Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 66





One of the main environmental problems today is pollution which includes

the disposal of the waste, like plastics. Plastics, particularly tarpaulins, are now scoping the

advertisement of all promotions of products, events and others. This results in the increase

of production of tarpaulin wastes from industrial to domestic users.

The abundance of these waste tarpaulins is one of the main reasons of the

researchers worldwide to conduct experimental studies that focus on recycling these waste

products. These tarpaulins are said to be flexible and water-resistant. Aside from the said

characteristics, tarpaulins have fibers that can be suitable to materials that lack tensile

strength. With this thinking, in relation to the general problem in construction industry,

these waste tarpaulins may help to improve construction materials such as concrete.

Generally, concrete inherently possesses a compressive property; thus, it has

the ability to resist compression when subjected to compressive loads. The American

Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) defines the twenty-eight (28) day compressive

strength of concrete to be less than or equal to 41.2 Megapascals (MPa). Pure concrete

alone seldom withstands a tensile force, but may be able to absorb such tensile forces when

it is reinforced with steel bars. Steel bars placed into the concrete are usually grade 30 or

60, which are characterized by higher ductility, thus it is a structural motive why concrete

and steel are both used in construction. Concrete’s tensile strength is one of the basic and

important properties that should vary from about 8% to 15% of its compressive strength.

Concrete is brittle in tension but relatively tough in compression. A major reason for the

small tensile strength is the fact that concrete lacks reinforcements, such as steel bars which

can help to increase its tensile strength. On the other hand, providing additional

components to concrete can help to close the cracks that are subjected to compression load.

Fibers are described to control cracking due to plastic shrinkage and to

drying shrinkage. They also reduce to the permeability of concrete and thus reduce

bleeding water. Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) fibers are used in making banners and tarpaulins.

PVA fibers in tarpaulins have a modulus of elasticity (resistance to stretching) greater than

concrete, making them a potential structural fiber. It also has strong tensile strength and

bond strength.

Due to its fibers, addition of components, particularly PVA fibers can

enhance the tensile and compressive capacity of concrete. In this experimental study, an

attempt has been made to use the waste tarpaulin in concrete and studies have been

conducted to focus particularly on the behavior of concrete mixture with various

proportions of tarpaulin waste.

The researchers come up to this study of the behaviour of concrete mixture

with shredded PVA tarpaulin.


Statement of the Problem

The general problem of the study is "How may the behaviour of concrete

mixture with shredded tarpaulin be analyzed?"

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. How may the chemical and physical properties of shredded tarpaulin be

shredded tarpaulin described?

2. How may the conventional and designed concrete mixtures with or

without shredded tarpaulin be prepared?

3. What are the results and analysis of the conventional and designed

concrete mixtures with or without shredded tarpaulin after subjecting to compressive test?

4. How may the conventional and designed concrete mixture with or without

shredded tarpaulin be compared in terms of compressive strength?

Significance of the Study

The main objective of the study is to observe and analyze the behavior of

shredded Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) tarpaulin with concrete mixture. As an important study

of interest in the construction industry, the researchers might discover shredded PVA

tarpaulin as an effective additional component to concrete mixture that can enhance its

compressive strength.

Results of this study are expected to benefit also the following:

1. Civil Engineering Students and Researchers. The result of this study could

introduce a new and innovative way of knowledge and at the same time encourage others

to conduct similar studies about shredded PVA tarpaulin.

2. Government and Community. The study aims to lessen and reuse the tarpaulin

wastes and to provide funds to further develop the study. The concern in this study is the

advancement of technology in construction.

3. Civil Engineers, Contractors and House Builders. The study will provide

information to the professional Civil Engineers regarding the usage of shredded PVA

tarpaulin concrete mixture for construction. And this study will provide knowledge to

improve the methods of construction, shredded Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) tarpaulin as an

additional component as well as enhancing the toughness of the structures.

Scope and Delimitation of the study

The scope of this study basically involves shredded PVA tarpaulin as

additional component to concrete with indigenous materials, whose engineering properties

are determined as per ASTM standards. The study makes use of conventional concrete

mixture (plain concrete) and trial concrete mixture (plain concrete with shredded PVA

tarpaulin cut into 5mm by 6mm in size). The property that is determined in this study

includes compressive strength of both conventional and trial concrete mixture. Comparison

of the compressive strengths between conventional and trial concrete mixture is included

through a graphical analysis, in 14, 21, and 28 day strength bases.


The study focuses on the potentials of shredded PVA tarpaulin as an

additional component to increase the compressive strength of concrete. This research will

also be limited on the experimentation of shredded PVA tarpaulin as an additional

component to investigate the compressive strength, and also intend to determine the water

absorption in getting the physical properties of the shredded PVA tarpaulin concrete


This experimentation used a Class A Cement mixture based on ACI method

of proportions, with proportioning 1: 2: 3 design mixture. The materials that are used in

this study are cement, coarse aggregate including gravel with ¾ inch size, fine aggregate,

water and shredded Polyvinyl Alcohol tarpaulin as an additional component to concrete

mixture with 5mm by 6mm in size.

Preliminary experiments and tests includes, washing and drying of

aggregates, specific gravity and absorption of fine aggregate, specific gravity and

absorption of coarse aggregate, sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates, reducing field

samples of aggregate to testing size, calibration of water for specific gravity, slump test

,and compressive (cylinder) strength.

Equipment and tools that are used in this study are cylindrical molds,

tamping rods, mallets, slump apparatus (frustum cone and baseplate), sieve, shovel,

concrete mixer, and Universal Testing Machine (UTM).

Concrete mixing, curing, and testing of samples are some of the process that

were utilized for the analyzation of the behaviour of concrete mixture with shredded PVA


Definition of Terms

In conducting the study, the researchers encountered some engineering

terms. The terms here are conceptually and operationally defined for better understanding

of the readers.

Aggregates. These are the granular material such as sand and gravel, that

is added to a concrete mixture to make a good quality of concrete.

Cement. It is used in construction that sets and hardens and can bind

other materials together.

Compaction. It refers to the method removing of spacing or air in the


Compressive Strength. It is the capacity of a material or structure to

withstand loads tending to reduce size.

Concrete. It is a mixture of sand, gravel, or other aggregates held together

with a paste cement and water to create a strong mixture that is used in creating

establishments and/or buildings.

Curing. It refers to the method in which the concrete is in hardening stage

that allowing it to reach its maximum strength.

Flexural Capacity. It is also known as modulus of rupture. It is used to

measure the tensile strength of a concrete.

Fibers. These Are the material that is made of thin threads.

Modulus of elasticity. It is used to measure an object if it is being

deformed elastically due to the applied force to it.


Plastic shrinkage. It is also called drying shrinkage. It is a crack that is

caused because of excessive drying or exposed surfaces.

Permeability. It is defined to have the ability of resisting chemical attacks

or any other effect from becoming worst.

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers. It can be found in the making of

tarpaulins, it has high tensile strength and flexibility, has a crack-fighting property and

high modulus of elasticity.

Tarpaulin. This is a printing material that has fibers with great flexibility

property and a water-resistant material.

Tensile strength. It is the capacity of a material or structure to know how

long it will withstand the load tending to it to test its elongation.

Water absorption. It is the used to determine the amount of water

absorbed in a specified condition.

Universal Testing Machine. It refers to the machine where the

compressive strength of the concrete test.




This chapter mainly focuses about literatures and studies related to concrete

mixture with shredded Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Tarpaulin. The main concept of the study

is also elaborated and discussed in this chapter.

Related Literature

A tarpaulin or tarp is a large sheet of strong, flexible, water-resistant or

waterproof material, often cloth such as canvas or polyester coated with urethane, or made

of plastics such as polyethylene. Inexpensive modern tarpaulins are made from woven

polyethylene; this material is so associated with tarpaulins that it has become colloquially

known in some quarters as polytarp.

Different tarpaulins also have different uses, and the type of material used

can often provide an indicator as to what applications the tarpaulin is most appropriate for.

Canvas (frequently cotton duck canvas) is a heavy, robust material, which is given a wax

coating to create a water-resistant layer. This will need periodic recoating. Jute is a plant

fibre which is woven into a thread to create many different things, such as rope and carpet.

It is also turned into sheets which are frequently sold as tarpaulins. Jute tarpaulins may be

wax proofed to provide some protection from the rain. Modern tarpaulins are often made

from thermoplastics, which are plastics which can be heated up and manipulated more than

once. Silnylon tarpaulins are made from nylon infused with silicone. Polypropylene is a

propene polymer, (and is alternatively called polypropene) and tarpaulins made from this

are similar to those made from jute, but do not allow any water to pass through the sheet.

Polyethylene is an ethene polymer, also known as polyethene.

These tarpaulins, also known as poly tarps, are constructed from low density

polyethylene (a weaker, near solid polyethylene) or high density polyethylene (which is

stronger and more flexible), and subsequently coated with the other. Polyester is a material

often used to make clothing. It can also be used to make tarpaulins, and is often covered

with a (poly) urethane PU layer. Tarpaulins can also be made with a mesh design which

helps allow moisture to escape in the same vein as canvas tarpaulins. Such tarpaulins are

often nylon based. However, these tarpaulins cannot protect objects from the weather, as

they are designed to allow a degree of wind and light through. There are also tarpaulins

known as "Rip-Stop" or "Cotton-Poly" canvas tarpaulins. These benefit from being a

hybrid between the natural fibers of cotton and polyester, which is synthetic, and have

benefits of both.

According to Debashis Wadadar of Indian Institute of Technology, concrete

carries flaws and micro-cracks both in the material and at the interfaces even before an

external load is applied. These defects and micro-cracks emanate from excess water,

bleeding, plastic settlement, thermal and shrinkage strains and stress concentrations

imposed by external restraints. Under an applied load, distributed micro-cracks propagate

coalesce and align themselves to produce macro-cracks. When loads are further increased,

conditions of critical crack growth are attained at the tips of the macro-cracks and unstable

and catastrophic failure is precipitated.

The micro and macro-fracturing processes can favorably be modified by

adding short, randomly distributed fibers of various suitable materials. Fibers not only

suppress the formation of cracks, but also abate their propagation and growth. Soon after

placement, evaporation of the mix water and the autogenously process of concrete

hydration create shrinkage strains in concrete. With large surface areas, fibers engage water

in the mix and reduce bleeding and segregation. The result is that there is less water

available for evaporation and less overall free shrinkage.

On the other hand, in the hardened state, when fibers are properly bonded,

they interact with the matrix at the level of micro-cracks and effectively bridge these cracks

thereby providing stress transfer media that delays their coalescence and unstable growth.

If the fiber volume fraction is sufficiently high, this may result in an increase in the tensile

composite. Once the tensile capacity of the composite is reached, and coalescence and

conversion of micro-cracks to macro-cracks has occurred, fibers, depending on their length

and bonding characteristics continue to restrain crack opening and crack growth by

effectively bridging across macro-cracks. This post-peak macro-crack bridging is the

primary reinforcement mechanism in the majority of commercial fiber reinforced concrete


Different types of fibers used in fiber reinforced concrete.

The following are the different type of fibers generally used in the construction


1. Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete. This is fiber made from mild

steel drawn wire. Round steel fibers are produced by cutting or chopping the wire while

flat sheet fibers are produced by silting flat sheets.

2. Asbestos Fibers. Asbestos fibers have thermal mechanical &

chemical resistance making them suitable for sheet product pipes, tiles and corrugated

roofing elements.

3. Carbon Fibers. Carbon fiber comes under the very high modulus

of elasticity and flexural strength. These are expansive. Their strength & stiffness

characteristics have been found to be superior even to those of steel. But they are more

vulnerable to damage than even glass fiber, and hence are generally treated with resin


4. Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GRFC). Glass fiber is made up

from 200-400 individual filaments which are lightly bonded to make up a stand. These

stands can be chopped into various lengths, or combined to make cloth mat or tape.

5. Organic Fibers. Organic fiber such as polypropylene or natural

fiber may be chemically more inert than either steel or glass fibers. They are also cheaper,

especially if natural. A large volume of vegetable fiber may be used to obtain a multiple

cracking composite. The problem of mixing and uniform dispersion may be solved by

adding a super plasticizer.

6. Carbon Fibers. Carbon fiber comes under the very high modulus

of elasticity and flexural strength. These are expansive. Their strength & stiffness

characteristics have been found to be superior even to those of steel. But they are more

vulnerable to damage than even glass fiber, and hence are generally treated with resin


Table 2-1 Different types and properties of fibers used in fiber reinforced concrete

Elastic Modulus Tensile Failure Strain

Material/Fiber Length (mm)
(GPa) Strength (Mpa) (%)
Asbestos 5-40 164 200-1800 2-3
Carbon 3-cont. 30-390 600-2700 0.5-2.4
Glass 10-50 70 600-2500 3.6
Polyvinyl Alcohol 2-6 12-40 700-1500 -
Steel 10-60 200 700-2000 3-5

As the researchers showed here the table of different types and properties of fiber in fiber

reinforced concrete, Polyvinyl Alcohol was one of the materials that can be an additional

mixture to test or add additional strength for the concrete mixture.

Factors affecting properties of fiber reinforced concrete:

1. Shape and bond at fiber matrix interface. The modulus of

elasticity of matrix must be much lower than that of fiber for efficient stress transfer. Low

modulus of fibers such as nylon and polypropylene are therefore unlikely to give strength

improvement, but they help in the absorption of large energy and therefore impart greater

degree of toughness and resistance to impact. High modulus fibers such as steel, glass and

carbon impart strength and stiffness to the composite. Interfacial bond between the matrix

and the fibers also determine the effectiveness of stress transfer, from the matrix to the

fiber. A good bond is essential for improving tensile strength of the composite.

2. Volume fraction of fiber. The strength of the composite depends

largely on the quantity of fibers used in it. The increase in the volume of fibers, increase

approximately linearly, the tensile strength and toughness of the composite. Use of higher

percentage of fiber is likely to cause segregation and hardness of concrete and mortar.

3. Fiber aspect ratio. Fiber aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of fiber

length to the equivalent fiber diameter. In order to utilize fracture strength of fibers fully,

adequate bond between the matrix and the fiber has to be developed.

4. Orientation of fibers. One of the differences between conventional

reinforcement and fiber reinforcement is that in conventional reinforcement bars are

oriented in the direction desired while fibers are randomly oriented. It was observed that in

fiber reinforced mortar the fibers aligned parallel to the applied load offered more tensile

strength and toughness than randomly distributed or perpendicular.

5. Workability and compaction of concrete. Incorporation of steel

fiber decreases the workability considerably and even prolonged external vibration fails to

compact the concrete. This situation adversely affects the consolidation of fresh mix. The

fiber volume at which this situation is reached depends on the length and diameter of the

fiber and non-uniform distribution of the fibers. Generally, the workability and compaction

standard of the mix are improved through increased water/cement ratio or by the use of

water reducing admixtures. The overall workability of fresh fibrous mixes is largely

independent of the fiber type. Crimped fibers produce slightly higher slumps, and hooked

fibers are more effective than straight and crimped ones.

6. Mixing. Mixing of fiber reinforced concrete needs careful

conditions to avoid balling of fibers, segregation, and difficulty of mixing the materials


Focusing on Polyvinyl Alcohol, Polyvinyl Alcohol is a Polymer (Plastic)

fiber used in making banners and tarpaulins. Being a polymer, it is known to have

properties such as waterproof, acid proof, alkali proof. But unlike other kinds of plastic it

is high in heat resistance and abrasion resistance. PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) fibers are high-

performance reinforcement fibers for concrete and mortar. It is well-suited for a wide

variety of applications because of their superior crack-fighting properties, high modulus of

elasticity, excellent tensile and molecular bond strength, and high resistance to alkali, UV,

chemicals, fatigue and abrasion. It is also unique in their ability to create a molecular bond

with mortar and concrete that is 300% greater than other fiber.

According to the book of Industrial Plastics: Theory and Applications (6th

Edition) by Eric Lokensgard, Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) is both alcohol- and water- soluble.

The properties vary depending on the concentration of polyvinyl acetate that remains in

alcohol solution. It may be, used as a binder and adhesive for paper ceramics, cosmetics,

and textiles. It is useful in the manufacture of reinforced plastics products. There has been

only limited used of it for moldings and fibers. The physical and chemical properties of

fibers, polyvinyl alcohol are as follows:

1. Moisture Absorbency. PVA fiber is more hygroscopic than any

other synthetic fiber.

2. Dimensional Stability. The wet heat resistance of PVA fiber is

indicated by the wet softening temperature (WTS) at which the fiber shrinks to a specified


3. Weather Resistance. It has been shown for over 40 years that PVA

fiber has excellent resistance against exposure to sunlight.

4. Chemical Resistance. The fiber exhibits markedly high resistance

to organic solvents, oils, salts, and alkali. In particular, the fiber has unique resistance to

alkali, and is hence widely used in the form of a paper principally comprising it and as

reinforcing material for cement as a replacement of asbestos.

5. Chemical resistance. Resistance to acid, alkali and organic

solvents, and with excellent oil resistance.

6. Thermal stability. There is no significant change at 40℃ to 160℃,

the color becomes darker, and more than 220 ℃ begins to decompose, generating water

acetic aldehyde and so on.

According also to the Iranian Journal of Materials Science & Engineering

Vol. 7, Number 1, winter 2010 by A. Allahverdi, K. Kianpur and M. R. Moghbeli, to satisfy

the needs of modern civilization, continuous research works are devoted to development

of new low cost materials with specific properties. Recent advances in the field of cement-

based products are related to the use of admixtures like polymers added in small quantities

to modify the properties of cement products. Cement–polymer composites are materials,

which are made by a very small replacement of hydraulic cement by polymeric binders. It

is believed that some of the water-soluble polymers interact chemically with the hydration

products of Portland cement, and the others just make a film around cement grains. The

nature of the interaction therefore depends upon the type and the amount of polymer used.

For the case of chemically reactive polymers, like polyvinyl alcohol, the mechanism of the

reaction is not yet completely understood due to the amorphous nature of the products.

However, discussions were made based on studies on microstructure and molecular

structure and it is proposed that calcium complexes formed by chemical interaction occupy

the free place in the pore structure. The new compounds formed fill the pores, thus,

densifying the structure and improving properties of the cement paste. The role of water in

polymer-modified cement mixes is very important and not just hydrating the cement

phases, but at the same time hydrolysis of polymer, dispersion of polymer around cement

particles, and imparting rheological properties for a suitable workability. Water is also

responsible for the total volume and size distribution of the pore system developing in the

hardened cement paste, controlling its permeability and thus determining its durability. In

spite of such important role, no individual research work has been devoted to the role of

water. The present study is therefore devoted to the simultaneous effects of both W/C and

P/C-ratios on important physical properties of type V Portland cement paste containing

polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl alcohol is a water-soluble polymer which has gained more

attention in recent years due to its potential for industrial applications. Flexural strength

was measured and studied as the most important mechanical property of the polymer-

modified cement paste and water absorption was also considered and studied as the most

important physical property determining the material durability in penetrating aggressive

environments. The hardened cement pastes prepared at the optimum W/C-ratio, i.e. 0.30,

were also utilized to investigate the effects of P/C-ratio on their dry bulk specific gravity,

total permeable pore volume and water absorption.

According to the Basic Concrete Engineering for Builders, by Max

Schwartz (2004) that the concrete (construction) is an artificial engineering material made

from a mixture of Portland cement, water, fine and coarse aggregates, and a small amount

of air. It is the most widely used construction material in the world.

Concrete is the only major building material that can be delivered to the job

site in a plastic state. This unique quality makes concrete desirable as a building material

because it can be molded to virtually any form or shape. Concrete provides a wide latitude

in surface textures and colors and can be used to construct a wide variety of structures,

such as highway and streets, bridges, dams, large buildings, airport runways, irrigation

structures, breakwaters, piers and docks, sidewalks, silos and farm buildings, homes, and

even barges and ships.

Other desirable qualities of concrete as a building material are strength,

economy and durability. Depending on the mixture of material used, concrete will support,

in compression, 700 or more kg/sq cm (10 000 or more lb/sq in). the tensile strength of

concrete is much lower, but by using properly designed steel reinforcing, structural

members can be made that are as strong in tension as they are in compression. The

durability of concrete is evidenced by the fact that the concrete columns built by the

Egyptians more than 3600 years ago, are still standing.

Cement as one of the major component of concrete can be bought from all

builder merchants. It is crushed limestone, blended with other raw materials ground into

powder and then heated in a kiln. This process produces a cement clinker which is mixed

with gypsum and ground further to produce the cement.

Concrete is widely used in domestic, commercial, recreational, rural and

educational construction. Communities around the world rely on concrete as a safe, strong

and simple building material. It is used in all types of construction; from domestic work to

multi-storey office blocks and shopping complexes. Despite the common usage of

concrete, few people are aware of the considerations involved in designing strong, durable,

high quality concrete.


Concrete Materials. Concrete is made by mixing cement, water, coarse and

fine aggregates, and admixtures. The aim is to mix these materials in measured amounts to

make concrete that is easy to transport, place, compact and finish. And which will set, and

harden, to give a strong and durable product. The amount of each material (i.e. cement,

water and aggregates) affects the properties of hardened concrete.

Cement. The cement powder, when mixed with water, forms a paste. This

paste acts like glue and holds or bonds the aggregates together. Cement should be stored

off the ground in a well-aired, clean, dry place. Wrapping the cement bags in plastic sheets

gives extra protection.

Aggregates. There are of two basic types; Coarse Aggregates, such as

crushed rock, gravel or screenings. Fine Aggregates, such as fine and coarse sands and

crusher fines. Aggregates should be; strong and hard, the stronger, the harder aggregate

will give a stronger final concrete, never use a crumble or flakey rock like sandstone,

durable to stand up to wear and tear and weathering, chemically inactive so the aggregates

don’t react with the cement.

Storage. Aggregates should be stored where they will stay clean, separated

from other materials and dry. If the aggregates are very wet use less water in the mix.

Water. Water is mixed with the cement powder to form a paste which holds

the aggregates together like glue. Water must be clean, fresh and free from any dirt,

unwanted chemicals or rubbish that may affect concrete. Many concrete plants now use

recycled water. Always check bore water before use. Don’t use sea water as it may rust the

steel reinforcement in the concrete.


How the Process Works. Measured amounts of the coarse and fine

aggregates are mixed together. A measured amount of cement is added and mixed in.

Enough water is added to make the mix workable. All the materials are then mixed together

well. The cement powder and water form a paste which bonds the aggregates together like


Concrete States. Plastic State. When the concrete is first mixed it is like

'bread dough'. It is soft and can be worked or molded into different shapes. In this state

concrete is called plastic. Concrete is plastic during placing and compaction. The most

important properties of plastic concrete are workability and cohesiveness. A worker will

sink into plastic concrete. The second is the Setting State. Concrete then begins to stiffen.

The stiffening of concrete, when it is no longer soft, is called setting. Setting takes place

after compaction and during finishing. Concrete that is sloppy or wet may be easy to place

but will be more difficult to finish. A worker leaves footprints in setting concrete. Third is

Hardening State. After concrete has set it begins to gain strength and harden. The

properties of hardened concrete are strength and durability. Hardened concrete will have

no footprints on it if walked on.

Workability means how easy it is to place, handle, compact and finish a

concrete mix.

Concrete that is stiff or dry may be difficult to Handle, Place, Compact, and

Finish and, if not constructed properly, will not be as strong or durable when finally

hardened. A slump test can be used to measure the workability of concrete.

Workability is affected by; the amount of cement paste. The cement paste

is the soft or liquid part of the concrete mix. The more paste mixed with the coarse and fine

aggregates, the more workable a mix. To make a more workable mix, add more cement

paste, use well graded aggregates, use an admixture. Note, never try to make a mixture

more workable by just adding more water because this lowers the strength and durability

of concrete. Second is strength and durability. Well-made concrete is a naturally strong

and durable material. It is dense, reasonably watertight, and able to resist changes in

temperature, as well as wear and tear from weathering. Strength and durability are affected

by the density of the concrete. Denser concrete is more watertight (or less permeable).

Concrete durability increases with strength. Well-made concrete is very important to

protect the steel in reinforced concrete. Strength of concrete in the hardened state is usually

measured by the compressive strength using the compression Test. Strength and durability

are affected by; first, compaction, it is removing the air from concrete. Proper compaction

results in concrete with an increased density which is stronger and more durable. Second

is curing, it is keeping concrete damp for a period, to allow it to reach maximum strength.

Longer curing will give more durable concrete. Third is weather, warmer weather will

cause concrete to have a higher early strength. Fourth is cohesiveness, it is how well

concrete holds together when plastic. Cohesiveness is affected by: the aggregate grading,

graded aggregate can be observed when there is a range of size of aggregates from large

rocks to small sands. Well-graded aggregates give a more cohesive mix; too much coarse

aggregate gives a boney mix. And water content, a mix that has too much water will not be

cohesive and may separate and bleed.

Related Studies

According to Luo Zhenshuai and Wang Shipeng of School of Civil

Engineering and Architecture, School of Traffic and transportation, Chongqing Jiaotong

University, Chongqing 400074, China; May 2015. The Study of Polyvinyl Alcohol Fiber

Reinforced Cement Stabilized Macadam.

Polyvinyl alcohol fiber cement stabilized macadam is a new material that

composed of polyvinyl alcohol fiber and cement stabilized macadam. The raw material of

polyvinyl alcohol fiber is polyvinyl alcohol and through a special process formed. In 1980s,

Japan first developed polyvinyl alcohol fiber that can be used for roadbed base. In the late

1980s, China successively developed polyvinyl alcohol fiber too. The features of polyvinyl

alcohol fibers are hydrophilic, high elastic modulus, high specific surface area and have

good compatibility with cement. However, the researches on the polyvinyl alcohol fiber

cement stabilized macadam are still rare, this limits its application and promotion

.Therefore, expanding the researches on the polyvinyl alcohol fiber cement stabilized

macadam is necessary.

The incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol fiber can be a good increase of

compressive strength of cement stabilized macadam, when the length of the fiber is 12mm

and the volume fraction is 0.6 Kg/m3, the compressive strength of cement stabilized

macadam is largest. The variation between polyvinyl alcohol fiber and the splitting tensile

strength of cement stabilized macadam is not obvious. When the length of the fiber is

12mm and the volume fraction is 0.9Kg/m3, and the length of the fiber is 18mm and the

volume fraction is 1.2Kg/m3, the splitting tensile strength of cement stabilized macadam is


According to Michael M. Rung, David P. Whitney, Ramon L. Carrasquillo

and David W. Fowler Research Report, Number 1349-1F, Investigation into Organic Scrap

Material Substitutions in Portland Cement Concrete.

As part of its ongoing recycling efforts, the Texas Department of

Transportation (TxDOT) is attempting to reduce solid waste generation by 40 percent, and

to spend at least 10 percent of its budget for consumable supplies, material, and equipment.

Accordingly, the agency is evaluating every opportunity to use or reuse waste materials.

Because of the high volumes of concrete produced every year for TxDOT construction

projects, the agency has begun evaluating the feasibility of incorporating recycled materials

in roadway construction. The report describes early attempts to incorporate three major

waste materials groups into various TxDOT concrete applications. The waste materials

evaluated for use in this project included PVC plastic, crumb rubber (CR), and recycled

asphalt concrete (RAP). The intent was to determine feasible applications in which TxDOT

might be able to use significant quantities of these materials, so as to reduce the burdens

on landfills.

Waste Stream Analysis

Plastics make up approximately 8.3 percent of the municipal solid waste

stream in Texas. Although less prevalent in landfills and far more difficult to recycle than

many other materials, plastics are worthy of being recycled for several reasons (Texas

General Land Office, TGLO):

• The durability of plastic, which makes it such a problem when disposed improperly, makes

it an ideal material for recycling, since it can be remade almost endlessly.

• Recycling plastics consumes less energy than manufacturing virgin plastic.


• Since plastics are derived from oil and gas, recycling existing material conserves an

important natural, non-renewable resource.

• Developing a viable plastics recycling industry in Texas creates new jobs.

Factors Affecting the Use of Scrap Materials in Concrete

Several factors affect the decision to include organic scrap materials in any

Portland cement concrete application. Typically, only after weighing the pros and cons of

each of the pertinent areas will organic scrap materials be considered for use as fillers in

concrete. Included among these considerations are such factors as technical makeup and

relative volumes of the 3 scrap, local availability, volume of concrete needed for the

construction application and the effects of the scrap upon the durability of the concrete for

site specific applications. Obviously, some types of scrap materials may not be used locally

in concrete or in other

Concrete, specifically Portland cement concrete (PCC), is a material that has

the potential to be used as a tool for the reduction of scrap plastics in landfills. In this study,

polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was used as a replacement filler for the fine aggregates of a given


General Observations

All of the mixes, regardless of cement content or type of scrap material, had

uniform distribution of the replacement materials. The 5-sack mixes used were gritty and

dry owing to the high sand content, but strengths and workability were adequate after the

addition of the high range water reducer. The 6- and 7sack mixes seemed much more

cohesive. The workability could still be improved by using less sand and coarser aggregate.

The 5- and 6-sack mixes with crumb rubber at a replacement value of 15 percent by volume

did not meet minimum flexural strengths required for many field applications.

There are too many types of plastic scrap to evaluate in the short duration

of this project. The researchers decided to pick a scrap material from a relatively high

volume source that is readily available in our area. The plastic evaluated was PVC. This

scrap was generated from electrical wire casings and is available in many sizes. Because

of the size of the scrap evaluated in this study, it was used as a replacement for fine

aggregates on a volume basis in the range of 7.5 to 15 percent.

Conceptual Framework


Realization of the possibile

INPUT methods and behavior of
concrete mixture with
Determination of the shredded PVA tarpaulin OUTPUT
1. Related Studies Behavior of
1. Good quality - Properties of PVA Concrete Mixture
materials (sand, tarpaulin as an admixture and with Shredded
gravel, cement and its compatibility to concrete Polyvinyl Alcohol
PVA tarpaulin) mixture Tarpaulin
2. Proper accuracy 2. Proper Proportioning of
of design mix Materials, mixing and curing
3. Testing of Specimens
4. Analysis
5. Evaluation

Figure 2-1 Paradigm of the Study

The concept of the paradigm above is developed so that the problem and

flow of the study will be presented in a simple way. It is easier to explain and understand

because the framework is structured and it specifies the input, process and the output that

servers as a step by step guide to achieve the objectives of this study.

Input. These are the elements that could be evaluated in terms of their

potential contribution to the problem stated. The design mixture of the study must be

properly executed, as well as the use of good quality of the materials.

Process. Related studies and literatures are gathered to gain data that can

possibly provide background and understanding of the compatibility of concrete mixture

with shredded PVA tarpaulin. Mixing, curing, testing, analysis, and evaluation of test are

the general process to provide the behavior of shredded tarpaulin to concrete mixture.

Output. The output of the study will be the Behavior of Concrete Mixture

with Shredded Polyvinyl Alcohol Tarpaulin. The results are then tabulated and analyzed to

gain conclusion and recommendations.




The main purpose of this chapter was to elaborate the procedures,

methodologies, tests and equipment that were used in this study. In this section the

researcher might discussed the nature of the research and the purposed of the procedures

and methodology.


The data collection for analyzing the behavior of concrete mixture with

shredded PVA tarpaulin was conducted by experimentation; minimum of 5 kg of shredded

PVA tarpaulin have been collected. The PVA tarpaulins were shredded manually by cutting

into 6mm by 5mm and 3mm by 40mm in size using scissors and cutter. Prior to the

designing of concrete mix, the standards that were adopted as per American Society for

Testing and Materials (ASTM) included the ASTM C29, ASTM C127, ASTM C128,

ASTM C136, and ASTM C143, while the parameters that have been determined through

each laboratory test included the specific gravity for cement; unit weight, specific gravity

and absorption of aggregates, and fineness modulus for sand. The design of concrete mix

was based on the ACI method of proportion 1:2:3.

Samples that were used in preparing the study involved three samples of

preliminary trial mixture for the determination of its optimum design strength, three

samples of conventional concrete mixture, and 28 samples of trial concrete mixture filled

with shredded PVA tarpaulin.


The curing of samples was a minimum of fourteen (14) days and maximum

of twenty-eight (28), thereafter each set of concrete samples was brought for analysis in

the universal testing machine (UTM) for compressive test analysis. The loads were

recorded, and its compressive strength was determined. Compressive test of concrete

samples was conducted as per ASTM C39, “Standard Test Method for Compressive

Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens1).”

From the three trial samples, a graph was plotted to determine the optimum

compressive strength and interval percentage of shredded PVA tarpaulin to be added in the

concrete mixture. Specific percentage of shredded PVA tarpaulin from the interval were

added in the samples of concrete mixture then cured and tested to obtained the compressive

strength of each samples.

On the other hand, tests in the analysis of the behavior of concrete mixture

with shredded PVA tarpaulin have been conducted at the Frey - Fil Corporation at Brgy.

Pungo, Calumpit, Bulacan.

Tarpaulin Sampling

Sample tarpaulins have been collected from different municipalities in

Bulacan and other establishments. In the sampling processes, a minimum of 5 kg of PVA

tarpaulins were collected prior to its shredding.


Table 3-1 Amount of Tarpaulin (6 mm x 5 mm)

Trial Mix Percentage of tarp (%)

Trial 1 0.2
Trial 2 0.4
Trial 3 0.6
Trial 4 0.8
Trial 5 1.0
Trial 6 1.5
Trial 7 2.0

The percentage of tarpaulin as shown in the table was based on the result

of preliminary trial mixtures.

Figure 3-1 Collection of Tarpaulin Samples

Figure 3-2 Manual Cutting of Tarpaulin Using Cutter and Scissors


Figure 3-3 Weighing of Shredded PVA tarpaulin

Figure 3-4 Actual Samples of Shredded PVA


Laboratory Tests Prior to Designing of Concrete Mix

The tests which have been performed were ASTM C29 (Bulk Unit Weight

Test for Aggregates), ASTM C127 and C128 (Specific Gravity and Absorption Test for

Fine and Coarse Aggregates), and ASTM C136 (Mechanical Analysis of Aggregates). (The

full description of all these tests may be found at the Appendix.)

a.) Unit Weight of Aggregates. In accordance to ASTM C29, a cylindrical

measure was used in determination of unit weight of fine and coarse aggregates. The

measure was filled up by sand and gravel, separately by rodding in layers. Temperature

conditions within the laboratory were also noted, since the density of water would be

expected to change as well. A spring balance was used to measure its weight with and

without the aggregates, and be divided by the density of water to obtain the unit weight of

the aggregates.

b.) Specific Gravity and Absorption of Aggregates. As per ASTM C127 and

ASTM C128, respectively, immersion of gravel and sand into water was done 24 hours

prior to the test proper. Immediately after the soaking period, fifty (50%) percent of both

sand and gravel was surface-dried, while the other half of the samples was oven-dried for

1.5 – 2 hours prior to weighing both types of aggregates. A pycnometer bottle and triple

beam balance were used in weighing the sand, while a wire basket and spring balance were

used in weighing the gravel. Weight by-displacement was adopted for computing the

specific gravity of the aggregates, while the ratio between the weights of aggregates at both

SSD and oven-dried states was adopted in the calculation of absorption.


c.) Sieve Analysis of Aggregates. A 1-kg sample of bulk sand was prepared

prior to drying into the oven for 15 to 20 minutes. After oven-drying, it was poured on

standard sizes of sieves in preparation for weighing them per layer. A sieve shaker was

used to facilitate proper sieving operations of the set of sieves for five (5) minutes,

thereafter, the individual weights in each sieve and the pan were determined. A tabulated

summary of the weights retained in each sieve was adopted so that the water content and

fineness modulus of the aggregates were determined.

Design of Concrete Mix

ACI method was employed in designing the concrete mix. On the

preparation of concrete samples, a cylindrical mold was used in pouring the concrete mix.

A semi-job mix methodology in preparing concrete mix was employed in the experiment,

where a one-bagger concrete mixer was used to facilitate properly the mixing of

proportions of sand, water, gravel and cement. However, careful addition of water was

observed in the preparation, since overfed water in the concrete mix causes it to be

permanently unusable. Before starting the concrete pouring completely at the molds, a

slump test was conducted from a certain sample mass of the prepared concrete mix. For

ACI specifications, slump must be in the range from 6”-8” to indicate that the concrete was

adequately workable. The class A concrete mix (1: 2: 3) by volume was the basis of

determining the proportions of concrete (cement, sand, gravel and water).


Table 3-2 Design mix for different mixture

Cement Gravel Tarp Water

Trial Mix Sand (kg)
(kg) (kg) (kg) (liter)
Trial 1 2.224 3.608 7.217 0.150 1.172
Trial 2 2.224 3.608 7.217 0.310 1.172
Trial 3 2.224 3.608 7.217 0.460 1.172
Trial 4 2.224 3.608 7.217 0.620 1.172
Trial 5 2.224 3.608 7.217 0.770 1.172
Trial 6 2.224 3.608 7.217 1.160 1.172
Trial 7 2.224 3.608 7.217 1.540 1.172

The table shows the amount of cement, sand, gravel, water and shredded

tarpaulin that were used in each trial.

Figure 3-11 Cylindrical Molds Making Concrete Samples


Figure 3-12 Brushing the Cylinder molds with Grease

Figure 3-13 Washing of Bulk Gravel with Water

Figure 3-14 Output of the Washed Bulk Gravel


Figure 3-15: Actual Samples of Sand and Cement

Figure 3-16 Placing the Required Proportions of Sand and Aggregates in the Mixer

Figure 3-17 Placing the Required Proportions of Cement in the Mixer


Figure 3-18 Placing the Required Percentage of Shredded PVA tarpaulin in the

Mixer (except for Conventional Concrete Mixture)

Figure 3-19 Concrete Mixer Performing the Mixing Process

Figure 3-20 A Slump Test Performed Before Complete Concrete Pouring


Figure 3-21 Placing Fresh

Concrete Samples to the Slump Cone

Figure 3-22 Tamping the Fresh Concrete by Layer 25 Times by a Tamping Rod

Figure 3-23 Releasing the Slump Cone Immediately and Vertically Upward by


Figure 3-24 Output of the Concrete Slump after the Test

Figure 3-25 Measuring the Height of Slump from the Bottom Surface

Using Measuring tape

The same procedure was performed for the conventional concrete mixture

and concrete mixture with shredded PVA tarpaulin. Consisting of one concrete mixture

sample in three types, for fourteen, twenty-one-day design strengths and for twenty-eight-

day design strengths, the poured fresh concrete was tamped 25 times by a tamping rod, at

every layer, for a total of three layers. Then, the concrete cylinder was flattened about the

top using a tamping rod. Other equipment and materials used in the preparation of the

concrete mixture with shredded PVA tarpaulin were shovel, concrete mixer for mixing the

cement, water and aggregates, digital weighing scale, measuring tape and the cylindrical

molds for molding the concrete mixture.

Figure 3-26 Placing freshly-mixed concrete in the cylinder mold

Figure 3-27 Tamping the first layer of fresh concrete 25 times using tamping rod

Figure 3-28 Tamping the second layer of fresh concrete 25 times using tamping rod

Figure 3-29 Tamping the full layer of fresh concrete 25 times using tamping rod

Figure 3-30 Striking off and leveling the top portion of the fresh concrete

using tamping rod


The concrete cylinders were immersed underwater to attain its strength after

twenty-four (24) hours from the time of preparation. A minimum curing period of fourteen

(14) days was then started. The maximum curing period was (28) days.

Figure 3-31 Curing of Concrete Cylinders with Water 24 hours from preparation

Figure 3-32 Curing of Sample Concrete Cylinders


(Curing period: 14, 21 and 28 days)

Compressive Test

The equipment that was used in this study was the universal testing machine

(UTM), which was capable of performing compressive tests. Compressive capacity, loads

and stresses were recorded on the machine.

Figure 3-33 The Universal Testing Machine Used in the Experiment

Figure 3-34 Placement of Concrete Cylinder in the UTM


@14 Days

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(e) (f) (g) (h)

@ 21 Days

(a) (b) (c) (d)


(e) (f) (g) (h)

@ 28 Days

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

(g) (h)

Figure 3-35 Failure Result of Samples

(a) Conventional Mixture

(b) Trial Mixture 1 - 0.2%
(c) Trial Mixture 2 - 0.4%
(d) Trial Mixture 3 - 0.6%
(e) Trial Mixture 4 - 0.8%
(f) Trial Mixture - 5 1%
(g) Trial Mixture 6 - 1.5%
(h) Trial Mixture 7 - 2%
Analytical Framework

Figure 3-36 Analytical Framework of the Study: Behaviour of Concrete Mixture with Shredded PVA Tarpaulin



This chapter presents the analysis of data followed by a discussion of the study

results. The results relate to the research questions that guided the study. Data were

analysed to identify, describe and explore the behaviour of the shredded tarpaulin as

additional mixture to concrete design as primarily focused on the specific problems in

Chapter 1.

The first part of the presentation described the properties of shredded tarpaulin in

terms of physical and chemical properties.

The second part was the preparation of the conventional and designed concrete

mixtures with or without shredded tarpaulin/tarpaulin.

The third part was the analysis and results of the conventional and designed

concrete mixtures with or without shredded tarpaulin after subjecting to a compressive test.

The fourth part of the presentation was the comparison of the conventional and

designed concrete mixture with or without shredded tarpaulin in terms of compressive


Tarpaulin Properties

Preparation of Concrete Mixture


. The researchers used the design mixture, based on the Class A 1: 2: 3 (ACI

proportion) design of concrete mix: Type 1 Portland cement, 19mm for the max size of

coarse aggregates, 40kg per bag of weight of cement, were used. The Class A (1:2:3) design

mix, were to attain 4000 psi for the compressive strength based on the conventional design.

Approximately 2.224 kg of cement, 3.608 kg of sand, 7.217 kg of gravel, and 1.172 liters

of water were prepared for the mixture per concrete cylinder, 14.221 kg was calculated to

be the total weight of each cylinder sample. And approximately kg of shredded tarpaulin

was prepared for the additional mixture per percent volume of the cylinder.

Portland Cement Type I

Max Size of Coarse Aggregates 3/4 in.
Max Density of Water 1000 kg/m3
Wt. of Cement 40 kg/bag
Slump 6”- 8”
Unit Wt. of Coarse Aggregate 1475kg/m3
Type of Design Mix Class A (1:2:3)
Design Strength (fc’) 4000 psi

Table 1. Design Used for Concrete Mixture


Compressive Strength

The researchers decided to add an additional 2% shredded tarpaulin per

weight for the total volume of the cylinder as a trial mixture for the determination of

optimum design strength that they will be needed. The table shows the optimum

compressive strength that the researchers get.

Table 2. Preliminary Trial Mixture for the Determination of Optimum Design


Date Started: Load (lbs) Compressive Strength (psi)
October 27, ‘16
1 2 3 1 2 3 P/F
Nov. 10 14DAYS 202.4 199.6 188.7 1595 1587 1500 FAILED

Attaining the strength for a 14 day period lower than the conventional

mixture, the researchers decided to take a varying percentage lower than the percent the

researchers proposed for the trial mixture.

The researchers concluded to mix 24 cylinders, including 3 conventional

mixtures and 21 concrete mixtures with shredded tarpaulin varying from 0.2-0.4%

(specifically 0.20%, 0.40%, 0.60%, 0.80% 1.00%, 1.5%, 2%) of the total weight of

concrete for 14, 21, and 28 curing days..


Laboratory results showed that the compressive strength of a conventional

concrete design period was about to 4000 psi, which was a satisfactory value for a plain

concrete mixture. Tabulated compressive strengths indicate that the increase in

compressive of concrete cylinder was gradually slow with respect to time. The concrete

mixture with added shredded tarpaulin (5mm by 5mm), on the other hand, show almost a

very close compressive compared with that of the plain concrete mixture, which also show

an abrupt increase in compressive strength. As the percentage of shredded tarpaulin

increases, the strength of the concrete mixtures decreases. During the trial test, a certain

range was observed to satisfy the designed concrete strength.

The table presented the summary of results on the compressive strength of

conventional mixture and concrete mixture with shredded tarpaulin mixtures (0.2%, 0.4%,

0.6%, 0.8%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%).

Compressive Strengths in Various Curing Periods (Psi)

Conventional Concrete Mixture 3200 4103 4396
0.20% 3451 4625 4625
0.40% 3378 4277 4592
0.60% 2987 3755 4352
Concrete Mixture with
Shredded Tarpaulin 0.80% 2856 3016 3779
(5mm x 5mm)
1.00% 2537 3233 3271
1.50% 2305 2842 2805
2.00% 1595 1899 2129

Table 3. Summary of Compressive Strengths of Concrete Mixtures with Shredded

Tarpaulin (5mm x 5mm)


Compressive Strengths in Various Curing Periods (Psi)

Conventional Concrete Mixture 3200 4103 4396
Concrete Mixture with
Shredded Tarpaulin 0.80%
(2mm x 30mm)

Table 4. Summary of Compressive Strengths of Concrete Mixtures with Shredded

Tarpaulin (2mm x 30mm)


Date Started:
Load (KN) Strength (psi)
November 14, 2016
November 28 14days 231.7 3200

December 5 21days 402.6 4103

December 12 28days 553 4396

Table 5. Tabulated Results for Conventional Concrete Mixture



Date Started:
TYPE Load (KN) Strength (MPa) Strength (Psi) Psi/ 28MPa
November 14, 2016
November 28 14days 435.2 23.8 3451 Failed
Trial 1
December 5 21days 582.6 31.9 4625 Passed
December 12 28days 585.2 32 4652 Passed
November 28 14days 426.6 23.3 3378 Failed
Trial 2
December 5 21days 538.2 29.5 4277 Passed
December 12 28days 557.6 31.6 4592 Passed
November 28 14days 376.1 20.6 2987 Failed
Trial 3
December 5 21days 474.1 25.9 3755 Failed
December 12 28days 547.4 30 4352 Passed
November 28 14days 360.6 19.7 2856 Failed
Trial 4
December 5 21days 380.1 20.8 3016 Failed
December 12 28days 475.4 26 3779 Failed
November 28 14days 320.9 17.5 2537 Failed
Trial 5
December 5 21days 408.2 22.3 3233 Failed
December 12 28days 411.4 22.5 3271 Failed
November 28 14days 290.1 15.9 2305 Failed
Trial 6
December 5 21days 358.9 19.6 2842 Failed
December 12 28days 352.9 19.3 2805 Failed
November 28 14days 202.4 11 1595 Failed
Trial 7
December 5 21days 239.1 13.1 1899 Failed
December 12 28days 267.8 14.6 2129 Failed
Table 5. Tabulated Results for Concrete Mixture with Shredded Tarpaulin (5mm x 5mm)


Date Started:
TYPE Load (KN) Strength (MPa) Strength (Psi) Psi/ 28MPa
November 14, 2016
November 28 14days
Trial 1
December 5 21days
December 12 28days

November 28 14days
Trial 2
December 5 21days
December 12 28days
November 28 14days
Trial 3
December 5 21days
December 12 28days
November 28 14days
Trial 4
December 5 21days
December 12 28days
November 28 14days
Trial 5
December 5 21days
December 12 28days
November 28 14days
Trial 6
December 5 21days
December 12 28days
November 28 14days
Trial 7
December 5 21days
December 12 28days

Table 6. Tabulated Results for Concrete Mixture with Shredded Tarpaulin (2mm x 30mm)

Comparison of the Mixtures

4625 4625
4500 4592
4277 4396
4103 4352
3378 3233
Compressive Strength (Psi)

3000 2987 2842
2856 2805

2500 2537
2000 1899
0.2% tarp
1500 0.4% tarp
0.6% tarp
0.8% tarp
1.0% tarp
1.5% tarp
500 2.0% tarp
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Curing Period (days)

Figure 37. Compressive Strengths of Concrete Mixtures with Shredded Tarpaulin(5mm x 5mm) per Unit Time

4625 4625
4500 4592
4277 4396
4103 4352
Compressive Strength (Psi)

3233 3271
3000 2987 2842
2856 2805
2500 2537
2000 1899
0.2% tarp
1595 0.4% tarp
0.6% tarp
0.8% tarp
1.0% tarp
1.5% tarp
500 2.0% tarp
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Curing Period (days)

Figure 37. Compressive Strengths of Concrete Mixtures with Shredded Tarpaulin (2mm x 30mm) per Unit Time

The figure shows the variations of the strength of the concrete mixture per unit time. The

strength for the tarpaulin mixture varies with the percentage added to the mixture. Some of the

mixture attained higher strengths than the controlled/conventional mixture. Hence, the percentage

that attained the higher strengths, were 0.2 and 0.4. As the tarpaulin fibers increases from 0.4

percent, its compressive strength decreases. The maximum attained value varies from 0.2-0.4

percentage of shredded tarpaulin (5mm x 5mm).


Maximum Minimum
Reinforced foundation walls and footing 3” 1”
Plain footings, caissons and substructure walls 3” 1”
Beams and reinforced walls 4” 1”
Building Columns 4” 1”
Pavements and Slabs 3” 1”
Mass Concrete 2” 1”
High Strength Concrete (Road Pavement) 6” – up 1”

Table. Design Specifications (ACI)

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) provides a standard for the slump for different usage

of concrete mixture.


2% 12” Road Pavement
CONVENTIONAL 10” Road Pavement
0.20% 8.25” Road Pavement
0.40% 7” Road Pavement
0.60% Road Pavement
0.80% 7” Road Pavement
1.00% 10” Road Pavement
1.50% 8.25” Road Pavement
2.00% 12” Road Pavement

Table . Tabulated Results of Slump


For the slump, it varies for the workability and usage of the concrete mixture. High strength

concrete varies from 6”-8” slump, making it possible for design of road pavements. The designed

mixture (1:2:3) slump was designed for road pavements design. As the required slump increases and

decreases, we can determine if the concrete mixture has a high or low water content.



Summary of Findings

Based from tests accomplished in this study, the following findings were

summarized as follows:

1. The Polyvinyl Alcohol fibers that can be found in tarpaulins have high resistance

to alkali, chemicals and abrasion. These characteristics make PVA tarpaulins compatible

with concrete mixture. In addition, PVA fibers have excellent resistance against exposure

to sunlight. With specified amount, PVA tarpaulin creates a molecular bond with fresh

concrete mixture.

2. The shredded tarpaulin can be utilized as a supplementary concrete material by

using it as an additional component to concrete mixture by percentage of weight.

3. Comparing the tabulations and data being gathered, the effect of shredded tarpaulin

was only minimal or small in terms of compressive strength. Meaning the concrete with

shredded tarpaulin (Polyvinyl Alcohol) has a little increase in compressive strength

compare to conventional concrete mixture.

4. The effects of different level or percentage of shredded tarpaulin in concrete may

vary in terms of compressive strength. In general, the result implies that as the amount of

shredded tarpaulin increases, the compressive strength decreases.



With the data analyzed, interpreted, and the experimentation done by the

researchers, the following conclusion have been drawn;

1. The primary objective of this study was to give an additional information or

knowledge about how shredded tarpaulin affects the compression strength, and compare it

to conventional mixture strength. Results revealed that trial mixture with 0.2 percent and

0.4 percent increase in compressive strength higher than the conventional concrete mixture.

The values almost reach 4500 psi in 28 curing days.

2. The additional percentage of shredded PVA tarpaulin to concrete mixture affects

the compressive strength of the concrete. The strength of the concrete in terms of

compression decreases as the amount of the shredded tarpaulin increases.

3. It has been also concluded that the percentage limit that can add to concrete varies

from 0.1 to 0.4 percent only to attain a target design compressive strength. Adding tarpaulin

in uncontrolled percentage or amount has the tendency to reduce or weaken the

compressive strength of a concrete.


Compressive strength was one of the most important factors that must be

considered in designing and producing concrete. In this study, this consideration was

carefully observed. It is recommended to other researches to take the following:

1. The used tarpaulin must be distributed properly with the concrete mixture, so that

this additional component will effectively contribute to the strength of the concrete.

2. It is recommended to use considerable amount lower than 0.5 % of the weight of

the raw components of the concrete mixture to attain the target design strength.

3. The analysis of the concrete with shredded tarpaulin cannot be ultimately

guaranteed. The researchers recommended further researches and perform experiments

related to this topic.

4. The researchers suggested that the shredded tarpaulin concrete can be applied in

less critical and suitable to use in walls, like floor slab or it will only be limited to light-

weight loading only for safety.



 Handbook of Plastics Technologies by Charles A. Harper (2006)

 Industrial Plastics: Theory and Applications (6th Edition) by Eric Lokensgard

 Iranian Journal of Materials Science & Engineering Vol. 7, Number 1, Winter

2010 by A. Allahverdi, K. Kianpur and M. R. Moghbeli

 Luo Zhenshuai Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 5

 Research Report, Number 1349-1F, M. Rung, David P. Whitney, Ramon L.

Carrasquillo and David W. Fowler

 Basic Concrete Engineering for Builders, by Max Schwartz (2004)

Useful Websites

 https://www.scribd.com/document/71320904/Debashis-Wadadar

 http://theconstructor.org/concrete/fiber-reinforced-concrete/150/

Summary of Computations

PART A: Construction Materials Prior to Flexural Testing

Table: Values from FREY-FIL Corporation

1475 kg/m3

Design of Concrete Mix

1) Water-Cement Ratio (From ACI Table E-3)

Value Strength (MPa) W-C Ratio (L/40kg bag)

Upper Limit 34.47 17.75

Required 28.00 -
Lower Limit 27.58 21.30

2) Volume of Concrete to Fill the cylindrical molds

π(6𝑖𝑛.)2 (0.0254𝑚)3
= × 12𝑖𝑛.× = 0.00556𝑚3
4 (1𝑖𝑛,)3
 where absolute volume of concrete = 1m3

o Weight of cement
10 bags cement 40kg cement
= × × 0.00556m3
1m3 concrete 1 bag cement
=2.224 kg.

o Weight of sand
0.44m3 sand 1475kg
= × × 0.00556m3
1m3 concrete 1m3 sand
=3.608 kg.

o Weight of gravel
0.88m3 sand 1475kg
= × × 0.00556m3
1m3 concrete 1m3 gravel
=7.217 kg.

o Weight of water
10 bags cement 21.08L water
= × × 0.00556m3
1m3 concrete 1 bag cement
=1.177 kg.

Actual weight of concrete

= 2.224 + 3.608 +7.217 + 1.172
=14.221 kg.

3) Amount of Tarpaulin

Since 5 cylinders per batch (considering 1 cylinder excess)

= 14.221kg x 5 cylinder
= 71.105 kg/batch

Considering losses (Factor 1.1)

Batch 1: 0.2 %
=71.704kg x 1.1 x 0.2%
= 0.15 kg. tarpaulin

Batch 2: 0.4 %
=71.704kg x 1.1 x 0.4%
= 0.31 kg. tarpaulin

Batch 3: 0.6 %
=71.704kg x 1.1 x 0.6%
= 0.46 kg. tarpaulin

Batch 4: 0.8 %
=71.704kg x 1.1 x 0.8%
= 0.62 kg. tarpaulin

Batch 5: 1.00 %
=71.704kg x 1.1 x 1%
= 0.77 kg. tarpaulin

Batch 6: 1.5 %
=71.704kg x 1.1 x 1.5%
= 1.16 kg. tarpaulin

Batch 7: 2.0 %
=71.704kg x 1.1 x 2%
= 1.54 kg. tarpaulin