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Rajiv Gandhi Chair Pub.

DATA TOOLS
PARTICIPATORY RURAL
A PPR A ISA L JSgH N IQ U E S

SI[\!DHU SADAI\IAI\IDAI\I
P. niATARAJAlU
JOSE AN TO N Y
V IP IN K U M A R V. P.

RAJIV G A N D H I CHAIR IN C O N T E M PO R A R Y STUDIES


S C H O O L O F ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
C O C H IN UNIVERSITY O F S C IE N C E A N D TECHNOLOGY. C O C H I N - 2 2
Data tools:
Participatory Rural
Appraisal Techniques

Dr. Sindhu Sadanandan


Dr. P. Natarajan
Dr. Dose Antony
Dr. Vipinkumar. V. P.

P u h lh h c d by
R a j i v G a n d h i C l i a i r in C o i K e m p o r a r y S t u d i e s
C ocfiin Ijn iv crsify o f S c ien ce and T ech n o lo g y
C o c h i n - 682 022
Prof. Dr, P. N aiarajaii
R a jiv G andhi C lia ir Prol'essor,
C?ochin IJ iiiv c rs iiy o fS c R 'iic c and Ic c iin u lo iiy
C ochin -6 S 2 0 22
Telephone : 04S4-257521!

e. 2007, R a jiv Ciandhi C luur in ( o n ic n ip u ta ry S liid u s

C iia u o n S tyle. S m O n v S ^(Jnunnd.in. P , J o s e A'tU'.ny . n ; V P . 2007.


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C h w r P u b 5, C o c l t m . - U p

I ’ n 'n U i l (I!
JuM.' I’ rin tc ib
S d u ili Kalaniassery
C ochin -
Phone: 04S4 - 2556324
S R E E S A N K A R A C H A R Y A U N I V E R S I T Y O F S A N S K R IT
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FOREWORD
P a r l ic iM to r y RtirHl A p prais a! ( P R A ) im p re gnates van ous pa n ic ip a lv r y approaches
ar.C. iv e th o d s f.'JSf e n a b le s a a e v e io p r u e n t o a s e a on lo c a l knowlecJge S u c h an ap p ro ach
eri'in c ia ie s app ra is ai. a n a ly s i s a n d a e cisio n m a k in g b y lo c a l p e o p l e t h e m s e lv e s tor the
d ev elO p:iisn; p r o c e s s w hic h in (u rnO eiie.'i'fs th e m o r t h e ir c o m m u n i t y a s such T h e p u r p o s e
r.l P R A IS eQvUaOle a n d in clu siv e d e v e lo p in e n i in tvhich m e p a n i c i p a n t r e c eives b e n e h ls as
?.cco'd:rjg to the d ev elo p m e n t p a t t e r n d e s ig n e d b y them H e n c e t lt eresp o n sib ih lyo t sustaining
t h e t:ci'elits r ests witr, t h e p a r t ic ip a n t a n a the suc cess r a t e of s u c h in clusiv e d e v e lo p m e n t
pa!te':> IS signiiicar', l o r o b v io u s r e a s o n s .

T h e d e v e lo p m e n t p r o f e s s i o i w i s a t R a /i v G a n d h i C h a i r h a s d e v e lo p e d a n d
con 'Jiictod a P R A 'D ata T o o ls ' P a r.ic ip a to r y R u ra l A p p r a is a l T e c h n i q u e s ’ is p rim a rily the
p r o d u c t a ! a n im p le m e n ta tio n p r o c e s s o l that P R A T o o l T h p h e l d t e s t w as e a r n e d o ut in
A s s a n i a n n o o r P a n c h a y a t, O d a k a i i reg io n o l K a la d y in S r n a k u ia m District. T h e d a t a toots
d e v p io p e d t o r a pp ra is ing r u ral e n v ir o n m e n t through p a rtic ip ato ry m o d e is well e m b e d d e d
w n r in ii£ conte xt. T h e tools a r e t o u n d to b e r e s p o n s iv e to tlie p a r tic ip a n ts ' nee ds. It h a s
i n c o r p o r a te d tessons fro m p r e v i o u s e x p e rie n c e s , a t t h e s a m e t im e do n o t d up licate with
o th o i activities F ie ld p e r s o n n e l h a v e faci lita ted i h e data collection a n d ana ly sis u nd erta k en
b y lonul (w op 'e . This tacihtation h a s a ls o f u n c t i o n e d a s a co m m o n p l a l lo m i Ip rstiaredlean^ in g
b e t w e e n l o c a l p e o p le a n d d e v e l o p m e n t pr o le s s io n a l. T h e m a n a g e r s o ' t h e tool h a v e
eiicOL'ragod creativ e s u g g e s tio n s fro m lo cal p e o p le in im p ro vin g t h e t o o l a n d also m otiv a te d
t h e i ie ia p e r s o n n e l m le a r n in g fro m h e l d s p e cilic app licatio n o l P R A .

T h e p r e s e n t pu b lic a tio n h a s i n co rp o rated alt t h e n e w kn o w le d g e , e s p ecia lly Held


spe cili/: tlint h a s b e e n r e c e i v e d Iro tn t h e v illa g e - b a s e d s t u d y T h e insights h a v e b e e n
tre.niend cus a n d a d d s ignihcantly t o t h e tlieoretic al k n o w le d g e o l P R A .

I wish to e x p r e s s m y a p p re c ia t io n lo r the s in c e r e e tio rts ta k e n b y Dr. Sindhu


S a d a n a n d a n . Dr. P . N a t a r a j a n , Dr. J o s e An tony, a n d Dr. V ip i n k i im a r . V P lo r bringing out
this cxc,:llnnt publication.

D r , K .S . R a ilh a k ris h n a n

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• Ooverniryg C o v ^ i. M sdrsg iri&scurs o t D0v«0(j>riQ0l S«ikSI9 9 .

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PREFACE

P a r t i c i p a t i o n i m p l i e s i n v o l v i n g l o c a l p e o p l e in th e

d e v e lo p m e n t o f p la n s a n d a c tivities d e s ig n e d fo r th e ir welfare. In it's

a d v a n c e d form, p a rtic ip a tio n is a co n tin u o u s p ro c e s s o f negotiation

a n d decision m a k in g w hich o ccu rs a t v arious le v e ls a n d with the

w h o le c o m m u n ity o f sta k e h o ld e rs . This c o u ld b e a c h ie v e d through

various p a rtic ip a to ry m e th o d s includ ing p a rtic ip a to ry rural app ra isal

t e c h n i q u e s ( P R A ) , p a r t i c i p a t o r y l e a r n i n g a n d a c t io n (P L A ),

p a r J’ c i p a l o r y a c tio n r e s e a r c h (PAf>), p a r t ic i p a t o r y te c h n o lo g y

d e ve lo p m e n t (P T D ), a n d fa r m e r fie ld s c h o o l (F F S ). A m o n g these,

P R A h a s b e c o m e m o r e p o p u l a r a m o n g f i e l d p r a c t it io n e r s ,

d e v e lo p m e n t re s e a rc h e rs a n d o th e r p ro te s s io a a is sin ce it funcd'ons

as an effective m e d iu m to inv o lve local p e o p le In th e decision making,

re s e a rc h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t processes.

P R A w a s first u s e d in the late 198Gs. S ince then it becam e

w id e ly u s e d in m a n y c o n te x ts including, c o m m u n ity developm ent,

in d ig e n o u s te c h n o lo g y a ss e s s m e n t, liv e lih o o d e n h a n c e m e n t a n d

o th e r d e v e lo p m e n t initia tive s. The im p o rta n c e o f P R A lie s in its

u n iq u e n e s s in a d a p tin g to lo c a l situations. The to o ls d e v e lo p e d in

th e p re s e n f coniexJ h a v e b e e n a p p lie d in a s e le c te d villa ge in Kerala.

The o utcom e o f su ch a n e x p e rim e n t is w orth e m u la tive fo r estimating

ru ra l p eculiarities re la te d to agriculture, fisheries, liv e s to c k a n d other

liv e lih o o d options o f ru ra l p o p u la tio n . The e x p e c ta tio n from writing

th is b o o k w o u ld b e fu l f i ll e d i f m a n y o f o u r v o lu n te e rs o f ru r a l

devefopm erit, e n g a g e d in p o licy-m a kin g , a ctio n a n d re sea rch can

re a lize that p a rtic ip a tio n o f ru ra l p e o p le is p o s s ib le a n d beneficial.

T h e y can fu rth e r s p re a d th e m e s s a g e o f p a rtic ip a tio n from th e ir own

e xpe rien ces.


The a u th o rs a re g r e a t l / th a n kfu l to th e M in is try o f Hum an

R e s o u r c e s D e v e lo p rrie n t ( M H R D ), G o v t O f In d ia f o r p ro v id in g

n e c e s s a r y g ra n t to b rin g o u t th is v a lu a b le c o n trib u tio n . The authors

a ls o e x p re s s th e ir p r o fo u n d g ra titu d e to Prot. (D r.) P. K. A b d u l Azis,

V ic e -C ha nce llor, C oc h in U n iv e rs ity o f S c ie n c e a n d T e c h n o lo g y for

h is c o n s ta n t e n co u ra g e m e n t, a d v ic e a n d support.

V e ry s p e c ia l th a n k s a re d u e to M s. R a ji K .P illa i. Vinod

M a la yile th u . D eepa. G .D , A n e e s h K u m a r K .V a n d D ip so n . P .T of

R a j i v G a n d h i C h a ir in C o n t e m p o r a r y S tu d ie s f o r th e ir s in c e re

a s s o c ia tio n with this im p o rta n t work. We a r c o b lig e d to Mr. Jose

C h e ria n a n d M r Ginu. M /s J o s e P rinters fo r th e n e a t c x c c u tio n o f

this p u blica tion .

Authors
CONTENTS

F o re w o rd

P refa c e

i n t r o d u c t i o n ......................................................................................... 9

P a rtic ip a to ry M e th o d s : A n O v e r v ie w ....................................... 20

P a rtic ip a to ry R ural A p p ra is a l (P R A ) T e c h n iq u e s

IVJapping Te c h n iq u e s

■ S ocial m a p p i n g ................................................................. 22

■ R eso u rce m a p ...................................................................24

■ M o bility m a p ...................................................................... 26

■ B asic info rm a tio n m a p .................................................... 27

■ T ra n s e c t w a l k s ...................................................................27

■ Venn d i a g r a m s ................................................................. 29

R an k in g E xercises

■ P re fe re n ce r a n k i n g .......................................................... 30

■ P ro b le m t r e e ...................................................................... 32

■ im p a ct d ia g r a m ................................................................. 34

■ B io -resource flo w d ia g r a m ............................................. 35

T r e n d A n a ly s ts

■ T im e l i n e ..............................................................................36

■ Tim e t r e n d .......................................................................... 37

■ S e a so n a lity a n a ly s is ........................................................38

« Daily a ctivity c h a r t s .......................................................... 40

S u m m a r y ...............................................................................................43

R e fe re n c e s
INTRODUCTION

I n s t i t u t i o n s o f a ll t y p e s h a v e lo n g b e e n r e lie d o n
q u e s tio n n a ire s u rve y s a n d q u ic k rural visits to g a th e r inform ation on
rural people and rural re so u rc e s. S a m p le s o f p e o p le se le cte d from
a large p o p u la tio n a re a s k e d the s a m e set o f q u e stio n s, an d so it is
a s s u m e d th a t the in te rv ie w e rs d o n o t in flu e n ce th e process. Many
in fo rm a n ts a re s e le c te d to a c c o u n t to r all v a ria tio n s , a n d th e
re q u e s tin g d a ta a re s ta tis tic a lly a n a ly z e d . S u re ly th e s e s u rve y
m e th o d s a re g e n e ra lly a c c e p te d fo r data co lle ctio n an d are used.

B ut th e re are p ro b le m s w ith q u e s tio n n a ire sun/eys. The


q u e stio nn a ire m a k e r has to d e te rm in e the q u e stio n s w ell in advance.
Y e t th o se w ho d e sig n th e s e in stru m e nts m a y not k n o w w hich issues
a re im p orta n t fo r local p e o p le . So they te n d to in c re a s e the n u m b e r
o f q u e s tio n s to e n s u re th a t all re levan t issue s a re co ve re d. This
le a d s to fo rm s o f a b s u rd length, w ith se ve ra l h u n d re d questions
co n su m in g hours to a dm inister. In the structured survey, the ill trained
e n u m e r a t o r fu r th e r in f lu e n c e s th e p ro c e s s b y p ro m p tin g w ith
an sw e rs. In a q u e stion n a ire survey, people are the o b je cts of enquiry
o r inve stiga tio n a n d are tre a te d as passive entities. T h e y have no
in v o lv e m e n t in th e e n q u iry g o in g on a n d c a n n o t in flu e n ce its sense
a n d d ire c tio n . T h e o u ts id e rs ' u n d e rs ta n d in g o f a situ a tio n o r a
p h e n o m e n o n is c o n s id e r e d th e o b je c tiv e . T h e d u ra tio n o f tim e
in v o lv e d fro m d e s ig n in g a q u e s tio n n a ire s u rve y to p u b lish in g its
results tends to be a long a n d elaborate process. A s a consequence,
m u c h o f th e in fo rm a tio n c o lle c te d th r o u g h a s u r v e y b e c o m e s
o u td a te d and o f lim ite d u s e in fra m ing of p o licie s a n d program m es.
T h e fallacies of p re su m p tio n fro m the top have d on e enough dam age
to th e pursuit o f rural d e v e lo p m e n t. M a n y of th e a m b itio u s targets
o f rural d e v e lo p m e n t h a v e b e e n met, yet, a large p ro po rtio n o f rural
rriasse s re m a in s in d e p lo ra b le co n d itio n s of e x is te n c e a n d the
p ro g ra m m e s have larg e ly b e ne fite d th e “b e tte r offs" in rural areas.
As e m pirically e v id e n t fro m th e e xp erie n ce s of m a n y developing
c o u n trie s , th e c o n v e n tio n a l a p p ro a c h h a s c o n s is te n tly fa ile d to
a n s w e r the p h e n o m e n a o f poverty, u n e m p lo y m e n t, ine q ua lity and
e c o lo g ic a l d e g r a d a t io n s . It is b e in g s lo w ly r e a lis e d th a t o u r
c o n ve n tio n a l m o d e ls a re n e ith e r realistic n o r s u s ta in a b le in th e long
run. A s a re su lt o f th e d isillu s io n m e n t from the c o n ve ntion a l m odels
s o m e e ffo rts w e re being m a d e in different q u a rte rs to w a rd s realistic
m e th o d s , m o d e ls a n d a p p ro a c h e s . A s a result, a m u ltitu d e ot field -
o r ie n te d m e th o d s e m e rg e d in the s c e n e N ev ; a p p ro a c h e s and
m e th o d s su ch as fa rm ing s y s te m research, e x p lo ra to ry su /ve y, rapia
ru ra l a p p ra isa l a n d o th e rs, w h e th e r th rough o b s e rv a tio n or through
p a rtic ip a tio n , a tte m p te d to u n d e rsta rid the p ro b le m s oI re so u rce -
p o o r fa rm e rs an d im p ro v e d th e q ua lity of in fo rm a tio n collected on
th e m b y o v e rc o m in g the d e fic ie n c ie s of th e c o n v e n tio n a l survey
m e th o d .

T h e re q u ire m e n t of th e shifting p a ra d ig m o f developm ent


w a s n o t o n ly a relatively q u ic k e r m eth o d o f d a ta c o lle c tio n but also
o n e w h ic h w o u ld h e lp local p e o p le to p e rfo rm th e ir o^vn analysis.
H e n c e , c e rta in e le m e n ts w e re re q u ire d to b e m c o rpo ra io c) m Rapid
R u ra l A p pra isa l (R R A ) and o th e r field- o rie n te d m e th o d s to make
th e m participatory. It w a s a s h ift of e m p h a s is fro m ra p id or quick to
p a rtic ip a to ry and e m p o w e rin g w hich titled w e ll w ith a participatory
a p p ro a c h to rural d e v e lo p m e n t and b e c a m e th e s ta rtin g point of
P a rticip a to ry Rural A p p ra is a l (PH A).

P A R T IC IP A T O R Y R U R A L A P P R A IS A L (P R A )

T h e origin of P R A a s a m e th o d o lo g y ca n bo fta c o d back to


th e m u ltitu d e of m ethods a n d a p p ro a c h e s , w h ic h g ra d u a lly emerged
s in ce the se ve n tie s m a m ly d u e to u n s a tis fa c to ry re s u lts obtained
fr o m th e a p p lic a tio n o f th e c o n v e n tio n a l m e t h o d o lo g y to rural
d e v e lo p m e n t.

In a very s h o rt tim e P R A as a m e th o d o lo g y hrts gained in


s tr e n g th th ro u g h its e m p h a s is on p a r tic ip a tio n in lin e w ith the
p a ra d ig m a tic shift w h ic h is s lo w ly taking p la c e a n d ha s h e lped to fill
th e v a c u u m existing in the s p h e re of rural d e v e lo p m e n t. Participatory
ru ra l a p p ra is a l is a m e t h o d o lo g y fo r in te r a c tin g w ith villagers,
u n d e rs ta n d in g th e m a n d le a rn in g fro m th e m . It in v o lv e s a set of
p rin c ip le s , a p ro c e ss o f c o m m u n ic a lio n s a n d a m e n u o f m ethods for
s e e k in g villa ge rs' p a rtic ip a tio n in p u ttin g fo rw a rd th e ir points of view
a n y iss u e s a n d e n a b lin g th e m to d o their o w n a n a ly s is w ith a view
to m a k e use of such le a rn in g . It initia te s a p a rtic ip a to ry process and
s u s ta in s it.

P R A is a m e a n s o f c o lle c tin g d if f e r e n t k in d s o f data.


Id e n t if y in g a n d m o b iliz in g in t e n d e d g r o u p s a n d e v o k in g their
p a rtic ip a tio n a n d a ls o o p e n in g w a ys in v.fu cfi jn lc n d e d g ro u p s can
p a rtic ip a te in d e c is io n m a k in g , p ro je c t d e s ig n , e x e c u tio n a n d
m o n ito rin g . B e c a u s e o f its p a r tic ip a to r y n a tu r e , it is a useful
m e th o d o lo g y to fo c u s a tte n tio n o n people, Ih e ir live litio o ds a n d their
in te r re la tio n s h ip s w ith s o c io - e c o n o m ic a n d e c o lo g ic a l fa cto rs.
P articip a to ry rural a p p ra is a l is a short- c u t m e th o d o f d a ta collection.
It is a m e th o d o lo g y fo r a c tio n re se a rche s w hich , u tilize s a range of
te c h n iq u e s . It in v o lv e s lo c a l p e o p le a n d o u ts id e rs fro m different
se cto rs and discip lin e. O u ts id e rs facilitate local p e o p le in analyzing
inform ation, practicing c ritica l self- a w are n e ss, ta k in g responsibility
a n d sharing their k n o w le d g e o f life and c o n d itio n s to plan and to
act.

O B J E C T IV E S O F P R A

The use of P R A lies in pu rsu ing s e le cte d o b je ctiv e s through


a pplications o f its p rinciples, p ro ce s se s a n d m ethods. S om e
o f the o b je ctive s a re g iv e n below:

a) For g re a te r and b e tte r invo lvem e n t o f v illa g e rs by learning


about th e ir p e rc e p tio n s , e xp e rie n ce and capabilities.

b) T o g e n e ra te in fo rm a tio n and collection o f d a ta for im m ediate


o r futu re use.

c) For learning a b o u t th e im pa cts of e a rlie r o r on-g oin g policies


and p ro g ra m m e s a n d to fra m e n e w ones.

d) For e s tim a tin g tre n d s a n d ascertaining c o n d itio n s of their


issues.

e) For validation o r c ro s s ch ecking o f d a ta co lle cte d fro m other


sources.

PRA is a p ro ce s s o f pa rticip a tio n w ith th e v illa ge rs in which


rap p o rt building p a v e s th e w a y for th e m to p e rfo rm their own
a n a ly sis a n d to e x p re s s th e m s e lv e s w h e th e r b y m e a n s of
"verbals" like n a rra tio n o r “visuals” such as m a k in g a map.

W H Y PRA?

Participatory R ural A p p ra isa l is e m e rg e d as a resp o n se to two


m ajor co n c e rn s of rural social research not a d e qu a te ly satisfied
by co n ven tio n a l m e th o d s .

• T o d e v e lo p local p e rs p e c tiv e by b e co m in g m o re responsive


to local p e o p le a n d local situations.
• T o e v o lv e a m e th o d o lo g y w h ic h c a n p ro v id e tim e ly and cost
e fte c tiv e in fo rm a tio n .

H o w e v e r th e shift fr o m R R A to P R A re p re s e n ts a change in
attitude, o b je c tiv e s a n d o u tco m e s.

P R IN C IP L E S O F P R A

1) O p tional ig n o ran ce. T h is refers to the im p o rta n c e of knowing


w ha t it is n o t w o rth kn o w in g . It a v o id s u n n e c e s s a ry details
a n d irre le van t data, it d o e s n o t m e a s u re m o re precisely than
is ne e d e d a n d it o p tim iz e s trade of b e tw e e n q u a lity, relevance,
a cc u ra cy and tim e lin e s s.

2) S e e k in g d iv e rs ity : P R A is c o n c e rn e d m o re w ith analysis of


difference rather than loo kin g for re p re s e n ta tiv e n e s s of results
o r data collected. It is lo o k in g for d iv e rse rural eve n ts, different
p ro ce s se s a n d fo rc e s e xp la in in g v a rio u s re la tio n s h ip s in rural
co m m unities.

3) O ffs e ttin g b ia s e s ; E s p e c ia lly u s e d in ru ra l d e ve lo p m e n t


tourism , w h ich in c lu d e s b y b e in g re la x o d ;m d not rushing,
listening not lectu rin g , p ro b in g in s te a d o f p a s s in g the next
topic, being u n im p o s e d ins te a d of im p o ru in t, a n d seeking out
the p o o re r p e o p le a n d th e ir c o n ce rn s .

4) T ria n g u la tio n : It is an im p o rta n t p a ri of P R A . F-or a n y data


g e n era te d, it is e s s e n tia l to c h o c k the ro lia h ility an d validity
of th e data b y p u ttin g th e m to d ifle ro n l tc s is T ria ngu la tion is
c ro s s ch e ckin g the d a ta m d ilfe re n t w a y s It is d o n e through
u se s o f v a rio u s m e th o d s a n d by u s in g d iffe re n t sources to
va lid a te info rm a tio n . T ria n g u la tio n is a d o p te d a s a principle
to im p ro v e a c c u r a c y . It in v o lv e s c o n s c io u s , no n random
selection in d iffe re n t d im e n s io n s su ch as a) te a m composition,
b) units of o b s e rv a tio n , c) P R A tnethods.

T e a m c o m p o s itio n is g e n e ra lly inter d is c ip lin a ry a n d can be


c o n s titu te d in su ch a m a n n e r s o as to h a v e th e information
g e n e r a t e d f r o m d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h e u n it s of
o b s e rv a tio n c a n be c h a n g e d in o r d e r to c r o s s ch e c k the
in f o r m a t io n g a in e d n e c e s s a r y . F o r e .g ; s e m i s tru c tu re d
in te rv ie w s ca n be s u p p le m e n te d b y fa r m m a p s , livelihood
a n a lys is an d flo w ch a rts .
5) L ea rn in g fro m a n d w ith rural people; P R A m eth o d s are
used d irec tly, a n d o n th e site, w h ic h in c lu d e face to face
interaction g a in in g fro m th e ind ig e no u s physical, technical
and social kn o w le d g e .

6) L e a r n in g r a p i d ly a n d p r o g r e s s iv e ly : In P R A , th e a m ount
of le a rn in g c a n in c r e a s e p ro g r e s s iv e ly w ith c o n s c io u s
e x p lo r a tio n , fle x ib le use of m e th o d s , o p p o r t u n is m ,
im p ro visation , in te ra c tio n a n d cross c h e c kin g , not follow ing
a blue print p ro g ra m b u t adapting th rough a lea rn in g process.

FEATURES O F PRA

P R A has th e fo llo w in g u n iq u e features:

1) Ite ra tiv e : G o a ls a n d o b je ctives a re m o d ifie d as the team


re a lizes w h a t is o r is n o t re le va n t. T h e n e w ly g e n e ra te d
inform ation h e lp s to s e t the a g e n d a fo r fu rth e r analysis. This
involves th e ” le a rn in g a s you go'’ principle.

2) In n o v a tiv e : In n o v a tiv e te c h n iq u e s a r e d e v e lo p e d for


particular s itu a tio n s d e p e n d in g on the skills an d know ledge
available,

3) In tera c tiv e : In P R A th e te a m a n d d is c ip lin e s co m b in e


to g e th e r in a w a y th a t fo sters innovation a n d interdisciplinary
action . A s y s te m p e rs p e ctive helps m a k e c o m m un ica tion
easy.

4) informal: It fo cu s e s on partly structured inform al interviews


and discussions.

5) C o m m u n ity P a rtic ip a tio n : H ere le a rn in g ta k e s place


largely in th e field o r im m e d iate ly after, o r in th e intensive
w orkshops. C o m m u n ity perspectives a re u se d to help define
d ifferences in field co nditions.

K IN D S OF PRA

P R A can b e of d iffe re n t k in d s

a) E x p lo ra to ry P R A

A PRA e xe rcise c a n be un d e rta ke n for u n d e rsta n d in g broad


patterns a n d tre n d s in a rural society. S u c h e x p lo ra to ry PRA
are quite c o m m o n to reveal d ifferen t a s p e c ts o f rural life and
a ls o s u g g e s t im p o rta n t is su e s to be p u rs u e d . It ca n form a
b a s is for fu rth e r p ro b in g into s e le c te d a re a s w h ic h appear
im p o rta n t a n d useful. A th e m e fo r fu rth e r a n a ly s is can emerge
o u t of such e x p lo ra tio n w hich c a n h e lp in u n d e rta k in g either
a P R A e x e rc is e o r h e lp in fra m in g a s u rv e y q u e s tio n n a ire on
realistic lines.

b) T o p ic a l P R A

T h is ha s to d o w ith a p a rtic u la r to p ic w h ic h e it h e r co nstitutes


th e a re a o f in v e s t ig a t io n b y th e o u t s i d e r s o r h a s been
s u g g e s te d by th e v illa g e r s a s a k e y a re a to b e fo cu s e d . For
eg., in a th e m e like " s e a s o n a lity " ot ru ra l life. P R A ca n help
in e x p lo r in g d i f f e r e n t d im e n s io n s o f th e tfiorriG u n d e r
co n sid e ra tio n , A to p ic c a n be p ro b e d a c ro s s d iffe re n t groups
in villa ge , a c ro s s g e n d e r, ca ste , a g e e tc , a s a co n im u n ity
a n d o v e r t im e . I t ’s o b je c t iv e is to g e n e r a t K a s m u ch
in fo rm a tio n as p o s s ib le on a s e le c te d to p ic It is intensive
in its a p p ro a c h a n d c a n help in the a n a ly s is o i h particular
to p ic a t g re a t leng th.

0) D ed u c tiv e PRA;

A P R A e xe rc is e c a n b e c o n d u c te d on d iffe re n t ar.pects of
v illa g e life w h ic h c a n b e p ro v id e d a s a b a s is fo r h aving
info rm atio n on th e m e s not d ire c tly a tte n d e d th ro u g h PRA.
T h is can help m re la tin g d iffe re nt a s p e c ts of th e pro b le m to
o th e r fa c to rs a n d a ls o in d e a lin g w ith s e n s it iv e issues.
D e d u ctive P R A is e s p e c ia lly he lp fu l v/h e n its e rl for them es
w h ic h re qu ire tact a n d c a n n o t be d ire c tly p ro b e d cn account
o f the n ature of th e s u b je c t c o n c e rn e d s u c h a s com m unal
te nsion s, c la ss stru g g le s , c o rru p tio n etc. th e re ca n be some
topics, w h ich a re e ffic ie n tly tre a te d th ro u g h re ia tin c tn e m with
d iffe r e n t a s p e c ts o f v illa g e life ra th e r th a n tre a tin g them
th ro u g h d ire c t p ro b in g fo r eg, to le a rn a b o u t t!;e im p a ct of
local c o rru p tio n in a villa ge, d ire c t q u e s tio n s o n corruption
m a y not y ie ld m u c h re s p o n s e . P R A s e s s io n s on different
a s p e c t s of v illa g e life re la te d to c o r r u p t io n w o u ld give
in d ica tio n s of its e x te n t to im pact.
d) P R A fo r R e s e a rc h a n d T ra in in g

PRAs' can b e us e d fo r the purpose o f researching in the forms


of participation, p ro c e s s e s a n d m e th o d s. P R A can be of a
training ty p e fo r tra in in g o f different g ro u p s o f professionals
w h o are like ly to us e th e m in their fie ld w o r k o r fo r further
training.

e) PRA fo r P la n n in g a n d Im p le m e n ta tio n

P R A c a n be c o n d u c t e d f o r d e s i g n i n g p ro je c ts and
im p le m en tin g them .

All stages o f a p ro je c t cycle can be ba s e d o n P R A techniques.


It ca n m a ke p ro je cts m o re a da p ta b le to local needs. If village
c o m m u n itie s o r g ro u p s are invo ive d in a p ro je c t right from its
initiation, th e c h a n c e s o f s usta ina b ility o f th e p roje ct increase
th r o u g h p e o p le s ' p a r t ic ip a t io n . F o r e g , if a p r o je c t is
e n d o g e n o u s ly s e t u p in a village, th e c h a n c e s of su ccess of
that pro je ct a re lo w . T h e risk b e a rin g b e h a v io u rs of the
ben eficiarie s a re e x p e c te d to be h ig h e r In all ca s e s where
the local p e o p le o r th e inte n d ed b e n e fic ia rie s participate in
cho o sin g th e project.

F) M o n ito rin g a n d E v a lu a tiv e PRA

PRA can fo rm a basis for monitoring a n d evaluation o f projects


and p ro g ra m m e s . It ca n touch u p o n the p ro b le m s faced by
the c o m m u n ity / g ro u p s / h o u s e h o ld s in ru n n in g of projects.
W ith the ide n tific a tio n o f problem s, o p e ra tio n o f projects can
be be tte r in fo rm e d a n d so lu tio n s to a v o id o r resolve those
pro b lem s ca n b e s o u g h t th rough P R A . A before an d after
co m p a riso n o f p ro je cts can be un d e rta k e n fo r projects which
have e ith e r inv o lv e d P R A m e th o d s in pro je ct form ulation and
appraisal o r th o s e w h ic h have not u se d th e m a t all.

C O N V E N T IO N A L C R IT E R IA A N D T R U S T W O R T H IN E S S O F
P A R T IC IP A T O R Y IN Q U IR Y

C o n ve n tion a l c rite ria have lim ited re le va n c e fo r evaluating


pa rticip a to ry in q u iry on a cco u n t of th e fo llo w in g reasons.

• Basic d iffere nce s in pa ra d igm s of the tw o s y s te m s of inquiry.


• G e n e ra tio n o f b o th q u a lita tiv e a n d q u a n tita tiv e d a ta in a
p a rtic ip a to ry inq uiry,

• O p e n q u e s tio n s le a d to m u ltip le te s p o n s o s a ii d h en c e leave


s c o p e for c o n s id e r a b le va riations.

• O u tlie rs are a lso c o n s id e re d to be im p o rta n t in a (jarlicipatory


in q u iry ; th e y a ls o n e e d to b e e x p la in e d a s m u c h as the
'a v e ra g e ' picture.
In P R A , all a c to rs h a ve d iffe re n t p e rs p e c tiv e s and their
k n o w le d g e a n d u n d e rs ta n d in g a re s o cially c o n s tr u c te d . T h e re are
m u ltip le p e rs p e c tiv e s on a p ro b le m s itu a tio n a n d th e r e a re different
w a y s o f e x p re s s in g o n e 's v ie w s. In c a s e of P R A m e th o d , a standard
w a y to test the trust w o rth in e s s of d a ta is to a p p ly 'tria n g u la tio n '.

W H A T IS T R IA N G U L A T IO N ?

T e a m c o m p o s itio n is g e n e ra lly in te r-d is c ip lin a ry and ca n be


c o n s titu te d in such a m a n n e r so as to h a ve th e in fo rm a tio n generated
fro m d iffe re n t p e rsp e c tiv e s. T e a m s ca n h a v e p e rs o n s fro m difterent
d is c ip lin e s , sex, c u ltu re a n d e x p e rie n c e so th a t d a ta e m e rg in g from
P R A ca n b e d is c u s s e d w ith in a te a m a n d w ith lo c a l p e o p le by a
te a m to c larify iss ue s a n d s e le c t is su e s for fu rth e r p ro b in g . T h e units
o f o b s e rv a tio n can be c h a n g e d in o rd e r to c ro ss c h e c k th e inform ation
g a in e d . D iffe re n t g r o u p s c a n be a p p r o a c h e d s e p a r a t e ly or its
c o m b in a tio n so a s to a rriv e at vie w s fro m d iffe re n t a n g le s. O ther
s o u r c e s o f in fo rm a tio n su c h a s s e c o n d a ry d a ta s o u rc e s can also be
u s ed to e x a m in e tru s tw o rth in e s s of P R A data. D iffere n t P R A m ethods
c a n b e u s e d to test a n d v e rify a piece of info rm a tio n . F o r eg, semi
s tr u c tu r e d in te rv ie w s c a n b e s u p p le m e n te d by m a p s , liv e lih o o d
a n a ly s is a n d flo w c h a rt s o a s to c h e c k a n d c r o s s - c h e c k the
in fo rm a tio n o b ta in e d .
R IS K S O F PRA

W h ile P R A h a s m a n y a d va n ta ge s, it is not w itho u t risks.


S om e o f th e se risks ca n b e pre ve nte d an d s o m e ca n be mitigated
w he n arise, but o th e rs c a n be quite seriou s a n d difficult. In all cases,
it is best to be a w a re o f th e m . E xa m ple s o f s o m e co m m o n risks are
as follows:

1) R aising e x p e c ta tio n s

T he inte n se in v o lv e m e n t of local p e o p le in the PRA process


te n d s to g e n e ra te m u c h e n th u s ia s m a n d a n tic ip a tio n a b o u t Ihe
d e v e lo p m e n t a c tio n s th a t th e y h a ve id e n tifie d an d th u s builds
m o m e n tu m fo r c h a n g e . A lth o u g h this is a p o s itiv e aspect, it can
c a u se prob le m s if s u p p o rts for im p le m e n ta tio n s a re not forthcoming.

It is essential th a t the appraisal te a m to be h onest and clear,


fro m th e b e g in n in g a n d th ro u g h o u t th e p ro ce s s, about w hether o r
n o t re so urce s fro m o u t s ide d e v e lo p m e n t institution s will be m ade
a vailable. If o u tsid e re s o u rc e s are not a va ila b le, th e focus m ust be
o n d e v e lo p m e n t a c tiv itie s th a t c a n be im p le m e n te d w ith local
re sou rce s only. If re s o u rc e s are forth co m in g , th e n it is im portant to
give realistic e s tim a te s w h e n they will be a v a ila b le , say in a month,
six m onths o r a year.

2) R e v e a lin g f a ilu r e

W h e n th e P R A is ca rried out w he re d e v e lo p m e n t activities


are a lre a d y being im p le m e n te d , the fe e ling s m a y reveal negative
impacts, failure o r n e e d s im p ro ve m e nt. In such case s, the PRA team
has tw o resp o n sib ilitie s.

a) to c o m m u n ic a te th e bad ne w s to th e supporting
institutions,

b) to e xp lo re to g e th e r w ith the c o m m u n itie s vario u s options


tor so lu tio n s a n d im p ro ve m e n ts . T h is ca n put th e team
m e m be rs in th e d ifficult position of tryin g to persuade others
to c h a n g e a p ro g ra m m e to m ake it m o re responsive to local
n eeds. D e p e n d in g on th e a ttitu d e s a n d flexib ility o f the
p ro je c t s ta ff a n d s u p p o rtin g in s titu tio n s , this m a y be a
c o n te n tio u s is s u e or it m a y lead to a n exciting process of
a d a p ta tio n s th ro u g h incre a se d c o m m u n ic a tio n w ith local
w om en an d m en.
3) L e a rn in g a b o u t illegal a c tiv itie s

It IS not u n c o m m o n lo r P R A fin d in g s to re v e a l a ctivitie s that


a re a g a m s t n a tio n a l laws. F o r eg; in a v illa ge m N e p a l, it w a s learned
th a t w o m e n w e re c lim b in g o v e r the w a lls a ro u n d a p ro te c te d forest,
at n ig h t in o rd e r to co lle c t fuel w o o d and fo d d e r. T li o right w a y in
h a n d l i n g s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n d e p e n d s o n th e o p e n n e s s and
rG s p o n s iv e n e s s of the g o v e rn m e n t In no c a se , s u c h i;!fom 'ation
c a n b e u se d in any w a y that m ig h t result in s e n o u s s a n c tio n s on the
v illa g e that p a rticip ate d in th e PRA.

4 ) S tirrin g up co nflicts

It is n o t a lw a y s the c a s e th a t the P R A p ro c e ss le a d s to co nsen su s;


in d e e d it m a y e xp o se d e e p d iffe re n c e s and c o n flic t a m o n g various
g ro u p s . T h e p ro c e ss ca n a ls o b e se e n as a c h a lle n g e a n d ttire a t by
th e m o re p o w e rfu l g ro u p s b e c a u s e o f its e m p h a s is o n e n su rin g that
w o m e n a n d d is a d v a n ta g e d g ro u p s p a rtic ip a te fu lly . W h e n such
c o n flic t b e c o m e s a p p a re n t, o r is v e ry likely to o c cu r, th e P R A team
ha s o n ly tw o op tio n s either;

A) to stop the P R A , o r

B) to u s e n e g o tia tio n an d co nflict resolutio n m e th o d s to


e xplicitly a c k n o w le d g e and w o rk w ith th e c o n flic ts

P re c a u tio n s in th e u s e of P R A T O O L S

■ A lool (any tool) is o n ly as g o o d a s its u s e r. M uch of tiie


v a lid ity of P R A o u tp u ts d e p e n d s o n its u s e r s ’ cre a tivity,
inte g rity a n d th e s itu a tio n a l a p p ro p ria te n e s s o f th e m ethod
selected.

■ T h e user m u s t c le a r ly d istin g u is h b e tw e e n p e rc e p tio n s and


o p in io n s in a n a ly s is an d planning

■ T h e s e le c tio n of in f o r m a n t s h a s to b e d o n e v/ith care.


E ve ryb o dy d o e s n o t k n o w everything n e ith e r d o e s eve ryb od y
lio id a v ie w 0 !i all SLibiects

■ T h e view s e x p re s s e d b y a fe w m e m b e rs c a n n o t be taken
a s a g e n e ra l viev; h e ld by all.

■ C ro s s v e rific a tio n of d a ta is a n e c e s s a ry p a rt of a co m p le te
P R A e x e rcise
D o c u m e n ta tio n p o s s e s s e s seve ral d iffic u ltie s d u e to the
w ealth of in fo rm a tio n g e n e ra te d anci th e n e e d to keep track
of both p ro c e s s a n d outpu t in w a y s u n d e rs ta n d a b le to all
parties invo lve d is e ssential.

PRA e xe rc ise s m a y raise th e e x p e cta tio n s o f participants


th e r e f o r e h a v e to b e c a r e f u ll y i n i t i a t e d w ith p ro p e r
expla n a tio ns.
Data tools: P articipaloiy Rural Appraisal Techniques

PARTICIPATORY METHODS

For d e v e lo p in g a n y plan o n e h a s !o first c o iie c ! the basic


in fo rm a tio n of th e a re a . B a s e d on th e s e b a s ic in to rm a iio n and
a p p lic a tio n of our k n o w le d g e , and taking in to a c c o u n t the resources
a v a ila b le u n d e r v a rio u s d e v e lo p m e n t s c h e m e s , o n e h a s to de velop
th e p lan. O u r u ltim a te o b )e c tiv e is to build th e c a p a c ity o i ih e people
a n d m a k e th e d e v e lo p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s u s t a i n a b le B u t the
q u e s tio n is tio w w e will c o lle c t th e n e c c s s a r y in fo rm a tio n . W h a t
w ill b e the p ro c e d u re fo r ta k in g d e c is io n s r e g a rd in g se le c tio n of
s c h e m e a n d b e n e fic ia rie s ? H o w wiK w e m o n ito r th e p ro g ra m m e ?
All th e s e q u e s tio n s a ris e b e c a u s e th e u ltim a te o b je c tiv e is to ensure
p e o p l e ’s p a r t ic ip a tio n a n d e m p o w e r m e n t . T h e r e a re v a rio u s
p a rtic ip a to ry m e th o d s , w h ic h ha v e b e e n u se d o v e r th e last few
d e c a d e s . S o m e o f th e s e a re : th e B e n e fic ia ry A s s e s s m e n t M ethod
(B A ), S A R A R an d P a rtic ip a to ry R ural A p p ra is a l (P R A ), BA is a
s y s te m a tic in v e s tig a tio n o f th e p e rc e p tio n s of th e b e n e fic ia rie s and
o th e r s ta k e h o ld e rs , S A R A R s ta n d s fo r fiv e a ttrib u te s , n a m e ly s e lf­
e s te e m , a s s o c ia tiv e s tre n g th , re s o u rc e fu ln e s s , a c tio n p la n n in g and
re s p o n s ib ility to fo llo w th ro u g h , w h ic h are c o n s id e r e d to b e critically
i m p o r t a n t fo r a c h i e v i n g f u ll a n d c o m m i t t e d p a r t ic i p a t i o n in
d e v e lo p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s . P R A h a s e v o lv e d fr o m R a p id Rural
A p p ra is a l (R R A ), w h ic h is a p ro c e ss o f a p p ra is a l, a n a ly s is a n d
a c tio n b y local p e o p le th e m s e lv e s . T h e p io n e e r in g w o rk o f R o b e rt
C h a m b e r s a n d G o r d o n C o n w a y in a te c h n iq u e c a lle d rapid rural
a p p ra is a l (R R A ) w a s o n e e x a m p le o f a n a tt e m p t to in c lu d e the
in te re s ts o f the p o o r in th e d e s ig n of p r o g r a m m e s a n d p ro je cts.
T h e irrip o ria n c e o f R R A w a s that, it r e c o g n iz e d th e n e e d to co n s u lt
th e p o o r on th e ir n e e d s a n d it s h o w e d v e ry q u ic k ly th e in h e re n t
Jjm ita tjon s o f th is s u p e rfic ia l lo u r to re ality. R R A is m a in ly s e e n as
a m e a n s fo r o u ts id e rs to g a th e r in fo rm a tio n ; a n d h e n c e , th e need
to re p la c e o r s u p p le m e n t it w ith P a rticip a to ry R u ra l A p p ra is a l (P R A )
w h ic h e m p o w e rs th e lo c a l p e o p le . P R A is a m e th o d th a t fa c ilita te s
t l i e c o m m u n ity 's o w n in - d e p th lo o k a t t h e m s e lv e s a n d of th e ir
p o s s ib ilitie s , a n d e n a b le s th e m to a rtic u la te th e s e d is c o v e rie s m
th e ir o w n c o lo u rfu l, m e a n in g fu l, u s a b le a n d re a lis tic w ay.

T o e m p h a s iz e o n th e learning, s o m e tim e s th e a n a g ra m FLA,


w h ic h m e a n s P a rtic ip a tiv e Le arn in g and A c tio n , is used. However,
P R A IS the m o st c o m m o n ly u s e d w ord. It is a ls o th e m e th o d , which
is m osliy used to e n c o u ra g e and e n su re p e o p le ’s participation. PRA
ca n be d e s crib e d as a m e th o d that e n a b le s p e o p le to express and
a na lyse th e realities o f th e ir lives and co nd itio n s, to plan w h a t action
to take, and to m o n ito r a n d eva lua te th e results. P R A em phasises
th e pro ce ss w h ic h e m p o w e rs local people, w h e re a s its predecessor
R RA w a s m ainly us e d a s a m e a ns for outsiders to gath e r information,

PRA offe rs a b a s k e t o f te ch n iq u e s fro m w h ic h one can select


o n e o r a c o m b in a t io n o f th e m , w h ic h a re a p p r o p r ia te to th e
de ve lo pm en t a ctivity. T h e central part o f any P R A is semi-structured
inte rvie w in g . W h ile s e n s itiv e to p ics ca n b e b e tte r add resse d in
interview s w ith in d iv id u a ls , o th e r topics of m o re general concern
are agreeable to fo c u s g ro u p d isc u ss io n s a n d c o m m u n ity meetings.
D uring th e s e in te rv ie w s a n d d is c u s s io n s , s e v e ra l d ia g ra m m a tic
techniques are fre q u e n tly used to stim u late d e b a te and find out the
results. M a n y o f th e s e v isu a ls a re n o t d ra w n o n p a p e r b u t on (he
ground w ith sticks, s to n e s , s e e d s and o th e r local m aterials and then
fi'ansferred to p a p e r fo r a p e rm a n e n f record. D u rin g tfie 1980s, PRA
w a s first d e v e lo p e d in In d ia and K enya, m a in ly su p p orted by NGOs
o p e ra tin g a t g ra s s -ro o ts level. Until to d a y P R A e volved so fast in
term s o f the m e th o d o lo g y , th e cre a tio n o f new to o ls and specifically
in different w a y s it is a p p lie d .

C om p a re d to R R A w hich m ainly aim s at extracting information,


PRA places e m p h a s is o n em po w e rin g local p e o p le to assum e an
active rol 0 in a n a lys in g th e ir own living co nd itio n s, problems and
potentials in o rd e r to s e e k for a cha n g e o f th e ir situation. These
changes are su p p o s e d to be achieved b y collective action and the
lo c a l c o m m u n it ie s a r e in v ite d to a s s u m e r e s p o n s ib ilitie s fo r
im plem enting re s p ective activities. T h e m e m b e rs o f the PRA team
act as facilitators. H ere, it is no longer the external experts but rather
the local people th e m s e lve s w h o "own" the results o f a PRA Workshop.
C onsequently an im p o rta n t principle o f P R A is to share the results of
the analysis b e tw e e n th e P R A te a m a n d (he co m m un ity m em tiers by
visualisation, public p re se n ta tions and d iscu ssio n s during meetings.

Some of the k e y P R A te c h n iq u e s are:

M A P P IN G T E C H N IQ U E S

M apping e x e rc is e s as u se d in a P R A a ctivity not only provide


us with info rm ation a b o u t the ph ysical ch a ra c te ristics surrounding
the com m unity but a ls o reveal m uch a b o u t th e socio -e co no m ic
conditions and how the participants perceive th e ir com m unity. The
maps are lisuaily drawn by a group of villagers e ith e r on the ground
using stick or chalk o r on a large sheet of paper. T h e e xe rcise often
attracts much attention a n d generates u se fu l d e b a te a m o n g the
mapmakers and the onlookers. The final map is, th e n recorded by
the P R A team to use in subsequent discussions. M a p p in g techniques
include Social map, Resource map. Mobility m ap, B asic information
about the village, Transect Walk and V enn d ia g ra m

Social Mapping
Social Map is to depict the social stru ctu re o f the village. Any
development program is a deliberate intervention in a given situation
defined by space and time. So, as a first step: it is ne ce ssa ry to
undertake an exercise of physical and social m a p p in g o f the given
area where a program/project is being introduced, A S ocial Map is a
visual representation of a residential area c o n ta in in g relevant social
information. It gives the physical boundaries o f a given area, the
settlement pattern, physical infrastructure, social, cultural and religious
institutions and similar other information. S uch a m a p is to be drawn
first on the ground w ith th e direct participation o f th e local residents
and then transferred on paper with appropriate le g e n d s a n d colours.
This technique m ay be used at the early s ta g e o f interaction with the
community. Mapping generates a lot of e n th u s ia s m a m o n g iocal
people and acts as a good icebreaker. A social m a p of Panicheyam
area in A sa m a n n o o r P a n c h a ya t of E rn a k u la m D is tric t g ive s the
complete social structure of the village (Fig. 1)

Steps:

Select an open space w h e re a map can be d ra w n on th e ground.


■ Ask the local p eople to prepare th e m a p o f th e ir se ttlem en t
that can help o th e rs to have a visual p ictu re o f th e ir locality.
■ Ask the group to sh o w all the fe a tu re s o f th e s e ttle m e n t that
they can think of. such a s rivers, hills, ro a d s, ta n k s, b a m b oo
groves, forests, wells, schools, h ealth c e n te rs , club s, tem ples,
and so on. T h e cluste rs of huts, b u ild in g s a n d re sidential
places are also to be noted a n d m a rk e d o n th e map.
■ L a b e ls a n d s y m b o ls a re to b e u s e d to id e n tify d iffe re n t
facilities, fe a lu re s and infrastructure.
Allow th e p a rtic ip a n ts to se le ct the s ym b o ls. Any additional
inform ation th a t th e fa cilita to r w a n ts to b e included in the map
s hould b e in tro d u c e d o n ly at th e end, a fte r the group has
finished p re p a rin g the m ap, a n d after consultation with the
group.
O n ce th e m a p is ready, o n e m a y a s k q u e stio n s about the
findings as re q u ired .

S D C lA L -riA P
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Fig, 1 S ocial m a p o f of P an ic h e ya m a re a in Asam annoor
P a n c h a y a t of E rn a ku lam D istrict
R e s o u rc e Map

Resource M ap in d ic a te s both the natural re s o u rc e s a n d man


m a d e re s o u rc e s n e e d e d fo r d e v e lo p m e n t o f a g ric u ltu re . This
h e lp s to k n ow a b o u t the v illa g e a n d c o m m u n itv a n d its re s o u rc e
b a s e , B a sically it in c lu d e s th e d e ta ile d la n d u s e in th e v illa g e
s u c h a s fis h in g a re a s , s e a s h o re , v illa g e p o n d s , b a c k w a te rs ,
a g ric u ltu ra l land (w e t/g a rd e n /d ry la n d ), g ra z in g a re a , w a s te land,
f o r e s t land, w a te r b o d ie s , etc. as w ell a s s in c e th e s o c ie ty is
g e n d e re d , th e s itu a tio n a n a ly s is n e e d s to be d o n e to e n s u re
w o m e n re p re s e n ta tio n a n d s p a c e to e x p re s s th e ir v o ic e , th ro u g h
c o m m o n m e e tin g s (if re q u ire d ) a n d th ro u g h o rg a n iz in g s e p a ra te
m e e tin g s fo r m e n a n d w o m e n . In th e p r e s e n t s it u a t io n , th e
fa c ilita to r s h o u ld id e n tify th e tool, b a s e d on th e re q u ire m e n t,
o rg a n iz e eith e r a c o m m o n g ro u p w ith s u ffic ie n t r e p re s e n ta tio n of
w o m e n or e x c lu sive m en a n d w o m e n g ro u p s . It is a s u ita b le tool
to begin the pro g ra m m e w ith an d e n c o u ra g e s p e o p le to c o n trib u te
th e ir th o u g h ts at an e a rly p h a s e of p a rtic ip a to ry p ro c e s s . Fig. 2
d e p ic ts th e R eso u rce m a p o f P a n ic h e y a m a re a in A s a m a n n o o r
P a n c h a y a t of E rn a k u la m D istrict.

Process: A la rg e o p e n s p a c e o r c h a rt c a n b e u s e d . It will
b e e a s ie r to start b y m a rk in g a c e n tra l p la ce an d e n c o u ra g in g the
p a rtic ip a n ts to d ra w o th e r th in g s which a re im p o r ta n t to th e m
a n d fin a lly a sking th e m to p re s e n t it a n d a ls o d e s c rib in g th e
fe a tu re s re p re se n ted .

E x p e c te d o u tc o m e : F ro m th is o n e ca n g e t in fo rm a tio n on
th e lo c a tio n of th e v illa g e , a v a ila b le re s o u rc e s a n d its u tiliz a tio n
p a tte rn , u tiliz a tio n p a tte rn o f c o m m o n p ro p e rty re s o u rc e s , s o u rc e
o f w a te r, fire w o o d , g ra z in g a re a s , fis h in g a re a s , b a c k w a te r and
c o n s tra in ts /p o te n tia ls in e a c h in d ic a te d re s o u rc e s .
J lE S O U £ C £ j ^ / i P

PERJYAJi V A L L E y

F ig u re 2 R e s o u r c e M a p o f P a n ic h e y a m a re a in
A s a m a n n o o r P a n c h a y a t o f E rn a k u la m D istrict
M o b ility M ap
T h is indicates th e p u rp o se for w hich th e fa rm e rs g o o u t for
d iv e rs e pu rp o se . P atte rns o f g ro u p m ob ility of rural p e o p le can
e m e rg e from individual maps. IVlobility of rural p eople b a s e d on s o cio ­
eco n o m ic aspects, gerider, age g roups and other criteria c a n indicate
th e n a tu re of w ork, w e a lth , in te ra c tio n w ith o u ts id e w o r ld a n d
intera c tio n w ithin co m m un itie s a n d w ith other c o m m u n itie s in the
village, it show s the m ode of travel, the d egree of m o b ility o f g ro u p s
and co m m u n itie s and im p orta n ce o f different a re a s in te rm s o f their
d iffe re n t activities. Fig. 3 de picts a mobility of m a p of w o m e n from
P a nic h e ya m area of A s a m a n n o o r Panchayat in E rn a k u la m district
T h e m a p show s that the m o b ility o f w om en takes p la c e o n a cc o u n t
of different reasons such as work, health, shopping, education, prayer
and entertainm ent. The m a p also show s the dista n ce of P a n ich e y a m
area to the m ost visited a re a b y th e w om en folk o f th e area.

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Fig. 3: Mobility M a p of w o m e n of P a n ic h e y a m a r e a in
A sam annoor P a n c h a y a t of E rn a k ula m District
B asic in fo rm a tio n a b o u t the village

T h is in d ica te s th e d a ta regarding the population, area under


crops, n um ber of fam ilies, yield o f animals and crops, mortality related
to a n im a ls etc. In Fig. 4, th e c o m p le te b a s ic inform ation of the
P enicheyam a re a in A sa m a n n o o r P a n c h a y a t is given.

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Fig. 4: B a s ic p ro file o f th e P e n ic h e y a m a re a in
A sam annoor Panchayat

Tran s e c t W a lk

T ra nsect is m aking a long w alk inside the village and locating


the various item s th a t a re found in the village like soil, crops, animals,
problem s, etc. It is a s tructu re d w a lk th rough the locality identified.
This w alk is best c a rrie d out with a group o f pe ople w h o live there
and know the area w ell. T h e s e local people s h o u ld act as g u ides in
the walk, s h o w in g a n d discussing all the fe a tu re s that exist w ithin
the area. T ra n s e c t w a lk will be very effective if th e social map of the
area has a lre a d y b e e n prepared. T h is will h e lp verification of the
social m ap. It a lso h e lp s the facilitator to fo cu s on so m e key areas
or issues.
F o cu s P o in ts
■ O n c e th e features such a s hats (m arket place) o r the sch oo ls
o r c iu b s are identified, th e facilitato r m ay visit th e s e p laces
f o r m a x im u m in te ra c tio n w ith d iffe re n t s e g m e n ts o f the
population.
■ D urin g the transect w alk th e facilitator is d ire ctly e x p o s e d to
th e physical and to p o g ra p hica l features w hich m a y o p e n up
discussion on various su bje cts for d e ve lo p m e n t intervention,
su ch as w ate r c o n s e rva tio n , ch a n g e in land u se o r crop
ro ta tio n pattern.
■ It m a y h e lp in loc a tin g th e s e ttle m e n ts o f s o c ia lly and
econom ically deprived ba ckg rou n d people. D irect interaction
w ith th e m w o u ld h e lp h im /h e r to id e n tify t h e ir s p e c ia l
pro b le m s calling fo r attention.
T h e im po rta n ce of a tra n se ct lies not only in kn o w in g th e agro-
e c o lo g ic a l zo n e s in rural a re a s b u t also in g e ttin g in -d e p th
a c c o u n t from the pa rticip a tin g v illa ge rs o f su c h z o n e s in the
village, their uses, p ro b le m s a n d opportunities. O n c e tra n s e c t
w a lk ca n also be su p p le m e n te d b y other w alks s o as to e nable
the o u tside r to learn m o re a b o u t a n y village a n d c la rify do u bts.
_______________ T f i A M ^ S c r U J A L K A J A & r/fc A M !

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F ig . 5: T ra n s e c t w a lk o f th e P e n ic h e y a m a re a in
A sam annoor Panchayat
V e n n d i a g r a m : T h is in d ic a te s th e im p o r ta n c e o f th e v a rio u s
n d ivid u a ls a n d th e In s titu tio n in and o u ts id e th e village w ith regard
:o a p h e n o m e n o n . F o r e x a m p le g e ttin g foan fo r a g ric u ltu ra l
D urpose. V e n n D ia g r a m s h e lp in u n d e rs ta n d in g th e roles th e
d iffe re n t institu tio n s p la y in a co m m u n ity, th e ir m utual relationships,
and th e re la tiv e im p o rta n c e th e y p la y in p e o p le ’s lives. T h e s e are
also kn ov/n a s C h a p p a ti D ia g ra m s b e c a u s e o f the c ircu la r paper
c u t-o u ts u se d in th is a n a lysis. T he w ho le e x e rcise is d ire cte d to
jn d e r s ta n d h o w th e p e o p le p e rce iv e th e s e institu tio n s vis-a-vis
■-heir own lives. T h is m e th o d is best e ffe ctiv e w h e n th e respondents
intera ct w ith in a g ro u p . It is e x p e c te d that a lo t of discussion and
debate m a y fo llo w . T h e fa c ilita to r w itho u t try in g to stop the debate
s h o u ld try to h e lp th e m to c o m e to a c o n clu s io n .

S te p s ;

■ First o n e ca n p re p a re a large c ircu la r paper, w hich represents


the c o m m u n ity . S m a lle r circle s o f v a rio u s sizes should also
be ke p t h andy. T h e s e small circles w o u ld represent different
institutions.

■ T h e s iz e o f th e c irc le re p re s e n ts th e im p o rta n c e o f an
institution to th e co m m un ity. (The b ig g e r the shape the more
im p o rta n t is th e institution).

■ T h e p r o x im ity to o r d is ta n c e o f a n in s titu tio n fro m the


c o m m u n ity is d e n o te d by the c los e n e ss o r distance of the
circle re p re s e n tin g the institution fro m the centre of the main
circle (re p re s e n tin g the com m unity).

■ S im ila rly d is ta n c e betw een circles represents the absence of


links b e tw e e n them .
RANKING EXER CISES

T he m e th o d s of ranking and sco rin g reveal p riorities and


prelerences. T hey provide opportunities to rural people to physically
rank and re-rank som e items or preferences or some uses and explain
their reasons tor a given ranking. Matrix ranking and scoring are most
a ppropriate w he n o u ts id e rs w ish to ob tain pre cise inform ation in
relationships a m ongst several different criteria and wish to rank only a
Fig. 6 Venn diagram regarding the health care
facilities for the villagers of Panich eyem a rea-

few alternatives, related to uses, preferences or priorities. T h e y can


help in understanding rural people's criteria for ranking as well as relative
p o sitio n of their priorities, p re fe re n c e s and c h o ic e in m a tte rs of
occupation, medical treatment, food, fodder etc. They can be used for
easy c o m p arison s. Ranking m e th o d s include p re fe re n ce ranking,
problem tree. Impact analysis and Bioresources flow etc.

P referen ce ranking: This is to find out the perception of fa rm e rs


regarding the magnitude of the problems found in the village. It involves
ranking ol a set of problems/preferences/priorities by a group or an
individual on the basis of their criteria or perceptions. A n illustration of
preference ranking is given in Fig. 7 which shows the preference of
source of treatment by the villagers. At the end of the matrix, the first
row shows that the overall rating is in the favour of the Allopathy.
J iA T R ix R A N k :iM r ^

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Fig. 7: P r e fe r e n c e R a n k in g fo r v a r ie ty of
tr e a tm e n t a s p e rc e iv e d b y th e v illa g e r s of
P a n ic h e y a m a re a in E rn a k u la m D istrict
P ro b le m T re e
T h e problem tree ind ica te s variou s re so u rce s re sp o n s ib le
io r th e sp e cific prob le m rela te d to a specific field. T h is w ill also
in d ic a te the intervention to r th e va riou s ca u s e s w hich w ill help in
p ro b le m identification related to a discipline. T h e P ro b le m T re e is
us e d to a nalyse re lation sh ip s b e tw e e n p ro b le m s, in c lu d in g their
c a u s e s and effects. T h e P ro b lem T re e helps th e re s e a rc h te a m to
m a ke an inventory of p ro b le m s an d their s o lu tion s a s p e rc e iv e d by
th e ta rg e t group or other s ta ke h o lde rs in the project. It c a n th u s be
used in the analysis of the target group, in the org an isa tio n al analysis
and in th e analysis of th e p ro je ct proposal. It is m o stly kn o w n a s a
te ch n iq u e to design o r t o a n a ly se project proposals. T h e pro b lem
T ree is ‘built’ w ith the help o f in d e x cards. T h e y can be c o n s tru c te d
in th e follow ing way:
■ T h e participants a re a s k e d to e n u m e ra te th e p ro b le m s faced
with. Each pro b lem cited o r listed is w ritten d o w n o n a card
(one problem per ca rd ). W h e n the particip an ts a re illiterate,
sym bo ls should b e used inste a d of descriptions.
■ T h e cards are ranked fo r priority. T h e ke y q u e s tio n fo r ranking
includes w hich of th e se prob le m s is th e C o re p ro b le m , the
problem that cre a tes m a n y o th e r p ro b le m s an d h a s th e m ost
im portant effects on th e lives of th e pa rticip a n ts. T h e core
pro b lem is placed ce n tra l o n the board.
■ Subsequently, the participants are asked fo r each p a ir o f cards
w ith problems: 1. A re th e se tw o cards th e c a u s e s o f th e :o re
problem or co n se q u e n ce s o f the core p ro b le m o r in d e p e n d e n t
issues?
■ 8 y doing so, the p ro b le m c a rd s are arran g ed in th e fo rm o f a
tree, w ith the c o n s e q u e n c e s o f th e C ore p ro b le m a t th e top
a n d th e fa c to r s u n d e r ly in g th e c o re p r o b le m b e lo w it.
Secondary trees m a y ha v e fo rm e d a round o th e r k e y problem s
unrelated w ith th e se le c te d core problem .
T h e participants a re a s k e d to fo cu s on th e c o re p ro b le m and
re q u e s te d to se e w h e th e r alt im p o rta n t ca u s e s o f th e c o re pro b le m
are includ e d in the tree. A d d itio n a l ca u s e s m e n tio n e d a re added.
T h e pro ce d ure is repeated fo r th e co n se q ue n ce s o f th e co re problem.
T h e re s u lt gives an o ve ra ll im a g e o f the p ro b le m s lis te d by the
p a n lc ip a n ts in relation to o n e a n o th er. Fig. 8 g ive s a n e x a m p le of
the P a n ic h e y e m a re a in E rn a ku la m district, W h ere 'Lung disease' is
identified a s trie c o re problem
T h e c o n s tru c tio n of p roblem tree is useful because it show s
c a u s e -e ffe ct re la tio n sh ip s and pro vid es a basis for discussion on
w hich p ro b le m s h a v e to be dealt w ith in order to solve the core
p ro b le m s a n d to w h ic h e xte n d th e s e c a n b e in flu en ce d b y the
participants th e m s e lve s . In the d e sign s tage, the Problem T re e (s)
can be c o n v e rte d into an objective tree. T o this effect, each card in
the P roblem T re e is reform ulated in terms o f a n im provem ent desired.
T h e desired im p ro v e m e n ts o r the ch a n g e s a re written down on cards
(one ch a n g e p e r c a rd ) and a rra n g e d in a fo rm sim ilar to the Problem
T ree. T h e result is th e objective tree sh o w in g how solutions to the
problems are related to each other. G ood facilitation is indispensable;
leading q u e s tio n s o r m a n ip u la tion b y d o m in a n t participants should
be avoided.
PROBLEM TR E E

P a n ic h e y e m a re a in E rnal< ulam D istrict

33
Im p a c t D ia g ra m

This indicates the changes that have occurred either for individual
o r for the society due to adoption of a technology. Im pact analysis is a
type of flow diagram. It is an im pact of the effect of a n y activity. The
effects can b e both favorable a n d unfavorable on rural livelihoods. The
im pact diagram shows the im pact point and the linkages established
or disrupted a s a result of intervention made. Fig. 9 show s the im pact
o f Family Planning Permanent methods.

CAfJ J A r i s F y THt - E D U C A T IO N r o » -
------------- ------

L E J i Flr^Af~lciAL BiJRtAH
B*TTSA CMe r e n -
OH QFCHU.^It£f3 CflLDKCM

F A M IL Y P L A N -N W fh
p E J iM E AJAAJ TJ^eTMO£>S

OP

Fig, 9: Im pact d ia g ra m of
F am ily P lanning P e rm a n e n t M ethods
B lo re s o u c e F lo w D ia g ra m

T h is in d ic a te s tiie d e g re e to w h ic h th e village household


-nembers utilise a n d re cycle the various resources-in and around the
^arm house to s u g g e st rem edial measures. S ioresource flow diagram
;s made to understand the flow of com m odities from farm to household,
market and cattle, external sources to farm a n d household, from cattle
■0 farm and household. This is a cyclic chain of events where, each
one is linked w ith o n e another. This diagram is self-explanatory.

Fig. 10: B io re so urce Flow D ia g ra m

35
T R E N D A N A L Y S IS

T im e line

T h is indicates the m a jo r e v e n ts re m e m b e re d b y th e villagers.


E ld e rly v illa g e rs na rra te th e ir life histories. S in ce it is d iffic u lt to
re m e m b e r th e e xact dates of im p o rta n t cha ng e s, v illa g e rs can be
fa c ilita te d to bro ad ly c o n n e c t s u c h c h a n g e s w ith m a jo r even ts,
political regim es and thus s u m m a ris e the m ajor e v e n ts a n d ch a n g e s
th a t h a v e taken place d uring his / h e r life time. It w a s th ro u g h the
m e th o d o f tim e line, as sh o w n in Fig, 11, th a t in fo rm a tio n w a s given
b y an e ld e rly villager on th e v a rio u s d e v e lo p m e n t s ta g e s o f their
v illa g e o v e r a period of 70 years.

11M

60Ll£lKCA(^

DQD
D DO
&

■ m i

Fig. 11: T im e lin e s h o w in g th e d iffe re n t d e v e lo p m e n t s ta g e s in


th e P a n ic h e y a m A r e a o f E rn a k u la m D is tric t
T im e T re n d

T his indicates th e change in past fe w y e a rs related to variables


concern e d w ith a p a rtic u la r field. T h is m e th o d show s quantitative
c h a n g e s o v e r tim e in d iffe r e n t a s p e c ts o f v illa g e life su ch as
o c c u rre n c e o f m a jo r d is e a s e s , p o p u la t io n a ffe c te d , liv e s to c k
population , n u m b e r o f trees, rainfall pa ttern etc. A T im e trend is
different from a h isto rica l tra nsect or a T im e line. T h e form er is m ore
precise in giving in d ic a tio n of change w he rea s, th e latte r can show
broad m o v e m e n ts o f d iffe re n t aspects of villa ge life rather than their
precise shifts. Fig. 12 illustrates th e trend o f m a jo r diseases, trend
of d is e a s e s in d iffe r e n t life s ta g e s a n d th e le v e l o f in cre a s e in
diseases-

S te p s

B Start w ith a d isc u ss io n o n m a jo r c h a n g e s that have taken


p lace in th e loca lity as perceived o r identified by them.

B T h e g ro u p is to d e c id e h ow fa r back in tim e they would like to


go for th is a n a ly s is . T h e y sh ould id e ntify the year(s) or period
w he n s ig n ific a n t cha n g e s w ere w itnessed.

8f A s k th e g r o u p to id e n tify th e a re a s in w h ich th e y h a v e
w itn e ss e d th e s e s changes. T h e n d ra w a diagram showing
these c h a n g e s o v e r th e years. This c a n be show n by line
d ra w in g s (like graphs).

a D is c u s s w h a t p ro m p te d th e s e c h a n g e s . W h ich o n e s are
co n s id e re d p o sitive and w hich a re neg a tive and why? Ask
w h e th e r a n y o f th e negative ch a n g e s ca n be reversed, and
how?

T h e re is e ve ry possibility that there w o u ld be difference of


opinion and deb a te . D o n o t interfere. But you m a y provide necessary
in fo rm a tion a n d d ra w a tte n tio n to issue s, w h ic h have not been
discusse d a t th e end, so that fresh d iscu ssio n m a y be initiated.
Fig. 12 : Trend of Major D is e a s e s an d their level of in c re a s e in
Ihe P anicheyarn A re a o f Ernakulam D istrict

S eas o n a l analysis

T h is indicates the m onth w is e a b n orm a iitie s w ith re g a rd to a


p arlicular lield. This m ethod is u s e d to analyze the s e a s o n a l patterns
o f som e aspects of life or activities, e ve n ts o r pro b lem s. T h e re are
s o n e problem s, which are c yclica l in nature. P ro b le m s w h ic h have
a cy clica l pattern can be a n a ly z e d using this m e th o d , inc lu d in g
ava ila b ility of food, prevalence o f d ise a se s, in d e b te d n e ss , relative
p rosperity, stress in livelihoods etc. as a ls o rainfall, a v a ila b ility of
w a te r a nd so on. Fig. 13 is a S ea s o n a l A n alysis o f five d is e a s e s :n
P a nich e ya rn A rea o f A s s a m a n n o o r P a n ch a y a t in O d a k a li re g io n of
E rn ? ku lam District. It shows season a l fre q u en cy o f d is e a s e s o f which
ch icke n p o x is a frequently o c c u rrin g disease. T h e c h a rt ca n be
directly linked to policy m easures in term s o f stre n gth en ing o f prim ary
health c a re depending on the fre q u e n c y of a d ise a s e a n d its period
co n ce rn e d .

■ A s k the participants to d e c id e h o w th e y w o u ld like to d ivide


th e ye a r {m onths, sea so n s, qu a rte rs etc.) in re la tio n to their
lives. Do n o t im p o s e your c a le n d a r - there can be different
fo rm s o f lo c a l c a le n d a rs, w h ic ti th e p eople m ay be m ore
fa m ilia r w ith.

D e v e lo p th e c a le n d a r on th e g ro u n d using chalk, sticks,


stones, o r a n y o th e r locally a va ila b le material. This ca n also
be p re p a re d on large sheets of paper.

Identify th e ite m s or pro ble m s w ith th e help of the participants.

T h e s e a s o n a l va ria tio n s of the d iffe re n t items are depicted


o n th e c a le n d a r, an d then th e results are compared.

O n c e the v is ua l is ready, you can a sk questions regarding


th e re la tio n s h ip s betw een d iffe re n t v a riab le s and w hether
th e re are a n y o th e r asp e cts of life th a t affect o r are affected
by this sea so n a lity.

This visual is then used to discuss problem s and opportunities.

________________ SEASONAL A N A L Y S IS
A.y-y. j

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cUAfJfjAt. f»k h

V^CUJ<^OU«,
A ll
AffJy MVH4Aif.
kfirot
oiiiC' UUllU
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AU

U m n ju x t
CAi AH
J-Wfvjfcy
S aI U j / -
Ktnfl'^4fv^

Fig. 13; S e a s o n a l a n a ly s is o f F iv e d is e a s e s
in th e P a n ic h e y a m a re a in A s s a m a n n o o r
P a n c h a y a t o f E rn a k u la m D istrict
D a ily R o u tin e D iagram

T h is d aily routine dia g ra m d e p ic ts the w ay in w h ic h fa rm e r


s p e n d s tim e from m orning to night. Daily routine d ia g ra m s reflect
th e kinfl o f activities which one d o e s on a d aily basis. It n o t only
sh o w s th e tim e spent in different a ctivities but also the s iz e o f the
w o rk in vo lve d . For instance, w o m e n spend different h o u rs o f the
day in a ctivities like feeding ch ildre n , coo king etc. It is p o s s ib le to
id e n tify ig e n e ra l patterns fro m d aily patterns. The gen era l p a tte rn s
of d ifferen t groups can be c o m p a re d . S uch d aily ro u tin e s c a n also
be d e p ic te d on a seasonal basis in o rd e r to identify c o n s tra in ts and
w o rk lo a d & o f different groups rela te d to different activities.

Fig 14 is a typical daily ro utine d iagram of a n e ld e r male,


e ld e r fo m a le , young male a n d yo u n g fem ale .

J<^AIIY ^ - 'f) U r !N t ^ IA 6 ,K A n

‘ I

Fig. 14: D a ily R o u tin e D ia g ra m o f M e n a n d W o m e n


in th e P a n ic h e y a m a re a o f E rn a k u la m D is tric t
For example; Seasonality - Diagram

a) P u rp o s e

To understand the seasonal variation in any activity/seasonal


factors affecting any Issue.

A p p lic a t io n s

■ T o plan agriculture / horticulture interventions by studying


seasonal patterns in pest attack / rainfall / markets / storage
etc.,

a To plan employment generation activities, by studying labour


availability patterns etc.,

Preparations Required

m M a ke y o u rse lf clear what issues you v^ant to study with regard


to w hat factors

a Selection o f village / area.

B A visit to the village, to inform the villagers, and to find about


their convenience. Also to seek help in identifying possible
respondents.

■ B u zz s e s s io n - division o f re sp o n s ib ilitie s (facilitation,


interviews observer, process recorder, content recorder)

B Materials - locally available materials like stones, sticks,


seeds, chalk powder, large sheets of paper and marker pens
to record output.

Process in the field

■ Selection of convenient spot, gathering with respondents

■ Explain to respondents / others about the exercise

■ Elicit and discuss, local calendar on the ground

■ Plot the activities / issues on the calendar as and when it


occurs

■ A n a ly z e th e in fo rm a tio n and a lso m ake c o rre c tio n s , if


necessary.
Data tools: Participatory Rural Appraisal Techniques

W ays to cross check

■ Village presentation

■ With other methods like livelihood analysis, fam ily profile

■ With secondary data

D on’ts

■ Don't impose our calendar

■ Don’t combine too many issues / factors in one exercise

■ Don’t combine unrelated factors in one exercise

■ Follow the don'ts of interviewing

H OW TO DOCUMENT

■ Entire process (including ground work) to be recorded

■ Transfer the actual output (chart) lo a paper, w ithout making


changes (land to lab)

■ A narration to explain the output

■ A record of the interpretation / analysis


■ A record of possible actions, if any
SUMMARY

A s c o m p a re d to survey m ethod, P R A is a m ethod w hich is


neither looking fo r 'a vera g es" nor fo r s e t patterns. It has an array of
m ethods prin cip a lly fo r a n a lysis of d iffe re n c e s in rural phenom e n a
and p ro ce sse s. U is based on p eople's p e rce p tio n s to a nalyse the
c o m p le x itie s a n d h e te r o g e n e ity u n d e rly in g ru ra l s y s te m s a n d
p ro c e ss e s. T h e m a in o b ie c tive of P R A a s a m e th o d o lo g y is to
u n d e rs ta n d th e p o in t of view of the rural p e o p le and not to proceed
with defin e d s e ts o f ideas a n d notions. P R A m ethods are based on
the e le m e n t o f o p e n n e s s w he re the re sea rch e r acts as a facilitator
to the village rs' p e rce p tio n s to open up th e ir discussions a n d views
as to inte ract fro m w ithin, in natural surroundings. The PRA m ethods
help to e s ta b lish e ffe ctive co m m un ica tio n with rural people. This
a spect of o p e n n e s s in PRA needs to be e m ph a s iz e d because m ost
m ethods by n a tu re are extractive rather th a n participatory including
Rapid Rural A p p ra is a l (R R A ) w hich is a p re d e ce sso r of PRA.

PRA has n o t evo lve d in scientific laboratories nor in intellectual


w riting s b u t in fie ld situations. This can b e considered as a m ajor
s tre n g th o f P R A in fa c in g rural re a litie s w h ic h h a s b o o s te d a
m e th o d o lo g y like P R A to m o ve fonward an d gain progressively from
fie ld e x p e r ie n c e s . P R A h a s a ric h p e r s p e c t iv e a n d o ffe rs a
m ethodologically d o m in a n t vision of which developm ent practitioners
c a n m a ke g o o d use. PRA, as a data tool, e njoys am ple flexibility in
term s of initiating participation in different institutional settings. In
s o m e lim ite d e n v iro n m e n ts not fa vo ra ble to participation, PRA can
be used a s a m e th o d for data collection. W hile in other settings,
a m ia b le to p a rtic ip a tio n , PRA can be u se d to r decision making,
im p le m e n t a tio n , m o n ito rin g a n d e v a lu a tio n o f d e v e lo p m e n ta l
projects.

P R A gains its strength from the participative elem ents inbuilt


in it w hich is th e d riving force of PRA. It im plies e m po w e rm e nt of
p e ople th ro u g h a c tiv e participation. It a ls o im plies realization of
c o n fid e n c e and d ign ity of rural people, e s p e cially the poor a n d the
weak. T h e goal o f so c io -e co no m ic d e v e lo p m e n t is a c co m p lish m e nt
of w e ll-b e in g o f e v e ry ind ivid ua l in a s o c ie ty . PRA p ro vid e s an
o p p o rtu n ity for participa tio n to w a rds a tta in m e n t of that well being.
T h is b o o k e n d s with a positive n o te on PRA as a d a ta to o l which
pro vid e s an enriched opportunity to com m ence and m a in ta in people's
o w n d e v e lo p m e n t, designed, e x e c u te d and e v a lu a te d b y them .

REFERENCES

C h a m b e rs , R obert (1991b) S h o rtc u t and P a rticip ato ry M e th o d s for


G a in in g Social Inform ation fo r Projects. In C e rn e a , M ichael,
M .(ed.), Putting P eople First, S ociological V a ria b le s in Rural
D eve lo p m en t, Published fo r th e W orld Bank, O x fo rd U n ive rsity
Press.

M u k h e r je e , N e e la (1 9 9 1 ). A n A lt e r n a tiv e A p p r o a c h to R u ra l
D evelopm ent-P articipatory R ural Appraisal- In Y u g a n d h a r, B.N.
a n d Mukherjee, N eela (ed.), S tudies in V illa g e India, C o n c e p t
P ublishing C om pany, Delhi,

Mukherjee, Neela (1997). Participatory Rural Appraisal {M e th od o log y


a n d A pp lica tio n s) S tu d ie s in R ural P a rtic ip a tio n -1 , C o n c e p t
P ublishing C om pany, D elh i.1 60 p
(« ) Co J ''■;
- ' V - ' '■ ' I r

\ S O U T R A J IV G A N D H I C H A IR
T h e M inistry o f H u m an R es o u rc e s D ev e lo p m e n t
/!H R D ), Govt, o f India established 1 0 R ajiv G andhi Chairs in
entral and S ta te Universities all o ver the country to implement
e dream projects o f Sri. Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prim e M inisterof
dia. C ochin University of Science a n d Technology was
entified a s o n e a m o n g the prestigious ten Universities in the
juntry to hold the C hair and the thrust a re a identified for the
h a ir a t C U S A T is on E c o s y s te m s a n d S u s ta in a b le
3velopm ent. T h e m ain objectives of the C h a ir include;

T o act as a platform for exchange of id eas between scientists,


policy m a k ers, N G O s etc.

T o strengthen the role of Universities/Academics in public


policym aking

T o provide a forum for inter University/ intercollegiate


research

T o carry out research program m es leading to PhD

T o design a n d execute capacity building programmes for


teachers in higher education in the a re a s focused by the
Chair

To conduct short term courses to students, researchers and


rural folk

T o bring out research publications, proceedings and


monographs

T o o rganize sem inars/conferences/sym posia

T o set up dem onstration Units for the tran sfer of standardized


technologies to th e field level
DATA TOOLS
PARTICIPATORY RURAL
APPRAISAL TECHNIQUES

SINOHU SADANANDAN, P. NATARAJAN


JOSE ANTONY, V. P. ViPINKUA^AR

About the Book.

e Professionals at Rajiv Gandhi Chair and SSUS have


developed and conducted a PRA.

This book is primarily the product of an


implementation process of that PRA Tool.

The field test was carried out in


Assamannooor Panchayat,
Odakali region o f Kalady in Emakulam District.

The data tools developed for appraising


rural environment through participatory
mode are w/ell embedded within its context,

This Book has incoiporated lessons


from previous experiences,
at the same time has not duplicated the activities.

A U TH O RS

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