = a2 + b2
1
\ Common tangent is, y = x+ 3 ⇒ 3y = x + 3 10. (c) : In the first case, e = 1 − (25 / 169)
3
6. (b) In the second case, e′ = 1 − (b2 / a2)
7. (c) : Given parabola is y2 = 2ax According to the given condition,
\ Focus (a/2, 0) and directrix is given by x = –a/2, 1 − b2 / a2 = 1 − (25 / 169)
as circle touches the directrix.
\ Radius of circle = distance from the point (a/2, 0) ⇒ b / a = 5 / 13 (Q a > 0, b > 0) ⇒ a / b = 13 / 5
to the line x = –a/2 y 11. (c) : Equation x2 + 2y2 – 2x + 3y + 2 = 0 can be
written as
2
a a x  3
2
=  +  =a (–a/2, 0) (a/2, 0)
y+ 
2 2 (x − 1) 
2 2 2
(x − 1)  3 1 4
+y+  = ⇒ + = 1,
2  4  16 (1 / 8) (1 / 16)
2
\ Equation of circle be  x − a  + y 2 = a2 ...(i) 1 1
 2 which is an ellipse with a2 = and b2 =
Also y2 = 2ax ...(ii) 8 16
1 1 1 1 1
a 3a
Solving (i) and (ii) we get, x = , − \ = (1 − e 2 ) ⇒ = (1 − e 2 ) ⇒ e =
2 2 16 8 16 8 2

mathematics today | FEBRUARY ‘17 69


12. (a) : Conjugate axis is 5 and distance between 2 2
foci = 13 ⇒ 2b = 5 and 2ae = 13 17. (d) : The given ellipse is x + y = 1. The value
Now, also we know for hyperbola 9 4
x2 y2
25 (13)2 2
of the expression + − 1 is positive for x = 1,
b2 = a2(e 2 − 1) ⇒ = 2 (e − 1) 9 4
4 4e y = 2 and negative for x = 2, y = 1. Therefore P lies
25 169 169 169 13 outside E and Q lies inside E. The value of the expression
⇒ = − 2 or e 2 = ⇒ e=
4 4 4e 144 12 x2 + y2 – 9 is negative for both the points P and Q.
5 Therefore P and Q both lie inside C. Hence P lies inside
⇒ a = 6, b = C but outside E.
2
\ Required equation is 25x2 – 144y2 = 900 18. (b) : Any normal to the hyperbola is
ax by ...(i)
13. (b) : 2a = 10, ⇒ a = 5 + = a 2 + b2
sec q tan q
8 13
ae − a = 8 or e = 1 + = But it is given by lx + m′y – n = 0 ...(ii)
5 5 Comparing (i) and (ii), we get
132 12 a n  b  n 
\ b=5 −1 = 5 × = 12 sec q =  2 2  and tan q =
5 2 5 l a +b  m′  a2 + b2 
and centre of hyperbola ≡(5, 0)
a2 b2 (a2 + b2 )2
(x − 5)2 ( y − 0)2
Hence eliminating q, we get − = ...(iii)
\ Required equation of hyperbola is − =1 l 2 m′2 n2
25 144
25 3
14. (a) : Foci are (6,4) and (–4,4), e = 2 Since a2 = 16, b2 = 9, l = m, m′ = –1 and n =
3
6− 4 4+ 4 2
\ Centre is 
 2
,  = (1, 4) \ On substituting in (iii), we get m = ± .
2  3
5 5 19. (c) : Solving equations x2 + y2 = 5 and y2 = 4x
⇒ 6 = 1 + ae ⇒ ae = 5 ⇒ a = and b = ( 3)
2 2 we get, x2 + 4x – 5 = 0 i.e., x = 1, – 5
2 2 For x = 1; y2 = 4 ⇒ y = ± 2
Hence, the required equation is (x − 1) − ( y − 4) = 1 For x = –5 ; y2 = –20 (imaginary values)
(25 / 4) (75 / 4)
\ Points are (1, 2)(1, –2)
or 12x2 – 4y2 – 24x + 32y – 127 = 0 m1 for x2 + y2 = 5 at (1, 2) is
15. (a) : Given equation of hyperbola is dy x 1
9x2 – 16y2 + 72x – 32y – 16 = 0 =− =−
dx y (1, 2) 2
⇒ 9(x2 + 8x) – 16(y2 + 2y) – 16 = 0
Similarly, m2 for y2 = 4x at (1, 2) is 1
⇒ 9(x + 4)2 – 16(y + 1)2 = 144
1
(x + 4)2 ( y + 1)2 m1 − m2 − −1
⇒ − =1 \ tan q = = 2 =3
16 9 1 + m1m2 1
2b2 9 9 1−
Therefore, latus rectum = =2× = 2
a 4 2
2
16. (a) : The line through (6,2) is 20. (c) : Q 2b = 9 ⇒ 2b2 = 9a2 ...(i)
y – 2 = m(x – 6) ⇒ y = mx + 2 – 6m a2
9 4
Now from condition of tangency, Now b2 = a2(e 2 − 1) = a2 ⇒ a = b ...(ii)
(2 – 6m)2 = 25m2 – 16 16 3
⇒ 36m2 + 4 – 24m – 25m2 + 16 = 0  5
Q e = 
⇒ 11m2 – 24m + 20 = 0 4
If m1, m2 are its roots then From (i) and (ii), b = 6, a = 8
24 20 x2 y2
m1 + m2 = and m1m2 = Hence, equation of hyperbola − =1
11 11 64 36

70 mathematics today | FEBRUARY‘17


Let (h, k) be a point on the locus.
x2 y2
21. (a, b) : + = 1, y 2 = 4x Any tangent to circle x2 + y2 = b2 is xcosq + ysinq = b
8 2 \ Equation of parabola is
1
Any tangent to parabola is y = mx + (x − h)2 + ( y − k)2 =| x cos q + y sin q − b |
m
If this line is tangent to ellipse then i.e., (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = (xcosq + ysinq – b)2
1 The points (±a, 0) satisfy this equation
= 8m2 + 2 ⇒ 8m4 + 2m2 − 1 = 0 \ (a – h)2 + k2 = (acosq – b)2 ...(1)
m2 (a + h)2 + k2 = (acosq + b)2 ...(2)
−2 ± 4 + 32 −2 ± 6 Subtracting (1) from (2), we get h = bcosq
\ m2 = = 2
16 16  ax 
\ Required locus is (a + x)2 + y 2 =  + b 
1 1 b 
⇒ m2 = ⇒ m = ± 2 2
4 2 x y
x x i.e., + 2 2 = 1 which is an ellipse.
2
y = + 2 or y = − − 2 b b −a
2 2
x – 2y + 4 = 0 or x + 2y + 4 = 0 PS PS′ 2ae
27. (c) : = =
sin b sin a sin(π − (a + b)
22. (b, c) : y2 = 32x y
8 2a 2ae
Let equation of tangent be y = mx + or = P
m sin a + sin b sin(a + b)
64 8 2 8 β α
= m − a +b a −b S′ O S
m2 9 9
1 2 sin 2 .cos 2
x
m = ± 3, y = ± 3x ± 8/3 ⇒ =
e 2 sin a + b cos a + b
2 2
23. (b, c, d) : Ellipse is x + y = 1 2 2
4 3 1− e a b
3 1 \ = tan tan
Here, = 1 − e 2 ⇒ e = 1+ e 2 2
4 2
b
Foci are (± 1, 0) 28 (a) : y − 0 = tan (x + ae) ... (i)
2
Now the hyperbola is having same focus i.e. (± 1, 0) a
Let e1 be the eccentricity of hyperbola y − 0 = − tan (x − ae) ... (ii)
2
2ae1 = 2
1− e  2 2 2
1 or, y 2 = −  [x − a e ]
But 2a = So, e1 = 4  1 + e 
2 2
y2
1− e  2 2  1 − e  2 2 or, x +
( ) 1 15 ⇒  x + y = a e =1
b2 = a2 e 2 − 1 = (16 − 1) =  1 + e   
1+ e  a2e 2  1 − e  a2e 2
16 16  1 + e 
1

So, the equation of the hyperbola is which is clearly an ellipse.


2 2 2 2
x y x y 1 1− e 2e
− =1⇒ − = 29. (b) : e ′ = 1 − =
1 15 1 15 16 1+ e 1+ e
16 16  4
30. (b) : Any point on the hyperbola xy = 16 is  4t , 
of the normal passes through P(h, k), then  t
Its distance between the directrices
2a 1 1 k – 4/t = t2(h – 4t)
= = = units ⇒ 4t4 – t3h + tk – 4 = 0
e1 2 × 4 8
h
2b2 2 × 15 × 4 15 \ ∑ t1 = and St1t2 = 0
\ Length of latusrectum = = = units 4
a 16 × 1 2 k
(24 - 26) : ∑ t1t2t3 = − 4 and t1t2t3t 4 = −1
24. (c) 25. (d) 26. (a) 1 1 1 1 k
x 2 + y 2 = a 2 ; x 2 + y 2 = b 2 ; b > a > 0, A = (–a, 0); \ + + + = ⇒ y1 + y2 + y3 + y 4 = k
t1 t2 t3 t 4 4
B = (a, 0)

mathematics today | FEBRUARY ‘17 71


meets the curve will be (am2 , –2am) where the curve
h2
Now, t12 + t22 + t32 + t 42
= =k does not exist. Therefore m = –5
16 \ m+6=1
⇒ Locus of (h, k) is x2 = 16y.
35. (1) : Since F1 and F2 are the ends of the diameter
31. (c) : x2 = 16y 1 1
Equation of tangent of P is Area of ∆PF1F2 = ( F1P )( F2P ) = x (17 − x ) = 30
(4t, t2) P 2 2
2 A B
16( y + t ) M ⇒ x = 5 or 12 ⇒ F1F2 = 13 \ K = 1
x ⋅ 4t =
2 36. (7) : Let P(4, 0) and Q(0, 3) are two points on given
4tx = 8y + 8t2 ellipse E1
tx = 2y + 2t2 P1 and Q1 are images of P,Q w.r.t x – y – 2 = 0
A = (2t, 0), B = (0, –t2) \ P1(2, 2) Q1(5, –2) lies on E2
M(h, k) is the middle point of AB \ a = –160, b = 292
t2 ⇒ a + b – 125 = 7
h = t, k = − ⇒ 2k = −h2
2 37. (9) : Eccentricity of given ellipse e = 2/3
Locus of M(h, k) is x 2 + 2 y = 0. 2x y
Equation of tangent at L is + = 1 . It meets
9 3
4t 4 Y
32. (d) : tan 30° = 21 = (–4t, t2 )A B (+4t, t2 )
t1 t1 1
30°
1 (0, 3)
1 4 B 5
L (2, 3 )
⇒ = ⇒ t1 = 4 3 O (0, 0)
3 t1
AB = 8t1 = 32 3 X
(–2, 0) (0, 0) (2, 0) 9
3 ( 2 , 0)
Area of ∆OAB = × 32 3 × 32 3 = 768 3 sq.units
4
33. A–Q, B–Q, C–P
(A) Equation of tangent at (3, 6) : y = x + 3
\ T( – 3, 0)
Equation of normal at (3, 6) : y = –x + 9 \ G( 9, 0) 9 
x-axis at A  , 0  and y axis at B(0, 3)
Hence middle point is (3, 0) 2 
(B) Point is obviously focus (3, 0) 1 9 
(C) Let A(t1) and B(t2), C(t3) and D(t4) \ Area = 4  ⋅ ⋅ 3 = 27 \ K = 9.
2 2 
If AB and CD intersect at a point E on the axis, then
38. (8) : xy + 2x + 4y + C = 0 represents pair of lines
by solving the equations of AB and CD we get the
⇒C=8
relation t1t2 = t3t4
Now equations of the circles with AB and CD as 39. (5) : Equation can be rewritten as
diameters are 13 12x − 5 y + 1 13
(x − 2)2 + ( y + 3)2 = So, e = .
(x − at12 )(x − at22 ) + ( y − 2at1)( y − 2at2 ) = 0 5 13 5
25e
(x − at32 )(x − at 42 ) + ( y − 2at3)( y − 2at 4 ) = 0 \ =5
13
If we solve these two circles, then the equation of their b π
radical axis is of the form y = mx. So it passes through 40. (2) : 2 tan −1   =
a 3
the origin.
b 1
= , e2 = 1 + 1 = 4
34. (1) : Equation of the normal is y = mx – 2m – m3 a 3 3 3
If it pass through (21, 30) we have 30 = 21m – 2m – m3 Let eccentricity of conjugate hyperbola be e′.
⇒ m3 – 19m + 30 = 0 1 1 1 3 1 1
Then m = –5, 2, 3 \ 2
+ 2 = 1 ⇒ 2 + = 1 ⇒ 2 = ⇒ e′ = 2
e′ e e′ 4 e′ 4
But if m = 2 or 3 then the point where the normal


72 mathematics today | FEBRUARY‘17


8 Class XI

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY


Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.
Only One Option Correct Type 1 1
(a) (b)
15! 10!
1. A five digit number be selected at random. The
5!10 !
probability that the digits in the odd places are (c) (d) none of these
odd and the even places are even (repetition is not 15!
allowed) 6. In an experiment with 15 observations on x, the
5 following results were available : Σx2 = 2830 and
P2 × 5 P3 5
P2 × 5 P3
(a) (b) Σx = 170. One observation i.e., + 20 was found to
104 × 9 105 be wrong and was replaced by the correct value 30,
5
C2 × 5C3
5
C2 × 5C3 then the corrected variance is
(c) ×2 (d) (a) 188.66 (b) 177.33 (c) 8.33 (d) 78.00
104 × 9 9 × 104
One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
2. The mean of the data is 30 and data are given as
7. The probabilities that a student pass in Mathematics,
C.I. 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 Physics and Chemistry are a, b and g respectively. Of
Frequency 8 10 f1 15 f2 these subjects, student has a 75% chance of passing
If total of frequencies is 70, then the missing numbers are in atleast one, a 50% chance of passing in atleast two
(a) 14, 23 (b) 25, 21 and a 40% chance of passing in exactly two subjects.
(c) 24, 20 (d) none of these Which of the following relations are true?
(a) a + b +g = 19/20 (b) a + b + g = 27/20
4 (c) abg = 1/10 (d) abg = 1/4
3. The probability that A speaks truth is , B speaks
5
truth is 3 . The probability they contradict each 8. The variable x takes two values x1 and x2 with
4 frequencies f1 and f2, respectively. If s denotes the
other is
standard deviation of x, then
7 3 4
(b) 1
2
(a) (c) (d) f1x12 + f 2 x22  f1x1 + f 2 x2 
20 5 20 5 2
(a) s = −
f1 + f 2  f1 + f 2 
4. In a series there are 2n observations half of them
equal to ‘a’ and half equal to – a. If the standard f1 f 2
(b) s 2 = (x − x )2
deviation of the observations is 2, then |a| equals ( f1 + f 2 )2 1 2
1 2 (x1 − x2 )2
(a) 2 (b) 2 (c) (d) (c) s 2 = (d) None of these
n n f1 + f 2
5. If ten rupee coins which are 10 in number and five 9. If A and B are two events such that P(A) = 1/2 and
rupee coins which are 5 in number are to be placed P(B) = 2/3, then
in a line, then the probability that the extreme coins (a) P(A∪B) ≥ 2/3 (b) P(A∩B′)≤1/3
are five rupee coins is (c) 1/6 ≤P(A∩B) ≤ 1/2 (d) 1/6 ≤P(A′∩B)≤1/2

mathematics today | February‘17 73


10. For two data sets, each of size 5, the variance are Matrix Match Type
given to be 4 and 5 and the corresponding means 16. Match the following:
are given to be 2 and 4, respectively. The variance of
Column I Column II
the combined data set is
5 11 13 P. Two balls are drawn from an urn containing 8
(a) (b) (c) 6 (d) 2 white, 3 red and 4 black balls one by one 1. m =
2 2 2 15
without replacement. If the probability that
11. The letters of the word PROBABILITY are written both the balls are of same colour is l and at
down at random in a row. Let E1 denotes the event least one ball is red is m, then
that two I’s are together and E2 denotes the event
that two B’s are together, then Q. A bag contains 2 white and 4 black balls while 11
2 another bag contains 6 white and 4 black balls. 2. m =
2 12
(a) P(E1) = P(E2) = (b) P(E1∩E2) = A bag is selected at random and a ball is drawn.
11 55 If l be the probability that the ball drawn is
18 of white colour and m be the probability that
(c) P(E1∪E2) = (d) none of these
55 the ball drawn is black colour, then
12. There are 60 students in a class. The following is the R. Bag A contains 4 red and 5 black balls and 5
frequency distribution of the marks obtained by the bag B contains 3 red and 7 black balls. One 3. l =
18
students in a test ball is drawn from bag A and two from bag
Marks 0 1 2 3 4 5 B. If l be the probability that out of 3 balls
Frequency 2 2
x–2 x x (x + 1) 2x x + 1 drawn two are black and one is red and m
be the probability that out of three balls
where, x is a positive integer. Then,
(a) Mean = 2.8 (b) Variance = 1.12 drawn two are red and one is black, then
(c) Standard Deviation = 1.12 11
(d) None of these 4. m =
45
13. For two events A and B, P(A∩B) is P Q R
(a) not less than P(A) + P(B) – 1 (a) 2 1 3
(b) not greater than P(A) + P(B)
(b) 3 4 2
(c) equal to P(A) + P(B) – P(A∪B)
(c) 3 1 4
(d) equal to P(A) + P(B) + P(A∪B)
(d) 1 2 3
Comprehension Type
Integer Answer Type
A JEE aspirant estimates that she will be successful with
17. If four squares are chosen at random on a chess
an 80% chance if she studies 10 hours per day, with a
board. If the probability that they lie on a diagonal
60% chance if she studies 7 hours per day and with a
40% chance if she studies 4 hours per day. She further xyz
line is 64 , then the value of x + y – z must be
believes that she will study 10 hours, 7 hours and 4 hours C4
per day with probabilities 0.1, 0.2 and 0.7, respectively: 18. If the mean deviation about the median of the
14. Given that she is successful, the probability that she numbers a, 2a, ......., 50a is 50, then |a| equals
studied for 4 hours, is 19. Two integers x and y are chosen (without
6 7 8 9 random) at random from the set {x : 0 ≤ x ≤ 10,} x
(a) (b) (c) (d)
12 12 12 12 is an integer}. If the probability for |x – y| ≤ 5 is
15. Given that she does not achieve success, the p, then the value of 121 p – 91 must be
probability she studied for 4 hours, is 20. If the variance of first 50 even natural numbers is
18 19 20 21 abc. Then find the value of a + b – c.
(a) (b) (c) (d) 
26 26 26 26
Keys are published in this issue. Search now! J
Check your score! If your score is
> 90% excellent work ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% Good work ! You can score good in the final exam.

No. of questions correct …… 74-60% satisfactory ! You need to score more next time.
Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% not satisfactory! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

74 mathematics today | February ‘17


mathematics today | February‘17 75
Exam on
20th March
2017

PRACTICE PAPER 2017


Time Allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) This question paper contains 29 questions.
(iii) Questions 1-4 in Section-A are very short-answer type questions carrying 1 mark each.
(iv) Questions 5-12 in Section-B are short-answer type questions carrying 2 marks each.
(v) Questions 13-23 in Section-C are long-answer-I type questions carrying 4 marks each.
(vi) Questions 24-29 in Section-D are long-answer-II type questions carrying 6 marks each.

section-a 7. Show that f : N → N, defined by


1. Write the vector equation of a line passing n + 1
 , if n is odd
through the point (1, –1, 2) and parallel to the line f (n) =  2
x − 3 y −1 z +1 .  n , if n is even
= =  2
1 2 −2
is a many-one onto function.
x3 − x2 + x − 1
2. Evaluate : ∫ dx 8. For what value of k, the function defined by
x −1
 k(x 2 + 2), if x ≤ 0
3. If the binary operation * on the set of integers Z is f (x ) = 
defined by a * b = a + 3b2, then find the value of 2 * 4.  3x + 1, if x > 0
is continuous at x = 0 ?
x sin q cos q
4. If − sin q − x 1 = 8 , then find the value of x. 9. Form the differential equation of the family of curves
cos q 1 x y = a cos (x + b), where a and b are arbitrary constants.

section-B 10. If the radius of a sphere is measured as 9 cm with


an error of 0.03 cm, then find the approximate error
5. Prove that :
in calculating its surface area.
 1  1  1  1 p
tan −1   + tan −1   + tan −1   + tan −1   = . 11. Let * be a binary operation on the set of rational
 3  5  7  8 4
numbers given as a * b = (2a – b)2, a, b ∈ Q.
2 0 1  Find 3 * 5 and 5 * 3. Is 3 * 5 = 5 * 3 ?
6. If A =  2 1 3  , find A2 – 5A + 4I. dy
 1 −1 0  12. If xy + y2 = tan x + y, find .
  dx

76 mathematics today | february ‘17


section-c 19. Find the equation of the plane passing through
13. Using integration, find the area of the region the intersection of the planes x + 3y + 6 = 0 and
bounded by the curves y = x2 and y = x. 3x – y – 4z = 0 and whose perpendicular distance
from the origin is unity.
14. Solve the differential equation
dy cos x
cosec x log y
dx
+ x 2 y 2 = 0. 20. Evaluate : ∫ (1 − sin x)(2 − sin x) dx
15. In a parliament election, a political party hired a OR
public relations firm to promote its candidates in Using properties of definite integrals prove that
three ways-telephone, house calls and letters. The p
cost per contact (in paise) is given in matrix A as x tan x p2
∫ sec x cosec x dx =
4
140  Telephone 0
  21. Prove that :
A = 200  House call
9 p 9 −1  1  9 −1  2 2 
150  Letters − sin   = sin  .
8 4 3 4  3 
The number of contacts of each type made in two
cities X and Y is given in matrix B as 22. Find the intervals in which the following function
Telephone House call Letters is (a) increasing (b) decreasing :
f(x) = x4 – 8x3 + 22x2 – 24x + 21
1000 500 5000  City X
B=  23. Using properties of determinants, show that
 3000 1000 10000  City Y x+y x x
Find the total amount spent by the party in the two
5x + 4 y 4 x 2 x = x 3 .
cities. What should one consider before casting his/
her vote-party’s promotional activity or their social 10 x + 8 y 8 x 3x
activities? section-d
OR 24. Find the equation of the plane through the line of
1 2 2  intersection of the planes
  2x + y – z = 3 and 5x – 3y + 4z + 9 = 0
If A = 2 1 2 , then verify that A2 – 4A – 5I = O.
x −1 y − 3 z − 5
2 2 1  and parallel to the line = = .
  2 4 5
Hence find A–1. Also, find the distance of the plane from origin.
  
16. If a ,b and c are three vectors such that each one OR
is perpendicular to the vector obtained by sum of Find the equation of the plane passing through
  
the other two and a = 3, b = 4 and c = 5, the point A(1, 2, 1) and perpendicular to the line

then prove that a + b + c = 5 2 . joining the points P(1, 4, 2) and Q(2, 3, 5). Also,
find the distance of this plane from the line
17. An experiment succeeds twice as often as it fails.
x +3 y −5 z −7
Find the probability that in the next six trials, there = = .
2 −1 −1
will be at least 4 successes.
25. Find the particular solution of the differential
18. If y = 3cos(logx) + 4sin(logx), then show that dy
d2 y dy equation x + y – x + xy cot x = 0; x ≠ 0,
x2 2 + x + y = 0 dx
dx dx p
OR given that when x = , y = 0.
2
For what value of l, the function defined by 1 −1 0   2 2 −4 
26. If A = 2 3 4  and B =  −4 2 −4  are two
l(x 2 + 2), if x ≤ 0    
f (x ) =  is continuous at 0 1 2   2 −1 5 
4 x + 6, if x > 0 square matrices, find AB and hence solve the system
x = 0? Hence check the differentiability of f(x) of equations
at x = 0. x – y = 3, 2x + 3y + 4z = 17 and y + 2z = 7.

mathematics today | february ‘17 77


OR
x3 − x2 + x − 1
Two schools P and Q want to award their selected 2. Let I = ∫ dx
x −1
students on the values of discipline, politeness and
punctuality. The school P wants to award ` x each, x 2 (x − 1) + 1(x − 1) (x 2 + 1)(x − 1)
=∫ =∫ dx
` y each and ` z each for the three respective values x −1 x −1
to its 3, 2 and 1 students with a total award money of 1
= ∫ (x 2 + 1)dx = x 3 + x + C
` 1,000. School Q wants to spend ` 1,500 to award 3
its 4, 1 and 3 students on the respective values (by 3. Here, a * b = a + 3b2
giving the same award money for the three values \ 2 * 4 = 2 + 3(4)2 = 2 + 3 × 16 = 50
as before). If the total amount of awards for one
prize on each value is ` 600, using matrices, find x sin q cos q
the award money for each value. 4. Given, − sin q − x 1 =8
27. A dealer in rural area wishes to purchase a number cos q 1 x
of sewing machines. He has only ` 5760 to invest ⇒ x(–x2 – 1) –sin q(–xsin q – cos q)
and has space for at most 20 items. An electronic + cos q (–sin q + xcos q) = 8
sewing machine costs him ` 360 and a manually ⇒ –x3 – x + xsin2q + sin q cos q – sin q cos q
operated sewing machine costs ` 240. He can sell + xcos2q = 8
an electronic sewing machine at a profit of ` 22 and ⇒ 3 2 2
–x – x + x(sin q + cos q) = 8
a manually operated sewing machine at a profit of ⇒ –x3 – x + x = 8 ⇒ x3 + 8 = 0
` 18. Assuming that, he can sell all the items that ⇒ (x + 2) (x2 – 2x + 4) = 0 ⇒ x + 2 = 0
he can buy, how should he invest his money in [Q x2 – 2x + 4 > 0 "x]
order to maximize his profit. Make it as a linear ⇒ x = –2
programming problem and solve it graphically.
 −1 1 1  1 1
Keeping the rural background in mind justify the 5. L.H.S. =  tan + tan −1  +  tan −1 + tan −1 
3 5   7 8
‘values’ to be promoted for the selection of manually
operated machine.  1 1   1 1 
+ +
−1  3 5  −1  7 8 
28. If the length of three sides of a trapezium other = tan  + tan 
1 1 1 1
than base is 10 cm each, then find the area of the 1− ×  1− × 
 3 5  7 8
trapezium when it is maximum.
 8  15 
29. From a well shuffled pack of 52 cards, 3 cards are −1  15  −1  56 
drawn one-by-one with replacement. Find the = tan   + tan  
14 55
probability distribution of number of queens.    
 15   56 
OR  4  3
= tan −1   + tan −1  
Suppose the probability for A to win a game against  7  11
B is 0.4. If A has an option of playing a ‘best of  4 3   65 
+
3 games’ or a ‘best of 5 games’ match against B, which −1  7 11  −1  77 
= tan   = tan  
option should A choose so that the probability of 1 − 4 × 3   
65
his winning the match a higher? (No game ends in  7 11   77 
draw). p
= tan −1 1 = = R.H.S.
solutions 4
6. We have, A2 – 5A + 4I
1. Vector equation of the line passing through (1, –1, 2)
x − 3 y −1 z +1 2 0 1  2 0 1  2 0 1 1 0 0 
and parallel to the line = = is       
1 2 −2 =  2 1 3   2 1 3  −5  2 1 3  + 4  0 1 0 

r = (i − j + 2k ) + l (i + 2 j − 2k )  1 −1 0   1 −1 0   1 −1 0   0 0 1 

78 mathematics today | february ‘17


 5 −1 2  10 0 5   4 0 0  dS
      ⇒ = 8pr
dr
=  9 −2 5  − 10 5 15  +  0 4 0  dS
 0 −1 −2   5 −5 0   0 0 4  \ DS = Dr = 8pr Dr
dr
 −1 −1 −3  = 8p × 9 × 0.03 = 2.16 p cm2
  This is the approximate error in calculating surface
=  −1 −3 −10 
area.
 −5 4 2 
11. We have, a * b = (2a – b)2
(1 + 1) 2 2 \ 3 * 5 = (2 × 3 – 5)2 = (6 – 5)2 = 1
7. We have, f (1) = = = 1 and f (2) = = 1
2 2 2 5 * 3 = (2 × 5 – 3)2 = (10 – 3)2 = 49
Thus, f(1) = f(2) while 1 ≠ 2
Thus, 3 * 5 ≠ 5 * 3
\ f is many-one.
12. Given, xy + y2 = tan x + y
In order to show that f is onto, consider an arbitrary
Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get
element n ∈N.
dy dy dy
If n is odd, then (2n – 1) is odd x + y + 2y = sec2 x +
dx dx dx
(2n − 1 + 1) 2n 2
\ f (2n − 1) = = =n dy dy sec x − y
2 2 ⇒ (x + 2 y − 1) = sec2 x − y ⇒ =
dx dx x + 2 y − 1
If n is even, then 2n is even
13. The given curves are y = x2 ... (i) and y = x ...(ii)
2n
\ f (2n) = = n
2
Thus, for each n ∈ N (whether even or odd) there
exists its pre-image in N.
\ f is onto.
Hence, f is many-one onto function.
8. We have, lim f (x ) = lim k(h2 + 2) = 2k
x →0− h →0

lim f (x ) = lim (3h + 1) = 1 and f(0) = 2k


The point of intersection of (i) and (ii) are A (1, 1)
x →0+ h →0 and O(0, 0).
As f(x) is continuous at x = 0 \ Required area = Area of shaded region
1 1
\ lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = f (0)  2 3 1 1 1
x → 0− x → 0+
= ∫ (x − x )dx =  x − x  =  −  = sq.unit.
2

0 2 3 0  2 3  6
1 dy
⇒ 2k = 1 ⇒ k = 14. We have, cosec x log y + x 2 y 2 = 0
2 dx
9. Here, y = a cos (x + b) ...(i) log y x2
dy + dx = 0
Differentiating (i) w.r.t. x, we get y2 cosec x
dy Integrating both sides, we get
= −a sin ( x + b )
dx log y 2
Again differentiating w.r.t. x, we get ∫ y 2 dy + ∫ x sin x dx = 0
d2 y 1
= −a cos ( x + b ) Put log y = t ⇒ dy = dt and y = et
dx 2 y
d2 y d2 y
⇒ = −y ⇒ + y = 0.
dx 2 dx 2 Solution Sender of Maths Musing
set-169
10. Let r be the radius of sphere and Dr be the error in
measuring the radius. Then, r = 9 cm, Dr = 0.03 cm 1. N. Jayanthi Hyderabad
Now, surface area (S) of the sphere is given by 4pr2 2. ravinder Gajula Karimnagar

mathematics today | february ‘17 79


−t Now, A2 – 4 A – 5 I = O
⇒ ∫ t. e dt + ∫ x 2 sin x dx = 0
Pre-multiplying by A–1 both sides, we get
e −t e −t
⇒ t. − ∫ 1. dt + x 2 (− cos x ) − ∫ 2x ( − cos x ) dx = C (A–1 A)A – 4 (A–1A) – 5(A–1 I) = O
−1 −1
⇒ IA – 4I = 5A–1
⇒ –t e–t –e–t –x2 cos x + 2x sin x −2 ∫ 1 ⋅ sin x dx = C
 −3 2 2 
−1 1 1
⇒ −
1 + log y
− x 2 cos x + 2 x sin x + 2 cos x = C ⇒ A = (A − 4 I ) = 2 −3 2 
y 5 2 
 2 2 −3
is the required solution.

15. The total amount spent by the party in two cities 16. Given, a = 3, b = 4, c = 5 ...(i)
X and Y is represented in the matrix equation by  (  )     ( )
and a ⋅ b + c = 0 , b ⋅ (c + a ) = 0 , c ⋅ a + b = 0
matrix C as,            
\ a ⋅b + a ⋅c + b ⋅c + b ⋅a + c ⋅a + c ⋅b = 0
C = BA      
⇒ 2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a ) = 0 ...(ii)
140    2
 X  1000 500 5000    Now, a + b + c
⇒  =  200 
Y 3000 1000 10000  2  2  2      
    150 
  = a + b + c + 2 ( a ⋅ b ) + 2 (b ⋅ c ) + 2 ( c ⋅ a )
 X   1000 × 140 + 500 × 200 + 5000 × 150  = 32 + 42+ 52 + 0 = 50 [Using (i) and (ii)]
⇒  =  
 
Y  3000 × 140 + 1000 × 200 + 10000 × 150  \ a +b + c = 5 2.
 990000  2 2
=  17. Here, p = P (success of the experiment) = =
2120000  2 +1 3
2 1
\ X = ` 990000 and Y = ` 2120000 \ q = 1− p = 1− =
3 3
Thus, amount spent by the party in city X and Y is
Also n = 6
` 990000 and ` 2120000 respectively. One should
consider about the social activity before casting Let X denote the number of successes.
his/her vote. \ Required probability P(X ≥ 4)
OR = P(X = 4) + P(X = 5) + P(X = 6)
2 4 1 5 0 6
1 2 2  1 2 1 2 1 2
= 6C4     + 6C5     + 6C6    
  3 3 3 3 3 3
Given, A = 2 1 2
  16 32 64
2 2 1  = 15 × 6 + 6 × 6 + 6 = 240 + 192 + 64 = 496
1 2 2  1 2 2  9 8 8 
3 3 3 36 729
     18. We have, y = 3 cos (log x) + 4 sin (log x)
Now, A2 = 2 1 2 2 1 2  = 8 9 8 
2 2 1  2 2 1 8 8 9 Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get
 
dy 1 1
2
\ A – 4A – 5I = −3 sin(log x ) × + 4 cos(log x ) ×
dx x x
9 8 8  1 2 2 1 0 0 dy
      ⇒ x = −3 sin(log x ) + 4 cos(log x )
= 8 9 8  − 4 2 1 2  − 5 0 1 0 dx
8 8 9 
 
2
 2 1 
0 0 1 Again differentiating w.r.t. x, we get
9 8 8   4 8 8   5 0 0 d2 y dy 1 1
      x + = − 3 cos(log x ) × − 4 sin(log x ) ×
= 8 9 8  −  8 4 8  − 0 5 0 dx 2 dx x x
8 8 9   8 8 4  0 0 5
     d2 y dy
⇒ x2 +x = −[3 cos(log x ) + 4 sin(log x )]
0 0 0  dx 2 dx
 
= 0 0 0  = O d2 y dy
2
2d y dy
0 0 0  ⇒ x2 +x =− y ⇒x 2
+ x + y =0
  dx 2 dx dx dx

80 mathematics today | february ‘17


OR dt −dt
I=∫
1−t ∫ 2 −t
\ + = − log 1 − t + log 2 − t + C
l(x 2 + 2), if x ≤ 0
Here, f (x ) =  2−t 2 − sin x
4 x + 6, if x > 0 = log + C = log +C
1−t 1 − sin x
At x = 0, f(0) = l(02 + 2) = 2l
OR
L.H. L. = lim f (x ) = lim l[(−h)2 + 2] = 2l
x →0 − h →0 p
x tan x
R.H.L. = lim f (x ) = lim[4(h) + 6] = 6 Let I = ∫ dx ...(1)
x →0 + h →0 sec x cosec x
0
\ For f to be continuous at x = 0, 2l = 6 ⇒ l = 3. a a
Hence, the function becomes Using ∫ f (x)dx = ∫ f (a − x)dx, we get
3(x 2 + 2), if x ≤ 0 0 0
f (x ) =  p p
( p − x )tan(p − x ) ( p − x )tan x
4 x + 6, if x > 0 I=∫ dx = ∫ dx
sec( p − x )cosec (p − x ) sec x cos ec x
0 0
f (0 − h) − f (0) ...(2)
f ′(0− ) = lim Adding (1) and (2), we get
h →0 0−h
p p
tan x
3(h2 + 2) − 6 2I = p∫ dx = p ∫ sin2 x dx
= lim = lim (−3h) = 0 sec x cos ec x
h →0 −h h →0 0 0
p p
f (0 + h) − f (0) 4h + 6 − 6 1 − cos 2 x p sin 2 x  p2
and f ′(0+ ) = lim = lim =4 = p∫ dx =  x − =
h →0 0+h h →0 h 2 2 2  0 2
0
– +
⇒ f ′(0 ) ≠ f ′(0 ) p 2
\ f is not differentiable at x = 0. ⇒ I=
4
19. Equation of plane passing through intersection of
9 p 9 −1  1  9 p  1 
given planes is 21. L.H.S. = − sin   =  − sin −1   
8 4  3  4 2  3 
x + 3y + 6 + l(3x – y – 4z) = 0

⇒ r ⋅[(1 + 3 l) i + (3 − l)j − 4 lk ] + 6 = 0 9 1
= cos −1  
 −1 −1 p
4 3 Qsin x + cos x = 2 
Q Distance of plane from origin is unity.
6 Q cos −1 x = sin −1 1 − x 2 
\ =1 9 1
= sin −1 1 −  
(1 + 3l) + (3 − l)2 + 16 l2
2
4 9 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

⇒ 26 = 26l2 ⇒ l2 = 1 ⇒ l = ±1 9 8 9 −1  2 2 
= sin −1 = sin  = R.H.S.
\ Equation of the required plane is 4 9 4  3 

r ⋅ (4i + 2 j − 4k ) + 6 = 0 22. The given function is

or r ⋅ (−2i + 4 j + 4k ) + 6 = 0 f(x) = x4 – 8x3 + 22x2 – 24x + 21
cos x ⇒ f ′(x) = 4x3 – 24x2 + 44x – 24
20. Let I = ∫ dx = 4(x3 – 6x2 + 11x – 6)
(1 − sin x )(2 − sin x )
Put sinx = t ⇒ cosxdx = dt = 4(x – 1)(x2 – 5x + 6)
dt = 4(x – 1)(x – 2)(x – 3)
\ I=∫ Thus f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ x = 1, 2, 3.
(1 − t )(2 − t )
Hence, possible disjoint intervals are
1 A B
We write, = + (–∞, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3) and (3, ∞).
(1 − t )(2 − t ) 1 − t 2 − t In the interval (–∞, 1), f ′ (x) < 0
⇒ 1 = A (2 – t) + B(1 – t) ...(1) In the interval (1, 2), f ′(x) > 0
Putting t = 1 in (1), we get In the interval (2, 3), f ′(x) < 0
1 = A(2 – 1) ⇒ A = 1 In the interval (3, ∞), f ′(x) > 0
Putting t = 2 in (1), we get \ f is increasing in (1, 2) ∪ (3, ∞) and f is
1 = B(1 – 2) ⇒ B = –1 decreasing in (–∞, 1) ∪ (2, 3).

mathematics today | february ‘17 81


x+y x x ⇒ x – y + 3z – 2 = 0
x +3 y −5 z −7
23. L.H.S. = 5x + 4 y 4 x 2 x . Now, direction ratios of line = =
are 2, –1, –1. 2 −1 −1
10 x + 8 y 8 x 3x
Since each element in the first column of determinant Now, 2(1) + (–1) (–1) + (3) (–1) = 2 + 1 – 3 = 0
is the sum of two elements, therefore, determinant \ Line is parallel to the plane.
can be expressed as the sum of two determinants Since, (–3, 5, 7) lies on the given line.
given by \ Distance of the point (–3, 5, 7) from plane is
x x x y x x −3 − 5 + 3(7) − 2 11
d= ⇒ d= = 11 units.
5x 4 x 2 x + 4 y 4 x 2 x 1+1+ 9 11
10 x 8 x 3x 8 y 8 x 3x
dy
Taking x common from R1, R2, R3 in first determinant 25. We have, x + y − x + xy cot x = 0,(x ≠ 0)
and x common from C2, C3, y common from C1 in dx
dy
second determinant, we get ⇒ x + (1 + x cot x ) ⋅ y = x
dx
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 dy 1 + x cot x
x 5 4 2 + yx 4 4 2 = x 5 4 2 + yx 2 ⋅ 0
3 2 3 ⇒ + .y = 1 ...(i)
dx x
10 8 3 8 8 3 10 8 3 dy
This is linear D.E. of the form + Py = Q
(Q C1 and C2 are identical in the second determinant) dx
Applying C1 → C1 – C3 and C2 → C2 – C3, we get 1 + x cot x 1
where P = = + cot x , Q = 1
0 0 1 x x
3 3
x 3 3 2 2 = x ⋅1⋅(15 – 14) = x = R.H.S. Now, I.F. = e ∫ Pdx
=e log (x sin x)
= x sin x
7 5 3 \ The solution of (i) is
24. The equation of the plane passing through the line y ⋅ x sin x = ∫ 1⋅ x sin x dx + C
of intersection of the planes 2x + y – z = 3 and
= x(− cos x ) + ∫ 1 ⋅ cos x dx + C
5x – 3y + 4z + 9 = 0 is
(2x + y – z – 3) + l(5x – 3y + 4z + 9) = 0 ⇒ x y sin x = − x cos x + sin x + C ...(ii)
⇒ x(2 + 5l) + y(1 – 3l) + z(4l – 1) + 9l – 3 = 0 p
Putting x = , y = 0 in (ii), we get
...(i) 2
Since, plane (i) is parallel to the line p p p
0 = − cos + sin + C ⇒ C = −1
x −1 y − 3 z − 5 2 2 2
= =
2 4 5 \ xy sinx = sinx – xcos x – 1 is the required
\ 2(2 + 5l) + 4(1 – 3l) + 5(4l – 1) = 0 particular solution.
1
⇒ 18l + 3 = 0 ⇒ l = − 1 −1 0   2 2 −4 
6
Putting the value of l in (i), we obtain 26. Here, A = 2 3 4  ; B =  −4 2 −4 
7x + 9y – 10z – 27 = 0 0 1 2   2 −1 5 
This is the equation of the required plane.
1 −1 0   2 2 −4  6 0 0
Now, distance of the plane 7x + 9y – 10z – 27 = 0
from the origin is, \ AB = 2 3 4  ⋅  −4 2 −4  = 0 6 0 = 6I
    
−27 27 0 1 2   2 −1 5  0 0 6
= unit
72 + 92 + 102 230 ⇒
1  1
A ⋅  B  = I ⇒ A is invertible and A−1 = B
OR 6  6
Now, the given system of equations is
The line joining the given points
P(1, 4, 2) and Q(2, 3, 5) has direction ratios x–y=3
<1 –2, 4 –3, 2 – 5> i.e., <– 1, 1, –3> 2x + 3y + 4z = 17
The plane through (1, 2, 1) and perpendicular to y + 2z = 7
the line PQ is The system of equations can be written as
–1(x – 1) + 1(y – 2) – 3(z – 1) = 0 AX = P

82 mathematics today | february ‘17


mathematics today | february ‘17 83
1 −1 0  x  3 4x + y + 3z = 1500 ...(ii)
   
where, A = 2 3 4  ; X =  y  ; P = 17  x + y + z = 600 ...(iii)
0 1 2   z   7  The given system of equations can be written as
AX = B
Since A–1 exists, so system of equations has a unique
 3 2 1 x  1000 
solution given by X = A–1 P   
x   2 2 −4   3 

where, A =  4 1 3 , X =  y  and B = 1500 
  1 1  1 1 1   z   6000 
⇒  y  = BP =  −4 2 −4  17 
6 6
 z   2 −1 5   7  3 2 1
12   2  A = 4 1 3 = −5 ≠ 0
1 
=  −6  =  −1 1 1 1
6
 24   4  \ A is invertible and system of equations has a
⇒ x = 2, y = – 1, z = 4. unique solution given by X = A–1 B
OR Now, A11 = –2, A12 = –1, A13 = 3,
According to question, we have, A21 = –1, A22 = 2, A23 = –1,
3x + 2y + z = 1000 ...(i) A31 = 5, A32 = –5, A33 = –5

84 mathematics today | february ‘17


 −2 −1 5  The corner points of feasible region are : O(0, 0),
  C(16, 0), P(8, 12) and B(0, 20).
\ adj A =  −1 2 −5 
Now, we calculate Z at each corner point.
 3 −1 −5 
Corner points Value of Z = 22x + 18y
 −2 −1 5 
adj( A) −1   O(0, 0) 22(0) + 18(0) = 0
\ A −1 = = −1 2 −5 
| A| 5  C(16, 0) 22(16) + 18(0) = 352
 3 − 1 −5 
  P(8, 12) 22(8) + 18(12) = 392 (Maximum)
Now, X = A–1B B(0, 20) 22(0) + 18(20) = 360
x  −2 −1 5  1000   −500  \ Maximum value of Z is 392 which occurs at
  −1    −1 
⇒  y = −1 2 −5  1500  = −1000  the point P(8, 12).
5  5 
 z   3 −1 −5   600   −1500  Hence, the maximum profit is ` 392 when 8
electronic machines and 12 manually operated
 x  100  sewing machines are purchased.
   
⇒  y  =  200  Manually operated machine should be promoted,
 z   300  to save energy and increase employment for rural
⇒ x = 100, y = 200, z = 300 people.
Hence, the money awarded for discipline, 28. Let ABCD be the given trapezium.
politeness and punctuality are ` 100, ` 200 and Then AD = DC = CB = 10 cm
` 300 respectively. In DAPD and DBQC,
27. Suppose, number of electronic sewing machines DP = CQ = h
purchased = x and number of manually operated AD = BC = 10 cm
sewing machines purchased = y ∠DPA = ∠CQB = 90°
Mathematical formulation of given problem is : \ DAPD @ DBQC (by R.H.S. congruency)
Maximize Z = 22x + 18y ⇒ AP = QB = x cm (say)
Subject to constraints : \ AB = AP + PQ + QB
x + y ≤ 20 ...(i) = x + 10 + x = (2x + 10) cm
360x + 240y ≤ 5760 Also from DAPD,
AP2 + PD2 = AD2 ⇒ x2 + h2 = 102
or 3x + 2y ≤ 48 ... (ii)
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 ⇒ h = 100 − x 2 ...(i)
Solving equations x + y = 20 and 3x + 2y = 48, Now, area S of this trapezium is given by
we get x = 8, y = 12 1 1
S = ( AB + DC ) ⋅ h = (2 x + 10 + 10)h
Let P ≡ (8, 12) 2 2
Now, we plot the graph of system of inequalities.
= (x + 10) ⋅ 100 − x 2 ...(ii) [Using (i)]
Differentiating (i) w.r.t. x, we get
dS 1
= 1 ⋅ 100 − x 2 + (x + 10) ⋅ ⋅ (−2 x )
dx 2 100 − x 2
100 − x 2 − x 2 − 10 x −2(x 2 + 5x − 50)
= =
100 − x 2 100 − x 2
−2(x + 10)(x − 5)
=
100 − x 2
dS
For max. or min. value of S, =0
dx
The shaded portion OCPB represents the feasible ⇒ (x + 10)(x – 5) = 0 ⇒ x = 5
region which is bounded. (Reject x = – 10 as x </ 0)

mathematics today | february ‘17 85


dS A will win the best of 3 games match if he wins in
For this value of x, <0 2 or 3 games
dx
\ S is maximum at x = 5. E2 = the event that A wins ‘a best of 5 games’
From (ii), the max. value of S = (5 + 10) ⋅ 100 − 52 match.
A will win a best of 5 games match if he wins in 3
= 15 75 = 75 3 sq.cm. or 4 or 5 games.
Now P(E1) = P(X = 2 or X = 3) = P(X = 2) + P(X = 3)
29. Let Ei(i = 1, 2, 3) be the event of drawing a queen
in the ith draw. Let X denote the discrete random = 3C2 p2q + 3C3p3= 3(0.4)2(0.6) + (0.4)3
variable “Number of Queens” in 3 draws one by one = (0.4)2[1.8 + 0.4] = (0.4)2(2.2) = 0.352
with replacement. P(E2) = P(X = 3 or X = 4 or X = 5)
Here X = 0, 1, 2, 3 = P(X = 3) + P(X = 4) + P(X = 5)
4 =5C3 p3q2 + 5C4 p4q + 5C5 p5
Now P(Ei ) = ; P(Ei ) = 48 (i = 1, 2, 3) = (10p3q2 + 5p4q + p5) = p3(10q2 + 5pq + p2)
52 52
= (0.4)3 × [10 × (0.6)2 + 5 × (0.4) × (0.6) + (0.4)2]
\ P(X = 0) = P(E1E2 E3 ) = P(E1)P(E2 )P(E3 )
3 3
= (0.064) × (3.6 + 1.2 + 0.16)
 48   12  1728 = 0.064 × 4.96 = 0.317
=  =  =
 52   13  2197 Since P(E1) > P(E2), hence A should choose the first
P(X = 1) = P(E1E2 E3 or E1E2 E3 or E1E2 E3 ) option.

= P(E1E2 E3 ) + P(E1E2 E3) + P(E1E2 E3)
= P(E1)P(E2 )P(E3 ) + P(E1)P(E2 )P(E3 )
DELHI at
+ P(E1)P(E2 )P(E3 ) • Satija Book Depot - Kalu Sarai Ph: 27941152; Mob: 9868049598
2 2 •
4  48  1  12  432 Lov Dev & Sons - Kalu Sarai Ph: 43215656, 43215650; Mob: 9811182352
= 3× ×   = 3× ×   = •
52  52  
13 13  2197 Mittal Books - Darya Ganj Ph: 011-23288887; Mob: 9899037390

• Janta Book Depot Pvt Ltd. - Daryaganj


P(X = 2) = P(E1E2 E3 or E1E2 E3 or E1E2 E3) Ph: 23362985, 23369685; Mob: 9350257596

= P(E1E2 E3) + P (E1E2 E3 ) + P ( E1E2 E3 ) • Mittal Book Distributors - Daryaganj Mob: 9811468898, 9810565956

• R D Chawla & Sons - Daryaganj Ph: 23282360/61; Mob: 9810045752 / 50 / 56


= P(E1)P(E2 )P(E3 ) + P (E1)P(E2 )P(E3 )
• Ms Enterprises - Dwarka Mob: 9810257310
+ P(E1)P(E2 )P(E3 ) • Yours Books & Stationers - Dwarka Mob: 9810676100
2 2 • Naval Book Depot - Jasola Ph: 011-26175789 , 26102425
 4   48   1  12 36
= 3×   ×   = 3×   × = • Raaj Book Point - Karkardooma Ph: 011-22371098, 22375017; Mob: 9811021981
 52   52   13  13 2197
• Budaniya Book Shop - Mayur Vihar Ph: 22759059; Mob: 9958129735
P(X = 3) =P(E1E2E3) = P(E1)P(E2)P(E3) • Anand Book Corner - Mayur Vihar
3 Ph: 22751946, 47; Mob: 9868102255, 9868082201
4 1
=  = • New Arihant Book Depot - Patpar Ganj
 52  2197 Ph; 26524221, 65726582; Mob: 9811522520
\ The required probability distribution of X is • Schoolkart Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Patparganj Mob: 8800654410

X 0 1 2 3 • Budaniya Book Shop - Prashant Vihar


Ph: 47631039; Mob: 9910749282, 9212519280
1728 432 36 1 • Kashyap Brothers - Punjabi Bagh Ph: 65196167; Mob: 9811744071/ 9212144072
P(X)
2197 2197 2197 2197 • Lamba Book Depot - Tilak Nagar Mob: 9810156674, 7503222162, 9210575859

• Raj Book Agency - Tilak Nagar Ph: 64534374; Mob: 9811234161


OR • Janta The Bookshop - Vikas Puri Ph: 24604413; Mob: 9311167890
Let E = the event that A wins a game against B. • Mishra Book Depot - Wazir Nagar Ph: 26864637; Mob: 9313799595, 9818779375
Let occurrence of the event E be called a success
and X denote the number of successes.
Let E1 = the event that A wins ‘a best of 3 games’
match.

86 mathematics today | february ‘17


8 Class XII

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

VECTORS & THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY


Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.
3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Only One Option Correct Type
   
(c) (a + a2 + a3 ) (b1 + b2 + b3 ) (c1 + c2 + c3 )
4 1
1. If the volume of parallelopiped with a × b , b × c ,
  (d) none of these
c × a as co-terminous edges is 9 cu. units, then the
    y −1 z − 3
volume of the parallelopiped with (a × b ) × (b × c ), 6. If the angle between the line x = = and
        2 l
(b × c ) × (c × a ), (c × a ) × (a × b ) as co-terminous
edges is  5 
the plane x + 2 y + 3z = 4 is cos −1  , then l
(a) 9 (b) 729 (c) 81 (d) 27  14 
equals
2. If the plane 2ax – 3ay + 4az + 6 = 0 passes through (a) 2/5 (b) 5/3 (c) 2/3 (d) 3/2
the midpoint of the line joining the centres of the
One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
spheres, x2 + y2 + z2 + 6x – 8y – 2z =13 and

x2 + y2 + z2 – 10x + 4y – 2z = 8, then a equals 7. If a vector r satisfies the equation
 
(a) 1 (b) – 1 (c) 2 (d) – 2 r × (i + 2 j + k ) = i − k , then r may be equal to
     
3. If p × q = r and q × r = p, then (a) i + 3j + k (b) 3i + 7 j + 3k
(a) r = 1, p = q (b) p = 1, q = 1
(c) j + t (i + 2 j + k ), where t is any scalar
(c) r = 2p, q = 2 (d) q = 1, p = r
x − 2 y −1 z + 2 (d) i + (t + 3)j + k , where t is any scalar
4. Let the line = = lie in the plane
3 −5 2 8. If OABC is a tetrahedron such that OA2 + BC2 =
x + 3y – az + b = 0. Then (a, b) equals OB2 + CA2 = OC2 + AB2, then
(a) (–6, 7) (b) (5, –15) (a) OA ⊥ BC (b) OB ⊥ CA
(c) (–5, 5) (d) (6, –17) (c) OC ⊥ AB (d) AB ⊥ BC
 
 9. If r is equally inclined to the co-ordinate axes and
5. Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k , b = b1i + b2 j + b3 k and  
 magnitude of r = 6 then r equals
c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k be three non-zero vectors such 2(i + j + k )
 (a) 3(k + i + j) (b)
that c is a unit vector perpendicular to both the 3

  6(i + j + k )
vectors a and b and if the angles between a and (c) (d) − 2 3(i + j + k )
a1 a2 a3
2 3 
 
p 10. If the unit vectors a and b are inclined at an angle
b is , then b1 b2 b3 is equal to  
6 2q and | a − b |< 1, then if 0 ≤ q ≤ p, q lies in the
c1 c2 c3 interval
(a) 1
1 (a) [0, p/6) (b) (5p/6, p]
(b) (a12 + a22 + a32 ) (b12 + b22 + b32 ) (c) [p/6, p/2] (d) [p/2, 5p/6]
4
mathematics today | february‘17 87
        
11. Let the unit vectors  A and B be perpendicular and (a) ( p × q)[ a × b  b × c c × a]
    
the
 unitvector  C be inclined  at an angle q to both (b) 2( p × q)[ a × b b × c c × a]
       
A and B . If C = a A + b B + g( A × B ) then (c) 4( p × q)[ a × b b × c c × a]
(a) a = b (b) g2 = 1 – 2a2     
1 + cos 2q (d) ( p × q) [ a × b b × c c × a].
(c) g2 = – cos 2q (d) b2 = Matrix Match Type
2
12. The equation of a sphere which passes through 16. Match the following:
(1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) and (0, 0, 1) and whose centre lies
on the curve 4xy = 1 is Column I Column II
(a) x2 + y2 + z2 – x – y – z = 0 P. A line is perpendicular to x + 2y + 1. 5
(b) x2 + y2 + z2 + x + y + z – 2 = 0
2z = 0 and passes through (0, 1, 0). 3
(c) x2 + y2 + z2 + x + y + z = 0
(d) x2 + y2 + z2 – x – y – z – 2 = 0 The perpendicular distance of this
x −1 y −1 z + 3 line from the origin is
13. The points in which the line = =
1 −1 1 Q. A plane passes through (1, –2, 1) 2. 2 2
cuts the surface x2 + y2 + z2 – 20 = 0 are and is perpendicular to two planes
(a) (0, 2, 4) (b) (0, 2, – 4) 2x – 2y + z = 0 and x – y + 2z = 4.
(c) (4, 2, 0) (d) (0, – 2, – 4) The distance of the plane from the
Comprehension Type point (1, 2, 2) is
   
If a, b, c are three given non-coplanar vectors and r Point (a, b, g) lies on the plane 3. 2
be any arbitrary vector in space, where R. 
            x + y + z = 2. Let a = ai + b j + g k ,
r ⋅a b⋅a c⋅a a⋅ a r ⋅ a c ⋅ a  
    k × ( k × a ) = 0 , then g =
       
∆1 = r ⋅ b b ⋅ b c ⋅ b , ∆ 2 = a ⋅ b r ⋅ b c ⋅ b ,
            P Q R
r ⋅c b⋅c c⋅c a⋅c r ⋅c c ⋅c (a) 2 1 3
            (b) 3 4 2
a⋅ a b⋅ a r ⋅ a a⋅ a b⋅ a c ⋅ a (c) 3 2 4
           
∆ 3 = a ⋅ b b ⋅ b r ⋅ b and ∆ = a ⋅ b b ⋅ b c ⋅ b , then (d) 1 2 3
            Integer Answer Type
a⋅ c b⋅ c r ⋅ c a⋅c b⋅c c ⋅c
     17. The line passes through the points (5, 1, a) and
14. If vector r is expressible as, r = xa + yb + zc, then
     17 13 
 a⋅a  a⋅b   (3, b, 1) crosses the yz-plane at the point  0, , −  .
(a) a =    (b × c ) +    (c × a)  2 2
[a b c] [a b c]   then a – b =
c⋅a  
+    (a × b)        
[a b c] 18. If [a × b b × c c × a] = l[abc ]2 , then l is equal to
            
(b) a = a ⋅ a(b ×c ) + a ⋅ b(c × a) + c ⋅ a(a × b)  19. The plane x + 2y – z = 4 cuts the sphere
(c) a = [ a b c ](b × c) + [ a b c ](c × a ) + [ a b c ](a × b) x2 + y2 + z2 – x + z – 2 = 0 in a circle of radius
(d) None of these.    

a b

c 20. Let u = i + j , v = i − j , w = i + 2 j + 3k . If n is a
 
     
15. The value for a ⋅ p b ⋅ p c ⋅ p , is unit vector such that u . n = 0 and v . n = 0 then

      w . n equals
a⋅q b⋅q c ⋅q
Keys are published in this issue. Search now! J

Check your score! If your score is


> 90% excellent work ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% Good work ! You can score good in the final exam.
No. of questions correct …… 74-60% satisfactory ! You need to score more next time.
Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% not satisfactory! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

88 mathematics today | february‘17


E
60° 4
F 60°
D
soLUtioN set-169 120°
2
1. (c) : z1, z2, z3 are roots ⇒ Sz1 = –p, Sz1z2 = q
p2 = Sz21 + 2q 120° C
For equilateral triangle, Sz21 = Sz1z2
4
\ p2 = q + 2q = 3q 60° 60°
1 1 1 A 1 B
2. (b) : + =
a b 2013 8. (d) : Area = Area of BCDE + Area of ABEF
⇒ (a – 2013)(b – 2013) = 20132 1 1
= (6 + 2)4 sin 60° + (6 + 5)sin 60°
= 32 ⋅ 112 ⋅ 612 2 2
11 43
The number of all pairs is the number of divisors of =8 3+ 3= 3
32 ⋅ 112 ⋅ 612, which is 33 = 27. 4 4
27 − 1 9. (4) : N is the coefficient of x30 in
Number of pairs (a, b), a < b is = 13 (1 + x + x2 + … + x10)3 (1 + x + x2 + … + x20)
2
3. (a) : x2 – ix – 1 = 0. Solving, (1 – x11)3 (1 – x21)(1 – x)–4
π 5π  4 5 
x = cis and x = cis = (1 – 3x11 + 3x22 – x21 …) 1 +   x +   x 2 + ... 
6 6  1 2 
2013 π π
x = cis (2013) and x2013 = cis (10065)
6 6  33   22  11 12 
2013 2013 –2013 which is   − 3   + 3   −  
⇒ x = –i, x +x = –i + i = 0  30   19  8 9
100 100 9 (r +1)2  33   22  11 12 
4. (c) : ∫ { x }dx = ∫ xdx − ∑ ∫ rdx =   − 3   + 3   −   = 1111,
3 3 3 3
0 0 r =0 r2
9 with digit sum 4.
2000 2000 2
= − ∑ (2r 2 + r ) = − 615 = 51 10. (a)-(s, t); (b)-(p), (c)-(r), (d)-(r)
3 r =1 3 3
f ( x ) − f (0) 1
5. (b) : The parabola is open upwards with vertex (a) f ′(0) = lim = lim x a −1 sin   = 0
x →0 x x →0 x
(2, – 1). The focus is (2, –1 + 1) = (2, 0).
if a > 1
The reflected ray passes through the focus (2, 0). 1 1
x ≠ 0 ⇒ f ′(x ) = ax a −1 sin   − x a − 2 cos  
6. (a, d) : The equation represents a pair of planes. x x
3 1 lim f ′( x ) = 0 if a > 2 \ a = 3, 4.
a x →0
2 2
3 (b) y(1) = 2 ⇒ 2 = a + b + c, y(0) = 0, y′(0) = 1
⇒ 1 1 = 0 ⇒ 4ab – 4a – 9b + 5 = 0 …(i) ⇒ c = 0, b = 1, a = 1 \ y = x2 + x, y(–1) = 0
2
1 π /2
1 b
2 (c) f(x) = sinx(1 + a), where a = ∫ cos tdt = 1
For perpendicular planes a + 1 + b = 0 …(ii) π /2 0
Eliminating b from (i) and (ii), we get \ f ( x ) = 2 sin x , ∫ f ( x )dx = 2.
7 0
4a2 – a – 14 = 0 ⇒ a = 2, − x2 y2
4 (d) The hyperbolas − y 2 = 1 and − x 2 = 1 have
7. (c) : ABEF and BCDE are trapeziums. 2 2
BE = 2 + 2 · 4 cos60° = 6 common tangents with slopes ±1. The four tangents
AF = BE – 2cos60° = 6 – 1 = 5 are x + y ± 1 = 0, x – y ± 1 = 0. They form a square
Perimeter = 1 + 4 + 2 + 4 + 1 + 5 = 17 of area 2 × 2 = 2


mathematics today | February‘17 89


90 mathematics today | February‘17