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Sedimentation Mechanisms • Deposition by water, wind or ice (or gravity) • Alluvial • River

Sedimentation Mechanisms

• Deposition by water, wind or ice (or gravity)

• Alluvial

• River deposits (fluvial)

• Deltaic, shallow marine

• Deep marine (turbidites)

• Wind laid deposits (aeolian)

• Lake deposits (lacustrine)

• Ice related deposits (glacial)

deposits (lacustrine) • Ice related deposits (glacial) • Growth in position by organic processes • Platform

• Growth in position by organic processes

• Platform carbonates

• Coral reefs

• Precipitation from solution

• salt

• gypsum

• anhydrite

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
• Precipitation from solution • salt • gypsum • anhydrite S h e ll EP Le

EP10 1/122

The Clastic World lake alluvial fans braided river beach forest meandering barriers swamp shelf river

The Clastic World

lake alluvial fans braided river beach forest meandering barriers swamp shelf river sands shallow delta
lake
alluvial
fans
braided
river
beach
forest
meandering
barriers
swamp
shelf
river
sands
shallow
delta
deep marine
tidal
marine
flat
margin & slope
Governed by:
deep marine
fans

Gravity Climate Provenance Sediment supply Subsidence and (eustatic) sea level changes

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 2/122

Alluvial fan Badwater fan, California S h e ll EP Le a r n i

Alluvial fan

Badwater fan, California
Badwater fan, California
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 3/122

Rivers

Meandering river
Meandering river
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
Braided river
Braided river

EP10 4/122

Braided rivers S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E

Braided rivers

Braided rivers S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E P
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
Braided rivers S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E P

EP10 5/122

Meandering river

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 6/122

Fluvial Genetic Units Oxbow lake Crevasse splay Point bars Chute S h e ll EP

Fluvial Genetic Units

Oxbow lake Crevasse splay
Oxbow
lake
Crevasse
splay

Point bars

Fluvial Genetic Units Oxbow lake Crevasse splay Point bars Chute S h e ll EP Le

Chute

Fluvial Genetic Units Oxbow lake Crevasse splay Point bars Chute S h e ll EP Le
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 7/122

Meandering River Point Bar Deposit & Oxbow lake Kanuti river Alaska S h e ll

Meandering River Point Bar Deposit & Oxbow lake

Kanuti river Alaska

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 8/122

Meandering River System Sand Gamma Ray 75 150 (API) 5 a b 3 6 4

Meandering River System

Sand

Gamma Ray 75 150 (API) 5 a b 3 6 4 1 c c 6
Gamma
Ray
75
150
(API)
5 a
b
3
6
4
1 c
c
6
1 b
1 b
1 a
2
c
1
7
6
b
1
6
b
5
c
5
c
1
b
1
b
5
a
6
5 c
6
3
3
a
1
a
1
Vert. scale: approx 1:200
Vert. scale: approx 1:200
congl.
crs.
med.
fine
mud
0
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 9/122

Meandering river systems Avulsion Clay plugs Alluvial New fan meander breccias belt Meander belt built
Meandering river systems
Avulsion
Clay
plugs
Alluvial
New
fan
meander
breccias
belt
Meander belt built
up above floodplain
Vertical accretion
deposits

Meandering stream deposits showing linear sand bodies oriented down the depositional slope. These porous facies are laid down by the meander belts, and are enclosed within impermeable floodplain shales.

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 10/122

Main Deltaic Environments CONTINENTAL COASTAL SHELF DEEP MARINE S h e ll EP Le a

Main Deltaic Environments

CONTINENTAL COASTAL SHELF DEEP MARINE S h e ll EP Le a r n i
CONTINENTAL
COASTAL
SHELF
DEEP MARINE
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 11/122

Wave-Dominated Delta System S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

Wave-Dominated Delta System

Wave-Dominated Delta System S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g Barrier
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

Barrier Sands

EP10 12/122

Niger Delta S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E

Niger Delta

Niger Delta S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E P
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 13/122

River-Dominated Delta Mississippi delta (bird-foot delta) S h e ll EP Le a r n

River-Dominated Delta

Mississippi delta (bird-foot delta)

River-Dominated Delta Mississippi delta (bird-foot delta) S h e ll EP Le a r n i
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 14/122

Wave-Dominated Delta System S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

Wave-Dominated Delta System

Wave-Dominated Delta System S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g Nile
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

Nile Delta

EP10 15/122

Tidal Delta Lena Delta (Siberia) S h e ll EP Le a r n i

Tidal Delta

Tidal Delta Lena Delta (Siberia) S h e ll EP Le a r n i n
Tidal Delta Lena Delta (Siberia) S h e ll EP Le a r n i n

Lena Delta (Siberia)

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

Ganges Delta (Bangladesh)

EP10 16/122

Lower to Upper Shoreface Sands

Lower Lower Shoreface Shoreface Upper Upper Shoreface Shoreface Offshore Offshore Fair weather wave base (
Lower Lower Shoreface Shoreface
Upper Upper Shoreface Shoreface
Offshore Offshore
Fair weather wave base ( FWWB)
Fair weather wave base ( FWWB)
5-10 m
5-10 m
Storm weather wave base ( SWWB)
Storm weather wave base ( SWWB)
15-25 m
15-25 m
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
base ( SWWB) 15-25 m 15-25 m S h e ll EP Le a r n

Cliff ~ 8 m

Thin bedded sandy heterolithics, 45 cm core

EP10 17/122

Shoreface Sands

Hummocky Cross-Stratification
Hummocky Cross-Stratification
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
Shoreface Sands Hummocky Cross-Stratification S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 18/122

Shoreface Deposits - Book Cliffs, Price Utah Shoreface deposits showing lateral continuity (ca. 5 kms)

Shoreface Deposits - Book Cliffs, Price Utah

Shoreface Deposits - Book Cliffs, Price Utah Shoreface deposits showing lateral continuity (ca. 5 kms) S

Shoreface deposits showing lateral continuity (ca. 5 kms)

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 19/122

Log response & resolution in Lower shoreface thin beds S h e ll EP Le

Log response & resolution in Lower shoreface thin beds

Log response & resolution in Lower shoreface thin beds S h e ll EP Le a
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 20/122

Thin-bedded Heterolithics

Thin-bedded Heterolithics S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g 4.80 Champion
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g 4.80
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
4.80

Champion 204 Core - UV Light

EP10 21/122

Mouth bar Mvoti Estuary Kwazulu-Natal by Andrew Cooper S h e ll EP Le a

Mouth bar

Mouth bar Mvoti Estuary Kwazulu-Natal by Andrew Cooper S h e ll EP Le a r

Mvoti Estuary Kwazulu-Natal by Andrew Cooper

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le
a
r n i n g

EP10 22/122

Barrier bar S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g Mvoti

Barrier bar

Barrier bar S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g Mvoti Estuary
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

Mvoti Estuary Kwazulu-Natal by Andrew Cooper

EP10 23/122

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g Distributary channels Ganges
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

Distributary channels

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g Distributary channels Ganges Delta

Ganges Delta (Bangladesh)

EP10 24/122

Distributary Channel Sand 12m Small-scale, single storey distributary channel sand - East Kentucky S h

Distributary Channel Sand

12m
12m

Small-scale, single storey distributary channel sand - East Kentucky

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 25/122

Incised Valley Depositional Sequence S h e ll EP Le a r n i n

Incised Valley Depositional Sequence

Incised Valley Depositional Sequence S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 26/122

Sediment movement S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E

Sediment movement

Sediment movement S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E P
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
Sediment movement S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E P

EP10 27/122

Deep Marine - Turbidite Reservoirs Depositional Overview • Re-deposition of sediments in deep water •

Deep Marine - Turbidite Reservoirs Depositional Overview

Re-deposition of sediments in deep water

Sequence of Major Events

of sediments in deep water • Sequence of Major Events 10-100 km Delta Canyon Slope channel

10-100 km

Delta

Canyon

Slope channel

Channel levee Shelf Debris slump, slide Fan channel(s) S h e ll EP Le a
Channel levee
Shelf
Debris slump, slide
Fan channel(s)
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
levee Shelf Debris slump, slide Fan channel(s) S h e ll EP Le a r n

Fan lobe Fan

500 - 3000 m water

EP10 28/122

500 ms

500 ms

500 ms 500 ms 2 km Benin-major S h e ll EP Le a r n
500 ms 500 ms 2 km Benin-major S h e ll EP Le a r n
500 ms 500 ms 2 km Benin-major S h e ll EP Le a r n

2 km

Benin-major

500 ms 500 ms 2 km Benin-major S h e ll EP Le a r n
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
500 ms 500 ms 2 km Benin-major S h e ll EP Le a r n

2 km

Indus Fan

EP10 29/122

Channel Heterogeneity Turbidites in the Ainsa basin (Southern Pyrenees) S h e ll EP Le

Channel Heterogeneity

Channel Heterogeneity Turbidites in the Ainsa basin (Southern Pyrenees) S h e ll EP Le a

Turbidites in the Ainsa basin (Southern Pyrenees)

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 30/122

Aeolian Deposits – tank of sand ? S h e ll EP Le a r
Aeolian Deposits – tank of sand ? S h e ll EP Le a r

Aeolian Deposits – tank of sand ?

Aeolian Deposits – tank of sand ? S h e ll EP Le a r n
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 31/122

Desert environment S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E

Desert environment

Desert environment S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E P
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 32/122

Linear Draa Stellar Draa S h e ll EP Le a r n i n

Linear Draa

Stellar Draa

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

Namibia

Interdune (flooded)

EP10 33/122

Interdune Sabkha Areas

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

interdune

Interdune Sabkha Areas S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g interdune

Tidal flood surface, and associated sedimentary structures, Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Photo courtesy Steven G. Fryberger.

EP10 34/122

Carbonate Environments S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E

Carbonate Environments

Carbonate Environments S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g E P
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 35/122

Carbonates

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 36/122

What can I see when I look at a carbonate rock? Grain Cement Pore Matrix

What can I see when I look at a carbonate rock?

What can I see when I look at a carbonate rock? Grain Cement Pore Matrix (lime
What can I see when I look at a carbonate rock? Grain Cement Pore Matrix (lime

Grain

What can I see when I look at a carbonate rock? Grain Cement Pore Matrix (lime
What can I see when I look at a carbonate rock? Grain Cement Pore Matrix (lime

Cement

Pore

Matrix (lime mud)

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 37/122

Carbonate producing organisms:

evolution trough time

 

Mln Years

360

318

300

250

200

145

65

0

Miss

Penn.

Permian

Triassic

Jurassic

Cretaceous

Cenozoic

Calcareous Algae Bryozoa Tubiphytes Foraminifera Sponges Phylloid Algae Stromatoporoids Corals Rudists
Calcareous Algae
Bryozoa
Tubiphytes
Foraminifera
Sponges
Phylloid Algae
Stromatoporoids
Corals
Rudists

After James, 1983

S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g
S h e ll EP Le a r n i n g

EP10 38/122