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Martha Barajas political science b1 chapter 1 essay

Government has three goals which are to resolve conflicts, provide public services, and defend

its nations and its culture against attacks by other nations. Conflicts such as who gets what and how, like

welfare and tax refunds. Some public services would be schools and roads. Defending the nation and its

culture can be seen if having a military force.

Four different systems of government are totalitarianism, oligarchy, democracy, and monarchy.

Totalitarianism is a form of government in which power resides in a leader who rules according to self-

interest and without regard for individual rights and liberties. It’s ruled by “Trannys” who rule their

countries to benefit themselves. The leader exercises unlimited power and individuals have no personal

rights or liberties. This is a case in North Korea under Kim Jong-Un. An oligarchy is a form of

government in which the right to participate depends on the possession of wealth, social status, military

position, or achievement. A few people rule in their own interest. China and Russia are countries that

have governments with oligarchic tendencies. Democracy is a system of government that gives power to

the people, whether directly or through elected representatives. Aristotle called rule of the many for the

benefit of all citizens a “policy” and rule of the many to benefit themselves a “democracy”. Most

governments worldwide are democracies. American colonists rejected a system with a strong ruler such

as the British monarchy when they declared their independence. As more and more settlers came to the

new world, many town meetings were replaced by a system of indirect democracy in which people vote

for representatives who works on their behalf. America ia an indirect democracy. A monarchy is a form

of government in which power is rested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interest of all.

It was a form of government in England from which the colonist fled.

American democracy is based on five fundamental principles. One principle is the equality in

voting. Everyone’s vote counts as one vote. Others may think just because they’re wealthier, more

educated or well known that their vote is worth more than others. It is not. The second principle is
Martha Barajas political science b1 chapter 1 essay

individual freedom which means all individuals are deemed rational, fair, and endowed. American

emphasizes on individuals and tries to improve the lives of their citizens by making services and rights

available on a group universal basis. It’s important to have individual freedom because not everyone has

the same opinion. For example some may think driving a certain speed limit is too slow or too fast so an

agreement that is just right is made so everyone stays safe. The third principle is majority rule and

minority rights which is the central premise of direct democracy in which only policies that collectively

garner the support of a majority of voters will be made into law. A lot of people would be unsatisfied if

this didn’t exist. The fourth is equal protection of the law which states that guarantee rights, privileges,

and protection is the same for all citizens. A conflict that would happen if this didn’t exist is

discrimination and racism would still be around. The fifth is voluntary consent to be governed which is

the authority of a government that should depend on the consent of the people, as expressed by votes

in elections. If this wasn’t possible many angry people would appear. These principles frequently lie at

the heart of America’s conflicts because of selfishness, dishonesty, bribery, and self-aggrandizement.

One of the four ways to evaluate democracy is substantive view which is based on the substance

of government policies. You must guarantee civil rights and liberties. Civil liberties are protections

against government actions. In America, we have the right to practice whatever religion we please. Civil

rights refer to the positive actions that government should take to create equal conditions for all

Americans. In America there’s protection for minority groups such as African Americans, Hispanics, and

women. Also to a limit you must guarantee social and economic rights. In America economics and social

rights guarantee that every person be afforded conditions under which they’re able to meet their needs.

They include the right to food, education, health, housing, social security and work. We have a

Martha Barajas political science b1 chapter 1 essay