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Government Polytechnic, Pune - 16

(An Autonomous Institute of Government of Maharashtra)

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Government Polytechnic, Pune
Seminar report on

SIX STROKE ENGINE


Submitted By
ASHUTOSH APPASAHEB RAUT
ENROLLMENT NO :- 1504102
Under the guidance of
PROF. P. U. GARGE SIR

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Government Polytechnic, Pune
Pune-411016
Government Polytechnic, Pune - 16

(An Autonomous Institute of Government of Maharashtra)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that
ASHUTOSH APPASAHEB RAUT
ENROLLMENT NO :- 1504102
Studying in the Fifth semester of Mechanical Engineering has
successfully completed the seminar report on

SIX STROKE ENGINE

PROF. P. U. GARGE PROF. A. V. JOSHI Dr.D.R.NANDANWAR


(SEMINAR GUIDE) (HEAD OF DEPT.) (PRINCIPAL)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is my proud privilege and duty to acknowledge the kind of help and guidance received
from several people in the preparation of this report. It would not have been possible to
prepare this report in this form without their valuable help, co-operation and guidance.

First and foremost, I wish to record my sincere gratitude to the management of this
college and to our Respected Principal for his constant support and encouragement in the
preparation of this report and for the availability of library and laboratory facilities needed
to prepare this report.

My sincere thanks to Prof. A. V. Joshi, Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering,


GPP, for his valuable suggestions and guidance throughout the preparation of this report.

I express my gratitude to my guide, Dr.R.R.Saraf for guiding me in investigation of this


seminar and is carrying out experimented work. Our numerous discussions were extremely
helpful. I hold him in esteem for guidance, encouragement and inspiration received from
him.

Last but not the least I wish to thank my parents for financing my studies and helping me
throughout my life for achieving perfection and excellence. Their personal help in making
this report and seminar worth presentation is gratefully acknowledged.

DATE :

PLACE : PUNE ASHUTOSH APPASAHEB RAUT


EN. NO :- 1504102
ABSTRACT
The quest for an engine having the same or more power with higher fuel efficiency than the
existing ones has started before many years. As a result of all these researches a new engine
concept is formed, which is a six stroke engine. Lots of research works are conducted on this
topic nowadays and already six types of six stroke engines were discovered.

During every cycle in a typical four stroke engine, piston moves up and down twice in the
chamber, resulting in four strokes and one of which is the power stroke that provides the
torque to move the vehicle. But in a six stroke engine there are six strokes and out of these
there are two power strokes. The name of the engine has nothing to do with the number of
revolutions or anything of that sort. This engine got its name due to its construction. A six
stroke engine derived its name from the fact that it is a mixture of two and four stroke
engine. The automotive industry may soon be revolutionized by a new six-stroke engine
which adds a second power stroke, resulting in much more efficiency with less amount of
pollution.

Its adoption by the automobile industry would have a tremendous impact on the
environment and world economy, assuming up to 40% reduction in fuel consumption and
60% to 90% in polluting emissions, depending on the type of fuel being used. Fuel
consumption for mid-sized cars should be within 4 and 5 litres per 100 km. And 3 to 4 litres
for the small-sized cars. Automobiles equipped with the six-stroke engine could appear in
the market within 3 to 5 years. And it has its applications also in motorboats, motor-pumps,
generator sets, stationary engines, etc....intended for agriculture and industry.

In the present article a brief history and types of six stroke engine were dealt and the
advantages of the six stroke engine over other conventional engines were dealt using
various performance curves.
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

INTRODUCTION:
Engine work successfully only when it follows a cycle of operation in a sequential manner. In
IC engines, operating on different cycles have one common feature, combustion occurring in
the cylinder after each compression, resulting in gas expansion that acts directly on the
piston (work) and limited to 180 degrees of crankshaft angle. The six-stroke engine is an
internal combustion engine with an advance feature of more power generation. This engine
consists of similar components Present in the four-stroke engine with addition of two more
cylinders and have similar working concept to the actual internal reciprocating combustion
engine as piston is in reciprocal movement which is converted into a rotating movement
with the help of connecting rod and crankshaft. In four stroke engine, the cycle of operation
take place in four stroke which are Suction or intake stroke, compression stroke, expansion
or power stroke and exhaust stroke. In starting the inlet valve opens and the charge
consisting of fuel air mixture is drawn into the cylinder and then piston moves from top
dead Centre to bottom dead Centre Then the intake and exhaust valves closes
instantaneously. During the compression stroke, the piston moves upward compressing the
air-fuel mixture in the clearance volume. But before the piston reaches its highest position,
the spark plug injected the air-fuel mixture and the mixture ignites, increasing the pressure
and temperature of the cylinder. The high-pressure gases which are emitted from previous
cylinder force the piston down, which in turn forces the crankshaft to rotate, producing a
useful work output during the expansion or power stroke. At the end of this stroke which is
Exhaust stroke, the piston is at bottom dead centre moves to top dead centre pushes the
combustion product to top dead centre during this process the exhaust valve is open and
inlet valve is closed. Thus, the piston completes four strokes which give two complete
revolutions to the crankshaft. But in six stroke engines the exhausted gases are used which
are left after combustion in next stroke for generating steam from water. Then water is
injected in superheated cylinder. The hot gases which emit from fourth stroke is used to
changes the phase of water to steam as the temperature of the hot gases is high so this
steam will work as working fluids which will forces the piston down. This movement will give
an additional two stroke for the same cycle. In four stroke coolant is required but in six
stroke engines, there is no need of external cooling system because water which is used as
working fluid will cools the system. So, in six stroke, fuel consumption is reduced and
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

increases its power. It reduces the weight and complexity of the engines head by as much as
50%. Torque is increased by 35% and increases its efficiency. The first six stroke engines.
Which is Bajulaz Six Stroke Engine was invented in 1989 by the Bajulaz S A company, based
in Geneva, Switzerland. The design of Bajulaz six stroke engines is similar to a regular
combustion engine. There was a modification to the cylinder head, in which he used two
supplementary fixed capacity chambers, a combustion chamber and an air preheating
chamber above each cylinder is done. The combustion chamber present in engine receives a
charge of heated air from the cylinder and then the injection of fuel begins, at the same
time it burns which increases the thermal efficiency compared to a burn in the cylinder. The
high pressure achieved from previous cylinder is then released into the cylinder to work as
power or expansion stroke. Whereas a second chamber which blankets the combustion
chamber has its air content which is heated to a high degree by heat passing through the
cylinder wall? This heated and pressurized air is used to power an additional stroke of the
piston. The advantages of this engine include reduction in fuel consumption by 40%, multi-
fuel usage capability as we use water, and a dramatic reduction in pollution.
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

HISTORY OF SIX STROKE ENGINE :


The term six stroke engine describes two different approaches in the internal combustion
engine, developed since the 1990s which are as follows:

In the first approach, the engine captures the waste heat from the four stroke Otto cycle or
Diesel cycle and uses it to get an additional power and exhaust stroke of the piston in the
same cylinder. Designs either use steam or air as the working fluid for the additional power
stroke. As well as extracting power, the additional stroke cools the engine and removes the
need for a cooling system making the engine lighter and giving 40% increased efficiency
over the normal Otto or Diesel Cycle. The pistons in this six stroke engine go up and down
six times for each injection of fuel. These six stroke engines have 2 power strokes: one by
fuel, one by steam or air. The currently notable six stroke engine designs in this class are the
Crower's six stroke engine, invented by Bruce Crower of the U.S.A; the Bajulaz engine by the
Bajulaz S A Company, of Switzerland; and the Velozeta’s Six-stroke engine built by the
College of Engineering, at Trivandrum in India.

The second approach to the six stroke engine uses a second opposed piston in each cylinder
which moves at half the cyclical rate of the main piston, thus giving six piston movements
per cycle. Functionally, the second piston replaces the valve mechanism of a conventional
engine and also it increases the compression ratio. The currently notable six stroke engine
designs in this class include two designs developed independently: the Beare Head engine,
invented by Australian farmer Malcolm Beare, and the German Charge pump, invented by
Helmut Kottmann.
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

TYPES OF SIX STROKE ENGINES


1. Crower six stroke engine.
2. Beare Head Six Stroke engine.
3. Bajulaz six stroke engine.

1. Crower six stroke engine :

In a six-stroke engine patented in the U.S. by Bruce Crower, after the exhaust stroke, fresh
water is injected into the cylinder, and is quickly turned to superheated steam, which causes
the water to expand to 1600 times its volume and forces the piston down for an additional
stroke. This design also claims to reduce fuel consumption by 40%.

 Crower's six stroke engine features :-

 No cooling system required


 Improves a typical engine’s fuel consumption
 Requires a supply of distilled water to act as the medium for the second power
stroke.

2. Beare Head Six Stroke engine :

This engine simply replaces the conventional Four Stroke Engines Cylinder Head. The
manufacturers Four Stroke bottom end remains unchanged. The Engine utilises an overhead
short stroke Crankshaft and Piston arrangement which opens and closes Inlet and Exhaust
Ports leading through the Upper Cylinder Liner. The Beare Head Technology can be fitted to
new production engines or retro-fitted via aftermarket replacement.
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

The top and bottom Crankshaft are connected via a drive chain or toothed belt. The top
Crankshaft and Piston become positive power contributors to the overall power output,
thus increasing the amount of power/torque generated by up to a possible 35%, in essence,
The Engine results in having Two Pistons Operating and producing power within each
cylinder. The absence of valves, springs, retainers and guides, mean that the Engines bottom
end has been freed up from labouring and is allowed to spin up producing more power. The
additional torque and power further generated by the Top Piston/Crank of the Cylinder
Head is then channelled via the connecting drive chain to the Bottom Crank. The net result
of the Engine is Tractor type pulling torque never before realised from a Four Stroke Internal
Engine, the sort of steady locomotive type performance gained can only be likened to Steam
Locomotives or Diesel Engines.
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

The net result is:


- Power/torque increases of 35% (conservative)
- Simpler and less expensive manufacturing and tooling
- Reduction of cylinder head reciprocating parts
- Lower maintenance costs due to less wearing parts (cylinder head)
- Longer service intervals possible due to lower operating temperatures recorded
- Increased economy due to the ability to operate and produce full operating power of
much higher AIR to FUEL ratios
- Reduction of exhaust emissions due to less fuel being consumed and the real prospect of
meeting EURO-4 emissions standards, doing away with the catalytic converter
- Possible one piece engine block and head casting, saving more manufacturing costs
- Usable torque at as low as idle means suitability for lower RPM operation and adaptation
to CVT (Constantly Variable Transmission)

3. BAJULAZ SIX STROKE ENGINE :

1) Intake valve
2) Heating chamber valve
3) Combustion chamber valve
4) Exaust valve
5) Cylinder
6) Combustion chamber
7) Air heating chamber
8) Wall of combustion chamber
9) Fuel injector
10) Heating plug
11) Piston
12) Crankshaft
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

Fig. Bazulaz six stroke engine

The Bajulaz six stroke engine is similar to a regular combustion engine in design. But
however there are some modifications to the cylinder head, with two supplementary fixed
capacity chambers, a combustion chamber and an air preheating chamber above each
cylinder. The combustion chamber receives a charge of heated air from the cylinder and the
injection of fuel begins an isochoric burn which has increased thermal efficiency compared
to a burn in the cylinder. The high pressure achieved is then released into the cylinder to
work the power stroke. Meanwhile a second chamber which blankets the combustion
chamber has had its air contents heated to a high degree by heat passing through the walls
from the burn. This heated and pressurized air is then used to power another stroke of the
piston in the cylinder. The advantages of the engine include reduction in fuel consumption
by at least 40%, two expansion strokes (work) in six strokes, multi-fuel usage capability, and
a dramatic reduction in pollution. Bajulaz Six Stroke Engine was invented in 1989 by the
Bajulaz S A .
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

 Bajulaz six stroke engine features:-

 Reduction in fuel consumption by at least 40%


 Two expansions (work) in six strokes
 Multi fuel
 Dramatic reduction in pollution
 Liquefied Petroleum Gas
 Costs comparable to those of a four-stroke engine

CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF SIX STROKE ENGINE


 The engine consists of 4 valves : intake valve(1) , heating chamber
valve(2),combustion chamber valve(3) and the exhaust valve(4) which control the
flow of the fluids in the cycle
 Engine consists of a combustion chamber for burning of fuel air mixture (6) which is
completely isolated from the cylinder and the burning of the fuel has no direct effect
on the piston as in the case of a 4 stroke ICE.
 An air heating chamber surrounds the combustion chamber which holds pure air
under high pressure. Heat passes from the combustion chamber to the air heating
chamber
 The wall of the combustion chamber allows transfer of heat to the air heating
chamber which heats the air under high pressure which is eventually used in the 5th
stroke.
 The burning of the fuel does not have any direct influence on the piston. The energy
released by the combustion passes through valve (3) which enters the cylinder (5)
and hence work is done on the piston (11)
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

WORKING OF SIX STROKE ENGINE


The working of the 6 stroke ICE is very similar to the 4 stroke ICE.the first four strokes
remain the same with the addition of 2 more strokes discussed below:

 1st stroke:

Fig.: 1st stroke(suction stroke)

The inlet valve(1) is kept open. Due to cranking, the piston moves downward which results
in the formation of a pressure difference due to which pure air enters the cylinder (5).The
crankshaft completes rotates for half cycle.

 2nd stroke:

Fig : 2nd stroke (compression stroke)


SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

The inlet valve closes and the heating chamber valve (2) opens. The piston moves upwards
due to cranking forcing the pure air into heating chamber (7). The air at this stage is
converted to high pressure. The fuel is injected in the combustion chamber and the fuel is
ignited as shown the figure (initially compressed air is present in the combustion chamber
which results in the formation of fuel air mixture). Part of the heat evolved will pass through
the wall of the combustion chamber (8) and it heats up the compressed air present in the air
heating chamber. The crankshaft completes another half cycle rotation in the 2nd stroke. At
the end of 2 strokes the crankshaft will rotate 1 complete cycle.

 3rd stroke (1st power stroke):

Fig:3rd stroke (1st power stroke)

The combustion chamber valve (3) opens and the gases of combustion enter the cylinder
(5). This pusher the piston downward and hence is known as the power stroke. The
crankshaft rotates for a half cycle. It should be noted that the air in the heating chamber is
continuously heated and this results in further increase of pressure.
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

 4th stroke (exhaust stroke):

Fig: 4th stroke (exhaust stroke)

The exhaust valve (4) opens. The piston moves upwards and the exhaust gases are removed
via this valve. The crankshaft rotates another half cycle. At this stage the crankshaft
completes 2 full cycles.In this stroke, less amount of heat energy is expelled out when
compared to the 4 stroke ICE as this heat has already been used to heat the air at high
pressure in the air heating chamber (7).

 5th stroke (2nd power stroke):

Fig : 5th stroke (2nd power stroke)

The heating chamber valve opens and the pure air now at high pressure and high
temperature enters the cylinder as shown in the figure which does work on the piston and
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

hence it moves downwards resulting in the 2nd power stroke. The crankshaft completes
another half cycle.

 6th stroke:

Fig : 6th stroke

Finally the combustion chamber valve (3) opens the piston moves upwards forcing the pure
air into the combustion chamber which will be used as air for the fuel-air mixture in the 3rd
stroke or the first power stroke. The crankshaft will complete 3 full cycles at the end of the
6th stroke. Hence fuel is injected once every in 3 cycles of the crankshaft whereas in a 4
stroke ICE fuel is injected once in every 2 cycles.
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

Graphical Representation :
Following is the graphical representation of the six strokes in a cycle. The crankshaft rotates
a total of 1080o in 1 complete cycle. The six strokes are divided into 8 events which are
intern classified into 2 categories i.e. :

Static event : event occurs without the movement of piston

Dynamic event : event which occurs with the movement of piston

Fig : Graphical representation of six strokes

 External combustion cycle:

In this cycle there is no contact between the air and the heating source.

The events which take place are as follows:

(Refer graph)

E1. (Event 1) : Pure air intake in the cylinder (dynamic event).

E2. (Event 2) : Compression of pure air in the cylinder (dynamic event).


SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

E3. (Event 3) : Keeping pure air pressure in closed chamber where a maximum heat
exchange occurs with the combustion chamber walls, without direct action on the
crankshaft (static event).

E4. (Event 4) : Expansion of superheated air in the cylinder which does work on the cylinder
(dynamic event).

 Internal combustion cycle:

In this cycle direct contact takes place between the air and the heating source

The events which take place are as follows:

E5. (Event 5): Recompression of pure heated air in the combustion chamber (dynamic
event).

E6. (Event 6): Fuel injection and combustion in closed combustion chamber,without direct
action on the crankshaft (static event).

E7. (Event 7): Combustion gases expand in the cylinder and work is done on the piston
(dynamic event).

E8. (Event 8): Exhaust gases are removed (dynamic event).


SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

Graphical comparison of six stroke engine and four stroke


engine:

Graph 1:otto cycle

It is clear from the first graph that the work done by the 6 stroke engine is greater than the
4 stroke engine. Graph 1 is in reference with a Petrol engine.

Graph 2:Dual cycle

Graph 2 refers to a diesel engine. The work done by six stroke engine is greater than a 4
stroke engine for the same amount of fuel used.
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO INCREASED THERMAL EFFICIENCY, REDUCED


FUEL CONSUMPTION AND POLLUTANT EMISSION :
1) The heat that is evacuated during the cooling of a conventional engine’s cylinder head
is recovered in the six-stroke engine by the air-heating chamber surrounding the
combustion chamber. As a result of this less heat is wasted which increases the thermal
efficiency.

2) After intake, air is compressed in the heating chamber and heated through 720o of
crankshaft angle, 360o of which in closed chamber (external combustion).

3) The transfer of heat from the very thin walls of the combustion chamber to the air
heating chambers lowers the temperature and pressure of the gases on expansion and
exhaust (internal combustion).

4) Better combustion and expansion of gases that take place over 540o of crankshaft
rotation, 360° of which is in closed combustion chamber, and 180° for expansion.

5) The glowing combustion chamber allows the optimal burning of any fuel and
calcinate the residues.

6) Better filling of the cylinder on the intake due to the lower temperature of the
cylinder walls and the piston head.

7) Elimination of the exhaust gases crossing with fresh air on intake. In the six stroke-
engine, intake takes place on the first stroke and exhaust on the fourth stroke.

8) Large reduction in cooling power. The water pump and fan outputs are reduced.
Possibility to suppress the water cooler.

9) Less inertia due to the lightness of the moving parts.


SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

ADVANTAGES OF SIX STROKE ENGINE :


1) Reduction in fuel consumption by at least 40%:

2) Two expansions (work) in six strokes

3) Dramatic reduction in pollution:

4) Liquefied Petroleum Gas

5) Cost comparable to those of a four-stroke engine

DISADVANTAGES OF SIX STROKE ENGINE :


• Engine size increases due to many number of cylinders & additional components.

• Break power & indicated power per cycle per cylinder is comparatively lesser.

• Cost is high as compared to 4 stroke engine.

• Low Mechanical Efficiency due to large number of mechanical parts.

• The engine would be very bulky and will effect the overall performance, if installed in a
vehicle

APPLICATIONS OF SIX STROKE ENGINE :


• Motor boats

• Motor Pumps

• Generators

• Stationary Engines
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

CONCLUSION:
The six stroke engine modification promises dramatic reduction of pollution and fuel
consumption of an internal combustion engine. Its adoption by the automobile industry
would have a tremendous impact on the environment and world economy, assuming up to
40% reduction in the fuel consumption and 60% to 90% in polluting emissions, depending
on the type of fuel being used and the second piston replaces the valve mechanism of a
conventional engine and also it increases the compression ratio.

REFERRENCES:
• www.quora.com

• www.wikipidea.org

• www.ijert.org

• Andrew De Jong, Marc Eberlein, John Mantel Tim, Opperwall Jim, VanLeeuwen May 12,
2010 Calvin College ENGR 340

• vishal kumar tyagi, dev bhoomi institute of technology,dehradun, india. Study And Analysis
Of Six Stroke Engine.

• MR. BHATIA, A, “SIX STROKE ENGINE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE”, ICMEE, KYOTO, 1-
3AUG. 2010
SIX STROKE ENGINE 1504102

MODIFICATIONS IN SIX STROKE ENGINE:


The following mechanism would want to be modification in six stroke engine.

 CAMSHAFT MODIFICATIONS:

In the six stroke engine the 360 degree of the cam has been divided into 60 degree among
the six stroke. The exhaust cam has 2 lobes to open the exhaust valve at fourth stroke (first
exhaust stroke) and at the sixth stroke to push out the steam.

 CRANKSHAFT TO CAMSHAFT RATIO MODIFICATION:

In conventional four stroke engine, the gear at crankshaft must rotates 720. while the
camshaft rotates 360 to complete on cycle for six stroke engine, the gear at the crankshaft
must rotates 1080 to rotates the camshaft 360 and complete one cycle. Hence their
corresponding gear ratio 3:1

 CAM FOLLOWER MODIFICATION:

The bottom of shape of regular follower has the flat pattern, which is suitable with the
normal camshaft for four stroke engine. When reducing the Duration of valve opening from
9000 to only 6000 the shape of the follower must be changed from flat to roller or spherical
shape. Mitsubishi single cylinder spark ignition was used to apply these modifications on it.