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Research and discussion

Curves are regular bends provided in the lines of communication like roads, railways and canals
etc. to bring about gradual change of direction. They enable the vehicle to pass from one path on to
another when the two paths meet at an angle. They are also used in the vertical plane at all changes of
grade to avoid the abrupt change of grade at the apex.

There are two types of curves, vertical and horizontal curves. Curves provided in the horizontal
plane to have the gradual change in direction are known as horizontal curves. Curves provided in the
vertical plane to obtain the gradual change in grade are called as vertical curves. Vertical curves may be
circular or parabolic and are generally arcs of parabolas. They are laid out on the ground along the
center line of the work.

Horizontal Curves used in horizontal planes to connect two straight tangent sections.

Simple Curve: A circular arc connecting two tangents.

Compound Curve: Two or more circular arcs of

different radii tangent to each other.

Broken-back Curve: Combination of a short length of

tangent connecting two circular arcs that have
centers on the same side. Reverse Curve: Two
circular arcs tangent to each other, with their
centers on opposite side of the alignment. ‘’

PI: Point of intersection

PC: Point of curvature (the beginning of the curve)
PT: Point of tangency (the end of the curve)
TC: Tangent to curve
CT: Curve to tangent
R: Curve radius
T: Tangent distance (PC-PI or PI-PT)
LC: Long chord (PC-PT)
L: Length of the curve (along the curve)
E: Length from the PI to the curve midpoint on a
radial line.
M: Middle ordinate. The radial distance from the
midpoint of the long chord to the curves midpoint.
POC: Any point on curve.
POT: Any point on tangent.
Da: Degree of any curve (arc definition)
Dc: Degree of any curve (chord definition)
I: Intersection angle (central angle)
Laying out a curve by Deflection angle ( Rankine's Method)

In this method, curves are staked out by use of deflection

angles turned at the point of curvature from the tangent
to points along the curve. The curve is set out by driving
pegs at regular interval equal to the length of the normal
chord. Usually, the sub-chords are provided at the
beginning and end of the curve to adjust the actual length
of the curve. The method is based on the assumption that
there is no difference between length of the arcs and their
corresponding chords of normal length or less. The
underlying principle of this method is that the deflection
angle to any point on the circular curve is measured by
the one-half the angle subtended at the center of the circle by the arc from the P.C. to that point.

Except for unusual case the radii of curves on route surveys are too large to permit swinging an arc from
the curve center. Circular curves are therefore laid out by more practical methods, including Deflection
Angle, coordinates, tangent offsets, (4) chord offsets, (5) middle ordinates, and (6) ordinates from the
1ong chord. Layout by deflection angles been the standard approach,
although with the advent of total station instruments, the coordinate method is used typically. Layout or
a curve by deflection angles can be done by either the incremental chord method c the total chord
method. ¡n year past, the incremental chord method was a1most used as it could be readily
accomplished with a theodolite and tape.

This fieldwork taught me on how to get deflection angles that we used to create the curve path.
Also in this fieldwork we apply our knowledge on our pace factor, this helped me to know the use our
own pace factor on farther distances. I also improved my knowledge on using the breaking the tape
method which made our fieldwork easier.

This fieldwork is very challenging for us especially we encounter many problems. First, since we
had a hard time in finding a position for the vertex since we need a large area that has fewer obstacles,
this consumes us time since we need to pace the distance to make sure that it will be enough for the
fieldwork. Next is the error that cannot be control which are the error due to sag, temperature and pull
that will have a very small discrepancy in the data. And lastly is the computation, we had a mistake in
solving for the incremental chord of the station PC - PT that had an effect on the measurement of the
actual length of the chord when we measured.

Some recommendation to make sure that the data will be accurate. First is to pace the needed
distance to make sure there will be no obstacle in doing your fieldwork. Second, make sure that the
theodolite is set-up properly and balance to the ground. This will help to get an accurate data. Third, it is
also better to use the breaking the tape method in measuring large distances especially to avoid the
error due to sag and pull that will affect the data gathered. Fourth, to make sure that you are still on the
correct path, you can use the range poles to verify if you are on the straight line or you can use the
theodolite to sight if your position is correct on the deflection angle needed. Fifth, before starting the
fieldwork make sure that you understand and know what to do in the field already and make sure you
are on the right track. It is also advisable to solve the unknowns beforehand since the needed data are
already given before the fieldwork.

Application of these compund curves is In the geometric design of motorways, railways, pipelines, etc.,
the design and setting out of curves is an important aspect of the engineers work. The initial design is
usually based on a series of straight sections whose positions are defined largely by the topography of
the area. The intersections of pairs of straights are then connected by horizontal curves.