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West Bengal State Council of Technical Education

A Statutory Body under West Bengal Act XXI of 1995

Kolkata Karigori Bhavan, 2nd Floor, 110 S. N. Banerjee Road, Kolkata - 700 013

 Utilization, Traction, Heating and Drive

List of Laboratory Experiments:

Sl. List of Practical: (At least 6 Experiments are to be performed)
i. To study of torques/Armature current, Speed/Armature current & Torque/Speed
Characteristics for D.C. series motor using mechanical loading. (Either braking
Arrangement or using D.C. Gen).

ii. To study of different current collectors used for drawing current from O.H.
For traction (using models and block diagram).

iii. To Study of Sodium vapour lamp, Mercury vapour lamp, CFL with their
Connections and the technical specification.

iv. To study of Electric Arc Welding using welding transformer.

v. To study of the principle of Induction Heating using an induction heater.

vi. To verify the Inverse Square Law and compare the difference in output
Luminescence of incandescent, fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps.

vii. To calculate the Total Cost in a (i) Residential and (ii) Commercial or Industrial
viii. To determine Illumination of a surface for a Drawing Room by means of lux
ix. To determine candle power of a lamp in comparison to standard C.P. of lamp by
Optical bench method.

x. To Study Electricity Act 2003: Energy Audit, role of energy manager, energy
Auditor and prepare power point presentation/report.

OBJECTIVE: To study the torque vs armature current, speed vs armature current &
torque vs speed curve characteristics of DC series motor by using mechanical load.
Sl Apparatus name Type Range
i. DC series motor
ii. Ammeter
iii. Voltmeter
iv. Tachometer

THEORY: In a dc series motor, exciting coil’s current (Ise) is directly proportional

to the load current or armature current (Ia). So armature reaction effects can be
neglected. Hence field flux (ϕ) is proportional to the armature current (Ia).
For a DC motor, magnitude of the back emf is given by the same emf equation of a dc
generator i.e. Eb = PϕNZ /60A.
For a machine, P, Z and A are constant, therefore, N ∝ Eb/ϕ.
Now we know, Eb = V – Ia Ra
So wrote that, N ∝ (V – Ia Ra) / ϕ.
The motor speed (N) of a DC series motor is given by,
𝑁 ∝ 𝑉 − 𝐼a (𝑅a + 𝑅se)/ϕ
Generally, three characteristic curves are considered important for DC motors which
(i) Torque vs. armature current.
(ii) Speed vs. armature current
(iii) Torque vs Speed
These characteristics are determined by keeping the following two relation in mind, i.e.
Ta ∝ ϕ Ia and N ∝ Eb /ϕ
Torque vs. armature current
This characteristic is also known as electrical characteristic. We know that torque is
directly proportional to the product of armature current and field flux, Ta ∝ ϕ Ia. In DC
series motors, field winding is connected in series with the armature, i.e. Ia = If.
Therefore, before magnetic saturation of the field, flux ϕ is directly proportional to Ia.
Hence, before magnetic saturation Ta α Ia2. Therefore, the Ta vs Ia curve is parabola for
smaller values of Ia.
After magnetic saturation of the field poles, flux ϕ is independent of armature current
Ia. Therefore, the torque varies proportionally to Ia only, T ∝ Ia. Therefore, after
magnetic saturation, Ta vs Ia curve becomes a straight line.

Speed vs. armature current

As we know the relation, N ∝ Eb/ϕ
For small load current (small armature current) change in back emf Eb is small and it
may be neglected. Hence, for small currents speed is inversely proportional to ϕ. As we
know, flux is directly proportional to Ia, then speed is inversely proportional to Ia.
N ∝ 1/ Ia
Therefore, when armature current is very small the speed becomes dangerously high.
That is why a series motor should never be started without some mechanical load. But,
at heavy loads, armature current Ia (full load current)) is large. And hence, speed is low
which results in decreased back emf Eb. Due to decreased Eb, more armature current is
allowed. The typical speed current characteristics is shown in fig 1. Neglecting slight
effect of armature resistance, initial portion of speed current curve is rectangular

Torque vs Speed
This characteristic is also called as mechanical characteristic. From the above
two characteristics of DC series motor, it can be found that Torque is inversely
proportional to the Speed (N) i.e. T ∝ 1/N. So that, when speed is high, torque is low
and vice versa. So Torque Speed curve is rectangular hyperbola.

I. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in diagram.
II. Set the two load at same value, so that initial speed of the motor is with in limit.
III. Switch on power supply and start motor.
IV. Increase load gradually.
V. Note down voltage, current, force, speed for every step.
VI. Disconnect the power supply.
VII. Measure inner diameter of pully.
VIII. Calculate the efficiency.
Sl Voltage (V) Current Force Speed
(A) (rpm)
F1 F2 F=F1-F2

Input Power, P = VI
Output Power = Torque * w
Torque = F*d*9.81/2
W = 2πf, f =N/60
Sl Input power Force Speed Output Output Efficiency
no (watt) (kg) (rad/sec) torque power (%)
(Nw-m) (watt)