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The Magazine for Electronic Et Computer Projects

DOZEN PACKS REAL POWER AMPIJRER for your car, it has 150 watts output. Fre-
All packs are El each, if you order 12 then you are quency response 20hz to 20Khz and signal to noise ratio better than
entitled to another free. Please state which one you 60dB. Has built in short circuit protection and adjustable input level to
suit y..,ur existing car stereo, so needs no pre -amp. Works into speakers JOYSTICKS for BBC, Atari, Dragon, Commodore, etc. All E5 each.
want. Note the figure on the extreme left of the pack State which required.
ref. 30P7 described below. A real bargain at only E57.50. Order ref:
ref number and the next figure is the quantity of items
in the pack, finally a short description. TELEPHONE TYPE KEY PAD. Really first class rear mounting unit.
5 7P 1 L.POWER CAR SPEAKERS. Stereo pair output 100W each. 4 - White lettering on black buttons. Has conductive rubbers contacts with
BD2 5 13A spurs provide a fused outlet to a ring main Ohm impedance and consisting of 61/2" woofer, 2" mid range and 1" soft click operation. Circuit arranged in telephone type array. Requires
where devices such as a clock must not be tweeter. Each set in a compact purpose built shelf mounting unit. Ideal 70mm by 55mm cut out and is connected by 10 -pin IDC socket. Price:
switched off. to work with the amplifier described above. Price per pair £29.96. Order £2.00 each. Order ref: 2P251.
BD7 4 In flex switches with neon on/off lights, saves ref: 30P7.
TELESCOPIC FM AERIAL. Stands up or folds over. Solidly con-
leaving things switched on. STEREO CAR SPEAKERS. Not quite so powerful - 70w per chan- structed and heavily nickel plated. Supplied complete with fixing nut.
B09 2 6V IA mains transformers upright mounting with nel. 3' woofer, 2" mid range and 1" tweeter. Again, in a super purpose Price f1 each. Order ref: BD741.
fixing damps. built shelf mounting unit. Price per pair: £27.95. Order ref: 28P1.
BD11 1 Whin speaker cabinet ideal for extensions, takes SUB -MIN PUSH SWITCHES Not much bigger than a plastic trans-
VIDEO TAPES These are three hour tapes of superior quality, made istor but double pole. PCB mounting. Three for El. Our ref BD688.
our speaker. Ref BD137. under licence from the famous JVC Company. Offered at only f3 each.
0013 12 30 watt reed switches, it's surprising what you can Our ref 3P63. Or 5 for El I. Our ref 11P3. Or for the really big user 10 for NICAD CHARGER UNIT Metal pronged, plastic case contains mains
make with these -burglar alarms, secret switches, £20. Our ref 20P20. transformer and rectifiers with output lead and plug -made to charge
relay, etc., etc. ELECTRONIC SPACESHIP. two cells but no doube adaptable or wonderful spares value. Only 50p
(3022 2 25 watt loudspeaker two unit crossovers. Sound and impact controlled, each, two for El. Our ref BD385.
BD29 111.0A.C. stereo unit is wonderful breakdown value. responds to claps and shouts and EDGEWISE PANEL METER If you are short of panel space then this
B030 2 Nicad constant current chargers adapt to charge reverses when it hits anything. Kit may be the answer. It has a FSD of 100µA and a nice full vision scale. It
almost any nicad battery. with really detailed instructions. Ideal
fits through a hole approx 11/4in x 1/2in. Another feature is that it has an
BD32 2 Humidity switches, as the air becomes damper the present for budding young electri- indicator lamp behind the scale which you could light up, it would then
cian. A youngster should be able to serve as an on/off indicator. Price £1. Our ref BD700.
membrane stretches and operates a microswitch.
assemble but you may have to help with the soldering of the compo-
BU42 5 13A rocker switch three tags so on/off, or change nents on the pcb. Complete kit ES. Our ref 8P30.
over with centre off. AA CELLS Probably the most popular of the rechargeable NICAD
B045 1 241ir time switch, ex -Electricity Board, automati- 12" HIGH RESOLUTION MONITOR Black and white types. 4 for £4. Our ref 4P44.
cally adjust for lengthening and shortening day. screen, beautifully cased for free standing, needs only a 12v 1.5
amp supply. Technical data is on its way but we understand these 600W HEATERS 240V Mobern coil suitable for air or liquid
original cost £40 each.
are TTL input. Brand new in makers' cartons. Price: £22.00 2'x4" mounted on a circular plate. 24 months guarantee. Price only
B1.149 10 Neon valves, with series resistor, these make good £4.00. Our ref 4P51 or 3 for £10. ref 10P76.
night lights. Post free. Order ref: 25P10.
1 Mini uniselector, one use is for an electric jigsaw 20 WATT 4OHM SPEAKER With built in tweeter. Really well made
B056 14" COLOUR MONITOR made by the American Display Tek Corn unit which has the power and the quality for hi-fi reproduction. 61/2in
puzzle, we give circuit diagram for this. One pulse pany. Uses high resolution tube made by the famous Japanes diameter. Price f5. Our ref 5P155. his heavy so please add El to cover
into motor, moves switch through one pole. Toshiba company. Beautifully made unit intended for console mount postage if not collecting.
BD59 2 Flat solenoids -you could make your multi -tester ing, but top and sides adequately covered by plated metal panels. Ful
technical spec. on its way to us. We have a limited number of these. Al MINI RADIO MODULE Only about 2in square with ferrite aerial and
read AC amps with this.
brand new still in maker's cartons. Price: £89 each plus £6 insured solid dia tuner with its own knob. It is a superhet and it operates from
B067 1 Suck or blow operated pressure switch, or it can
carriage. Order ref: 89P/1. PP3 battery and would drive a crystal headphone direct but be better
be operated by any low pressure variation such as with our mini mono amp. Price El. Our ref BD716.
water level in water tanks. BUSH RADIO MIDI SPEAKERS Stereo pair. BASS reflex sys-
tem, using a full range 4in driver of 4ohms impedance. Mounted in very
BULGIN MAINS PLUG AND SOCKET The old faithful 3 pin with
BD103A 1 6V 750mA power supply, nicely cased with mains screw terminals. The socket mounts through a 11/2in hole and the
input and 6V output leads. nicely made black fronted walnut finish cabinets. Cabinet size approx
81/2in wide, 14in high and 31/2in deep. Fitted with a good length of mains is brought in by the insulated plug. Used to be quite expensive
BD120 2 Stripper boards, each contains a 400V 2A bridge but you can have 2 pairs for ft or 4 of either plug or socket for Et. You
speaker flex and terminating with a normal audio plug. Price E5 the pair
rectifier and 14 other diodes and rectifiers as well plus f 1 post. Our ref 5P141. could make yourself a neat and compact bench panel with these. Our
as dozens of condensers, etc. ref BD7I5, BD715S or BD715P.
00128 Viiin FLOPPY DRIVES We still have two models in stock: Single
10 Very fine drills for pcb boards etc. Normal cost sided, 80 track, by Chinon. This is in the manufacturers metal case with MICROPHONE If you want a low cost microphone then just arrived
about 80p each. leads and IX connectors. Price £40, reference 40P1. Also a double we have a very small hand-held dynamic mic with on/off switch in the
B0132 2 Plastic boxes approx 3M cube with square hole sided, 80 track, by NEC. This is uncased. Price £59.50, reference 60P2. handle, its lead terminates with one 3.5 plug and the other a 2.5 plug for
through top so ideal for interrupted beam switch. Both are brand new. Insured delivery £3 on each or both. remote control. Price only El. Our ref BD711
80134 10 Motors for model aeroplanes, spin to start so needs EXTENSION CABLE WITH A DIFFERENCE It is flat on one side
no switch. ATARI 65XE COMPUTER making it easy to fix and to look tidy. It is 4 core so suitable for tele-
BD139 6 Microphone inserts=magnetic 400 ohm also act At 64K this is most powerful and suit- phone, bell, burgular alarms, etc. 50 yard coil for £5. Our ref 5P153.
as speakers. ' I able for home and business. Brand
B0148 4 Reed relay kits, you get 16 reed switches and 4 coil
, owner's manual and six games. Can CURRENT DEVICES 140v 100w pair made by the famous
sets with notes on making c/o relays and other I be yours for only £45 plus E3 delivery
gadgets. Hitachi Company. Reference 251413 and its compliment 25J118.
65 XE COMPENDIUM Contains: 65XE Computer, its Data Recor- Only £4 the pair. Our ref 4P42.
BD149 6 Safety cover for 13A sockets -prevent those inqui-
sitive little fingers getting nasty shocks. der XC12 and its joystici with TEN games. £62.50+£4 insured delivery. BATTERY OPERATED TRAVEL MECHANISM On a plastic pane
BD180 6 Neon indicators in panel mounting holders with REMOTE CONTROL FOR YOUR 65XE COMPUTER With this measuring approx. 9in x 3V2in. Is driven by a reversible 12v battery
lens. outfit you can be as much as 20 feet away as you wil have a joystick that motor, fitted with a pulley and belt which rotates through a threaded
BD193 6 5 amp 3 pin flush mounting sockets make a low can transmit and a receiver to plug into and operate your computer and rod and causes a platform to travel backwards and forwards through a
TV. This is also just right if you want to use it with a big screen TV. The distance of approx. 5in. Price £5. Our ref 5P140.
cost disco panel.
BD196 1 in flex simmerstat- keeps your soldering iron etc. joystick has two fire buttons and is of a really superior quality, with four MAINS OPERATED WATER VALVE with hose connection for inlet
suction cups for additional control and one handed play. Price £15 for and outlet suitable for low pressure. Auto plant watering, etc. Only El
always at the ready.
the radio controlled pair. Our ref 15P27. each. Our ref BD370.
00199 1 Mains solenoid, very powerful, has lin pull or could
push if modified. ASTEC PSU. Mains operated switch mode, so very compact. Outputs 20 VOLT 4 AMP MAINS TRANSFORMER Upright mounting with
+12v 2.5A, +5v 6A, ±5v .5A, ±12v 5A. Size: 71/2in long x 43/4 in fixing feet. Price £3. 3P59
B0201 8 Keyboard switches -made for computers but have wide x21/4in high. Cased ready for use. Brand new. Normal price £30+,
many other applications. our price only E12.95. Order ref 13P2. 16 OHM PM SPEAKERS Approx. bin x 4in. 5 watts. Offered at very
80211 1 Electric clock, mains operated, put this in a box and low price so you can use two in parallel to give you 10 watts at 8 ohms.
you need never be late. VERY POWERFUL 12 VOLT MOTORS. 1/3rd Horsepower E1 for the two. Our ref 80684.
BD221 5 12V alarms, make a noise about as loud as a car Made to drive the Sinclair C5 electric car but adaptable to power a go- E5pHT139TRANSFORMER 4kv 2mA Ex -unused equipment. £5. Our ref
horn. Slightly soiled but OK. kart, a mower, a rail car, model railway, etc. Brand new. Price £20 plus
2 bin x 4in speakers, 4 ohm made from Radiomobile E2 postage. Our ref. 20P22.
BD242 4 CORE TINSEL COPPER LEAD As find to telephones, terminating
so very good quality. PHILIPS LASER with flat ST plug. 2 for C1. Our ref BD639.
BD252 1 Panostat, controls output of boiling ring from sim- This is helium -neon and has a power rating of 2mW. Completely EHT TRANSFORMER 8kv 3mA. f10. Our ref 10P56
mer up boil. safe as long as you do not look directly into the beam when eye
VERY USEFUL MAGNETS Flat, about lin long, 1/2in wide and Vin
00259 50 Leads with push -on 'hin tags- a must for hook- damage could result. Brand new, full spec. £30 plus £3 insured
thick. Very powerful. 6 for Et Our ref BD274(a).
ups -mains connections etc. delivery. Mains operated power supply for this tube gives 8kv
BD263 2 Oblong push switches for bell or chimes, these can striking and 1.25kv at 5mA running. Complete kit with case f 15. ACORN COMPUTER DATA RECORDER Ref ALF03. Made for the
mains up to 5 amps so could be foot switch if fitted As above for 12V battery. Also E15. Our ref 15P22. Electron or BBC computers but suitable for most others. Complete with
mains adaptor, leads and handbook. £10.00. Ref 10P44. Add E2 special
into pattress.
ORGAN MASTER Is a three octave musical keyboard. his beau - azkuingR.
60268 Mini 1 watt amp for record player. Will also change
fully made, has full size (piano size) keys, has gold plated contacts and SOLAR CELLS Will give good current (depending on size) from sun-
speed of record player motor. 's complete with ribbon cable and edge connector. Can be used with light or bright daylight. Module A gives 100mA. Price El. Our ref BD631.
BD283 3 Mild steel boxes approx 3in x 3M x lin deep -stan- many computers, request information sheet. Brand new, only f 15 plus Model C gives 400mA. Price £2. Our ref 2P199. Model D gives 700mA.
dard electrical. C3 postage. Our ref 15P15. Price M. Our ref 3P42.
80293 50 Mixed silicon diodes.
B0305 I Tubular dynamic mic with optional table rest. FULL RANGE OF COMPONENTS at very keen prices SOLAR POWERED NI -CAD CHARGER 4 Ni-CAD batteries AA
are available from our associate company SCS COMPONENTS. (HP7) charged in eight hours or two in only 4 hours. It is complete,
B0400 4 Books, useful for beginners, describes amplifiers
You may already have their catalogue, if not request one and we boxed ready to use unit. Price E6. Our ref 6P3.
equipment and kit sets.
BD653 2 Miniature driver transformers. Ref. LT44. 20k to 1k will send it FOC with your goods. METAL PROJECT BOX Ideal for battery charger, power supply etc.,
centretapped. sprayed grey, size 8"x41/4"x4" high, ends are louvred for ventilation
HIGH RESOLUTION MONITOR. 9in black and white, used other sides are flat and undrilled. Price £3. Order ref 3P75.
80548 2 3.5V relays each with 2 pairs changeover contacts.
Philips tube M24'306W. Made up in a lacquered frame and has open
BD667 2 4.7 of non -polarised block capacitors, pcb mounting. CAPACITOR BARGAIN Axial ended - 47000 at 25v. Jap made.
sides. Made for use with OPD computer but suitable for most others.
There are over 1,000 items in our Bakers Dozen List. If you want a com- Brand new. E16 plus 5 post. Our ref 16P1. Normally 50p each, but you will get 4 for Et. Ref 613.
plete copy please request this when ordering.
12 VOLT BRUSHLESS FAN. Japanese made. The popuar SINGLE SCREENED FLEX 7.02 copper conductors, pvc insulated
EQUIPMENT WALL MOUNT it is a multi -adjustable metal bracket then with copper screen, finally outer insulation. In fact quite normal
square shape (41/zin x Chink 13/4in). The electronically run fans not
that could be used for mounting flood light, loudspeaker, TV camera, screened flex. 10m for El. Our ref BD668.
only consume very little current but also they do not cause interference
even a fan and on almost any sort of wall or ceiling even between wall
as the brush type motors do. Ideal for cooling computers, etc., or for a 3 CORE FLEX BARGAIN No. 1 Core size 5mm so ideal for long
and ceiling. The main fixing brackets rotate such that an inward or an
caravan. ES sash. Our ref 8P26. extension leads carrying up to 5 amps or short leads up to 10 amps.
outward corner can be accommodated. Front panel also tilts upward or
15m U. ref 2P189
downwards to a reasonable angle and can be easily removed sepa- MINI MONO AMP on p.c.b. size 4" x (app.)
rately for wiring. A very useful bracket. Regular price would be around Fitted Volume control and a hole for a tone con- 3 CORE FLEX BARGAIN No. 2 Core size 1.25mm so ideal for long
E6 each. Our price only E3. Our ref 3P72. Or 2 for E5. Our ref 5P152. trol should yopu require it The amplifier extension leads carrying up to 13 amps or short leads up to 25A. 10m
has three transistors and we estim- for E2. Order ref 2P190
SUB -MIN TOGGLE SWITCH Body size 8mm x 4mm x 7mm
SBDT with chrome dolly fixing nuts. 3 for Et Order ref BD649. ate the output to be 3W rms. ALPHA -NUMERIC KEYBOARD This keyboard has 73 keys with
More technical data will be included contactless capacitance switches giving long trouble free life and no
COPPER CLAD PANEL for making PCB. Size approx 12in with the amp. Brand new, contact bounce. The keys are arranged in two groups, the main area
long x 81/2in wide. Double -sided on fibreglass middle which is quite perfect condition, offered at the very field is a QWERTY array and on the right is a 15 key number pad, board
thick (about 1/16in) so this would support quite heavy components and low price of E1.15 each, or 13 for £12.00 size is approx. 13"x4" -brand new but offered at only a fraction of its
could even form a chassis to hold a mains transformer, etc. Price El
cost namely E3 plus Cl post. Ref 3P27.
each. Our ref BD683. J & N BULL ELECTRICAL
Ye HORSEPOWER 12 VOLT MOTOR Made by Smiths, the body
Dept. EE 250 PORTLAND ROAD, HOVE, length of this is approximately 3in. , the diameter 3in. and the spindle
POWERFUL IONISER BRIGHTON, SUSSEX BN3 5QT. Vieth of an inch diameter. ft has a centre flange for fixing or can be fixed
Generates approx. 10 times more IONS than the ETI and similar MAIL ORDER TERMS: Cash, PO or cheque with order. Orders under £20 from the end by means of 2 nuts. A very powerful little motor which
circuits. Will refresh your home, office, workroom etc. Makes you add £2.50 service charge. Monthly account orders accepted from schools revs at 3,000rpm. We have a large quantity of them so if you have any
feel better and work harder- a complete mains operated kit. case and public companies. Access and B/Card orders accepted- minimum projects in mind then you could rely on supplies for at least two years.
included. E12.50 E2 P&P Our ref 12P5 1 £5. Phone 102731734648 or 203500. Price E6. Our ref 6P1, discount for quantities of 10 or more.


VOL 18 No 12 DECEMBER 1989 The Magazine for Electronic & Computer Projects

ISSN 0262-3617


. .


AUTOLIGHT by Chris Bowes 770
Automatically illuminate areas at night - Free Circuit Board
CAR IMPULSE WIPER by Chris Bowes 774
Add intermittent wipe to your car-a Free Circuit Board project
Allow the postman to leave your mail-order packages even when
you're out
by T. R. de Vaux-Balbirnie - Simple sparkle for the kids
Check the electrode connections to your brain!
CAR LAMP CHARGER by T. R. de Vaux-Balbirnie 820
Keep an emergency lamp ready for use in your car

MICRO IN CONTROL - PART 1 by John Hughes 780
The start of a new theory series with an unusual presentation
ROBOT ROUNDUP by Nigel Clark 784
Investigating the world of robots
BBC MICRO by R. A. Penfold & J. W. Penfold 794
Regular spot for Beeb Micro fanatics
ACTUALLY DOING IT by R. A. Penfold 809
Front panel finish
ON SPEC By Mike Tooley 812
The place for Spectrum (and its derivatives) micro owners
AMATEUR RADIO by Tony Smith G4FAI 814
Radiocommunications Division's Annual Report, New Book

Toothless BVA, Thief Foil, DAT Dump
SHOPTALK by David Barrington 783
Your component buying problems solved
by Barry Fox -A report from the Berlin Exhibition
A distance learning package reviewed.
Technical books delivered to your door
MARKET PLACE Free readers buy/sell/swap spot 823
©Wimborne Publishing Ltd 1989. Copyright in all
drawings, photographs and articles published in INDEX FOR VOLUME 18 (1989) 827
reproduction or imitations in whole or in part are 832
expressly forbidden. FREE Easiwire Circuit Board Cover Mounted
Our January '90 Issue will be published on Readers' Services Editorial and Advertisement Departments 769
Friday, 1 December 1989. See page 763 for details.
Everyday Electronics, December 1989 761
100 WATT SPEAKER KIT £60.00 +f3.50 P&P (pair)
BASS POLYMER CONED: 22cm Please state pack(s) required
No Order No. Qty Quantity per pack
I3P010 2 61/2" Speaker 8.1210 watt
IHWD): 382,252,204mm BP012 2 61/2" Speaker 41210 watt An easy to build amplifier with a good specifica-
RECOMMENDED AMP POWER: BP013 3 8" x 5" Speaker 4116 watt made by E.M.I. tion. All the components are mounted on the
BP015B 30 watt, dome tweeter. Size 90 x 66mil
10-100 watts per channel 1

JAPAN made
single P.C.B. which is already punched and
The performance stan- BP016 6 22000 can type Electrolytic 25V d.c computer backprinted.
dard achieved in this grade made in UK by PHILIPS 30Wx 2 (DIN 4 ohm)
compact design is distinc- BP017 3 330000 16V d.c. electrolytic high quality CD/Aux, tape I, tape II, tuner and phono
tively superior to any- computer grade UK made inputs.
thing else available at the BP018 3 20000.50V d.c. electrolytic high quality Separate treble and bass
price. The drive units computer grade made in USA Headphone jack
BP019 20 20 ceramic trimmers
used are of sophisticated BP020 4 Tuning capacitors, 2 gang dielectric a.m. type Size (H.W.D.) 75 x 400 x 195mm
design and have been BP021 10 3 position, 8 tag slide switch 3 amp rated Kit enclosed: case, P.C.B., all components, scale
carefully integrated with a 125V a.c. made in USA and knobs £36.80. post £3.50
Complex Crossover. BP022 5 Push-button switches, push on push off, 2 pole (Featured project in Everyday Electronics April
Stereo performance is exceptionally good with a change over. PC mount JAPAN made 1989 issue). Reprint Free with kit.
well focussed sound stage and sharp resolution BP023 6 2 pole 2 way rotary switch
BP024 2 Right angle, PCB mounting rotary switch,
of detail. Distortion throughout the frequency 4 pole, 3 way rotary switch UK made by LORLIN TV SOUND TUNER
range is low even at quite high power input and BP025 3 pole, 3 way miniature rotary switch with one
this gives a great sense of dynamic range and extra position off (open frame YAXLEY type)
openness especially when used in bi-wired BP026 4 4 pole, 2 way rotary switch UK made by LORLIN
mode. BP027 30 Mixed control knobs
Supplied with:- 2 READY CUT BAFFLES, ALL BP028 10 Slide potentiometers (popular values)
BP029 6 Stereo rotary potentiometers
CROSSOVER COMPONENTS, 2 BASS MID- BP030 2 100k wire wound double precision
RANGE, 2 DOME TWEETERS, HOOK UP WIRE, potentiometers UK made
GRILLE CLOTH, SCREW TERMINALS AND BP031 6 Single 100k multitune pots, ideal for varicap In the cut-throat world of consumer electronics,
SCREWS. tuners UK made by PHILIPS one of the questions designers apparently pon-
CROSSOVER KIT. To build 2 sets of crossovers BP032 4 UHF varicap tuner heads, unboxed and der over is "Will anyone notice if we save money
£11+£1.75 post. (Featured in Everyday Elec- untested UK made by PHILIPS
BP033 2 FM stereo decoder modules with diagram by chopping this out?" In the domestic TV set,
tronics -May 1989 issue). Reprint Free with Kits UK made by PHILIPS one of the first casualties seems to be the sound
BP033A 4 6"x1/2" High grade Ferrite rod. U.K. made. quality. Small speakers and no tone controls are
AMPHONIC 125+125 POWER AMPLIFIER BP034 3 AM IF modules with diagram quite common and that really is quite sad, as the
UK made by PHILIPS TV companies do their best to transmit the high-
BP034A 2 AM -FM tuner head modules. est quality sound. Given this background a com-
UK made by MULLARD pact independent TV tuner that connects direct
BP034B 1 Hi-Fi stereo pre -amp module inputs for CD, tuner
tape, magnetic cartridge with diagram. to your Hi -Fl is a must for quality reproduction.
UK made by MULLARD The unit is mains operated. This TV SOUND
BP035 6 All metal co -axial aerial plugs TUNER offers full UHF coverage with 5 pre-
BP036 6 Fuse holders, panel mounting 20mm type selected tuning controls. It can also be used in
JAPAN made conjunction with your video recorder.
BP037 6 In line fuse holders 20mm type
UK made by BULGIN £29.50 +£2,50 p&p
125 watt per channel stereo power amplifier BP038 20 5 pin din, 180° chassis socket
with independent volume controls, professional BP039 6 Double phono sockets, Paxolin mounted
As above but with built-in stereo head-
19" rack mount and silent running cooling fan for BP041 3 2.8m lengths of 3 core 5 amp mains flex

extra reliability. BP042 2 Large VU meters JAPAN made phone amplifier for the hard of hearing
BP043 30 4V miniature bulbs, wire ended, new untested You can tune into the TV channel you want while
Output power .... 125W RMS max. per channel BP044 2 Sonotone stereo crystal cartridge with 78 and
Output impedance 4 to 16 ohms still receiving the picture on your TV set. In fact it
LP styli JAPAN made
(max. power into 4 ohms) BP045A 2 Mono Cassette Record and play heads. is rather like a second television, but without the
Sensitivity 450V at 22K ohms (Japan Made) screen. So that the ordinary TV can be placed for
Protection .... Electronic short-circuit and fuses BP046 6-0-6 4VA mains transformers, P.C. mount
4 everyone to see, and the volume on it can be
Power 220-240V a.c. 50Hz UK made comfortable for others, while the sound tuner
BP047 24V 750mA mains power supply. Brand new
1 can be placed where you can control it. You will
Chassis dim 435x 125 x 280mm boxed UK made by MULLARD need to plug in one of your own listening aids
£124.99+£7.0o p&p BP049 10 0C44 transistors. Remove paint from top and it
such as headphones or an induction loop to hear
becomes a photo -electric cell or P12)
UK made by MULLARD the sound. The tuner is mains operated, has 5
GOODMANS 60W CAR GRAPHIC BP050 30 Low signal transistors n.p.n., p.n.p. types pre -selected tuning controls and can be used in
EQUALIZER AMPLIFER BP051 6 14 watt output transistors. 3 conjunction with a video recorder.
complimentary pairs in 1066 case Size: 270x 192x 65mm. £35.90 +£2.50 p&p
(Ideal replacement for AD161 and 162s)
BP052A 1 Tape deck pre -amp IC with record/replay TV SOUND TUNER KIT £11.50+£1.30 P&P
As new condition but have been returned by customers switching No LM1818 with diagram All parts including Varicap tuner, mains transformer,
or shops, so they may need some attention. Hence the BP053 5 5 watt audio ICs. No TBA800 (ATEZ) PCB with IC's capacitors and coils etc., to build the unit
price of only £8.00 each. Order six of these units and you BP054 10 Motor speed control ICs, as used with most illustrated above; without case and scale.
get the seventh one free. Postage £2.90
cassette and record player motors
ROSS DYNAMIC MICROPHONE BALL as used by THANDAR with diagram TRIDGE Fitted with an elliptical diamond stylus
TYPEGeneral purpose in light weight case with wire BP056 4 7 segment 0.3 LED display (R.E.D.) supplied with fitting kit and instructions. A good quality
mesh grill, and on/off switch fitted with lead and jack unit made to sell for well over twenty pounds due to
BP057 8 Bridge rectifiers, 1 amp, 24V scoop purchase, we are able to offer these at a fraction of
plug. These units have been returned and may need
repairing. Price £2.50 each. Order ten of these units and BP058 200 Assorted carbon resistors the manufacturers price. All units are brand new and
you get one free. Postage 80p. BP059 1 Power supply PCB with 30V 4V/A transformer. boxed. £7.20 each. If you order in multiples of five you
MC7818CT IC & bridge rectifier: Size 4" x 23/4" get one free. Postage E1.30 (Made in U.S.A.)
BP060 1 Transcription record player motor 1500rpm
KOSS MINI SPEAKERS Use instead of head-
phones on your personal stereo, just plug in instead of
41/2" 100W HI-FI MID RANGE 1" VOICE COIL, PAPER CONED BP061 5 6.35mm Mono jack plugs headphones. Koss sound cells can be mounted on top of
AND DOPED CAMBRIC EDGE FITTED WITH A 31h" MAGNET. BP063 5 6.35mm stereo switched jack sockets your personal stereo with the holder supplied or simply
611 IMPEDANCE £5.33 BP064 12 Coax chassis mount sockets detach for shelf mounting. This quality unit was made to
BP065 1 3mtr Euro-mains lead with a matching sell for over seventeen pounds by the KOSS professional
41/2" HI-FI TWEETER 3/4" VOICE COIL, 13/4" CONE WITH FOAM headphone company of the U.S.A. Due to a massive
EDGE, 23/4" MAGNET, 611 IMPEDENCE £6.33 chassis socket
scoop purchase we can offer these units for E4.30 each or
POSTAGE £4.70 PER ORDER buy in multiples of ten and you get one free. Postage
SYSTEM £3.95 light weight stereo headphones fitted 3.5mm jack with
AIRCRAFT, RADAR adaptor to 6.4mm jack. Ideal use Hifi or personal stereos
Comprises Bin rolled surround bass unit and 21/4in PUBLIC UTILITIES made to sell for nine pounds. Our price for this unitE4.25.
tweeter for In -Car or Hi-Fi use. 4 ohm. Made by Sanyo.
RADIO A Postage 60p.
61/2in. Audax 60w. Res freq. 45Hz bass -mid
£15.95 MORE

POSTAGE £2.85 SQUELCH CONTROL Hi -A stereo cassette deck transport

8in SOUND LAB 60W £12.95
Res freq. 38Hz full range "RUBBER DUCK AERIAL" mechanism, complete with 3 digit rev counter
12in DANTEX 100W E21.75 and tape heads, 12V d.c. operation. Unused
Res freq. 23Hz bass unit manufacturers surplus JAPAN made
Postage £3.20 each order
£6.20 +£1.50 P&P 2 for £10 +£2.50 P&P
Batteries C size NiCad 2.2 Ah EVERY -READY AN220
£1.98 each with orders. Orders under £20 add 0.00 service charge. Nett * HANDLE INCLUDED * SPACE FOR MEMORY BATTERY * 40R
Our most popular size of rechargeable battery: 4AA size monthly accounts to Schools, Colleges and P.L.C. only 2 SPEAKER SYSTEM.
Japanese made batteries - E3.90 for four. ACCESS I VISA. Phone orders between 9.30 & 12pm pleas, ENABLES YOU TO REMOVE YOUR VALUED STEREO FROM YOUR
Phone: 01-723 8432 or 01-9928430
Callers 323 Edgware Road, London W2

762 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

When playing a game where one person
has to make a move at a time, disputes
sometimes arise because one player seems
to take very much longer to make their move
than the other players. This timer has been
designed to prevent strife in such cir-
cumstances by indicating that a set time has
expired by sounding a buzzer. Designed to
be built on our free circuit board presented
with this issue.

Another project for the Free Easiwire Circuit Board
presented with this issue. This circuit is designed to oper-
ate in the same way as the alarms you will find in shops
where valuable items are linked together by a wire which
is passed through the items and which causes an alarm
to go off if the continuity of the loop is broken. 6 6 ..........

An excellent
excellent variable speed or sound triggered light chaser- it
will chase to the beat when sound triggered. Switchable to three or
four channels, each channel is capable of switching up to 1000W of
The unit is hard fired to drive both inductive and resistive loads,
is easy to build and will cost less than £30.

A problem for biofeedback enthusiasts, especially those working
with EEG (Electroencephalograph) "brainwave" instruments, is the
generation of suitable test signals. These should be sub -audio in fre-
quency, from almost zero to about thirty Hertz, and of sinusoidal
waveform. This project provides the right signals at the correct
amplitude to enable EEG equipment to be tested.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 763
Z4209 Panel 360x210mm covered in high qual-
Superb quality software for learning music on
the BBC 'B' computer.
ity chips; 8085AHC, 8255, 8257 8251Ax2, 8253- 128 PAGES OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND Recorder Tutor by Mupados. Large format spi-
5. 8275, 8202A, 2732, 2716, all in sockets; ral bound 16 page handbook, an hour long cas-
18x4116-2 + other mainly LS chips + min EQUIPMENT. HUGE RANGE! AMAZING VALUE! sette with 52 tunes and 40 track disk -originally
switches, LED's, oscillator, large tants, 3x50 DON'T MISS OUT - GET YOUR COPY NOW - ONLY sold for £30.95.
Our price £7.95
way double sided edge connectors. Amazing £1.50 POST FREE!!! Ensemble pack and Duet pack £2.95
value at only £16.95
MUSIC MASTER A sophisticated recorder tutor-
Z4210 Panel 260x210 which could plug into the ing system, comprising a microphone, a pro-
above board. Lots of memory on this one: HITACHI OSCILLOSCOPES cessing device and software designed to
develop recorder playing skills. Originally sold
36x4116-20. Also 8085AC, 8202 & 2716 in skts +
55 others mainly LS chips, DIL switch, large FOR QUALITY AND VALUE for £52.78. Available in either 40 or 80 track for
tants etc £9.95
MICRO MAESTRO Put the fun back into music!!
Z4211 80186 Panel. 346x280mm 'Benchmark This program links the the BBC Micro to turn the
186' panel packed with high class chips - all in screen into a music stand. Scroll music. Practice
sockets!! Just look at what you get!! 80186 16
bit 8MHz microprocessor: 16x4164-12 RAM's,
2 x 6116-3; 2 x 2732 EPROM's; 2X8255AP-5;
8259AC-2; 6845SP; 146818P, 7201C. Over 80 LS
1.1 aids. Separate audio cassette with backing
tracks. 3 versions, originally selling for £17.25
Concert Pitch
chips, 4 xtals, back up battery, 2 x 25 way 'D' soc- Bb £4.95
kets etc etc! Total chip value alone must exceed
£150 - and remember, all the chips are in soc- DISK DRIVE PSU KIT
kets. Price £40.00 Ideal for powering single 31/2in or 51/4in
Z4233 As above, but LS chips not socketed V223 DC-20MHz, dual Channel, single time base delayed drive. Mains input, stabilized smoothed
£35.00 sweep, DC offset, alternate magnifier, 6in screen, 5mV/div vest. outputs, 5V at 1A + 12V at 1A. Simple,
sensitivity 0.2µs/div-0.2s/div sweep time. Complete with 2 easy to assemble kit with all parts and
Z4235 Superb panel 340 x 200 packed with high full instructions. £4.95
quality parts, giving outstanding value for probes, manual, mains lead. £475
money! 6809 microprocessor in skt 6840, 6850,
6844 support chips; 6x27128-25 EPROMS's in Other models from £339 - full details in catalogue. FREE SOFTWARE!!
sockets; 9X 8264A-10 RAM's; over 50 other To introduce our NEW software service,
featuring all the best public domain and
chips, linear, LS etc. £20.00
SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES shareware, we're giving away, abso-
lutely free, a 51Pain disk containing a com-
BREADBOARDS plete catalogue of over 500 programs
together with 2 FREE games.
To obtain your free copy, simply add to
your order "FREE DISK". Don't forget to
add £2.00 post, even if you order nothing
else! Please note all available software,
plus this free disk is only for IBM PC com-
patible machines using MS.DOS.
ASTEC Model AA12531 ASTEC Model AC9231 The catalogue on disk contains brief
VP: 115 230V ac 50 60Hz P: 115 230V ac 50/60Hz
O/P: V1 + 5v 5A

0 P: 5OWatt max: information on all software available.

PROTOBLOC 1 V2 + 12v 0.15A VI + 12v 2.5A
G708 Protobloc 1 has a total of 400 tie points consist- Size: 160 x 104 x 45mm V2 + 5v 6.0A
ing of two sets of 30 rows of 5 interconnected soc- Partially enclosed panel with fixing V3 12v 0.5A 1+ or -I BIB ACCESSORIES
kets plus 4 rows of interconnectd sockets running holes in steel case on 120 x 125mm V4 5v 0.5A 1+ or -I BCC11 Liquid Static Eliminator. A spray
alongside, suitable for use as power supply rails. All centres. Size: 203 x 112 x 60mm
contact positions are clearly defined on an Inputs and Outputs are on colour Fully enclosed case with built in tap- can of special formula liquid giving long
alphanumeric grid. ABS polymer board mounted on coded leads; there is also an EEC soc- ped mounting holes. term neutralisation of all harmful static
an adhesive foam base. Will accommodate up to ket on a flying lead £6.95. Inputs and Output pins on edge of charges from all glass and plastic sur-
three 16 pin devices. An ideal introduction to solder. panel £12.95.
less circuit development systems. Size 80 x6Omm faces. Comes complete with cloth. £1.
£2.50 BCC8 Computer terminal maintenance
kit for screen, keyboard and printer. Con-
tents: Soft brush for keyboard and stiff
G711 Photobloc 2 has a total of 840 tie points con-
sisting of two sets of 64 rows of 5 interconnected
contact sockets plus 4 rows of 50 interconnected
socklets running alongside, suitable for use as
MICRO IN CONTROL brush for printer and print cleaning fluid.
Aerosol can of air -blast. Kleen-Screen,
an antistatic liquid; cleaning cloths. All
power supply rails. All contact positions are clearly An exciting new series, starting this month. We can supply all this is contained in a presentation pack
defined on an alphanumeric grid. ABS polymer the parts for the 'Starter Kit' at a special low price:
board mounted on an adhesive foam base. Will for just £2.95.
accommodate up to seven 16 pin devices. Power Supply 5V 21/2A DC £3.95 VE13 Lens Care Kit- High quality brush
Size 172x64mm £3.95 with dust protector, a bottle of antistatic
Small breadboard (400 holes) £2.50
PROTOBLOC 2A Larger breadboard (840 holes) £3.95 lens cleaning fluid and a super soft lint
G712 As above, but the ABS polymer board is free cleaning cloth, all contained in a
mounted onto a rigid base plate complete with three 10m asstd coloured wire, 22 resistors, 3 pots, 10 capacitors, 4 handy storage wallet. Ideal for all still
4mm terminals in red, black and green for power and movie/video camras - plus of
connections. A mounting bracket which clips into LED's 2 diodes, 2 transistors, photo -resistor, 12 IC's, 2 bulbs, 4
the base is also provided to accept a variety of com- slide switches, 1 relay, 1 motor and 1 battery holder, all as course, spectacles. Offered at the excep-
ponents including switches and potentiometers,
£7.95 tionally low price of just £1.50.
etc. specified in the article
Price £6.95
PROJECT BOARD GL24 We stock the full range of Antex Solder-
G724 2 of type G711 mounted onto a rigid baseplate ing Irons, all at discounted prices.
with 3 coloured terminals, for power connections.
Over-all size 225x 150mm £13.95 METEX METERS Model C Popular basic 15 watt model.
8 different models in our catalogue!! Price £7.95.
PROJECT BOARD GL36 Model CS 17 watt model with leakage
0736 3 of type G711 and an additional strip of 100 tie * 41/2 digit 12mm LCD display less than 211A £7.95.
points mounted onto a rigid base plate with 4 col- Model XS 25 watt general purpose iron,
oured terminals. Overall size 242 x 195mm * 30 ranges including 20A ac/dc
Price £19.95 * Frequency counter with a wide range of bits available.
* Capacitance test with zero adjust Price £7.95.
* Data hold switch Model MLXS For car/boat/caravan, this
POWER SUPPLIES * Transistor test 12V model with large clips to connect on
* Diode test
* Continuity test battery is rated 25 watts £10.95.
* Test leads with 4mm plugs
* Rugged yellow case STEREO VIDEO SOUND MIXER
* Carrying case
Battery and instruction manual included.
AC volts 0-200m-2-20-200-750Vac ± 0 .5%
DC volts 0-200m-2-20-200-1000Vdc ± 0.5%
0.24V DC 3A AC current 0-2m-200m-20Aac ±1.0%
A112 Variable stabilized power supply with over- DC current 0-200µ-2m-200m-20Adc ± 0.5%
load protection. Meter reads voltage or current Resistance 0 -200 -2k -20k -200k -2M -20M11 ±0.15%
(switched). Two voltage ranges; 0-12V and 12- Capacitance 0 -20p -200n -20µF ±2.0%
24Vd.c. Ideal for laboratory use. Frequency 0-20k-200kHz ±2.0%
Input voltage:- 240Va.c. 50Hz Transistor hFE 0-1000 NPN/PNP
Output voltage:- 0-24Vd.c. (2 ranges)
Dims 176 x 90 x 36mm M4650 £94.00 MX300 This versatile mixer is an essen-
Stability:- tial part of editing videotapes. It allows
Ripple:- 2.5mV All prices include VAT; P&P E2.00 per order. Min Credit Card
Dims:- 180 x 110 x 180mm £5. No CWO min. Official Orders from Education welcome
audio inputs from camcorder or second
Price £64.50 - min invoice charge C10.00 video recorder 1phono), cassette recor-
der or other music source (phono), and 2
0-24V DC 5A
A113 Variable stabilized power supply with over-
GREENWELD Our shop has enormous stocks of components and is open
from 9-5.30 from Mon -Sat. Come and see us!
microphones (3.5mm). The original
load protection. Meter reads voltage or current ELECTRONK address below: By Phone: 107031772501783740 Ian- soundtrack can be monitored and there
(switched). Two voltage ranges; 0-12V and 12- COMPONENTS saphone out of business hours): By Fax 107031787555: By is a master output (phbno) to the VCR.
24Vd.c. Ideal for laboratory use.
Input voltage:- 240Va.c. 50Hz MAG36026i By Telex: 94081101 GWELD Power can be a PP3 battery or an external
Output voltage:- 0-24Vd.c. 12 ranges) Payment is accepted by cheque, postal order, cash inc.
foreign currency bank nolestook tokensiAccessNisa/Con.
9V source. Smartly styled in a sloping
Stability:- 0.2%
4mV nest front case with a matt black finish the
Ripple:- overall dimensions are
Dims:- 180 x 180 x 110mm
Price £85.00 443D MILLBROOK ROAD, SOUTHAMPTON, SO1 OHX. 175x 110 x 55mm £19.95.

764 Everyday Electronics, December 1989


SUPPlit5 V

TRADE PRICES! .mm11111111111

,,,AT EST PRICES Passive Infra -Red

Infra -Red Beam
Automatic Modular
Contacts Pressure Pads Choose from 25 models Mixers for
home use, disco's, public address and
3 models heavy duty top quality with
Security Lighting HOMES &
studio use From 4 to 16 channels
II Also 6 and 8 ch midi systems
IND P1 belt drive quick start.
132 direct drive system.
Cable Etc. Etc. FACTORIES II Equalizer mixers MRT60 and 1111131'3 quartz controlled quickstart
many more. dire drive.

VC1 analogue.' 6040 stereo
amplifier 8040 digital echo
SYSTEM Immediate Security Without Installation Also mini echo's.
For homes storerooms, clubhouses, caravans etc...
L . .

II Detects intruders up to 30ft Penetrating 103db DIGITAL AMPLIFIERS
Siren with auto reset. Compact size only DELAY/REVERB Power boosters single channel:
203x180x78mm. II Easily extended for coverage of 100W, 175W and 2kW. 2-ch/steret
additional rooms or large areas. Operates from 19" rack systems Digital reverb 135 135W,160 160 Watt and
240V ac and 12V dc. Priced £67.72 +VAT with 63 user programs Digital delay
1500 1500 Watt.
up to infinite repeat MI Also multi -
effects programmable unit.
TheSecuritySpeciaist GRAPHICS With preamps 240V AC models
and 12V DC/240V AC or 24V DC/240V
Dept. EE12, 51 Poppy Road, Callers by Appointment
19" rack systems 31 band single
channel 2 x 15 band two channel,
and 2 x 31 band two channel.
AC From 15 Watts up to 175 Watts
Also background music tape
Princes Risborough, Bucks. Office hours Mon -Fri amplifiers and paging amplifiers.
HP17 9DB 9am-5pm Plus range of mixer -amplifiers.
CHASSIS Choose from 25 models.
V (084 44) 6326 VISA Ell SPEAKERS/
NEW PRODUCT! PA speakers 51/4" to 12" Twin cone
74HC series ICs
from 40 to 100 Watts Various models Range of 12 volt amplifiers up to 100
74HC00 19p
74HC04 19p
74HCO2 19p
7411C08 19p
74HCO3 19p
74HC10 19p
0 it.
n ro
.0 .0 0
, disco/group speakers 10" to 18" Watts Also portable megaphones
74HC11 26p 74HC14 39p 74HC20 19p
2 "
in w<
1. ro
C 0, 0 0 various types Bass speakers Bass stocked and 12 volt power boosters.
74HC27 31p 74HC30 35p 74HC74 38p 2
,I rD
C mids and mids Also Rexine cabinets
74HC86 29p 74HC107 36p 74HC138 41p
7., 0.nn n £ 10", 12" & 15" Plus range of cabinet
74HC161 48p 74HC175 52p 74HC393 69p n

0.0 0
A. 0,
0, , .n
fittings and portable speaker stands MICROPHONES/
74LS series ICs ei 0 4/ 0- 0 0 1-- and brackets. STANDS
a it, i< n 1.- O. 0.
741S00 20p 0
74LS02 20p 74LS05 20p n m 0,
74LS30 20p 74LS32 20p 74LS51 20p
, to
01 2,
n '0 0 C0n-n07
rD PIEZO TWEETERS XLR/Jack etc Mics for disco,
74LS90 30p 74LS93 30p 74LS107 23p n r, c
rD public address and Hi-Fi Good

74LS112 23p n. n 10 models stocked from £2.95 quality at low cost Also stands,
74LS138 35p 74LS139 35p
ov nN0
), n to 0 0 0 to £7.95 Square piezo £4.95. booms etc. and wireless microphone
74LS151 38p 74LS164 38p 74LS193 55p <
74LS245 58p 74LS374 52p 74LS375 64p , nto o
7. 0
< o0 n- PUBLIC
CMOS 4000 series ICs Cu of C 0
,00 ft n t a.
4001 19p 4002 19p 4011 19p
4012 25p 4013 26p 4014 45p m1-4 DI 0
4015 56p 401691p 4017 40p
0 a
Kam DO
4018 63p 4019 29p 4020 45p 0 0 Various models up to 12"
'0 ni For PA and
4023 19p 4027 36p 4040 45p n in .2 c 0 VI with or without 100 volt line
in 0,
background music
404651p 4049 29p 4066 29p
DI ro
0a0. 0 0 with drivers
0 rt+ rD ,C1
system with and
4070 21p 4071 19p 4075 19p rD
Also range of horns with choice of
CT ft, C without 100 volt line
4076 74p 4081 19p 4082 19p 7.,
drive units.
1.0 OUTDOOR. Range of
4510 47p 4511 47p 4514 £1.06 Cu in > rD
Accessories: Leads Plugs
00, 0 .> a z n weatherproof systems
We can supply a wide range of components and a ms at various power Adaptors Transformers etc, for all
c O an tozat
TTL, CMOS and ECL ICs. We also supply PC, XT c,," 0 to ratings PA requirements.
and AT spares at LOW PRICES. Write or phone tor - 0" INDOOR. Columns for
our FREE catalogue. 00.
0 .n.roxr

speech, columns for

Serial I/O card for XT or AT only £16.00
0. , 00
Dr , music ceiling speakers. HORN/
^ "n O suspension speakers. CROSSOVERS
Resistors at bulk prices Your Mix ID in I)
Carbon film, 0.25W, 5% 0 corridor speakers, wall
1p each or 45p for 50 100 Watt midrange and tweeter
Metal film, 0.25W, 1% speakers, music
3p each or £1.35 for 50 horns Also matching crossovers and
Bargain pack, 100 mixed common value 0.25W 90p speakers - various
g sizes and types. filters up to 300 Watts.
I./C sockets, solder type (pin:price)
14:10p, 16:11p, 20:14p, 24(0.6 or 0.3):16p. .<
Prototyping boards (Vero)
IBM XT £45.00, IBM AT £52.00
post or phone. Callers by appointment please. VAT
INCLUDED. Please add £1 for post and packing.
Special &tort knopy dove dean.
Catalogue free. No minimum order charge. 'tog tots goy 2.70 postage In 301 Edgware Road. London, W2 1BN
dulled. (su.u.s1/4 Or 31/2)
BLACKMORE ELECTRONICS LTD. We Also son maters, pens. 'Abel,
binders. spates etc. etc.
Tel 01-724 3564 Fax 01-724 0322 Send A4 SAE
FREEPOST, Blandford Forum SALES OFFICE 01-258 1831 I.00 UK)
Dorset DT11 7BR or £2 UK
Office address: 4 The Plocks, Blandford Also at HENRY'S 404 Edgware Road, W2 products
...g.0258 451347 (24hr answerphone)

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 765

EE83 135 Hunter Street,
Burton -on -Trent,
Staffs. DE14 2ST

ELECTRONICS Tel: 0283 65435

Fax: 0283 46932

All prices include VAT MICRO IN CONTROL

Shop open 9-5 Mon -Fri; Add f 1
9-2 Saturday
Official orders welcome
p&p to
all orders
Supplying Electronics STARTER KIT £21.95

Computing and much,

much more! BOOK PROJECTS
Send NOW for our
Ideal for Robots and Buggies. A miniature plastic illustrated ADVENTURES WITH ELECTRONICS
reduction gearbox coupled with a 1-5-4.5 Volt The classic Easy to Follow book suitable for all ages. Ideal
mini motor. Variable gearbox reduction ratios
are obtained by fitting from.] to 6 gearwheels
CATALOGUE for beginners. No soldering, uses an S -DEC breadboard.
Gives clear instructions with lots of pictures. 16 projects -
(supplied). Two types available: Only £1.00! including three radios, siren, metronome, organ, intercom,
timer, etc. Helps you learn about electronic components
and how circuits work. Component pack includes an S -DEC
Speed range 3-2200 rpm. Size 37x43x25mm
breadboard and all the components for the series.
COMPONENT PACK (less book) £22.35
A range of top quality stepping motors suitable
Speed range 2-1150 rpm. Size 57x43x29mm FUN WITH ELECTRONICS
for driving a wide range of mechanisms under
£4.55 computer control using simple interfacing
From the USBOR NE Pocket Scientist series -An enjoyable
introduction to electronics. Full of very clear full colour
techniques. pictures accompanied by easy to follow text. Ideal for all
ID35 PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR -48 steps beginners - children and adults. Only basic tools are
per rev. £16.50 needed. 64 full colour pages cover all aspects - soldering
MD200 HYBRID MOTOR - 200 steps per rev. - fault finding - components (identification & how they
Glass fibre reinforced belts with nylon 'mating.
Width 1/4", Pitch W. Available in a range of £16.80 work). Also full details of how to build 6 projects- burglar
alarm, radio, game, etc. Requires soldering -4 pages
lengths from 6=26" £1.88-12.60 clearly show you how.
steps per rev. £12.70 The components supplied in our pack allows all the projects
Matching pulleys 8 tooth, 12, 25 + 40 £1.48, MD38 PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR - 48 to be built and kept. The book is available separately.
£1.70, £2.80, £2.99 steps per rev. £8.95 FUN WITH ELECTRONICS Book £2.25
COMPONENT PACK (less book) £17.55


A book of projects by R. A. Penfold covering a wide range of
EVERYDAY ELECTRONICS KIT PROJECTS interests. All projects are built on a Verobloc breadboard.
Ref Price Ref Price Full layout drawings and component identification
815 EE TREASURE HUNTER Aug 89 Full Kit £39.95 578 SPECTRUM I/O PORT less case Feb 87 £10.05 diagrams enable the projects to be built by beginners. Each
814 BAT DETECTOR Jun 89 £19.98 569 CAR ALARM Dec 86 £13.24 circuit can be dismantled and rebuilt several times using the
812 ULTRASONIC PET SCARER May 89 £13.80 563 200MHz DIG. FREQUENCY METER Nov 86 £67.98 same components. The component pack allows all projects
807 MINI PSU Feb 89 £22.71 561 LIGHT RIDER LAPEL BADGE Oct 86 £10.86 in the book to be built one at a time.
806 CONTINUITY TESTER Feb 89 £10.28 560 LIGHT RIDER DISCO VERSION £20.89 Projects covered include amplifiers, light actuated switches,
803 REACTION TIMER Dec 88 £31.93 559 UGHT RIDER 16 LED VERSION f14.52 timers, metronome, touch switch, sound activated switch,
801 DOWNBEAT METRONOME Dec 88 £18.71 556 INFRA -RED BEAM ALARM Sept 86 £30.19 moisture detector, M.W. Radio, Fuzz unit, etc.
796 SEASHELL SYNTHESISER Nov 88 £26.61 542 PERSONAL RADIO June 86 f12.28 PROJECTS Book 1 £2.95
795 I. R. OBJECT COUNTER Nov 88 £31.56 528 PA AMPLIFIER May 86 £28.70 COMPONENT PACK £27.15
790 EPROM ERASER Oct 88 £26.57 523 STEREO REVERB Apr 86 £28.16 VEROBLOC £7.49
786 UNIVERSAL NICAD CHARGER July 88 £7.44 513 BBC MIDI INTERFACE Mar 86 £29.76
775 ENVELOPE SHAPER Mar 88 £15.96 497 MUSICAL DOOR BELL Jan 86 £19.95
A more advanced book which introduces some arithmetic
and calculations to electronic circuits. 48 chapters covering
elements of electronics such as current, transistor switches,
739 ACCENTED BEAT METRONOME Nov 87 £22.31 COMPUTER less case Aug 85 £8.95 flip-flops, oscillators, charge, pulses, etc. An excellent
740 ACCOUSTIC PROBE Nov 87 (less bolt & probe) £18.65 1D35 STEPPER MOTOR EXTRA £8.95 follow-up to Teach -in or any other of our series. Extremely
744 VIDEO CONTROLLER Oct 87 £31.03 OPTIONAL POWER SUPPLY PARTS £5.47 well explained by Owen Bishop who has written many
745 TRANSTEST Oct 87 £10.33 461 CONTINUITY TESTER July 85 £6.60 excellent beginners' articles in numerous electronics
734 AUTOMATIC PORCH LIGHT Oct 87 £18.29 455 ELECTRONIC DOORBELL June 85 £8.05 magazines.
728 PERSONAL STEREO AMP Sept 87 £15.24 430 SPECTRUM AMPUFIER Jan 85 £7.36 VEROBLOC £7.49
730 BURST -FIRE MAINS CONTROLLER Sept 87 £14.45 392 BBC MICRO AUDIO STORAGE SCOPE INTERFACE Note -A simple muhimeter is needed to fully follow this
724 SUPER SOUND ADAPTOR Aug 87 £40.89 Nov 84 £38.61 book. The M102 BZ is ideal. £13.98
718 3 BAND 1.6-300MHz RADIO Aug 87 £28.25 387 MAINS CABLE DETECTOR Oct 84 £5.89
case, less handle and hardware July 87 E28.17 362 VARICAP AM RADIO May 84 £14.00
A copiously illustrated book that explains the principles of
electronics by relating them to everyday objects. At the end
inc. case July 87 E71.43 263 BUZZ OFF Mar 83 £6.05
of each chapter a set of questions and word puzzles allow
722 FERMOSTAT July 87 £12.93 242 INTERCOM no case July 82 £6.06
progress to be checked in an entertaining way. An S -DEC
715 MINI DISCO LIGHT Jun 87 £13.41 240 EGG TIMER June 82 £7.31
breadboard is used for this series -soldering is not required.
707 EQUALIZER (IONISER) May 87 £16.54 205 SUSTAIN UNIT Oct 81 £18.78
PACK £22.35
581 VIDEO GUARD Feb 87 £8.94 106 WEIRD SOUND EFFECTS GEN Mar 78 £8.33
584 SPECTRUM SPEECH SYNTH. (no case) Feb 87 £22.28 101 ELECTRONIC DICE Mar 77 £6.67

766 Everyday Electronics, December 1989


.04 Produces high power ultrasound pulses. L.E.D.
flashes to indicate power output and level. Simple and accurate (1%) measurement of
A reliable electronic tester which checks Battery powered (9V -12V or via Mains Adaptor). capacitors from a few pF up to 1,000 µF. Clear
insulation resistance of wiring appliances etc., at 5 -digit LED display indicates exact value. Three
500 volts. The unit is battery powered simple and KIT REF 812 ranges - pF, nF, and µF. Just connect the
Mains Adaptor £1.98
safe to operate. Leakage resistance of up to 100 £13.80 capacitor, press the button and read the value.
Megohms can be read easily. One of our own
designs and extremely popular.
.......: -



111111111111111 ON&

Noasit sr MI VARIABLE .4's r

-......m r Wir 200 MHz METER
3 BAND EE NOV 86 BENCH 25V 2.5A1
SHORT WAVE RADIO An 8 digit meter reading from AF up to 200 MHz
in two ranges. Large 0.5" Red LED display. Ideal POWER SUPPLY
Covers 1.6-30 MHz in 3 bands using modern for AF and RF measurements. Amateur and C.B.
frequencies. A superb design giving 0.25V and 0-2.5A. Twin
miniature coils. Audio output is via a built-in panel meters indicate Voltage and Current.
loudspeaker. Advanced design gives excellent KIT REF 563 Voltage is variable from zero to 25V. A Toroidal
stability, sensitivity and selectivity. Simple to £62.98 transformer MOSFET power output device, and
build. Quad op -amp IC design give excellent
KIT REF 718 performance.
KIT REF 769 £52.96

EE MAY '86 A very popular project FUSE FINDER
A hand held stroboscope which uses 6 "ultra which picks up vibrations by EE MARCH '86
bright" LEDs as the light source. Designed to means of a contact probe A handy unit which sounds an audible warning
demonstrate the principles of stroboscope and passes them on to a pair when the mains supply is disconnected and
examination, the unit is also suitable for of headphones or an gives visual indication on three neon lamps of
measuring the speed of moving shafts etc. amplifier. Sounds from engines, watches and the connections to mains sockets. Designed for
The flash rate control covers 170-20,000 RPM in speech travelling through walls can be amplified checking correct connections of mains wiring
two ranges. and heard clearly. Useful for mechanics, and for tracing which socket connects to which
instrument engineers and nosey parkers! fuse in fusebox. Can detect no live, no neutral, no
KIT REF 529 earth, UN reversal, LIE reversal.
£18.65 KIT REF 512

EE JAN '86
EE This project uses a special I.C. pre-programmed
with 25 tunes and 3 chimes. A Magenta design,
EQUALISER the circuit is battery powered and only draws EPROM
EE MAY '87
A mains powered Ioniser with an output of
current whilst producing sounds. Two rotary
switches select the tune required. Provision is
negative ions that give a refreshing feeling to the made for three bell pushes, each of which EE OCT '88
surrounding atmosphere. Negligible current sounds a different tune, so that three points of Safe low-cost unit capable of erasing up to four
consumption and all -insulated construction entry can be identified. EPROM's simultaneously in less than twenty
ensure that the unit is safe and economical in minutes. Operates from a 12V supply. Safety
use. Easy to build on a simple PCB. £19.95 interlock. Convenient and simple to build and
£16.54 KIT REF 790 £26.57

A sensitive pulse induction
EE OCT '86
Metal Detector. Picks up
Three projects under one title -all simulations of EE AUG '85
the Knight Rider lights from the TV series. The coins and rings etc., up to
This interface enables 4 phase unipolar stepping
three are a lapel badge using six LEDs, a larger 20cms deep. Low "ground
motors to be driven from four output lines of any
LED unit with 16 LEDs and a mains version effect". Can be used with
computer user port. The circuit is especially
capable of driving six main lamps totalling over search -head underwater. u suitable for the ID35 motor and our MD200 which
500 watts. Easy to use and build, kit
are commonly used in buggies and robot arms.
includes search -head, handle, case, PCB and all
KIT REF 559 CHASER LIGHT £14.52 Supplied complete with ribbon cable and
parts as shown.
connector for the BBC user port.
KIT REF 560 DISCO LIGHTS £20.89 KIT REF 815 £39.95

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 767


6.104-4 GAIN
r°1V'; IMP

One of the best burglar deterrents is a SPEAKER AMPLK 1E.

guard dog and this kit provides the bark- IBREGI. ASS PCB wiTm
SOL DE. RESIST 120 0...1
ing. Can be connected to a doorbell,
pressure mat or any other intruder detec- AUDIO AMP Only 45 x 25 x 15mm, including built-in
tor and produces random threatening mic. 88-100MHz (standard FM radio).
barks. All you need is a mains supply. HIGH QUALITY PCS Range approx. 300m depending on ter-
intruder detector and a little time. rain. Powered by 9V PP3 (7mA). Ideal for
XK125 £24.00 This simple to construct and even simpler to operate kit will record and playback surveillance, baby alarm etc £5.50
short messages or tunes. It has many uses - seatbelt or lights reminder in the
car, welcome messages to visitors at home or at work, warning messages in
factories and public places, in fact anywhere where a spoken message is an-
DISCO LIGHTING KITS nounced and which needs to be changed from time to time. Also suitable for
toys -why not convert your daughter's £8 doll to an £80 talking doll!!
Size 78x 60x 15 mm
Message time 1-5 secs normal speed, 2-10 secs slow speed
XK129 £22.50


DL8000K 8 -way sequencer kit with built- This kit contains a solderless breadboard, components and a booklet with in-
in opts -isolated sound to light input. Only structions to enable the absolute novice to build ten fascinating projects in-
requires a box and control knob to corn- cluding a light operated switch, intercom, burglar alarm and electronic lock.
plete £34.60 Each project includes a circuit diagram, description of operation and an easy to
DL1000K 4 -way chaser features bi- follow layout diagram. A section on component identification and function is in- Includes all components ( +trans-
directional sequence and dimming 1kW cluded, enabling the beginner to build the circuits with confidence. former) for a sensitive IR receiver with 16
per channel £21.00 XK118 logic outputs (0- 15V) which with
DLZ1000K Uni-directional version of the suitable interface circuitry (relays,
above. Zero switching to reduce in- bins. etc -details supplied) can switch
terference £11.80
up to 16 items of equipment on or off
OLA/1 (for DL & DLZ1000K) Optional op - remotely. Outputs may be latched to the
to input allowing audio 'bee/light
response 80p
MULTIMETER BARGAINS ELECTRONIC WEIGHING last received code or momentary (on dur-
ing transmission) by specifying the
DL3000K 3 -channel sound to light kit, A high accuracy Autoranglng meter with SCALES
4 NOT LED Mho decoder IC and a 15V stabilised supply is
zero voltage switching, automatic level Display Hold, Memory features.
available to power external circuits, Sup-
control and built-in mic. 1kW per AC volts 0-2-200-750 1.2%
ply: 240V AC or 15-24V DC at 10mA.
channel £17.00 DC volts 0-0.2-2-200-1000 0.8%
Size (exc. transformer) 9 x 4 x 2 cms.
AC curren10-2m-200mA 1.2% 0-10A 2%
POWER STROBE KIT LITIZIMUITR Companion transmitter is the MK18

DC current as for AC
Produces an intense which operates from a 9V PP3 battery
Resistance. 0 -200 -2K -20K -200K -2M 1% ;SMOLT
light pulse at a A101011/111157. and gives a range of up to 60ft. Two
Continuity.. Buzzer sounds at /20 ohms
variable frequency of Kit contains a single . chip micro- keyboards are available-MK9 (4 -way)
Size 127x69x25mm
1 to 15Hz. Includes processor, PCB, displays and all elec- and MK10 (16 -way).
405 207 £31.75
high quality PCB, tronics to produce a digital LEDreadout of MK12 IR Receiver
components, connec- A 15 range AulorangIng multimeter with weight in Kgs or Sts/lbs. A PCB link (inc transformer) £17.00
tors, 5Ws strobe tube and assembly in- 4AC, 5DC and 6 resistence ranges. Only selects the scale- bathroom/ two types MK18 Transmitter £7.80
structions. Supply: 240V ac. Size: 8x55x108mm. Complete with wallet. of kitchen scales. A low cost digital ruler MK9 4 -way Keyboard £2.40
80 x 50 x45. 405 206 £19.50 could also be made. MK10 16 -way Keyboard £7.00
XK124 STROBOSCOPE KIT £15.00 Ask for a leaflet on our range of meters ES1 £7.20 601133 Box for Transmitter £2.60


BEGINNERS Kit controls 4
Kits include all components (inc. speaker Don't lock yourself out! This high security lock kit will secure doors outputs inde-
where used) and full instructions. to sheds, garages or your front door and the built-in alarm will deter pendently
SK1 DOOR CHIME play a tune when ac- would be prowlers. Scores of uses including area access preventing switching on
tivated by a pushbutton £3.90 unauthorised use of machinery or even disabling your /off at 18
SK2 WHISTLE SWITCH switches a relay KEYBOARD car. One correct 4 digit preset times
on and off in response to whistle com- code (out of 5000) will over a 7 -day
mand £3.90 open the lock. Incorrect cycle. LED display of time/day easily
SK3 SOUND GENERATOR produces entries sound the alarm programmed. Includes box.
FOUR different sounds, including and disable the keyboard CT6000K £49.50
police/ambulance/fire-engine siren and PIEZO for up to 3 mins. Kit
machine gun £3.90 BUZZER XK114 Relay kit for CT6000 includes
includes 12 -way keypad,
SPECIAL OFFERS ON KITS FOR PCB, connectors and one relay. Will ac-
and operates from 9 to
SCHOOLS AND TRAINING CENTRES cept up to 4 relays. 3A/240V c/o con-
15V (500A) supply. Will
-contact Sales Office for discounts XK121 drive relay or 701 150
tacts £4.75
and samples £15.95 701115 Additional relays £1.80
lock mechanism.


13 Boston Road p&p on orders over £50 (UK only), otherwise add
£1 +VAT.Overseas p&p: Europe £3.50 elsewhere
London W7 3SJ £10.00. Send cheque/PO/Barclaycard/Access No. with
Tel: 01-567 8910 order. Giro No. 529314002. Local authority and export
Fax: 01-566 1916 orders welcome. Goods by return subject to availability.

ORDERS: 01 5678910 24 HOURS

768 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

Editorial Offices

Phone: Wimborne (0202) 881749
FAX: (0202) 841692
See notes on Readers' Enquiries below -we re-
INCORPORATING ELECTRONICS MONTHLY gret that lengthy technical enquiries cannot be
answered over the telephone
Advertisement Offices
The Magazine for Electronic & Computer Projects EVERYDAY ELECTRONICS ADVERTISEMENTS
VOL. 18 No. 12 December '89 Frinton (0255) 850596


Deputy Editor
Business Manager
Over the next couple of months we will be publishing a few simple projects DAVID J. LEAVER
which can all be built on the Free Easiwire Circuit Board attached to the front of Editorial: WIMBORNE 102021881749
this issue. This board has been supplied by BICC-Vero who also supply the Easi- Advertisement Manager
wire wiring system - we reviewed this in our June 88 issue. PETER J. MEW Frinton (0255) 850596.
The board can be used to build up almost any small project so you are not Classified Advertisements
limited to the ones we are publishing. The gift should therefore be of interest to Wimborne 10202) 881749
most readers and we hope it will encourage those who have not built any projects READERS' ENQUIRIES
We are unable to offer any advice on the
before to "have a go". use, purchase, repair or modification of
commercial equipment or the incorpora-
BOOKS tion or modification of designs published in
the magazine. We regret that we cannot
While on the subject of project building please note that our first ever project provide data or answer queries on articles
book - Electronic Projects Book 1- is now on sale at your newsagents. This or projects that are more than five years
book contains 29 projects each backed with a kit of components. old. Letters requiring a personal reply
There are now four special EE publications available and you can find details
must be accompanied by a stamped
self-addressed envelope or a self-
on all of them on page 811. They are all available by mail order through our Direct addressed envelope and inter-
Book Service. national reply coupons.
More books have been added to the D.B.S. pages this month - and another All reasonable precautions are taken to
ensure that the advice and data given to
few new ones will appear next month. All the books listed are chosen because we readers is reliable. We cannot, however,
believe they will be of special interest to our readers and the lists are updated guarantee it and we cannot accept legal
every month. responsibility for it.
P.C.B.s We do not supply electronic com-
ponents or kits for building the projects
In the past we have often had to ask readers to wait two or three weeks for featured, these can be supplied by
p.c.b.s from our service. I'm pleased to say that virtually all of our listed p.c.b.s advertisers.
are now held in stock at our editorial office and are posted within seven days of We advise readers to check that all parts
are still available before commencing any
receipt of your order. So - post willing - you should not have to wait too long project in a back -dated issue.
before you can start the latest project. We regret that we cannot provide
data or answer queries on projects
that are more than five years old.
Although the proprietors and staff of
able precautions to protect the interests of
readers by ensuring as far as practicable
that advertisements are bona fide, the
magazine and its Publishers cannot give
any undertakings in respect of statements
or claims made by advertisers, whether
SUBSCRIPTIONS these advertisements are printed as part of
Annual subscriptions for delivery direct to Subscriptions can only start with the next the magazine, or are in the form of inserts.
any address in the UK: £15.70. Overseas: available issue. For back numbers see below. The Publishers regret that under no
£19.00 (E36 airmail). Cheques or bank drafts circumstances will the magazine accept
(in £ sterling only) payable to Everyday Elec- liability for non -receipt of goods ordered,
tronics and sent to EE Subscriptions Dept., 6 BACK ISSUES
Certain back issues of EVERYDAY ELEC- or for late delivery, or for faults in manufac-
Church Street, Wimborne, Dorset BH21 1JH. ture. Legal remedies are available in re-
TRONICS are available price £1.50 (£2.00
overseas surface mail -E sterling only spect of some of these circumstances,
please) inclusive of postage and packing per and readers who have complaints should
copy. Enquiries with remittance, made pay- address them to the advertiser or should
able to Everyday Electronics, should be sent consult a local trading standards office, or
to Post Sales Department, Everyday Elec- a Citizen's Advice Bureau, or a solicitor.
tronics, 6 Church Street, Wimborne, Dorset TRANSMITTERS/BUGS/
BH21 1JH. In the event of non -availability TELEPHONE EQUIPMENT
remittance will be returned. Please allow 28 We would like to advise readers that
days for delivery. We have sold out of Sept. certain items of radio transmitting and
Oct. & Dec. 85, April, May, Oct. & Dec. 86, telephone equipment which may be
Jan., April, May & Nov. 87, Jan., March,
April, June & Oct. 88. advertised in our pages cannot be leg-
ally used in the U.K. Readers should
Binders to hold one volume (12 issues) are
check the law before using any trans-
available from the above address for £4.95 mitting or telephone equipment as a
(£6.95 to European countries and £9.00 to fine, confiscation of equipment and/or
OWER other countries, surface mail) inclusive of imprisonment can result from illegal
SUP Y IT postage and packing. Please allow 28 days use. The laws vary from country to
for delivery. Payment in sterling only country; overseas readers should check
please. local laws.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 769

Easiwire/Pocket Money Project

at the two inputs. If the voltage at the non -
inverting input (pin 3) is greater than the
A simple unit that can be constructed on the Free voltage present at the inverting input (pin
2) then the output at pin 6 will be the bat-
Easiwire Circuit Board. It will provide emergency tery voltage.
If the conditions are reversed so that the
lighting or an automatic night light. voltage at pin 2 is greater than the voltage
at pin 3 then the output at pin 6 will be 0
volts. The circuit is in fact very sensitive
THIS MONTH'S Pocket Money project is and a very small fluctuation of the input
designed to switch on a small, low CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION voltages will cause a complete swing of the
voltage lamp automatically when the The circuit diagram for the Autolight output voltage at pin 6 from OV to 9V.
light level sensed by a Light Dependent project appears in Fig. 1. Resistors R1 and
Resistor (LDR) falls below a set level. It R2 form a fixed (reference) voltage divider TRANSISTOR POWER
has been specially designed so that it can be to produce a steady voltage of approxi-
built up on the FREE, cover mounted, piece mately 0.8V at the inverting input, pin 2 of SWITCH
IC1. Preset VR1 and LDR1 form a similar The operational amplifier has a very low
of Easiwire board. current output. As a result it is not possible
This is an interesting circuit in its own voltage dividing network which produces a
right and has a number of useful applica- variable voltage, dependent upon the for this device to directly switch the lamp
tions. These can include an automatic night amount of light falling upon the LDR, on and off so a simple, single stage, transis-
light for use with a child or an emergency which is connected to the non -inverting tor output switching amplifier, consisting
lighting system to take over illuminating a input (pin 3) of IC1. The preset control is of resistor R3 and transistor TR1 is used to
strategic area in the event of failure of a included so that the operating light level of carry out this task.
mains driven system. the circuit may be accurately set. In this sort of application the transistor is
The main active device in the project is IC1 is a CA3140 op. amp. which is confi- used as a simple switch so that a small cur-
the light dependent resistor. Light depen- gured in this circuit, as a comparator. An rent flowing through the base/emitter junc-
dent resistors operate in the same way as operational amplifier is designed to tion is used to control a much larger current
variable resistors in so far that the actual amplify the difference between the two flowing through the collector/emitter cir-
resistance of the component can be made inputs by a factor which is determined by cuit. When a very small current flows
to vary. the ratio of the resistance between the sig- through the base emitter circuit this allows
In the case of a variable resistor or poten- nal and the inverting input and a similar a large current to flow through the collec-
tiometer you can manually alter the resis- resistance connected between the output tor/emitter circuit.
tance by operating the rotating control of and the inverting input. As soon as the current through the base/
the component. With a light dependent When the op. amp is set up as a com- emitter ceases to flow then the current
resistor the amount of light falling upon the parator these two resistors are omitted and through the collector/emitter circuit is also
photo -sensitive area of the device governs as a result the op. amp has virtually an infi- prevented from flowing. The current will
the actual resistance of the component. In nite gain. This is, in practice, limited by flow through the base/emitter as long as the
general when more light is shining on the being restricted to the power supply rail voltage between the base and the emitter of
LDR the resistance of the component is voltages. the transistor exceeds 0.7V.
low and when very little light falls on it the Under these circumstances the output In actual fact, no matter what voltage is
resistance is high. state is determined by the voltages present available at the base of the transistor the

SI LP1 *



Fig.1. Circuit of the Autolight

770 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

transistor will actually prevent the voltage the internal battery and powers the circuit
between the base and the emitter exceed- from the current supplied by the power
ing 0.7V. Any excess voltage is converted SWITCHED POWER JACK
pack instead.
to heat by the transistor and could cause PLUG IS INSERTED INTO SOCKET Under no circumstances should this pro-
serious damage to the transistor. In order ject be connected to the mains EXCEPT
to restrict the current flowing through the through a SAFE low voltage power supply.
base/emitter circuit of the transistor to a The on/off switch S1 is a simple, single
safe level resistor R3 has been included in pole, single throw switch which is included
the circuit as a base protection resistor. in the circuit so that it may be turned off
when not required.

The selection of the lamp operated by This project has been constructed using
this circuit (LP1) presents a difficulty, since the BIC-VERO "Easiwire System". A
it appears that no suppliers have 9V bulbs suitable circuit board is included FREE
available in their catalogues. The solution (cover mounted) with this issue of Every-
is to therefore use a lower voltage bulb and day Electronics. The board has 38 by 18
Fig.2. Using a battery eliminator holes, on a 0.1in. matrix.
to adjust the voltage flowing through it by
means of a series resistor (R4). The layout of the components on the
Although the values given in the compo- board together with the underside wiring is
nent list will work quite happily they are by shown in Fig.3. The components are simply
no means the only suitable combination. BATTERY ELIMINATOR inserted into the appropriate hole in the
There are such a large number of bulbs If you intend to operate this circuit as a board from the side with the wider holes.
available that the best strategy is for you to child's night light, or in some similar situa- When all of the components have been
select a bulb and then select the approp- tion where it must operate for a long period inserted into it, the board is turned over
riate value for R4 to suit your bulb using of time, you will probably find that normal and the protruding component tails trim-
the formula: 9V batteries are insufficient to keep the med to a length of 3mm using a pair of side -
bulb burning for a prolonged period. How- cutters.
ever, it is possible to operate this circuit At this stage it is important to ensure that
from a mains driven power pack of the type any polarity sensitive components are
R4 - that is sold at component shops. inserted into the board the correct way
'bulb In order to connect a battery eliminator round. This should be double checked
into the circuit you will need to use a low thoroughly before wiring the board up,
Where Vss = the battery voltage, Vbulb = voltage input connector socket, of the type since moving components after they have
the voltage of the bulb and 'bulb = the cur- suitable for the output from your power been wired tends to require the complete
rent taken by the bulb.) supply, which switches off the internal bat- replacement of all the connections made
tery when the external power supply is con- with that piece of wire.
nected. This should be wired up as shown The components can now be interwired,
in Fig.2. using the Easiwire pen, to produce the con-
COMPONENTS Switching within the input socket SK1
works so that without the power plug
nections as shown in Fig.2. This process is a
fairly simple task and should not cause too
inserted the contacts allow current from many problems.
the battery to flow to the circuit in the nor- At the start of a wiring run a short length
mal way. When the power plug is inserted of wire from the wiring tool is held on the
Resistors the internal switch mechanism disconnects board near to the first component pin with
R1 10k
R2 1k See page 783
R3 150
A 00000 O 0000000000000 0000000000000
0 0
R4 15 0.5W (see text) C O , 0
All 0.25W 5% carbon except RI

where stated i1111111

F TO LP1 0
Potentiometer 0 RG
VR1 10k skeleton preset, 0
horiz 0 0
K 0 R3
Semiconductors N 0
b O
TR1 TIP31A npn power O TR1 0
IC1 CA3140 op. amp 0 0
4111111 0
0 0
Miscellaneous K 0 0000000000000000000000000 000000000000
LDR1 ORP12 light
dependent resistor I 2 3 5 W 15 20 25

S1 s.p.s.t toggle switch

LP1 6.5V, 0.15A bulb 1 2 3 I 10 IS 30 IS 30 33 30'
(see text)
B1 9V battery 000 0000000000000000000000000 0000000000
(PP9 or similar)
JK1 Min. "power" jack 0

connector to suit
power supply 11

(optional) K

Easiwire circuit board (Free

with this issue), 38 holes x 18 14

holes; Easiwire connectors (4 0
off); Easiwire wire; bulb holder;
8 -pin i.c.socket; battery 0
connector; plastic case, to choice. 0
K 0
0000000000000000000000000 00
Approx. cost
Guidance only £5 Fig.3. Wiring for the Autolight circuit board

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 771

the finger. The tool is then used to roll the ADJUSTING AND The voltage at the other end of R1, at the
junction with R2, should be approximately
wire up the pin, under light tension, for TESTING
four or five turns and roll it back down 0.8V. The voltage present at pin 2 of IC1
again with another four or five turns Before inserting the battery and any should also be checked and found to be the
around the component tail. attempt is made to use the circuit it should same as the voltage found at the junctions
The wire should now be at the bottom of be thoroughly inspected to make sure all of R1 and R2. If this is not the case then the
the component tail and should be in contact components are installed correctly, are the connection between the junction of R1 and
with the surface of the board. The wire is correct way round and that there are no 'ac- R2 and pin 2 of IC1 should be investigated.
then pulled along to the next component by cidental' short circuits. When this visual If the voltages measured at these two
means of the wiring pen, keeping a small check has been completed then the battery points are considerably higher than 0.8V
amount of tension on the wire, where the may be inserted into its holder and swtich then the connection between the end of R2
process is repeated again rolling the wire S1 operated. nearest to the bottom of the board and the
up and down the component tail before The first stage of the adjusting and test- negative battery input connector should be
continuing to the next component. ing procedure is to set the value of preset investigated. If the connections between
At the end of the wiring run the wire is VR1 so that the lamp is turned on at the Ri and R2 and pin 2 of IC1 appear to be
run up and down the last component as correct light level. To do this you should correct then the values of R1 and R2 should
before and the wire is then cut, close to the cover the LDR and adjust VR1 until the be checked using the resistance setting of
pin, using the cutter on the tool. The extra light comes on. If you then remove the cov- the meter.
piece of wire at the beginning of the wiring ering and allow light to fall upon the LDR
run can be similarly cut off using the cutter you should observe that the light is turned LIGHT LEVEL
blade. Where the wiring chain has to off. You can then adjust VR1 further until The next stage is to check that the light
break, as in the case of the negative con- the bulb (LP1) switches on at the desired detecting circuit, consisting of VR1 and R3
light level.
nection to LDR1, this is simply achieved by (LDR) is operating correctly. The first
wiring a further set of turns of wire around stage is to check the voltage between pin 3
the component tail on top of those already FAULT FINDING of IC1 and the negative battery input to the
sighted there at the junction point and then Fault finding on this circuit can only circuit board whilst varying the amount of
continue as before. really be accomplished by means of a mul- light falling on the LDR.
In this circuit there are two points at timeter. If the battery voltage is measured The voltage at this point should vary
which wires have to cross. Because the wire at the appropriate power points in the cir- according to the amount of light falling on
used in this system is not insulated it is cuit and the circuit still fails to work then it the LDR. When very little light falls on the
necessary to place a piece of insulating tape will be necessary to check the individual LDR then the voltage at pin 3 of IC1 should
on top of the first wire installed before run- sections of the circuit. be between two volts and the battery vol-
ning the second wire on top of this. The Assuming that the battery voltage is tage.
points at which these occur are shown in available between pins 4 and 7 of IC1. The As the amount of light falling on it is
Fig.3. next stage is to check the voltages, with increased by removing the shading bet-
The wire connecting the power rail from respect to the negative input to the board, ween the source of the light and the LDR
IC1 pin 7 to LP1 "spring" connector, if run at pins 2 and 3 of IC1. A voltage of approx- so the voltage at pin 3 should reduce to
in a straight line, would foul one of the imately 0.8V should be available at pin 2 below the voltage measured at pin 2. If this
component rails of resistor R4. In order to and if this is not the case then the connec- is not the case then the connections in the
prevent this happening a curve must be tions to the reference voltage divider, com- vicinity of pin 3 of IC1 should be checked.
introduced into the wiring run by using the prising resistors R1 and R2, should be If the voltage measures 0 volts, with respect
double -sided adhesive supplied. checked. to the negative supply voltage, then a check
A small piece should be cut to the correct With the meter, set to 'volts', connected should be made between pin 3 and the posi-
size required, the white film removed from to the negative battery input the positive tive battery input on the board.
the adhesive sheet and the sheet stuck to probe should be connected to the wire of If the battery voltage is measured bet-
the back of the board. The brown film is Ri nearest to the top of the board. The bat- ween these two points then this would indi-
then peeled off before the wiring run is tery voltage should be measurable at this cate either a wiring short circuit between
made and the wire pressed onto the adhe- point and if this is not the case then the con- pins 3, 4 of IC1 or a fault within IC1 itself. If
sive sheet to hold it firmly in place away nection between the positive power supply no voltage is measured between either of
from the tail of resistor R4. input and this point should be investigated. the battery input connections and pin 3
then this would indicate that the fault lies
with the interconnection between pin 3 of
IC1 and the light sensing resistance chain
Another potential source of problems in
the light sensing circuit is if VR1 is set so
that there is very little resistance between
the positive power supply rail and the con-
nection of the wire of VR1 with the LDR
then the variation of light levels on the
LDR will have very little effect. A visual
check should be made of the setting of VR1
and if necessary an adjustment of the set-
ting VR1 made.
The potential divider circuit consisting of
VR1 and LDR1 can be checked out in the
same way as described for the checking of
the fixed voltage potential divider made up
of resistors R1 and R2. The major differ-
ence however is that the voltage present at
the junction of VR1 and LDR1 which
should be the same as the voltage present at
pin 3 of IC1, should vary as the level of the
light on the LDR varies.
Once a fluctuating voltage, which varies
with the amount of light falling on LDR1, is
obtained VR1 can be adjusted until the cir-
cuit switches over at the required light

The next stage is to check that the output
voltage of pin 6 of IC! switches as the
amount of light falling on the LDR is

772 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

altered. With a voltmeter connected bet- nection to the board, through the under - LDR and that the circuit board can be
ween the negative battery input to the board wiring to the positive side of LP1 and installed with the LDR exposed to the
board and pin 6 on IC1 the amount of light from LP1 through resistor R5 and the col- ambient light through a hole in the case.
falling on the LDR should be varied by lector and emitter of TR1 to the negative In the prototype it was decided that LP1
shading it with your hand. battery connection. A break of any would be mounted so as to protrude
When the amount of light falling on it is description along this chain will cause the through the top of the case with the LDR
greater than the level at which you wish the lamp not to illuminate. mounted in what is effectively the front of
circuit to switch then the output measured If the lamp illuminates when tested in the case (which is in fact the bottom of the
between pin 6 of IC1 and 0 volts should be this way then the short circuit between the case) furthest away from the removable lid.
virtually 0. As the light falling on the LDR collector and emitter of TR1 should be When suitable positions for these compo-
is reduced, by shading it with your hand, so removed and the voltage between the nents and also for S1 and, if used, the input
the voltage at pin 3 should rise above the negative battery connector and the base of power supply jack socket JK1 have been
voltage set at pin 2 and the output voltage TR1 should be checked. When battery vol- formed the case should be carefully drilled
at pin 6 should, at this stage rapidly switch tage is applied to the end of R4 which is with holes of the appropriate sizes to
from 0 volts to virtually the battery voltage. connected to pin 6 of IC1 then approxi- accommodate these components.
If this does not happen and you have mately 0.7 volts should be measured bet- Because it is potentially difficult to assess
already checked that the voltage at pin 3 ween the base and emitter of TR1. This the correct position of the LDR by holding
fluctuates above and below the voltage of should cause LP1 to illuminate. the circuit board up to the case it will be
pin 2 then you should check that there are If no voltage is measureable between the necessary to find a position for the LDR by
no short circuits associated with pin 6 of base and emitter of TR1 when battery vol- careful measurement. Once the hole to
IC1. If the voltage present at pin 6 of IC1 is tage is available at pin 6 of IC1 then the vol- accommodate the LDR has been drilled in
permanently at the battery supply voltage tage present at the end of R3 nearest to the the case then the circuit board may be
then a check should also be made to ensure top of the board should also be measured. offered up to the case wall and the LDR
that there is not an accidental short circuit If the battery voltage is not present here accurately positioned.
between pins 6 and 7 of IC1. but is present at pin 6 of IC1 then the con- In order to allow the LDR to be mounted
If this reveals no fault, or if the voltage at nection between pin 6 of IC1 and R3 should as close as possible to the body of the case it
pin 6 remains locked at 0 volts, then a check be investigated. If battery voltage is will be necessary to carefully bend the body
should be made that the battery voltage is measurable at both ends of R3 then the of transistor TR1 over so as to make it as
present across pins 7 and 4 of IC1. If all connection between R3 and the base of close to the component board as possible.
other checks reveal nothing to be wrong TR1 should be investigated. The mounting holes for the circuit board
then it must be suspected that IC1 is faulty If all of the foregoing checks prove that can then be marked and drilled.
and it should be replaced with a new one. there is nothing wrong on the circuit board Once these holes have been drilled and
then the voltage present between the emit- their edges cleaned up any lettering you
OUTPUT CIRCUIT ter and the base of TR1 should be mea-
sured. If 0.7V or more is present at this
may wish to use on the case may be applied.
Fault finding on the output circuit is rela-
tively simple. The first stage is to check that point and the transistor still fails to cause
LP1 to illuminate then it must be suspected
bulb LP1 is firmly screwed into its lamp This project is very simple to use. All
holder and that the connections are cor- the TR1 is defective and should be that it is necessary to do is to set VR1 to
rectly made to the connectors on the board. replaced. give precisely the correct switching point
Once this has been done the next stage is and then turn the unit on.
to make a temporary short between the CASE It must be remembered that even when
emitter and collector of transistor TR1. Before the project can be installed into a the lamp is not illuminated a current is
This should cause LP1 to light up. If LP1 case a suitable sized case should be pre- being drawn from the battery. So when the
does not illuminate when tested in this way pared. It is important to realise that the unit is not required to be in use it should be
then a careful check should be made of the case layout should be designed so that the turned off to conserve battery life.
lamp circuit from the battery positive con- light from bulb LP1 does not shine onto the


The Easiwire circuit board attached to the front of this
issue can be used to build almost any small circuit on. It is
specially designed to be used with the BICC Vero Easiwire
solderless wiring system - see their advertisement in this
issue for more details.
The board has a matrix of tapered holes enabling comp-
onent leads to be pushed through and firmly held while
connections are made. Complete projects can be built
using Easiwire without the need to solder joints.
This issue contains two projects specifically designed to
be built on the board - more projects will follow over the
next couple of months, they include a Games Timer and a
Possession Alarm.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 773

Easiwire/Pocket Money Project

Capacitor C2 is a decoupling capacitor
Use your Free (cover mounted) piece of which is used to set the voltage at pin 5
(control voltage input) at the optimum
Easiwire matrix board to give your car level for operation of the circuit. Relay
RLA has been chosen so as to draw a rela-
wipers a delayed sweep facility tively small current from ICI.
AVERY useful facility incorporated in the motor start, accomplish one sweep and
some, but not all, cars is the ability then park itself again on a timed basis. Such
to have the windscreen wiper oper- a relay can be operated by the standard 555
ate once every now and again. This facility timer circuit which we have used before in
is known as the "Impulse Wipe" facility. this series of "Pocket Money" projects.
This project describes how a very simple The 555 timer is a very useful circuit in
circuit can be constructed to provide this that it produces, when configured as in
facility. Fig.2, an output wave form which is alter-
nately on and off for time periods which are
governed by the values of a small number
HOW IT WORKS of external components.
A car wiper motor circuit is usually very
similar to that shown in Fig. la. It consists
of a wiper on/off switch, which is wired to CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
the motor by means of two circuits. One of The full circuit diagram for the Car
these circuits is a direct connection to the Impulse Wiper is shown in Fig.3. This cir-

Fig. 2. Using the 555 timer i.c. in the

SUPPLY astable mode.

Because the standard bipolar 555 timer

OFF ADDITION RELAY verison of ICI has been chosen for use with
IMPULSE WIPE this circuit, sufficient power is available
WHEN RELAY from the integrated circuit to directly drive
the relay. Also, because the timer output is
PARKING governed by the values of the resistors and
capacitor the relay has been placed bet-
ween the positive power supply rail and the
output of IC1.
CHASIS RETURN This causes the relay to be energised
(123006 when the output of IC1 is at 0 volts. This
arrangement ensures that the relay is ener-
Fig. I a Popular arrangement fora typ- Fig. 1b. Windscreen wiper circuit gised for a time period which is determined
ical car windscreen wiper circuit. modified to give "impulse" action.
motor which causes the motor to run cuit incorporates the relay coil of the relay Fig. 3. Circuit diagram for the Car
constantly whilst the other circuit is wired so shown in Fig. lb. Impulse Wiper.
as to include a switch, usually in the motor The heart of the impulse wiper circuit is a
assembly, which is closed except for a brief standard Astable 555 timer circuit with
moment when the motor is in specific resistor R1 and potentiometer VR1 com-
(parked) position. Another popular system bining together to form the equivalent of
places a short across the motor, to stop it RA of Fig.2. Resistor R1 has been chosen to
quickly, when the wiper is turned off and set the minimum acceptable period bet-
the park switch operates. Dual speed wipers ween pulses of the impulse wiper, whilst
also have different wiring. VR1 has been chosen so that it is adjustable
When the wiper motor switch is turned to give the intervals between the sweeps of
on the motor operates normally. When the the wiper. These values have been chosen,
motor switch is turned to the off position together with that of capacitor Cl to pro-
the current is connected to the motor duce the time delays which are considered
through the parking switch so that the to be appropriate for this project.
motor continues to operate until it reaches Potentiometer VR1 and R1 set the time
the parking position. period that the relay RLA is not energised.
If a relay (which is really an electrically The values of resistor R2 and capacitor Cl
operated switch) is added to the circuit as determine the fixed time period, which is
shown in Fig. lb then this can be operated not affected by any adjustment of VR1, for
by a simple electronic circuit so as to make which RLA is energised in each cycle.

774 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

by the fixed values of R2 and Cl, and is de -
energised for the time period which can be
varied by operation of VR1.
The diode Dl across the relay coil is
included in the circuit to prevent the vol-
tage surge which is produced when the
relay de -energises from destroying IC1.
Switch S1 is the standard two pole switch,
incorporated into the potentiometer VR1,
which is used to turn off the unit when not
Although this circuit can be operated
from a 9V battery, as are all of the circuits
in the "pocket money" series, it does seem
rather unnecessary to include a battery
when a suitable source of power is available The wire is now pulled along to the next
within the car. It is therefore suggested that It is important to ensure that any polarity component by means of the wiring pen,
the power required to drive this project is sensitive components are inserted into the keeping a small amount of tension on the
obtained from the car and, for that reason, board the correct way round. This should wire, where the process is repeated again
the fuse FS1 has been incorporated into the be checked thoroughly before wiring the rolling the wire up and down the compo-
circuit to provide protection in the event of board up, since moving components after nent tail before continuing to the next com-
problems occurring within the circuit. they have been wired tends to require the ponent. At the end of the wiring run the
complete replacement of all the connec- wire is run up and down the last component
CONSTRUCTION tions made with that piece of wire. The as before and the wire is then cut, close to
This project has been designed to be con- components are then connected, using the the pin, using the cutter on the tool. The
structed on the FREE, cover mounted, Easiwire pen, to produce the connections extra piece of wire at the beginning of the
piece of Easiwire matrix board and using as shown in the underside diagram (Fig.4). wiring run can be similarly cut off using the
the "Easiwire system". This board has a This process is fairly simple. At the start cutter blade.
matrix of 38 by 18 holes or can be obtained of a wiring run a short length of wire from In this circuit there are two points at
by cutting down a larger board to suit. the wiring tool is held in the board near to which wires have to cross. Because the wire
The layout of the components on the the first component pin with the finger. used in this system is not insulated it is
board together with the underside wiring is The tool is then used to roll the wire up the necessary to place a piece of insulating tape
shown in Fig.4. The components are simply pin, under light tension, for four or five on top of the first sets of wire installed
inserted into the appropriate hole in the turns and roll it back down again with before running the second sets of wire on
board from the side with the wider holes. another four or five turns around the com- top of this. The points at which these cros-
When all of the components have been ponent tail. The wire should now be at the sovers occur are both under the i.c. and one
inserted into it the board is turned over and bottom of the component tail and should piece of insulation tape can be used to pro-
the protruding component tails trimmed to be now in contact with the surface of the vide insulation for both of the sets of cros-
a length of 3mm using cutters. board. sing wires as shown on Fig.4.

A 0000000000000000000000000 000000000000
Resistors 0 DI 0
R1 5k6 0 *-1CD-0 '!lll
R2 3k3 0 0
All 0.25W 5% carbon 0 0
0 0
Potentiometer 0
100k lin. rotary, tri R2 )
VR1 0
with d.p.s.t. switch 0


C1 470µ elec. 16V 51111l1 ND

R1 O
C2 Op 1 Mylar 16V

Semiconductors 00000000000000000000000 000000000000000

D1 1N4148 signal diode 1 2 3 4 10 15 20 25 30 35 311
IC1 555 bipolar timer

Miscellaneous 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 25 30 3S 31

RLA 12V p.c.b. mounting 00000000000000000000000000000000000000

relay, with heavy o
duty contacts (16A) 0
S1 See VR1
FS1 250mA fuse with
Easiwire board, 38 x 18 holes
(FREE with this issue); connec-
tors for Easiwire board (7 pairs); o
plastic case to choice; control TAPE
knob; self-adhesive standoffs (3
off); 8 -pin i.c. socket; barrier strip, 0
5 -way with right angle connec- 0
tors (see text; connecting wire; A o oo oo oo 00000000 000000000
heavy duty automotive wire; sol-
der etc.
Fig. 4. Easiwire board component layout and details of the underside
Approx. cost wiring. Wires connecting the relay contacts should be rated at least
Guidance only £12 10A.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 775

After completion the circuit should be
carefully tested, using an external 12V sup-
ply if necessary, to ensure that it operates
correctly before finally isolation varnish is
brushed over all of the connections to make
the circuit permanent. Varnishing also
helps to protect the circuit against mois-

Fault finding of the circuit board prior to
inserting into a suitable case is relatively
simple. The first stage is to check that the
circuit is receiving power and that the
power "rails" on the board are doing their
You should be able to measure the bat-
tery voltage between any OV connection Rear of the control unit showing the five -way connecting strip.
and both pins 8 and 4 of ICI as well as bet-
ween the battery positive connection to the If both of these voltages are not present under these conditions then it must be
board and pin 1. If these voltages are not then the most likely cause is that the circuit assumed that the relay is faulty and it
present this will indicate faulty wiring up of from the positive voltage rail, through should be replaced.
the component board. VR1, R1 and R2 is not correctly made.
The next step is to check the voltage at This is best checked by measuring the vol-
tage present between 0 volts and each of
the output (pin 3) of IC1. If the circuit is This type of project really must be
working correctly this voltage should be the points in the component chain through mounted in a plastic case, in order to pro-
regularly switching between 0 volts and the VR1, R1, R2 and CI and investigating at tect it from the rigors of being installed into
battery voltage. the point where no voltage is measured. an automotive environment. The precise
If this does not occur and the output is If a voltage is present between 0 volts details of how the case is to be laid out will
locked permanently at a fixed voltage then and pin 7 but no voltage, or only a very really depend upon the space and arrange-
ment available within the vehicle.
The main point to consider in designing
the layout for the case is that ideally the live
connections to the vehicle's wiring loom
need to come out of the opposite side of the
case to where the on/off switch/speed con-
trol is mounted. The barrier strip, to which
the output connections are terminated, is
fitted with right-angled connectors so that
the only connections visible are those made
to the car's wiring loom. The other connec-
tions to the barrier strip are inside the box
and pass through the case wall and are then
connected to the circuit board by means of
wires fitted with the appropriate connect-
ing clips.
The type of barrier strip which is
specified in the components list can usually
only be obtained as a 12 -way connection
strip. It will therefore be necessary to cut it
Completed circuit board showing component layout. The timer i.c. should down carefully to give six connections and
be mounted in an 8 -pin i.c. holder. then carefully drill out one of the connector
fixing bushes to provide a five way barrier
strip with fixing holes at each end.
you should remove the i.c. from its socket small voltage, is measured between the 0 Once the layout for the case has been
and check the voltage at the pin 3 connec- volts rail and pins 2 or 6 of IC1 then you decided and the components modified,
tion again. If the voltage persists with IC1 should check that the resistance between where necessary, then the appropriate hole
removed then the fault does not lie with pins 7 and 6 of IC1 is roughly equal to that for all of the components should be drilled
IC1 but most possibly with the wiring of resistor R2. If this is correct then check into the case. If it is desired to letter the
associated with the connections from IC1 the "resistance" of capacitor Cl with the case then the lettering should be applied
to the relay and D1. resistance range of your meter. If the resis- and carefully protected with spray on var-
A particularly likely problem is that tance is very low (less than about 500 ohms) nish before finally installing the case
diode Dl may be connected the wrong way then you should replace Cl mounted components and the circuit
round or may have gone short-circuit. This If voltage is present at pins 2 and 6 of ICI board.
can easily be checked by using the resis- but is does not fluctuate then the likely The board is best accommodated by
tance scale on your test meter. causes are that capacitor Cl is not correctly means of self-adhesive standoffs fitted
The diode should exhibit a very low connected, is faulty or that IC1 is faulty. To inside the case. It will therefore be neces-
resistance with the test probes one way check Cl you should touch connect sary to drill 3mm x 4mm holes at conve-
round and a higher resistance with the test another capacitor of similar value across nient points on the circuit board before fit-
meter probes the other way round. the connections to see if this cures the fault. ting them with the standoffs and offering ,
Remember however that the resistance of If this does not cure the fault check that the them to the inside of the case and firmly
the relay coil (which is itself fairly low) will connection between the positive connec- sticking them into position.
be in parallel with the resistance of the tion of Cl and pins 2 and 6 of the i.c. is cor-
diode. rectly made.
The next step is to replace the i.c. and If this voltage switching is taking place WIRING
check the voltages at pins 2,6 and 7. The then the i.c. is working correctly and the The wires required to connect the case
voltage at pin 7 should be fluctuating fault must lie with the relay and it's mounted components with the circuit
around a value which is roughly 1/2 of the associated connections. If all is correct here board will need to be soldered to the
battery voltage. The voltages at pins 2 and then the connections between pin 3 of IC1 appropriate connections on the case
6 should be identical (because these two and the relay should be carefully inspected. mounted components. The wires passing
pins are connected together by a wire link) If this connection is correctly made the out- between the connectors to which the car
and these should also be fluctuating but at a put voltage from ICI should be present at wiring is connected and fuse FS1 and the
voltage slightly less than that found at pin the coil connections of the relay which switch on VR1 will need to be soldered at
7. should work. If the relay is not working both ends and cannot be terminated with

776 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

the connectors for use with the Easiwire
The connecting wires from Sla and the
variable resistor to the board should all be
fitted with suitable connections for insert-
ing into the spring connectors inserted in
the Easiwire board. The wires connecting
the relay contacts to the barrier strip should
be made with wires capable of carrying a 10A
Once the project has been assembled
into its case then it should be tested once
more before any attempt is made to install
it into the vehicle.

Needless to say this project should not be
installed into anybody's automobile with-
out the permission and/or assistance and/or
supervision of the owner. Installation is
actually relatively simple.
Once a suitable place for mounting the
control box has been found it should be
mounted firmly in the vehicle, if necessary
removing the circuit board from the case
(hence the use of standoffs) so as to make
use of the bottom of the case to attach fix- Layout of components inside the wiper control box. Wiring from the board
ing bolts to the case. If necessary the six to the connecting strip should be of heavy-duty type.
connections to the potentiometer/switch
can be extended with this component to that installed in the car. This should be turned to the position where switch Si is
mounted remotely from the case contain- done using the car wiring diagram so that turned off, no current flows through the
ing the circuit. the connections made are correct and the circuit and the siper is controlled by the
Once the case has been mounted in the supply will not be shorted out. vehicle's normal wiper switch.
vehicle then the wiring to the car's wiper When the speed control is rotated,
switch will need to be extended and con- switching on S1, the relay will pulse on and
nected to the output connections on the IN USE off at a frequency set by the position of
barrier strip mounted on the back of the The operation of this circuit is extremely VR1. This will produce the impulse wiping
case using heavy duty wire of a similar size simple. When the "speed control" (VR1) is action.



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Everyday Electronics, December 1989 777
Thief Foil
Iam all for deterring shoplifters,
even if it means that we have to pay
more for pocket size products,
cassettes and CDs, in artificially large

BY BARRY FOX packaging. Hopefully we pay less for

the extra packaging than we would for
Toothless BVA But what has really got under the
subsidizing the pilferage it is designed
to prevent.
In the early days of video, the
software industry had a terrible reputa- RSPCA's skin was CIC's claim that it In American book and record shops
tion. Piracy was rampant, initially talked to the RSPCA ahead of the stunt, things are now so bad that customers
because the film and TV companies and was given the go-ahead. This claim have to leave bags or briefcases at the
would not legitimately release any was widely reported in the video press, shop entrance. So I was surprised to
worthwhile material. Entrepreneurs shifting the blame from CIC. see a shop in Chicago relying on what
simply got hold of unauthorised mas- So I talked to the RSPCA. Definitely looks like a surprisingly clumsy anti-
ters, made copies and pulled in a for- not true, said they, CIC never contacted theft system.
tune. us. All their records and tapes are shrink
Then, when the film and TV com- You must talk to CIC, said the BVA. So wrapped in plastic, with a bar code
panies got wise and authorised release, I did. asked CIC the obvious simple
label stuck on the front. The bar code
the pirates used their existing duplica- question. Who at the RSPCA approved covers, and thus diguises, a flat metal
tion and distribution networks to make the idea? coil which modifies the field created by
large numbers of back-to-back copies After three days, a dozen calls and a a low frequency radio transmitter at a
from authorised releases. FACT, the wonderful crop of excuses CIC still had security check point near the Exit. Any
Federation Against Copyright Theft, not come up with a name. change in the field sounds an alarm if
was formed and the laws tightened, to A series of CIC staff variously told me anyone tried to leave the shop with a
clamp down on this scam. The Macrovi- it was "none of my business", "we have labelled product.
sion system, which alters the syn- nothing to add to our press release" Similar systems are used in UK
chronization pulses on a video tape, to (which blandly said the stunt was meant shops, e.g. with large tags on clothing.
make it difficult to copy, has also to be "a straightforward in-store prom- Usually the check-out staff remove
helped. But there is still a hard core of otion") and Paul Brett the CIC man who these labels, or tags, when the custom-
persistent pirates, as the monthly list of master -minded the sick stunt was vari- er pays. But not in this case. Instead the
FACT prosecutions shows. ously on the phone, in a meeting, out to shop staff stick on an extra label which
The video software industry also got lunch, not in yet, not back yet, at a semi- says "Paid - thank you". Although
a bad name for selling hard core porno- nar, and - finally - off sick. these "paid" labels look like ordinary
graphy, and films that exploited vio- The last ten days, CIC staff whined to paper, they include a thin sheet of
lence. Young children were able to me, have been "horrendous". As an metal foil. So when stuck over the
watch films at home which no cinema animal lover and reptile respecter I invisible coil, the paid label blocks, or
would be allowed to screen, even to found it hard to feel too much sympathy attenuates, pick up and re -radiation of
adults. The name "video nasty" was for CIC. the tell -tale alarm signal.
coined, and the popular press cam- This kind of behaviour brings the It's all very neat, but would have

paigned. whole trade into disrepute. Signific- thought it would not take the average
There is now a tight certification antly the BVA issued no statement. thief long to work out that all it takes to
scheme for all video releases, enforced What, I was left wondering, is the point disable the system is a few thin strips
by the Video Recordings Act. A dealer of the BVA. of metal foil stuck over the coil labels.
was recently fined over £13,000 for rent-
ing adult movies to children. DAT Dump
The video industry has its own trade For reasons that will soon become obvi- people running the record industry have
body, the British Videogram Associa- ous I am not going to identify, and thereby been so busy bleating about "perfect
tion, which is supposed to cast a watch- embarrass, the engineer who has been copies" and "clones" and the "inaudibility
ful eye over the industry and keep its closely involved with DAT development of Copycode", and are generally so ignor-
image clean. But, sometimes, the and told me recently how Japanese shops ant of the technology of recording, that
software companies show signs of slip- are starting to dump unsold stocks of DAT
ping back into their old, bad ways and
the BVA comes across as a pretty tooth-
recorders at giveaway prices.
I said: "Perhaps I'll buy one when I'm
they have missed the chance to warn of the
single most important - and dangerous
benefit of DAT and recordable CD. Con-
less watchdog. next in Japan". venience.
It happened recently, when the popu- "Don't" he warned. "As you know, the The dynamic range of a 16 bit digital tape
lar press, quite rightly, sounded the recorders on sale won't record digitally at or disc recorder matches the dynamic range
alarm on a thoroughly nasty publicity 44.1kHz and can't easily be converted. of a 16 bit CD. There is no risk of overload-
gimmick dreamed up by a film com- Wait for the new SCMS machines which ing the tape or under -recording quiet
pany that should have known better, dub digitally from CDs". sounds. You just copy the code without any
CIC. Why not buy one of the current models if gain control at all. It's like copying a com-
Snakes Alive! they are that cheap, I persisted. I can use it puter program from one floppy disc to
The CIC film company's Marketing to make analogue compilation dubs from another. Computers don't have gain con-
Department hit on a bizarre idea for my CDs and probably never hear the slight trols because they don't need them.
publicising a new video release about loss of quality. This is what makes digital recording such
Voodoo. The company sent out 500 "Once you have recorded digitally" the a powerful tool. It is all plainly obvious,
large live Chinese Rat Snakes to shops engineer told me, "you will never again once the point has been made. The real
stocking the video. The innocent want to record with an analogue system. message won't get through until people
reptiles were accompanied by a card Believe me, I've been doing it and I know. have had the chance to get their hands on a
which said they would be collected It's the convenience of the system that gets DAT deck with SCMS and actually tried
again in four weeks and until then you. You need never again bother with dubbing a CD digitally. Just as with CD,
needed only water. "He does not need manual gain settings or rely on automatic which was originally hyped for sound qual-
feeding.. (and) is completely harmless" gain control which compresses the dynamic ity, it will be the convenience factor that
advised CIC. range. You just connect the CD player to sells DAT.
Not surprisingly there was an outcry, the DAT recorder, press 'record' and I was grateful to that engineer's advice
not just from terrified shop assistants forget about it". and now fear that anyone who has bought
who opened the box without knowing I'd never heard anyone put it that simply an expensive grey import DAT recorder
what to expect, but from members of before, probably because the only people which doesn't record at 44.1kHz is soon
the public who objected to the use of able to describe digital dubbing first hand going to feel sick as a parrot. Bear this in
live animals for a publicity gimmick. are the hardware engineers who have mind if the grey importers now start dump-
The RSPCA moved in, branded the worked on DAT and been told not to dis- ing their stocks in the UK at what look like
stunt "pathetic and deplorable" and cuss such things on pain of death. The irresistible prices.
collected the snakes.

778 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

Circuit construction the easy way.
Solderless, quick and easy to learn. That's Circuigraph Take advantage of the special offer price now. Complete
Easiwire from BICC-VERO. From now on you'll wonder the coupon below and send it to:
why you ever used solder to construct your electronic
circuits! BICC-VERO Electronics Limited,
Flanders Road,
Consider the benefits Easiwire offers: Hedge End,
You need no solder, no chemicals Southampton, S03 3LG.
You simply wind the circuit wire around the pins or phone 0489 788774 now with your credit card number
You can re -use components (24 -hour answering service)
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What's more, Easiwire is ideal for circuit repairs.

Please rush me Easiwire kits.
In kit form, Easiwire comes complete with everything you Special offer price £15. - (includes p & p and VAT).
need to construct circuits. That includes a wiring pen with I enclose cheque/postal order for
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Signature Date
Special Series

Part One
Starting from very basic principles this series
quickly builds through logic to simple
microprocessor control. It is based on the
experiences gained through teaching courses on
the subject.
NTEREST in electronic control, especial-
ly using the flexibility of the micropro-
cessor, continues to grow. The dialogue
in this series is based closely upon that
which has taken place regularly during a Items needed for "starter" kit:
series of courses on the topic, directed to
enthusiastic beginners. Power supply unit as described 2 each min. silicon diodes e.g.
It is hoped that those who are starting above (5V 250mA (or more) d.c.) 1N914.
up in this field will find it helpful, reveal- 2 each npn transistors, e.g.
ing perhaps some slight but deadly mis- Breadboard suitable for inte- BC108, 2N3704.
conceptions which can bedevil the lear- grated circuit mounting. 1 each photoresistor, e.g. ORP12
ner's progress. More experienced readers Supply of suitable single core (to be mounted with
may find the approach of interest. Com- wire, 0.6mm dia. in red, black leads attached).
ments and suggestions are, of course, and two or three other colours.
welcome. Integrated Circuits, TTL 74 or
Resistors: inexpensive, fract-
Equipment and Materials ional -wattage types. A range of 74LS series (it's best not to mix
It should be borne in mind that electro- "preferred values" is ideal, but them, except for 7406).
nic component values, in simple circuits, the following is plenty: 2 each 7400, 7404.
are rarely very critical, so sensible substi- 4 each 330 or 390 ohms. 1 each 7402, 7406 (or 7405),
tutions can usually be made. In most 2 each 1k, 2k2, 3k3, 4k7, 10k, 7408, 7432 (later 7475),
cases, similar items can replace those 100k. 7476, 7420, 7493.
described. These are specified as a guide,
and advice can be obtained from manufac- 1 each 100 ohms, 470 ohms, 6k8,
Other items: add leads of single -
turers or from local suppliers. 22k, 47k, 330k.
core wire where needed, and
Power Supplies Potentiometers (preferably mount onto suitable bases as
Batteries, though safe and easy to use, manually operated, even with- indicated later in the text and
become expensive for long-term work, out a knob, rather than "pre- photographs.
and a regulated (stabilised) d.c. supply set"). Single -core leads to be 2 each 6V 0.06A m.e.s. lamps
unit capable of giving at least 250mA at attached: (torch bulb types).
5V is recommended. Rechargeable bat- 1 each 1k, 10k, 100k. 4 each slide switches, single
teries may be worth considering. No a.c.
Capacitors: most types are suit- pole, two way (toggle
supplies are initially envisaged. switches are fine, but
able, as available. If new ones
Breadboards purchased, dearer).
are being low -
voltage polyhtyrene or polyester 1 each miniature relay 5V (or 6V)
Prototyping boards (breadboards);
there are many suitable types and sizes are cheaper up to about one d.c. working, 2 pole, 2
available. The diagrams illustrate a popu- microfarad (1µ). For higher way contacts.
lar pattern, but any board, except the very 1 each small d.c. permanent
values, electrolytic types score magnet motor, to run on
small or early types with totally different (6V working or more).
socket spacing, should prove ideal. It is about 1.5V (this is just for
possible to obtain breadboards 2 each 0.022, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 (or
also demonstration, and a
mounted as part of a "training kit", with 50) microfarad (µF). motor -driven toy might
appropriate and useful additional units, Semiconductors: those speci- be a more attractive or
such as power supplies and those for input fied are among many suitable more useful substitute).
and output needs, attached. 1 each 1.5V cell, e.g. U2 type, in
general-purpose types.
Manual Controls 4 each red I.e.d.s (miniature or suitable holder (or with
Switches, potentionmeters and such standard types). leads attached by clips).
items can be large or small, and, as usual,

780 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

quality and convenience have to be paid properly made unit is perfectly safe, but EXERCISE 1 Light the lamp!
for. Miniature or inexpensive items are should be tested regularly. Many schools Now look in your box of bits for a small
often suitable, if one can accept a certain nowadays use a special mains supply lamp. It's a "torch bulb" type, with a
"fiddliness" in their operation. It is also which is passed through an "earth leakage couple of leads soldered to it. We've been
possible to salvage items from old equip- cut-out" device to make sure. One can be busy getting ready for you, you see. No
ment, provided their values are marked or installed in any mains circuit. expense spared!
can be measured. A 5 volt supply is much too low to give a Will you plug it in EXACTLY as shown
It is very desirable to mount such items shock to anyone. In fact, any pressure less here. (Fig 1). And will you tell me, would
onto a base, and some of the later photo- than about 40 volts is pretty harmless ou expect it to light up?
graphs may suggest ideas. Much of the because of the relatively high resistance of (chorus) NO! (a few voices).
equipment used was made up as simply as our skin (at least, when dry). But remem- There's no circuit there.
possible. It was augmented with professio- ber, the MAINS pressure is two or three IN Agreed. There's a GAP in the CIR-
nally made items when this was essential. HUNDRED volts, and can be LETHAL! CUIT; there's no complete CONDUCT-
Table 1 indicates the main items needed. But be reassured, 5 volts cannot be felt ING path, so nothing much can happen.
The advertisement pages of this journal (unless you do what some kids used to do, No CURRENT can FLOW, as you said,
will provide sources for materials. and touch the battery terminals to your because there isn't a complete circuit.
iii re!) Could we "bridge that gap"?
Just before we start in earnest In can I've done that! It tingles a bit, that's Ei Yes, but not with chocolate biscuits!
be Teacher, Tom, Teller or anything else all. -11ffl OK . . . What with, then? Yes, there
while is Student, Sam, Speedy, Igi All the other items we need are listed are some short lengths of wire in the box.
Sloth, etc. Now read on! in Table 1. One of those could be tried. We'd better
Let's make a start by actually connect- do it just to make sure everything is
MICRO IN CONTROL ing up a very simple circuit. Apologies to working as we expect it to.
um This is the kind of circuit board we those of you who find all this very trivial. What we've made is really a lamp and
shall use (Fig 1). It allows us to use "raw" There may be others who'd prefer to start switch of sorts, isn't it?
components instead of having to buy at square one. Let's draw a CIRCUIT DIAGRAM of
expensively -mounted ones, and cuts out HOr even square zero. Me, for a start. it (Fig 2). Easier to look at than the real
the need for soldering or for elaborate OK. We'll go quickly, however, so as thing, but we MUST be able to see how
terminals. not to bore the pants off the high fliers. the two really match each other.
It has a large number of tiny sockets in Now look at the way the sockets on the This is really "landmark number one"
it (just under the plastic surface), so that board are linked together (Fig 1). for those of you who are beginners. It's
we can plug in the leads of our bits and Notice, first, that if we hold the board worth noting it, and some of the concepts
pieces to build up our circuits. Easy to this way, ALL the sockets along the TOP implicit in what we've done so far. (These
alter it too (shows a resistor being plugged are linked together, and ALL the BOT- are areas where many learners trip up
in and removed). TOM ones are also linked together. We simply through not having a good grip on
Mind, we must be careful not to damage can use these two rows to connect to our these basic points):
the sockets by using wires which are too POWER SUPPLY, thus (Fig 1). 1 No CURRENT can FLOW without,
thick, or covered in solder blobs, or It's sensible to stick to the universal firstly, a BATTERY or other POWER
"kinky"! This single core connecting wire colour standards where we can, so let's SUPPLY to "push" it, and, secondly a
is 0.6 millimetres in diameter, and it's always use a RED lead for the POSITIVE COMPLETE CONDUCTING CIRCUIT
ideal (shows a piece). supply (the top one), and a BLACK lead all the way round.
HCan stranded wire be used? for the other. 2 The battery exerts an ELECTRICAL
No, it's best to stick to "single -core Ell Does the colour really matter? PRESSURE all the time, "trying" to push
type like this. Not as far as the current is con- a current round, but ONLY succeeding
We shall also need a power supply for cerned, but it makes life much easier for when a complete circuit is connected up.
our circuits. We COULD use batteries us if we stick to this standard, especially 3 A SWITCH is just a means of CLOS-
(4.5 volt is OK) but a mains power supply when our circuits get more complicated, ING or OPENING a GAP in the circuit,
unit (p.s.u.) is preferable, because it or when we have to trace a fault. so turning the current ON or OFF. (Have
doesn't run down, and, more importantly, Notice now, the way the OTHER sock- a look at a real switch).
because its MUCH cheaper to run ets are linked. They're in COLUMNS of n What's the difference between "VOL-
(though it's dearer to buy, of course). five together, so any component we plug TAGE" and "ELECTRICAL PRES-
It has to be a D.C. STABILISED into THIS socket, for example, can be SURE"?
(regulated) unit and of course it must be connected to anything else that we plug 101 None at all. We measure electrical
SAFE! into any of the other four sockets above or PRESSURE in UNITS called VOLTS.
HAny danger of electric shock? below it, in the same line up and down. Electric CURRENT, if any is flowing, is
An important point, especially if There's NO link to the sockets on either measured in . .?

youngsters are to use the gear. No, a side. (several voices) AMPS.






Fig. 2. The circuit diagram (so far).




Fig. 1 (left). Typical breadboard show-

ing internal links. The red (+5V) and
black (OV) single core leads are con-
nected to the power supply. Then the
lamp with leads already soldered to
it, is plugged in as shown.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 781

101 Yes, James Watt has his name for
. . . what?
®What watt? what what! etc.
Fig. 3. A second, similar lamp added in (eventually) power.
series. OK, OK. Yes, our unit of POWER
(and not just electrical power, but ALL
forms of power).
Now we'd better move on rapidly, past
these simple but very fundamental ideas,
RED and try to build some real circuits. But
first, a couple more simple exercises to
clinch it. (Holds up a resistor).
This is called a RESISTOR. It's the
type used in most electronic circuits, and
its value is shown by the coloured stripes
on it (Fig 4).
RESISTOR, and use it to REPLACE the
second lamp across the "gap" in our
circuit. FIRST, try another PREDIC-
INo light/less lightletc.
Well, try it. Yes, less light. Why?
More resistance.
Exactly. What would happen if we
used a lk resistor instead (remember what
this means)?
HLess still/none at all?
Did you try? Yes, no light at all. But,
now listen. Does this mean NO CUR-
RENT? Careful!
Ea Yes/No. There must be SOME cur-
tinuing on its way, for there's nowhere rent, surely?
IN Yes, short for Amperes. VOLTA IIThen why no light at all?
was an Italian, AMPERE a Frenchman. else for it to go, is there? Why, then, is it a (after a pause) Not enough to heat the
They both contributed to our understand- SMALLER current flow than before? Is lamp filament. Not enough to glow, any-
ing of electricity. Most electrical units are the battery exerting less pressure?
named after people. We shall meet more No, it's the same "battery"IPSU. Exactly right. We have enough faith
of them later. That's right, the PRESSURE is still in our understanding to believe that a
5 volts. So what has changed when we current is flowing ALTHOUGH WE
EXERCISE 2 Ohm on the . . . bread- stuck the extra lamp in the circuit?
(some) The resistance of the circuit. CAN'T SEE IT. This is part of the
iri Now remove the wire link. The lamp
goes out, and we're left with just the gap
Spot on! The extra lamp, with its
addition of another fine "filament" offers
problem some people have with electric
circuits. They can't SEE the flow. What a
more RESISTANCE to the current flow, "breakthrough"!
in the circuit. This can be a useful arrange- ElCould we use a meter to detect it?
ment for testing various things to see so we can add "landmark two" to our first Yes, we could, if we HAD to do so,
whether they can or cannot conduct elec- one, and sum up: for the sake of the "doubting Thomases".
tric current, and could form a very simple 1 A circuit RESISTS the flow of cur- But our "act of faith" is an important step
"continuity tester". rent. forward for us, don't you think?
Now, I'd like you to bridge the gap, not 2 The CURRENT flow depends upon EXERCISE 3. One-way traffic
with a bit of wire, but with ANOTHER TWO things: Now we could try other resistors, or
LAMP, similar to the first one, but (i) the PRESSURE exerted by the supply. even a "variable" resistor, but we'll intro-
BEFORE you do so, can you try to (ii) the RESISTANCE of the circuit. duce instead, our first "semiconductor"
PREDICT the outcome? Does anyone know what UNITS we use
device ("real" electronics at last).
iiThe light will be shared. to measure RESISTANCE? In your box you'll find a miniature
(another) Nothing will happen. (several) Ohms. DIODE. Those who haven't a clue what it
(another) Less current, Yes, after the German, Ohm. We looks like, see this one here. It's really
etc. also talk of "Ohm's Law", don't we? tiny with a lead at each end. Try not to
0 Well, let's try it and see (Fig 3). Most We've seen an Italian, a Frenchman, and bend the leads too close to the glass, then
of you were on the right track, but we now a German, whose names have been plug it in to the usual "gap" (instead of
must make sure of our ideas. We can see used for important units. What about us whatever's there, yes) and see whether it
that the first lamp isn't as bright as it was, Brits? Don't we have one? conducts. Does it?
so presumably there's less current flowing MI (some) Watts?
through it. Could this be because the
current is being "shared" with the other
(uncertainly) Yes, half each?
(others) No, because there's only FIRSTCOLOUR , DIGIT 1
111 I prefer this second argument. There THIRD COLOUR:POWER OF 10
IS only a single path, or CIRCUIT. (NUMBER OF ZEROS I
El But BOTH lamps are the same, so it
must be shared in some way.
SOMETHING seems to be shared,
but, as we've just agreed, it can't be the
1'1 I

Looking at the FIRST lamp alone, do 14
3o z t7c,-+ tt Luta,- w

we agree that the current through this


00 0,-
-, uj
0 a3 >

lam is now less than before? DIGIT VALUE 0 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 13 9
(most) Yes, it's definitely dimmer. IOR POWER OF 101

And where does the current flow

AFTER it's passed through the first lamp? I vintoc I
111 (pleased) Through the SECOND The type of breadboard used in this
one. series.
IN Yes, it's the SAME current con- Fig. 4. Colour code for resistors.

782 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

Try turning it round the other way.
Fine, so a DIODE conducts one way tl

330 0
only. We can say it has a low forward RESISTOR
resistance, and a high reverse resistance,
OK? (Fig 5). Some of you may already
know why this can make it very useful in ...,, LEO
many circuits.
Now remove the diode, and look for
another type of diode. It's a red blob, with
both leads at one end. Try it as before
I EE333061

across the gap. Fig. 6. L.E.D. with "ballast" resistor.

H(several) Ooh. 5. Diode in series (across the
Yes! Make sure it IS a diode, by
Fig. Note the symbols (the l.e.d. has
"gap") (a) "forward" - current "light" arrows from it!).
trying it both ways. It's called a Light - flows, (b) "reverse" - no current.
Emitting Diode, or l.e.d. for short, in fact
this one is a RED LED. If it doesn't work
it's a DED RED LED. Sorry. To control the current. B(after brief thought) The lamp.
It's used mainly, you'll realise, as an Yes, to limit the current, because the Right. The lamp provides the neces-
indicator light in all sorts of devices. l.e.d., like other diodes, has a LOW sary "ballast" resistance in this case, but a
L.e.d.s come in other colours, such as forward resistance, and could be damaged resistor of a few hundred ohms is general-
green or amber (yes, traffic light project), by too much current unless some extra is ly used (Fig 6).
but they DO need a resistor in series with added in the circuit. Why didn't we add
them. Why? any here, then? Next month: The Transistor

ticularly right up to the relay contacts.

The relay used must also have heavy
duty contacts and a suitable one is

stocked by Maplin, code YX99H (12V
16A Relay). This relay is rated at 16A.
Also, most car spares specialists stock
relays specially for installation in vehi-
cles. Again, make sure that the contacts

are heavy duty (10A plus) before pur-
The right-angled barrier strip, used in
the prototype model is an RS type and
was purchased through Electromail
NT 0536 204555), order code 423-374.
BY DAVID BARRINGTON An alternative would be plastic screw
terminal strip, cut to size, which is more
widely available. It must be rated at 15A
Children's Christmas Lights Suitable "power -in" plugs and soc- minimum.
kets are listed in the Maplin catalogue, The rest of the components for this
We do not expect any component order codes HH60Q (Std Power Plug "pocket money" project are standard
buying problems for the Children's 2.1) and HH85G (Power Skt 2.1) for the 555 timer circuit components and
Christmas Lights project. The Dar- 2.1mm version; HH62S (Std Power Plug should be stocked by most of our adver-
lington driver i.c. certainly appears to be 2.5) and HH86T (Power Skt 2.5) for the tisers. The Easiwire board is attached to
listed by most of our advertisers and 2.5mm version. the front cover of this issue of EE.
should not cause any local sourcing
problems. Autolight
The screw terminal block is most EEG Electrode Impedance Meter
commonly sold as a 12 -way item and Most of the mains driven battery
will need to be cut to size with a junior All the components required to build
eliminators on the market are quite safe the EEG Electrode Impedance Meter are
hacksaw. It may prove a little difficult to and it should be possible to find one to
solder the supply leads to the battery standard "off -the -shelf" items and
suit the Autolight for prolonged use. should not cause any buying problems.
spring terminals and it might be better Some of these units have multiple
to use miniature crocodile clips, with Most of our advertisers stock excellent
"spider" plugs, one of which should ranges of panel meters and shoud be
their bodies covered with insulating match the Autolight switched power
material to avoid any possibility of able to recommend a suitable model.
input socket. The small printed circuit board is
shorting out the battery terminals. The The rest of the components should be
use of clips also makes it easier to available from the EE PCB Service, code
standard lines carried by most local EE665.
change batteries. suppliers. The Easiwire matrix board is
It is important to remember that when attached to the front cover of this issue
purchasing the "display" lamps they Parcel Post Storage Box
of EE and any readers having difficulty
should be the 6V types normally used as sourcing the wiring connectors or pen Suitable 12V solenoids for use in the
replacements for the 40 lamp mains should contact BICC-Vero direct for Parcel Post Storage Box should be
sets. Bulbs from the 20 lamp sets will, of nearest stockists. available from advertisers, such as TK
course, have a higher operating voltage Electronics, Marco, Greenweld and J.N.
and be too dim for this application. Car Impulse Wiper Bull Electrical. A 12V solenoid which
may be suitable for this project, but not
Readers intending to build the Car tried, is available from Maplin, code
Car Lamp Charger Impulse Wiper should pay particular YR88V (£7.95).
care when installing the unit in the car
The only component called for in the and the car battery must be discon-
Car Lamp Charger circuit that we feel nected during connecting up. Do not
readers will have some difficulty locat- underestimate the power from the car
ing is the L200, adjustable voltage and battery and it is vital that all wiring from PLEASE MENTION
current regulator i.c. It is currently listed the unit to the car be double checked EVERYDAY ELECTRONICS
by Cirkit, Cricklewood, Maplin and before reconnecting the battery. WHEN REPLYING TO
Omni Electronics. The price ranges It is most important that heavy duty ADVERTISEMENTS
from about £1.30 to £2. auto -wire be used where specified, par-

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 783

obot Ho convinced that such a machine was
great deal of information from sensors
The search for the mobile, all-pur- available, wanting to know where to of all kinds and processing it to work out
pose domestic robot is still on. It is only obtain it. the path.
a question of time and getting the There was an element of self-fulfilling Like all research companies TAG is
technology right before it comes knock- prophesy in the article. It described a seeking commercial backing. By
ing at the door, demanding to be let in to robot which was expected to be attrac- default, following the liquidation of Per-
release us from the drudgery that is tive and efficient and so it proved. It was sonal Robots, TAG has the lead in this
housework. attractive and created a market for such type of work in the UK, but while plenty
That was the overall impression a device. Whether it was possible to of companies had expressed interest
gained from the first Workshop on create such a device in the near future they had not been willing to put up any
Domestic Robots given recently at New- was not considered. money. Smith added that he thought
castle University. It was the view of Joe Possibly more interesting and more there was a market for the products they
Engelberger who gave the keynote important are the results of the work of were developing but appliance com-
speech and of the four papers given to a market researcher, done as part of the panies were waiting to see properly -
about 40 people from 10 countries. study. She has found that there is a engineered working models before tak-
However, it appears that the defini- widespread aversion to the word ing action.
tion of domestic may have been taken a "robot" and the most common ques- "They are likely to wait until someone
little wider than intended. One of the tion asked in connection with robots is steps out of line and then interest will
papers was presented by the Technol- "How easily can you turn it off?". It explode," he said. However he
ogy Action Group of Alnwick, Northum- would appear from that that the general emphasised that they were concentrat-
berland, which, while confident of public does not have the greatest confi- ing on low-cost items for industry and
being able to produce low-cost (£2,000 dence in the reliability of robots. commerce, not the home.
to £3,000) mobile robots for cleaning, Until the mobiles begin to be consi-
grass cutting and security, does not see TAG dered viable TAG is looking at ways of
them as being for use in the home. The Technology Applications Group adapting its technology for stationary
The workshop in September was (TAG) was set up in 1986 by five people devices such as vision systems and
organised by the Department of Trade straight out of university who wanted to high-speed pattern recognition.
and Industry under the framework of work in research. It is split into two
the International Advanced Robotics almost equal sections, computer con- EXTENSION
Programme. Britain is the lead country sultancy, which provides most of the TAG's views on the suitability of
under IARP for medical and healthcare income at the moment, and research. mobile robots for the home are shared
robotics and the domestic workshop Simon Smith, the marketing partner, by Dr John Billingsley, professor of
was organised at the same time as the said that they chose to work on mobile robotics at Portsmouth Polytechnic,
second workshop on medical and robots because it was an area which though for different reasons. He argues
healthcare subjects. interested them. Over the years they that a general purpose mobile domestic
Following the success of the first have created a variety of robots but all robot would not be the best way of
domestic workshop it is hoped that have had the same information handl- achieving release from much of the
another will be organised next year. A ing system using neural strands. This domestic work done in the home. And
decision is likely in the near future. system is based on research done in the he quotes the result of the market
States and is said to provide a cheaper research, mentioned above, as showing
OPTIMISTIC and faster way for robots to find their people's nervousness of apparently
The tone of the three days was set by way around, rather than taking in a self-controlled robots wandering about
Engelberger who was said to be very the house.
optimistic and positive about the future Hilda 2 autonomous mobile robot from He considers an extension of what
for robotics. He took the view that it was TAG (Circa 1989). has already been developed in the
only technology which prevented lots domestic appliance market as the best
of little mobiles helping to deal with all way forward. Define a robot as a
those unpleasant tasks in the home. "machine designed to perform,
Other speakers included a former unsupervised, a useful task which
employee of Personal Robotics Ltd. (the required the use of sensory data for its
research company doing the feasibility execution" and we suddenly find our-
study for the DTI's collaborative group selves surrounded by "robots".
for domestic robots, which went into As Billingsley said in his inaugural
voluntary liquidation in July) and a lecture as robotics professor, given ear-
member of the Shadow Robot Project, lier this year: "Nowadays we turn on
which is also represented on the the dishwasher, while the central heat-
domestic group. Both reinforced the ing controller maintains our chosen
optimistic tone. room temperature. Morning tea is
It is expected that their views will be brewed by a bedside teamaker and the
supported when the final results of the toast pops up under the direction of an
feasibility study and the group's com- integrated circuit. Not only does light
ments are known. As revealed last appear at the flick of switch but move-
month there are likely to be three areas ment sensors can automatically cause
considered worthy of further interest, the pathway to be flooded with light at
an all-purpose mobile domestic robot the approach of a visitor, welcome or
for the home, a similar device for com- otherwise.
mercial areas such as hotels and a "The roast switches on at an
mobile designed to allow further appointed time to be heated to a ther-
research to be undertaken. mostatically -controlled temperature
while a few feet away the indispensable
SPOOF washing machine fills with water to a
As part of the study a spoof review of metered depth, heats it to a selected
a domestic robot appeared in Good temperature, tumbles, drains and spins
Housekeeping. The response was said all under microcomputer control."
to be better than for most of the Perhaps we could do with more use-
magazine's articles with some people, ful stationary robots on the same lines.

784 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

EVERYDAY ELECTRONICS is pleased to be able to offer
these quality CROTECH oscilloscopes to readers at
special discount prices which include VAT and delivery.
The 'scopes can be purchased using Access/Visa/
American Express to spread the load.
Any of these three items could be an invaluable addition
to the test gear used by an amateur or professional
engineer. Each unit is supplied with an input lead,
instruction manual and a free copy of "Getting The Best
From Your Scope" (36 page booklet.) Additional probes
and accessories are also available including type 307
switched probes at £10 each if ordered with an
Unfortunately we can only make this offer to UK readers,
overseas readers write for quote on delivery.

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TYPE 3133 DUAL TRACE 25MHz £299
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* Trigering to 40MHz
3133 is value engineered to combine a sleek elegant style and meet the stringent specification Address
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incorporates a wide range timebase from 4Ons to 0.2s/Div, with triggering to 40MHz. A further
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Everyday Electronics, December 1989 785

Constructional Project


: --2,...i-1 ,,._


"post box", when the postman operates the
"Box", an electronic circuit (inside the
house) causes the solenoid to unlock the lid
Simple unit that will allow the postman for about 50 seconds. The buzzer indicates
that the box is unlocked. The lid is then
to leave your mail-order packages even opened and a parcel placed inside.
The weight of the parcel causes a false
when you are out. bottom in the box to activate a micro switch
S2. This causes an l.e.d. in the house to
glow, and also prevents Si operating again.
The postman closes the lid, and after the
preset time mentioned above, the solenoid
MANY constructors will have faced HOW IT WORKS switches off, causing the lid to be locked in
the problem of being out of the The principle behind the Parcel Post place.
house when parcels are delivered. Storage Box circuit is shown in Fig. 1. Nor- Since the Box switch S1 is now inopera-
The situation is equally frustrating for the mally both switches S1 and S2 are open and tive, the box can only be opened by the
postman. (a) and (b) are at logic 0. The NOT gate (in- householder pressing push switch S3,
The project to be described here over- verter) causes output (c) to be at the oppo- located inside the house. This switch and
comes this problem by means of a secure site logic level to (a). The NOR gate com- l.e.d. D1 are housed in a plastic case,
box into which a parcel can be placed. The bines inputs (b) and (c) to produce a logic 1 together with the electronic circuit and bat-
postman has only to press a push button to at (d) only if both inputs are at logic 0. teries.
unlock the box. However, once a parcel is A glance at Truth Table. 1 shows all the
inside, the box cannot be unlocked except combinations of (a) and (b) with their CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
by pressing a button inside the house. results. Notice that (c) is the exact inverse
of (a), and that (d) is the result of a NOR The full circuit diagram for the Parcel
In both cases, the box unlocks for a pre- Post Storage Box is shown in Fig. 2. A quad
set time, enabling the postman to open the gate combining (b) and (c). The overall
result is that (d) is only at logic 1 if (a) is at 2 -input CMOS NOR gate i.c. is used (IC1),
box with just one hand. A buzzer indicates since NOR gates can be easily converted to
that the lock has opened, and a small I.e. d. logic 1 and (b) is at logic 0.
In other words, a logic 1 is fed to the NOT gates, and can be wired as monosta-
inside the house indicates that a parcel has bles. The NOT gate in the block diagram
been delivered. monostable only if S1 is pressed, and S2 is
open. If a parcel causes S2 to close, (d) will (Fig. 1) is achieved by joining together
It will be apparent that only ONE deliv- input pins 1 and 2 of ICla.
ery of one or several parcels can be accom- not switch to logic 1 even if S1 is pressed.
Switch S3 can be used to trigger the When Si is pressed, these inputs are con-
modated before the parcel(s) is removed. nected to 12 volts (logic 1). When S1 is
This should cover most people's needs. A monostable, irrespective of the states of S1
and S2. The monostable multivibrator (to released, resistor R1 causes the potential at
multiple delivery system could be devised,
but this would involve the postman in a give its full title) is used as a simple timer. these inputs to fall to OV (logic 0).
more complex operation than pressing just The output (e) stays at logic 1 for a preset Capacitor Cl removes any a.c. interfer-
time after a logic 1 pulse is received. The ence at the inputs.
one button. In a similar way, resistor R2 causes a
The project is ideal for busy electronics amplifier increases the current available to
enable the solenoid to operate. logic 0 at the input pin 6 of IC1b unless mic-
constructors who order their parts by mail, roswitch S2 is closed. Resistor R3 limits the
but are nearly always out when they arrive! Transferring the above analogy to our
current through l.e.d. D1 to about 7mA
when S2 is closed.
Resistor R2 may not be strictly neces-
sary, since R3 and D1 will maintain logic 0
at pin 6 when S2 is open. However, the vol-
a b C d
tage difference across D1 could otherwise
0 0 0 cause a problem. As with capacitor Cl,
0 0 capacitors C2 and C3 remove a.c. interfer-
0 0

The output from IC1b (pin 4), the NOR
gate, is used to trigger the monostable
created from the last two NOR gates, IC1c
and IC1d. Normally the input of IC1c pin 8
is low (logic 0), the other input pin 9 is low
and output pin 10 high. The inputs to ICld
pins 12 and 13 are high, and the output pin
Fig. 1. Block diagram and truth table of the Parcel Storage Box Mow.

786 Everyday Electronics, December 1989


PIN 14
1 SI
40018 IC1b
1.0018 R
I C lc
40010 CC
40018 R6


PiN 7
Out 101. 001 R2
100 k


Fig. 2. Circuit diagram of the Parcel Post Storage Box

When a logic 1 is fed to ICic pin 8, the

output pin 10 switches to logic 0. This sud-
den change of potential at capacitor C4 n
causes a similar change at ICid inputs pins DI 53
12 and 13. With inputs 12 and 13 low, the
output (pin 11) switches to high. This turns
on transistors TR1 and TR2 (wired as a
Darlington pair), and is also fed back to
IC1c pin 9 thus maintaining the monostable
in its present state.
With inputs 12 and 13 low, a potential
difference exists across resistor R5. A cur-
rent therefore flows through R5, slowly
charging capacitor C4. Eventually the vol-
tage at pins 12 and 13 is sufficient to cause
ICid gate to change state again. Output pin
11 now switches to logic 0, and the situation
reverts to the "normal state" described ear-

The time for which ICld output is at
logic 1 depends upon the values of resistor
R5 and capacitor C4. An approximate
guide is to multiply the value of R5 (in M
ohms) by the value of C4 (in micro F).
The values chosen provide a time of
nearly 50 seconds, but this may be changed TERMINAL
if desired. BLOCK

Fig. 3. Veroboard lay-

AMPLIFIER out and wiring
Resistor R6 limits the current flowing SI S2 + +V (SOLENOID.WD1,5I,S2)
from the output of ICid. When the voltage PUSH SOLENOID

at pin 11 switches to nearly 12V, TR1 and TO PARCEL BOX

TR2 are turned on, allowing current to 10 20 25 30 35 40 12
flow through the solenoid and buzzer. 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,
The prototype solenoid required a cur- 00000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000000000000000000000000000
rent of 250mA. Even with a buzzer in 000 0 0 0 0 00000000000000000000000000000000000
parallel, the current is not sufficient to 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
require the fitting of a heatsink on TR2. A 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000 o 0 0 000000000000
higher current solenoid is not recom- 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
mended if the project is to be powered by N 00000000000000.00000000000000000000000000
batteries. 0. 0. 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 00 0 0 000 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
000 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 080 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 O 0
Capacitors C5 and C6 decouple the sup-
ply, providing a fairly steady 12V for the
00 000 00 0 000000000
00000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00000000000000
i.c. N 00000000000
00000000000 000000000000000000000000
CONSTRUCTION 00000000 00000000000000000000000000
00000000000 0000000000000000000000
The circuit is constructed on Veroboard 0 000000000000000000000000000000000 0 000 000
measuring about 42 holes by 20 tracks. The 0 0 00 0 0 00000000 0 0 0 00 0000000 0 0 0 0 0 000 0 0 0 00 000
00 000 0 0 00000 00 0000000 0 00 0 00 0 000 0 0 0 000 0 0 000
component layout and details of breaks 21

A 00 0 0 0 000 00000 0 00 000 0 0 000 00 00 0 0 0 000 0 0 0 00000

required in the underside copper tracks is
shown in Fig. 3. The breaks can be made 1E0231101
using a stripboard cutter or a small twist
drill bit.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 787


R1, R4 10k (2 off)
R2 100k see page 783
R3 1k5
R5 2M2
R6 4k7
All 0.6W 1% metal film

C1, 0/11 polyester layer
C3, C5 (4 off)
C4 22µ radial elec. 25V S2
C6 1000µ axial elec. 35V


D1 5mm red I.e.d.
TR1 BC184L npn silicon
TR2 TIP41A npn silicon
IC1 4001B Ctuad 2 -input
NOR gate .0-
Fig. 4. Construction of the box
S1 Push -to -make switch
S2 Lever operated SOLENOID SCREW
microswitch Fig. 5. Basis of opera-
S3 Push -to -make switch tion of the solenoid
WD1 12V solid state buzzer operation of the latch SCREW
Veroboard, 0.1in matrix 20 strips by SPRING
42 holes; 4 -way screw terminal I SPRING
block; plastic case, 150mm x
100mm X 55mm; 14 -pin i.c. socket; PIVOT

12V solenoid; small spring for structed from chipboard, and later covered
latch; medium spring for false with a self-adhesive, plastic type fabric,
floor; self-adhesive p.c.b. mount; such as Fablon. The size depends upon the
battery holder and 12V battery type of parcels expected. The prototype usual visual checks, particularly looking for
(8xAA); chipboard; strips of metal measured 46cm by 27cm by 40cm high. copper tracks bridged with solder or frag-
for lock mechanism; connecting One hole is required in the lid for the ments of copper. Check also that the tracks
wire, solder etc. wires connecting to the "bell push" S1, are broken properly in the places shown.
another hole for the screw fastening the A few readings taken with a voltmeter
Approx. cost
guidance only £13 plus
solenoid, and a third hole in the base for
the leads. Four small wooden blocks were
used for the false bottom to rest on. The
microswitch S2 was screwed to one of these
should establish which part of the circuit is
causing trouble. Check the voltage across
pins 14 (positive) and 7 (negative) of IC1.
This should read about 12V.
Begin by carefully making the eleven blocks as shown in Fig. 4. Connect the negative side of the voltme-
breaks in the tracks where shown. Next fit The false bottom was made from very ter to the negative of the battery, and check
and solder the i.c. socket, followed by the thick card, strengthened with a wooden the action of S1 by connecting the positive
wire links. strip. Hardboard would be a good alterna- lead of the voltmeter to pins 1 and 2 of the
Solder in the resistors noting that several tive to card. A spring was mounted at the i.c. Check the voltage at pin 3, noting that it
are fitted upright. Fit the capacitors, not centre of the base, to prevent the weight of should be the inverse of the voltage at pins
forgetting to observe the polarity of C4 and the false bottom holding the microswitch in 1 and 2. Check the action of S2 by measur-
C6 (i.e. fit them the correct way round). its closed position. ing the voltage at pin 6, and the action of S3
The transistors must also be fitted the The lock mechanism was made from by measuring the voltage at pin 8.
correct way round as shown. Finally solder strips of metal as shown in Fig. 5. In prac- The monostable may be checked by
in the connecting leads for the terminal tice it is likely that the lid would be closed measuring the voltage at output pin 11. If
block TB 1 , l.e .d. D1, switch S3 and the during the 50 seconds period allowed. the "house" switch S3 is pressed, this vol-
battery holder. However, in case the lid is closed after this tage should approach 12V, returning to OV
period the mechanism was made 'self latch- after about 50 seconds.
CASE ing'. Thus the lid may be closed after the If this is working, but the buzzer and sol-
A plastic case measuring 15cm by 10cm mechanism has returned to its locked posi- enoid are failing, the problem is likely to be
by 5.5cm was used for the prototype. Four tion. around resistor R6 or transistors TR1,
holes are required, one for the I.e.d. indi- TR2. Check that the transistors are the cor-
cator, one for the push -to -make switch, TESTING rect way round, and that a BC184L has
one for the leads connecting the circuit with When the battery is first connected the been used (not a BCI 84 by mistake).
the parcel box and a hole to enable the case monostable may latch on. After about a Further checks can be made by referring
to be fixed to a suitable surface near the minute the output (buzzer and solenoid) to the circuit description and the circuit
front door. should switch off. Press the "house" switch diagram.
The stripboard was fastened with one S3. The output should switch on for
p.c.b. self-adhesive mount. There is room another timed period. FINAL INSTALLATION
on the board for up to four mounting Next check that the microswitch S2 is The Parcel Post Storage Box may be
points, but one was sufficient as the lid of open (no parcel), and press Sl. The output screwed into position outside the house,
the case held the stripboard very firmly. should switch on again. Now close S2, and the connecting leads fed through to a
The battery holder was wedged in with self- either by hand, or by placing an object in suitable place inside the house. A brief set
adhesive mounts, and the terminal block the parcel box. Pressing S1 should NOT of instructions should be provided on the
fastened with self adhesive pads. cause the output to switch on. However, S3 top of the box for the benefit of the post-
should still be operative. Finally check that man. After his initial suprise, he should be
PARCEL BOX the l.e.d. D1 lights when the microswitch is as delighted with the project as the house-
The construction of the parcel storage closed. holder, as it will save him a great deal of
box is shown in Fig. 4. The box was con - If any of these tests fail, carry out the time.

788 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

0 410 NOVEMBER 1989

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Everyday Electronics, December 1989 789

AUSralla End
woraiFo LEAllo

Berlin has hosted an electronics exhibition since 1924. Originally it

was the Funkausstellung, or Radio Show. Times change. It is now
the International Audio and Video Fair.
This year four hundred exhibitors were spread over 25 halls and
our international reporter Barry Fox was there to prowl behind the
scenes and eavesdrop on some of tomorrow's developments.
ONCE EVERY two years nearly half a million people stream into MAC -CHIPS
West Berlin from all round Europe to pay the £5 a day entry The first prototype MAC TV sets were shown at the last Berlin
price for a first sight of all that is new in electronics. show two years ago. This year there was no sign, or even mention,
The title "international" remains, as always, a joke. Most of the of D -MAC. Most major manufacturers had D2 -MAC receivers on
exhibitors, often subsidiaries of Japanese companies, provide only display, but many would admit that they had received only small
German language information. quantities of the D2 chip sets from ITT by courier or taxi a week
All the exhibitors are in the same cleft stick. They want to show before the show.
off their strength in innovation but fear the public will stop buying The vital issue of chip testing has apparently still not been resol-
today's products if they know too much about what is coming ved; and automated testing is the key factor in mass production.
tomorrow. So some novelties are kept in back rooms, out of sight ITT is believed now to be on the 39th generation of chip sets. And
of the public, and shown only to the trade - and sometimes the even these are not yet perfect.
press. But in Berlin, walls have ears so secrets do not last long. Philips was demonstrating a 4:3 MAC set, fed with 16:9 wide
screen pictures. Although the pictures filled the screen, the image
WHO WANTS A MAC was squashed, like a Cinemascope film shown without the correct
Consumer research in the US recently proved what has long
been glaringly obvious to anyone with a grain of commonsense - "The chip set is not right", admitted the Philips demonstrator.
that the general public has no interest in slight improvements in This does not bode well for the D -MAC chips, on which BSB's
picture quality, as for instance the barely visible difference bet- life depends. At Berlin Thomson engineers said they had "seen a
ween MAC and PAL on a domestic set. Neither is the public working D -MAC chip set" but had no news on the bulk supplies
interested in the vague promise of an upgrade path to High Defin- needed for a spring launch.
ition MAC in the mid 90s. The only sign of the Scotch mist Squarial (special receiver dish
Few homes now, and even fewer in the future, will have the for BSB transmissions), was a dejected dummy on a Tatung stand.
space to install large screen sets and projectors. The perceived and "We don't even know what it is", admitted the staff on duty at the
saleable benefit of MAC comes from changing the aspect ratio of company's information booth.
the screen from today's boxy 4:3 to tomorrow's widescreen 16:9.
Both the D2 -MAC standard adopted on the Continent and Bri- EUREKA BACKFIRES ON HDTV
tain's D -MAC variant, to be used by British Satellite Broadcasting All the major European electronics companies have banded
(BSB), are designed to cope with either aspect ratio. A digital code together in a "Eureka" research project to develop a High Defini-
word (transmitted like teletext) tells the MAC receiver whether tion TV system. The first prototypes were unveiled at Berlin two
the incoming pictures were shot in 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratio. years ago and progress continues.
The receiver then displays the pictures with the correct relation- But there are already worrying signs of political squabbling from
ship between height and width, irrespective of whether the screen the Eureka camp. The HD MAC pictures shown at Berlin were
is narrow or wide. This creates all manner of logistic problems being bounced from the French TDF satellite. The connection
which began to surface at Berlin. added noise and even broke down completely because the German
On a 4:3 screen, a wide picture must either be displayed in letter- Bundespost (Post Office) would not licence an uplink to send the
box format (with blank strips at the top and bottom of the screen) signals up to TDF. So the signals had to go on a double hop, first to
or the sides of the picture must be sacrificed. So either the viewer the German satellite Kopernikus and then to the French satellite.
pays for screen area that is not used, or the programme producer Although ostensibly enthusiastic about satellite broadcasting and
must keep all action at the centre of the screen - which defeats the HDTV, the Bundespost is actually far more interested in making
object of wide screen production. money from its cable TV interests.
Then there is the question of how future wide screen sets will To keep all the Eureka contributors happy, the Eureka
cope with programmes made in 4:3 aspect ratio. One option demonstration room used a bank of wide screen sets from Barco,
(favoured at Berlin by Thomson and Ferguson) is to sacrifice a Thomson, Philips and Nokia. This soon backfired. The Nokia set
little of the top and bottom of the picture i.e. heads and feet, while failed and the Thomson set gave very poor pictures in comparison
displaying a fuller width of picture than is normally seen on with the Barco.
domestic TV sets which currently electronically blank out the Worse still, whereas HDTV shots of football and tennis sources
extreme screen edges. from the BBC looked good, HDTV material sources from France
Another idea is to display a 4:3 picture on a wide screen set, and looked very poor. One sequence looked like dirty film.
put three vertically stacked, picture -in -picture frames, down one Sheepishly, the Eureka exhibitors admitted that they had been
side of the screen. Again programme producers must know how forced ("for political reasons") to include French material which
receivers will work, to avoid losing vital action off the screen on had been shot on film and then transferred to video, with serious
some sets. quality loss!

790 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

Berlin revealed a wide divergence of opinion over when wide
screen and HD -MAC sets and services will be ready, and at what
price. The official Eureka line is that there will be "regular HDTV
broadcasts by 1992". The head of Philips consumer electronics
division, Jan Timmer has a more realistic attitude which is shared
by Grundig. They believe test transmissions will begin in 1992, in
time for the Barcelona Olympics. From then until 1995 there will
be a gradual increase in service.
"It's wrong to give the impression that HDTV is just around the
corner", says Timmer.
Only Thomson will talk about set prices. Peter Weber of Thom-
son says there will be wide screen 1250 line HDTV sets ready for
sale, at £3,000 each, by autumn 1990.
"Wide screen tubes are cheaper to make than conventional
tubes", says Weber. But Grundig estimates that even conventional
625 line wide screen sets will cost five times as much as 4:3 sets for
the next five years. And there were surprisingly few prototype
wide screen sets on working display at Berlin.
Whoever is right, the outcome is the same. The public wonders
whether it might be better to wait a year or so before buying a new
TV set. The Grundig ST70-564 Satellite TV Receiver

BITSTREAM MASHINATIONS will not have the product ready for bulk sale until spring 1990 or
Specialist hi fi dealers are already feeling, and complaining later.
about, the effect of confusion over the new single -bit digital decod- To support the hardware launch with pre-recorded software, the
ing techniques, Bitstream from Philips and Mash from Panasonic. record industry needs high speed duplicating equipment, which
In simple terms, whereas conventional digital -to -analogue con- Sony promises, but has not yet delivered. Some record companies
verters process the 16 -bit digital code words from a CD in their (e.g. Polygram) do not want to release software until laws have
entirety, Bitstream and Mash break the words down into their been passed to make SCMS a compulsory feature of all DAT
individual bits and process them one by one. hardware. Philips admits that it will take between two and four
Says Jan Timmer, Bitstream is an "important step". years for the EEC to deliver a directive which individual countries
In technical literature describing the advantages of Bitstream in Europe can enshrine in law.
and the disadvantages of existing CD decoding systems, Philips Jan Timmer of Philips talked at Berlin of "waiting for legisla-
says it will use Bitstream first in a new high end player, the CD - tion" before launching Philips DAT hardware. Later the same day
840, later this year and later spin the system off and down into the others in Philips talked of releasing DAT recorders by "mid 1990
entire range of CD players, including low end and medium priced ahead of legislation". Grundig promises a DAT recorder early
models. Grundig is using Bitsream for its new high end "Fine Arts" next year.
DAT recorder. But Marantz, now controlled by Philips and being
used by Philips as the premium brand name in Japan and Europe,
will not be using Bitstream.
"We don't think the system is yet good enough", says Eric
Kingdon of Marantz. "Adoption would be premature. The DACs
we've got are better. The key is in matching the analogue circuitry.
That's why players with the same DACs, but different analogue
circuitry, sound different.
"We shan't use Bitstream until we are convinced that there is an
audible benefit. We are not interested in technology in its own
right. We will not use Bitstream until it sounds right. And that
probably will not be until 1990 or 1991." CD60 Compact Disc player from Marantz
Meanwhile Matsushita (Panasonic and Technics) took Berlin as
the opportunity to claim superiority for its own single -bit system,
Who can blame any member of the public who decides to post-
pone purchase of a CD player until the DAC versus Bitstream-ver-
sus-Mash dispute is resolved?


The popular press has predicted that DAT recorders, and pre-
recorded DAT software, will be in the shops by Christmas. Berlin
made clear that this is a nonsense. If (and it's a big if) there is a con-
solidated launch on DAT, it will be for Christmas 1990, most defi-
nitely not Christmas 1989.
The hardware and software industries agreed on the technical
formula to limit digital copying or "cloning" (Serial Copy Manage- Portable DAT
ment System) in June. Their formal announcement came at the recorder with AID
end of July. Now the hardware has to be re -designed to meet the converter from Aiwa
SCMS specification and the software industry has to lobby for
legislation to prevent hardware companies (eg from Taiwan and
Korea) who have not signed the agreement from ignoring it.
At Berlin, Philips engineers and lawyers confirmed the state of
play. The SCMS system (developed by Philips, and initially called
Copycode) will be filed with the IEC standards body in October PORTABLE DAT
and the DAT standard subsequently amended to include SCMS. At Berlin Aiwa and Casio both showed portable DAT decks but
At the same time hardware manufacturers will have to modify the without any promise of price or launch date. Sony was significantly
computer software inside their DAT recorders to work to the silent. The company recently signed a deal with Taiyo Yuden on
SCMS specifications. the joint development of Taiyo's low cost recordable CD system.
Three changes are necessary. The recorder must be able to dub But CD -12 was not on show. In fact only Thomson showed a
digitally from compact disc at 44.1kHz, as well as 48kHz. When recordable CD at Berlin. Significantly it used magneto -optical
dubbing the recorder must automatically put an anti -copy "flag" technology, which is both expensive and incompatible with con-
on the tape. And it must also look for any such flag in the signal ventional CD players, and thus not viable as a domestic product.
being copied, and refuse to copy any flagged signal. Aiwa's prototype pointed the way to possible success for DAT;
There are four or five computer microprocessors in each DAT a versatile portable unit, which can be used either to record sound
recorder, and all will now require modification. Manufacturers or still pictures in digital code.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 791

STILL PICTURE VIDEO HD -MAC recorders (as for instance developed by Philips) cap-
Canon took Berlin as the opportunity to preview the still picture ture the full bandwidth (over 10MHz) 1250 line high definition
video camera which the company is launching in Europe this MAC TV signal on a VHS cassette, by completely altering the
autumn for around £500. Sony is also planning to launch its Mavica VHS standard. The head drum rotates at twice normal speed
camera early next year. (3000r.p.m.) and metal powder tape is used instead of conven-
Both cameras comply with the same technical standard. A 2in tional oxide. The signal is split into two channels and recorded with
magnetic disc, like a miniature computer floppy disc, records up to two pairs of video heads.
50 still pictures for replay through a TV set. The camera has a solid Although shown at Berlin this is very much a future product.
state CCD image sensor, and is remarkably small. But inevitably it More immediate, is the idea from Grundig of using a Super VHS
relies on a complex mechanical drive for the disc, which keeps the recorder to tape 625 -line D or D2 -MAC signals with minimal loss
price high. of quality. The system takes advantage of the fact that MAC is a
At Berlin (as in June at the Consumer Electronics Show in natural source of the separate Y (black and white or luminance)
Chicago) Toshiba took the opportunity to show the public that still and C (colour or chrominance) signals on which the S -VHS format
picture disc technology is already potentially obsolete! Toshiba's relies for its superior picture quality. The MAC system keeps Y
i.c. card camera has no moving parts. Instead of a spinning magne- and C separate and an S -VHS recorder handles them separately.
tic disc it uses a 20 megabit computer memory in a "credit card". Combining a MAC decoder with S -VHS recorder is a natural
This card can record 13 pictures of high quality. Toshiba promises and sensible approach which will let both MAC and S -VHS ride on
to increase memory capacity and use signal processing tricks, to the back of any commercial success which the other may enjoy.
put 50 pictures on a single card.
They also demonstrated a system for storing up to 1,600 DAT
pictures on a modified DAT recorder. Toshiba's card camera will
not be ready for sale at competitive prices until the 1990s, so the
company's technique of demonstrating the system strategically
opposite Canon's demonstration of the disc camera is clearly a
spoiler tactic designed and guaranteed to confuse the public.

With every cuckoo in spring, comes some new 3D video or TV
system. Toshiba has developed a VHS camcorder, with two lenses,
that records in 3D.
Left and right eye images are recorded alternately on tape.
When the tape is replayed, the left and right images are displayed
alternately on a TV screen.
The viewer wears a hat, with liquid crystal spectacles connected
by wire or infra -red link to the TV set. The left and right eye l.c.d's
alternately switch from dark to clear in synchronism with the
images on screen. When the left eye image is on screen, the left eye
l.c.d. is clear and the right eye l.c.d. is dark, and vice -versa.
The effect is a rather odd 3D image. The price of the camera, the
need to wear an l.c.d. hat, and fatigue brought on by watching left
and right eye flicker make the idea little more than a gimmick.
Most important, the system is not compatible. Viewers without
I.c.d. hats see unwatchable pictures, a rapid sequence of flickering
left and right eye perspectives. The real value of the system is for
industry, education or medicine, for instance training surgeons.

SUPER MAC The Toshiba 3K -3D7 VHS camcorder has two lenses and is claimed
Expect yet more confusion, this time over the launch of video to record in 3D.
recorders claimed to record MAC and HD -MAC. A clear distinc-
tion needs to be drawn here.


As expected, after hints at the company's annual general meet-
The I.C. Card Camera from Toshiba uses a 20 megabit "credit ing, Grundig has now decided to back the 8mm video format as
card" to produce 13 pictures. Future cards will, it is hoped, produce well as VHS. Grundig is sourcing 8mm and High Band 8mm cam-
50 pictures. corders from Sony, as well as the new Sony personal Video
Walkman. Although Philips acknowledges that 8mm now has 40
per cent of the camcorder market in Europe, the company still
sticks loyally to VHS.
"The consumer will decide" says Jan Timmer.
Both JVC and Panasonic have now shown an F/C mechanism for
a table -top VHS recorder. A single loading tray accepts either a
Full size or Compact VHS -C cassette, without the need to use an
adaptor. "It solves a problem none of us knew we had", said one
American observer when the concept was first unveiled at the
Chicago Consumer Electronics Show.
It would surely make far more sense to offer a single recorder
with separate F and C mechanisms. This would let users edit tape
easily by dubbing from a camcorder C cassette onto a full size
blank cassette.
BASF has now decided to defy JVC, and launch its E300 VHS
cassette throughout Europe. The E300 cassette gives five hours
recording time at normal speed, and ten hours at half speed, com-
pared with four and eight hours from the longest play cassette so
far available, the E240.
The extra playing time is gained by making the tape thinner, and
longer. Standard VHS tape is made from a polyester base film 14
micrometres thick with a 5 micrometre coating of magnetic oxide,
E240 tape has a 12 micrometre base film and BASF's E300 base is
9 micrometres.
The E300 cassette was first shown at Berlin two years ago. JVC
objected that it fell outside the terms of the VHS licence, and
warned that some VCRs might chew the thin tape.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989

BASF has now test marketed the E300 in Austria and claims He acknowledged that there had been a major problem with the
that the failure and complaint rate is no higher than for E180s or production of PAL discs at the Philips -Du Pont plant at
E240s. The new cassettes will now become a standard BASF line Blackburn. Bertlesmann (RCA) is now pressing a few discs for
throughout Europe, at twice the price of an E180. Expect them in Europe, but it is still a pinprick compared to the NTSC catalogue.
the UK before Christmas. For a while it looked as if he was going to announce what
"JVC says that if there are problems it will damage the VHS everyone had been waiting for -a CD Video Combi player which
name" says Bernd Rothfuss of BASF. "We say we would not sell can play back NTSC discs through a PAL TV set, using similar
something with our name on unless we were sure it would work. technology to the Panasonic NVL-28 video recorder.
They say they don't like it. We say we do like it". But no. The Philips CD video player still handles only PAL
The advantage of an E300 is that it lets the owner of VCR set it discs.
to record several programmes during a holiday period.
Sony was showing a multi -standard CD Video player but it
CROSSTALK worked only with a multi -standard TV set. Panasonic was showing
The same advantage accrues from an astonishing new VHS only an NTSC video disc player. "We are not supporting CDV in
recorder developed by ITT Nokia's laboratory at Pforzheim in Europe", said Panasonic later.
West Germany. Although hidden behind the scenes and still only This put all eyes on Pioneer.
in prototype form, this could prove to be the most significant The trade had known for at least a month in advance that
development unveiled at Berlin. Pioneer plans to launch the CDV-1450 player in Britain this
The Nokia recorder runs VHS tape at one-third normal speed, November and that this player plays NTSC discs through a PAL
0.78 cm/second instead of 2.34 cm/s for a conventional recorder TV set. But the prospect appalled the film companies, which have
and 1.17 cm/s for a half speed machine. Reducing the speed built up a careful schedule of staggered releasing, with films avail-
reduces the width of each magnetic track to 16 micrometres able in the US long before Europe. And most of the films available
instead of 49 microns. on video disc are licensed to Pioneer.
Normally this would cause intolerable "crosstalk" between adja- Seeing its relationship with the film industry in jeopardy,
cent tracks, with the signal from one track interfering with the sig- Pioneer's Head Office in Japan issued a carefully worded state-
nal from the one alongside it on the tape. But Nokia has succeeded ment ahead of the Berlin Show: "Pioneer will not show a PAU
in cancelling crosstalk by a clever electronic trick. NTSC compatible player at the Berlin Show and we have no plans
The phase of the electrical signal for each adjacent line of the to bring this type of player to market in any country".
picture is reversed so that any breakthrough from one line to the Sure enough, at Berlin, Pioneer showed only the CDV-1400
next is cancelled out. This simple technique, which costs only a few player which will be launched on the Continent of Europe this
pounds in circuitry to implement, lets a VHS recorder running at autumn. The 1400 plays only PAL discs, because the NTSC
one-third normal speed produce pictures which are almost as clear software is all English -language material and thus of limited value
as from tape running at full speed. When used with a BASF E300, on the Continent.
the Nokia recorder can give a staggering fifteen hours continuous Pioneer staff at Berlin had been warned in advance to emphasise
recording time - enough to record at least seven full length films that the 1400 plays only PAL discs and this they dutifully did.
from TV while the owner is away on holiday. But none of this alters the fact that a batch of 1450 dual standard
JVC is however not amused. Tapes recorded on third speed players is already ear -marked for pre -Christmas sale in the UK.
machines will not play back on existing single speed, or half speed Some disc outlets are already looking at distribution channels for
machines. NTSC discs from Japan and the US.
"We saw the system at Berlin" said a spokesman. "It is outside The big question now is what will happen to the dual standard
the VHS standard. There must be strict direction or the public will model 1450 machines?
be confused". Before Berlin, Pioneer's plan had been to compromise by selling
the 1450 in the UK without any reference to NTSC capability,
leaving it to cognoscenti in the trade and public to discover the
BALANCED VIEW bonus for themselves. But at Berlin Pioneer was clearly so worried
Nokia may however still be able to use its system, although not about the political problems, that sales of the 1450 may even now
with third -speed recorders. Potentially even more significant, the be blocked, or the machine modified to disable NTSC playback.
Nokia line phase reversal technique can be used to let a conven- Without NTSC playback, CD Video in Europe seems doomed
tional VHS recorder with conventional heads, give good results at to failure; with NTSC playback, Pioneer faces rows with the film
half speed. industry comparable to the record industry rows on DAT. In
Normally, half speed recording needs an extra set of heads on short, the company is between a rock and a hard place.
the drum, finely dimensioned to match the narrower tracks and
avoid crosstalk interference. With Nokia's new system, full sized A view into the future offers the Panasonic video recorder which
heads can give good results from half size tracks. This could make can play both VHS and VHS -C tapes, without a special adaptor.
VHS machines with two speed recording almost as cheap as VHS
machines with single speed recording.
For good measure, Nokia has developed a clever remote control
for TV sets and video recorders. This has far fewer buttons than
usual. The controller handset contains a miniature light source and
light sensitive diode, with a ball bearing free to move between
As the control is tipped, the ball moves under gravity and the
beam shape varies. The controller circuitry senses this change in
beam shape and varies the control signal. So just tipping the hand-
set in one direction can switch a recorder from play to fast forward
and tilting the hand -set in the opposite direction can reverse the
tape wind direction.

Behind the scenes at Berlin, fingers sizzled as a red hot potato
was frantically passed around. The hot potato is a multi -standard
CD Video player.
Jan Timmer of Philips, has virtually staked his reputation on sel-
ling CD Video to Europe. So far CDV has been a commercial dis-
aster, because there is pitifully little PAL format software.
"I am still convinced there will be a breakthrough in Europe",
said Timmer at Berlin, pointing to the Japanese and American
experience. "There are 7,000 titles in Japan, 4,000 in the USA, but
only around 300 in Europe. I am convinced Europe will catch up.
At least four companies, including Sony, Grundig, Panasonic and
Pioneer, are joining in with products on display at Berlin. I am
absolutely convinced in years to come shops will have a section for
films on disc".

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 793

...Add-on Keyboard. . .Sound Generator. . .Making Music.. .
N ITS day the sound generator of the It is not too difficult to produce a prog- In this case things are less straightfor-
I BBC model B computer was quite highly ram that enables the sound generator to be ward, and the system must be set up so that
regarded. It has three tone channels plus a played as a musical instrument via the com- the keyboard circuit gives a series of read-
noise generator, an envelope shaping facil- puter's QWERTY keyboard. This is an ings from the analogue port that increment
ity, and can cover a wide frequency range. easy solution, but not a very good one in by one from each key to the next. Some
The computer world progresses though, that a QWERTY keyboard is not particu- mathematical manipulation can be used in
and the BBC computer's sound generator larly well suited to playing music. the computer if necessary, and due to the
has what now seems a relatively poor Playing a computer's sound generator analogue port's noise problems and
specification. Currently there are several via an external plug-in keyboard is not unusual basic scaling, a bit of mathematics
computers having sound generators which exactly a new idea, but it is an interesting is unavoidable. A look -up table is used to
offer a variety of waveforms, extra chan- one to pursue with the BBC computer. To convert values read from the analogue port
nels, better envelope control, and even be entirely honest about it, I rather doubt into the appropriate pitch values for a
sampled sounds (although usually with that the cost of adding an expensive multi - SOUND instruction.
only eight bit quality). octave keyboard to the BBC machine
While the sound of the BBC machine would be justified by the results. On the Keyboard Circuits
might not rival some of the more recent 16 - other hand, adding a small inexpensive The circuit diagram for a simple stylus
bit computers, and is certainly not in the type, or a stylus operated keyboard, need operated add-on keyboard is shown in Fig.
same league as modem electronic musical not cost a great deal. Results will not rival 1. The equivalent circuit using a simple
instruments, it can still provide some useful the Yamaha DX7 series, but they should switch -type keyboard is shown in
sound effects and reasonably musical more than justify the relatively low cost Fig. 2. A series of resistors are connected as
results. involved. a potential divider and are fed from the
There are several possibilities when it reference voltage output of the analogue
Making Notes comes to interfacing the add-on keyboard port.
Many 8 -bit computers use the AY -3- to the BBC computer. The two obvious Only six resistors are shown in Fig. 1, but
8910 sound generator chip or one of its approaches are a digital solution via the in practice there would be substantially
derivatives. The BBC computer's sound user port, or an analogue one via the more than this (typically 25 resistors giving
generator is based on a rival device from analogue port. We will take the second a two octave range). Resistor R7 normally
Texas Instruments, the SN76489AN. The option as it would seem to be the cheaper takes the channel 0 input to 0 volts, but
basic specifications of the two chips are and more simple of the two. touching the stylus onto one of the keypads
broadly similar, as are the sounds they Basically all that is required is something will take the input positive by the approp-
make. similar to an analogue synthesiser riate amount.
Most BBC computer users will not need keyboard circuit. These are based on a As the analogue to digital converter used
to get deeply involved with the sound series of equal value resistors connected as in the BBC computers is a 12 -bit type it is
generator at the hardware level. BBC a potential divider fed from a highly stable theoretically possible to accommodate up
BASIC provides good support for the reference voltage generator. In a synth- to 4096 notes. The realities of the situation
sound generator, and there is usually no esiser the voltages from the keyboard are are very different, and apart from the fact
difficulty in obtaining the required sounds used to directly control a voltage controlled that the sound generator and human hear-
via a BASIC program. oscillator (VCO). ing do not justify such a wide range, the
analogue port's noise problems mean that
in order to get the right note every time the
Fig. 1. The stylus operated keyboard cir- Fig.2. The switch keyboard equivalent returned values must be divided by a sub-
cuit. to Fig. 1. stantial amount in order to reduce the
effective resolution to a point where noise
is no longer a problem.
V.REF' Using DIV 1024 on returned values gives
a 0 to 63 range, which should be sufficient
for most purposes. It certainly eliminates
22k PADS any noise problems, and this range of five
6 octaves is as much as the Beeb's sound
generator can handle anyway (see page 181
220 of the User Manual).
It is likely that most users will not wish to
go beyond about two octaves. Adjusting
preset VR1 enables the circuit to be set up
so that the appropriate value is produced
ANALOGUE when each key pad is operated. To set up
VR1 first run this simple program.
10 CLS
0140 20 PRINTTAB(10,10) ADVAL 1
220 DIV 1024
30 GOTO 10
This will print returned (and divided)
220 values on the screen. Touch the stylus on
the highest key pad and then adjust VR1
for stable readings at a value equal to the
220 number of fixed resistors used in the
.0 ND, keyboard divider circuit. The unit should
then function properly, with the correct
E21130 values being produced by the other key

794 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

Software from 128 to 137, which are useful with the and pass them to a procedure called
The simple sound generator listing (List- mode 7 Teletext display, and in conjunc- PROCedit (line 540):
ing 1) enables the system to act as a basic tion with the control key they produce
stylus organ covering two octaves (twenty codes from 144 to 153, useful with Teletext 500 DEF FNvir(length,validS)
five notes -C to C). This just reads in val- graphics. The codes generated by the shift/ 510 LOCAL in,out$
ues from the analogue port, does the function keys combination can be changed 520 in=GET:FX 15,1
mathematics on them, and uses a look -up with *FX 226, and by the control/function 530 IF in=13 THEN
table to convert them into pitch values keys combination with *FX 227. VDU10,13:=out$
which are used in a SOUND instruction. A further range of codes can be pro- 540 IF in=128 THEN
This process is repeated over and over duced by using the function keys with shift PROCedit(in):GOTO 520
again, with the program looping indefi- and control together. The default is that 550 IF in=127 AND out$='"'
nitely, and a short duration being used in these combinations have no effect, but THEN 620
the SOUND instruction. This ensures that codes can be assigned to them by *FX 228. 560 IF in=127 THEN
the program quickly responds to changes in Remember, however, that pressing the out$=LEFT$(out$,LEN(outS)
note. A value of 0 is returned if no note is control and shift keys together on the BBC -1):VDU127:GOTO 620
played on the keyboard. If a value of 0 is micros stops output to the screen tem- 570 IF LEN(outS)= length
detected, the program repeatedly reads the porarily. VDU7:GOTO 620
analogue port until a proper note value is Within a BASIC program, it is easy 580 IF valid$<>'"' AND
read from the port. enough to check for the function key codes 1NSTR(valid$,CHR$
The improved version of the program, with INKEY$ or GET in conjunction with (in))=0 VDU7:GOTO 620
Listing 2, operates in a broadly similar the ASC() or CHR$() functions. The 590 PRINT CHRS(in);:out$=out$4-
fashion. However, it provides somewhat results of such tests can be used to divert CHRS(in):GOTO 620
more musical results by making use of the program flow.
ENVELOPE command to give some sim- This routine does not terminate a string
ple envelope shaping on each note. The Versatile Input Routine automatically when the maximum length is
envelope shape is something close to the This is perhaps most elegantly done with reached. One extra feature it does have is
classic ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, a Versatile Input Routine, or VIR, usually to allow any character to be included in the
release) type, but this can obviously be written for the BBC machines as a user - string if a null string is passed as the string
changed by altering line 130 if desired. defined function (though it can be done as a of valid characters (line 580).

Listing 2: Improved Sound

Listing 1: Simple Sound Generator Program
Generator Program 10
REM J.W.P 9/89
30 sFX16,1
40 CLS
60 PRINT "Press ESC to end program."
20 REM J.W.P 9/89 70 DIM TABLE1251
30 CLS 80
40 PRINT "Press ESC to end program." 90 FOR NV= 1 TO 26
60 DIM TABLE(25) 110 NEXT NV
70 120
80 FOR NV= 1 TO 25 130 ENVELOPE 1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,126,-2,0,-1,126,80
110 160 note=ADVAL 1 DIV 1024
120 REPEAT 170 UNTIL note<>0
130 note=ADVAL 1 DIV 1024 180 T=TIME:REPEAT UNTIL TIME>T4.1
140 pitollparm=TAHLEInotel 190 note=ADVAL 1 DIV 1024
150 IF note<>0 SOUND 1,-15,p1tohparm,1 200 pitchparm=TABLEInotel
160 IF note=0 THEN SFX21,6 210 SOUND 1,1,pitchparm,10
190 DATA 53,67,61,65,69,73,77,81,86,89,93,97 240
200 DATA 101,105,109,113,117,121,125,129,133,137,141,146,149 250 DATA 63,67,61%65,69,73.77,81,85,89,E3.97
260 DATA 101,106,109,113,117,121,126,129,133.137,141,146,149

For an example of how this can be used,

Function Keys procedure). A VIR is used instead of if entering values into a table, the function
Last month we looked at the normal way INPUT statements, and can be used to keys can be used to scroll through the table,
of using function keys, by programming check each character as it is entered. and different keys can be used to move up
strings into them. The alternative way of In essence, each character is entered, or down one entry at a time, or a screenful
using the function keys is to cause them to usually with a GET statement. It is checked at a time. The scrolling is not always easy to
generate ASCII codes. In fact, any single against a string of acceptable characters, program, but is worth the effort as it allows
code could be assigned to any key as a and if valid, is added to a string. insertion and deletion of entries to be per-
string, either from the keyboard or using The maximum length for the string can formed in a very natural way.
OSCLI as described above. also be specified, and characters are only When doing this, it is important to keep
However, there is a single command accepted up to this limit. Input is termi- control of the cursor position. This is done
which can be used to make the keys gener- nated if the return key is pressed, or can be with the POS and VPOS functions, used at
ate a contiguous sequence of codes. This terminated if the string reaches the pre- the beginning of the procedure which
command is FX 225, followed by the code defined length. implements the function keys to store the
to be assigned to key 0. For example, to Within the VIR, it is easy enough to position of the cursor in the VIR, and the
start the sequence at ASCII code 160, you check if the character entered has an VDU 31 command at the end to replace the
would use: ASCII code within the range programmed cursor in this position. As long as you do
into the function keys, and if it has, to send this, you can, in between, print anywhere
*FX 225,160 the character to a procedure which will per- on the screen to your heart's content.
form some function, depending on which A further interesting fact is that if you
Key 0 will then generate ASCII 160, key 1 key was pressed. In this way, editing or use the *FX commands to cause the func-
ASCII 161, and so on to key 9, ASCII 169. other functions can be made to happen at tion keys to generate ASCII codes within a
In fact using the function keys in con- any time, even in the middle of entering a program, when the program terminates, if
junction with the control and shift keys pro- string. you had put strings into the keys before
duce ASCII codes by default. In conjunc- Here is an example of a VIR function running the program, the keys revert to
tion with shift, the keys produce codes which will check for ASCII codes over 128, producing those strings.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 795

Constructional Project

11 to 18 then operate the coloured display
A safe, battery -operated, festive lamps, LP1 to LP8. Note that all lamps
share a common supply positive connec-
flashing display for a child's room tion. Diode D1 prevents possible damage
to the i.c's if the battery is connected the
wrong way round.
THIS DISPLAY of eight flashing lights values specified, the pulse repetition rate
may be used to decorate a miniature may be varied by means of preset VRI
Christmas tree, cardboard Father from approximately two per second
Christmas, snow scene, etc. Being battery - upwards.
operated it is completely safe in use and The pulses are applied via resistor R2, to COMPONENTS
the base of transistor TR1 whose collector

will provide much enjoyment when placed
in a child's bedroom. then ;witches alternately between high and
Standard coloured Christmas tree -type low states and this is connected to the clock
bulbs are used and, unlike conventional input (pin 14) of 1C2. Thus, each output 0
mains -operated light sets, failure of one to 7 (pins 3, 2, 4, 7, 10, 1, 5 and 6 respec-
bulb will not cause them all to go off. The tively) go high (positive battery voltage) in Resistors See page 783
turn. R1 10k
effect is for each coloured lamp to flash in
WIK.n output 8 (pin 9) goes high the R2 1M
turn at a rate which may be adjusted from
very rapid to fairly slow. Many hours of device resets by making the reset input, pin R3, R4 100k (2 off)
continuous operation may be expected 15, high (normally this is kept low and the All 0.25W 5% ca rbon
from the specified 6V battery. chip enabled through resistor R4). The cir-
cuit then begins a further cycle and repeats Potentiometer
1M sub -miniature
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION indefinitely until switched off. Note that VR1
vertical preset
The circuit for the Children's Christmas IC2 has ten outputs but only eight are used.
Lights is shown in Fig. 1. IC1 is an integ- Each output of IC2 is responsible for one
rated circuit timer and IC2 a CMOS decade bulb. Since the maximum permitted output Capacitor
current is insufficient to operate a filamenL Cl 1µ polyester
counter. IC1 is configured as an astable
multivibrator and with S1 (ON -OFF) on, lamp direct, current is passed to the corres
delivers a continuous train of pulses from ponding input of an octal Darlington Semiconductors
driver, 1C3. TR1 ZTX300 npn silicon
its output, pin 3.
This device contains eight Darlington D1 1N4001
The rate at which these pulses are ICM7555 CMOS timer
supplied depends on the values of resistor pairs complete with inbuilt base current IC1
R1, preset VR1 and capacitor C1. With the limiting resistors. The eight outputs, pins IC2 4017B decade counter
IC3 ULN2803 octal
Darlington driver.
Fig. 1. Complete circuit diagram for the Children's Christmas Lights.
164001 S1 SPSTtoggle or rocker
IC:NI/OFF I switch -1A rating
is LP1-LP8 6V "Christmas tree"
lamps (replacements
for 40 lamp mains set)
(8 off)
16 16
B1 6V lantern battery
10 1
(PJ996 or similar)
TB1 10 -way screw terminal
6 3

42603 Stripboard, 0-1in matrix 11 strips by


4 5 4P 6
29 holes; plastic case, 96mm x
46mm x 21mm; 8 -pin i.c. socket; 16 -
pin i.c. socket; 18 pin i.c. socket;

2 LP 7
miniature crocodile clips, with in-
sulating sleeves (2 off); adhesive
fixing pads; materials for display;
stranded connecting wire; solder
64 etc.

Approx. cost C /11 excl.

(6E229001 guidance only lamps

796 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

This has been designed as a battery -pow-
ered circuit. It should not be modified to oper-
ate from a mains -derived supply.
Construction is based on a circuit panel Fig. 3. lnterwiring
made from 0.lin matrix stripboard, size 11 from the circuit
strips x 29 holes. The board component lay-
board to the termi-
out and details of breaks required in the nal block TB1 and
underside copper tracks is shown in Fig. 2. switch Si.
Make all track breaks and inter -strip The terminal
links as indicated and follow with the on- block is mounted
board components. Do not insert the i.c's on the top of the
themselves into their holders, however, case and wiring
until the end of construction. from the lamps
After a careful check for errors, connect and battery are
10cm pieces of light -duty stranded connect- wired up as
ing wire to each of copper strips C to J shown.
along the right-hand side of the panel as
indicated - ribbon cable is convenient
here. Connect similar wires to strips B and
D at the left-hand side for the power sup-
ply, red for positive and black for negative.

Finally insert the three i.c's into their

sockets and adjust VR1 sliding contact to
approximately mid -track position. Note
that the i.c's are CMOS devices which can
be damaged by static charge on the body.
LP1 They should therefore be unpacked and
B1 - LP3
inserted without touching the pins. Note
LP6 also that IC2 is inserted upside down com-
LP5 pared with the others.
The author has requested that
the payment for this project be
5 10 20 25 paid to the "BBC Children In
IMIEN2 Need Appeal". This we are
0000 oooo tom.0000IXEM3
000000o 000o 00001:XXIM
000 o0000 o000Ectz3
pleased to do and have doubled
the payment to the Appeal.

000 0000EM0000Erimi
ooo oooonricio000imija
oooKmmio000 imi

I Ir
Fig. 2. Circuit board component layout and details of
breaks required in the underside copper strips.

Prepare the box for the circuit by drilling
a hole for the On/Off switch S1, for termi-
nal TB 1 mounting and for the wires passing
through the case to TB1. Mount S1 and One
TB1 and complete S1 wiring (see Fig. 3). suggested
Attach the circuit panel to the base of the method of dis-
case using adhesive fixing pads. Pass the play is to
wires leading from the circuit panel and make a small
switch Si through the hole made for the decorative
purpose and make the TB1 connections. tree and
Make the decoration and cut holes in it mount the col-
for the bulbs. Make the holes slightly smal- oured lamps
ler than the bulbs so that these are a tight on its
push fit. "branches".
Using light -duty stranded wire, inter- The battery
connect the metal caps of all bulbs and run could form
the end of the wire to TB1/9. Solder indi- the base.
vidual wires to the bottom connection of
each bulb taking great care to avoid short-
circuits. Connect these wires to TB1/1 to
TB1/8 as shown in Fig. 3. Connect the bat-
tery positive and negative wires to TB1/9
and 10 respectively.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989

The completed control pulse rate and vice -versa. A rapid rate
unit showing the gives a beautiful twinkling effect.
screw terminal The battery is fairly heavy and may be
block mounted used as a base for the display providing this
on top of is not too large. The box containing the cir-
the case. cuit may then be taped into position.
The bulbs used are standard 6V screw -
fitting Christmas Tree lamps obtainable
from Woolworth's and elsewhere. These
are normally used as replacement for 40
lamp mains sets. DO NOT use lamps
intended for 20 LAMP sets since these have
a higher operating voltage and would be
too dim in service.

The completed unit with the lid

removed showing the use of
coloured ribbon cable connect-
ing TB1 to the board.

Connect the battery leads (observing
polarity) using small plastic sleeved
crocodile clips or by soldering. If using
crocodile clips, make certain that the metal
parts cannot touch and cause a short cir-
Switch on Si and note the effect. Each
bulb should come on in turn and the rate
may be adjusted by careful rotation of pre-
set VR1 sliding contact - clockwise rota-
tion (as viewed from IC1) increases the


Dear Editor,
On the 5th July, 1989 the bodies of Peter and Gwenda Dixon were discovered having been brutally
murdered on the Pembrokeshire Coastal Path.
Peter Dixon was a keen radio amateur, call sign GOHFQ, and sometime C.B. enthusiast.
The police are anxious to talk to any person who had contact with or heard, the above named per-
son, whilst he was operating in Pembrokeshire as GWOHFQ/M, on 2 metres FM, 20 metres SSB, 40
metres SSB, or 10 metres FM/SSB, betweeen the 19th and 29th June, 1989.
It is believed that Peter Dixon had a contact with another mobile station operating in the area on 10
metres FM on the morning of Wednesday, 28th June, and another contact with a station, operator
`Tom', on Sunday, 25th June, band unknown. The police are particularly anxious to trace the other
stations involved.
I wonder, therefore, if you could include a short appeal to your readers asking for their co-opera-
tion in your next issue. If they have any information, could they be asked to contact the Murder Inci-
dent Room, Haverfordwest Police Station, telephone 0437 763355, or their local Police Station.
I thank you for your assistance in this matter.
Yours sincerely,
G.J. Lewis, P.C. 569
pp Inspector D.T. Davies
Press Officer, Dyfed -Powys Police.

Information has come to light that at about 2 p.m. on Sunday, 25th June, 1989, two men in a boat fish-
ing on the Hellwick Bank off Worms Head on the Gower Coast overheard a conversation on the
boat's C.B. radio. The set was tuned to Channel 33 and a man was transmitting, who, from the per-
sonal details he gave over the radio could well have been Mr. Peter Dixon. This person speaking on
Channel 33 said he was middle aged, from the Oxford area and had been holidaying in Pembrokeshire
for the last sixteen years or so. These details and the fact that he was using a complicated call sign, such
as a radio ham would use, indicated he was an experienced amateur radio enthusiast like Mr. Dixon
as opposed to being a C.B. radio user.
The conversation he was conducting was with a second unknown man believed to have been called
Tom and who was also in a fishing boat but off the Pembrokeshire coast. This second man had a broad
Pembrokeshire accent and during the conversation agreed to meet the man believed to be Mr. Dixon
somewhere at a later date. It is not known whether or not this meeting did actually take place as the
second man appeared slightly disinterested in any future rendezvous.
The police however, are very interested in speaking to the second man; as he may be able to furnish
them with further information as to the movements of Mr. and Mrs. Dixon in the days immediately
prior to their murders on the 29th June, 1989. They ask therefore that he contact them as soon as pos-
sible at Haverfordwest Police Station, Tel. No. 0437/763355. Mr. & Mrs. Dixon

798 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

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Everyday Electronics, December 1989 799

ORD No. Our Price RRP
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63 Volts
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C77 1uf .10 .11
ROAD ALERT is unique. It's
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The National College of Technology (NCT Ltd)
pressure monitor. It
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offers a range of packaged short courses in
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C712 47uf .13 .14 analogue electronics, digital electronics and
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ponable, self-contained unit,
that can be fined by yourself CT14 220uf .33 .66 fibres & optoelectronics for study at home or at
in 10 minutes, there are no
wires, no plugs, and no
work. The advantages are that you may,
71 BF199
- commence at any time
74 BCX36
- work at your own pace

039.95 INC. P&P OR BUY TWO FOR 070.00

T5 BD608
T613D27/38 C10
- have a tutor (optional)
SPECIAL OFFERS - (Subject to availability while stocks last) and there is no travelling involved. BTEC cer-
tificates are available subject to the conditions
LeWResistorsAssrtd. 0001 1.00
Good quality mains tester
2.00 Al
2m Audio Lead mirror image 1.00
5 Pin DIN to 5 Pin DIN leads
of the award. These highly popular packed
20mm Quick blow fuses
100 amps, 2.5 amps,
1.00 1.80 2m
courses contain workbooks, a cassette tape,
3.15 amps, 5 amps lamp
Single 0.06 012
A3 5 Pin DIN plug to one
3.5mm jack plug Pins 1 & 4 circuit board and components necessary to
connected. Length: 1.2rn
Boxof 10
Personal Stereo
050 1.20 A4 2m Telephone... lead
0.88 1.50
provide both theoretical and practical training.
plug to socket.BT approved
Headphones. Hi-Fi quality 1.00 2a5
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4200 6000
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coiled or straight.
5 pin DIN plug to one
1.00 100
Whether you are a newcomer to electronics or
3.5mm jack plug 3 & 5
56 Battery Snaps for PP3
Batteries 0.15 050 A6
connected. Length: 1.2m 0.54 1.10 have some experience and simply need updat-
5 pin DIN plug to four phono
Insulation Tape
5 amp Lighting Terminal
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5 pin DIN socket to four
1.19 2.25 ing, there is probably a packaged short course
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am zoo
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800 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

By Mike Tooley BA
SOME time ago, I had the opportunity which students can use to check their prog- The circuit breadboard is undoubtedly
of reviewing the excellent Open ress. On satisfactory completion of the one of the more costly items included
Learning package on Digital Elec- programme (including assessments and within the Electronic Circuits package. It
tronics published by the National College of workbook assignments) students are eligi- should, however, be ragarded as some-
Technology (NCT Ltd). I was rather impre- ble for the award of a Business and Techni- thing of an investment since not only can it
ssed by this particular Open Learning cian Education Council Certificate of be used as the basis for further NCI' prog-
offering (Digital Circuits - Volume 1) and Achievement. The NCT tutorial support rammes but it make an excellent bread-
was, therefore, particularly pleased to be (via a telephone "hot-line") is available at a boarding aid in its own right.
asked to take a look at another package small additional charge.
from the same stable. This course, entitled Open Learning courses require a good MULTIMETER
Electronic Circuits - Volume 1, provides deal of self-discipline on the part of the stu- The Electronic Circuits course involves
students with approximately 45 hours of dent. A regular weekly study plan makes a students in making numerous measure-
study and the learning process is based good starting point and this cannot be stres- ments on simple electronic circuits. There
upon a number of student centred assign- sed too strongly. "Your very first task is to is no better way of doing this than with a
ments. sit down and work out your weekly timeta- modern digital multimeter and NCT pro-
The ability to study when and where a ble" advises Sylvia Merrett, one of the two vide such an instrument as part of the pac-
student wishes is fundamental to Open audio tutors. kage. The meter employs a 31/2 digit 1.c.d.
Learning and, unlike conventional Busi- display and offers d.c. voltage, d.c. cur-
ness and Technician Education Council HARDWARE rent, a.c. voltage, and current ranges.
(BTEC) and City and Guilds (C&G) NCT courses are designed to teach prac- Accuracy on the d.c. ranges is ±0.5 percent
courses, the NCT programme is designed tical as well as theoretical skills and Elec- with a maximum resolution of lmV and
to be studied whenever and wherever it is tronic Circuits is no exception. The kit 1µA on the d.c. voltage and current ranges
needed. It may be equally well applied in supplied with the course comprises three respectively. The multimeter will undoub-
the workplace or in the comfort of the stu- spiral -bound workbooks, a breadboard tedly prove to be extremely useful to stu-
dent's own home and thus provides a flexi- (together with a pack of links and compo- dents long after successful completion of
ble solution to the problem of keeping nents), a digital multimeter, and an audio the NCI' study programme!
abreast of technology in the rapidly chang- cassette. The only additional items
ing world of electronics. required are a 9V PP9 battery and an audio COURSE CONTENT
cassette recorder. Electronic Circuits - Volume 1 provides
OPEN LEARNING The circuit board supplied with the NCT a comprehensive introduction to electronic
Open Learning is increasing in promi- Electronic Circuits package is of very high circuits and assumes no previous know-
nence and demands a radically different quality. Approximately 40 percent of the ledge of the subject on the part of the stu-
approach from that associated with con- area is devoted to a 0.1 inch matrix bread- dent. The course is pitched at about BTEC
ventional study programmes and success board which is capable of accomodating a First Certificate/City and Guilds Part 1
depends primarily on two factors; committ- large number of components (including up levels and covers the following topics:
ment on the part of the student and the to seven 14 -pin dual -in -line integrated cir- * Know your circuit board
overall quality of the Open Learning pac- cuits). The remaining area is devoted to a * P.C.B. tests
kage. The first of these is a matter for the bank of eight l.e.d.s and associated drivers, * Cells and switches
individual student but the second relies a d.i.l. package containing eight s.p.s.t. * Current measurements
largely on the professionalism of the pro- switches, a +5V regulator, and an on -off * Resistors
vider of the Open Learning package and, toggle switch. * Use of the Ohmmeter,
more particularly, on the extent of any Sockets are fitted to accomodate two potentiometer, and l.d.r.
back-up which he or she can provide the daughter boards (for use with more * Ohm's Law
student with. In this respect, NCT courses advanced courses) and two BNC sockets * Series circuits
score very highly as they are not only well are available for linking to external equip- * Parallel circuits
thought out but they are very well pre- ment such as an oscilloscope. NCT can pro- * Capacitance
sented and fully supported with tutorial vide a special adapter to convert a standard * Charge and Discharge
assistance, assessment and certification. TV into a dual -channel oscilloscope but * Electronic Circuit Workshop
The Electronic Circuits course also con- this item of equipment is not required for As with Digital Circuits, tuition moves
tains three "open -book" assessments this particular course. backwards and forwards between the

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 801

workbooks and audio cassette and this pro- The standard of the workbooks is gener- agencies who are prepared to invest in
vides some useful variety in the study prog- ally good, with "chatty" text and neatly Open Learning packages and make these
ramme. Self -test questions are provided presented computer -generated diagrams. available "off the shelf" to students when
within the workbooks and students are The division of the course into three sepa- required.
encouraged to attempt these before refer- rate modules (each with its own text) is Many company training departments
ring to the answers provided. Such ques- both logical and helps to make the material and Further Education Colleges are invest-
tions are designed so that students can a little more manageable than if it had all ing in Open Learning and Electronic Cir-
evaluate their own progress through the been presented in one book. The satisfac- cuits is bound to become very popular.
course and assess their comprehension of tory completion of each of the workbooks Hence it would be well worth contacting
each of the major topics. represents a goal in its own right. Students your Training Officer or the Open Learn-
It is also important to realise that Elec- can, therefore, build on their successes and ing Co-ordinator of your local college to
tronic Circuits - Volume 1 provides an steadily gain in confidence as they progress see whether this package is available. If it
introduction to electronic circuits. The through the Electronic Circuits course. is, you can be assured of making an excel-
course does not, for example, deal with The numerous "student centred assign- lent start!
semiconductor devices such as diodes and ments" present students with a series of
transistors. Nor does it deal with important tasks to carry out. Representative tasks
concepts such as current, voltage, or power include measuring the current supplied to a IN CONCLUSION
gain which are essential to developing an number of light emitting diodes (I.e.d.$), Open Learning packages continue to
understanding of such topics as amplifiers measuring the resistance of series and appear from a variety of sources. At the
and oscillators. parallel connected resistors, and plotting present time there are a number of pac-
Volume 1 undoubtedly represents a very graphs showing charge and discharge kages which are aimed at the complete
effective starting point to developing a characteristics of simple C -R circuits. beginner to electronics and cover much the
sound understanding of electronics. Stu- One of the most ingenious assignments same ground as the NCT Electronic Cir-
dents will undoubtedly wish to go further involves the construction of a primary cell cuits package. The NCT offering is, how-
and should be prepared to devote the using nothing more than an apple, a steel ever, one of the best that I have seen. The
necessary time, effort, and expense in nail, and a penny coin! Each student package is well thought out and fits well
going further along this road. Electronic centred assignment is supplied with a solu- with other courses offered by the same pro-
Circuits - Volume 2 should be available by tion. Hence students are not left com- vider. I have little doubt that this particular
the time you read this, whilst Volume 3 is pletely in the dark when things don't work Open Learning course will find its own par-
scheduled for publication in February out as planned. ticular niche in the market place and will be
1990. instrumental in providing its students with
a good basic grounding in the principles
WORKBOOKS COST and practice of electronic circuits.
The three workbooks incorporate text Electronic Circuits - Volume 1 is priced In conclusion, Electronic Circuits - Vol-
regularly interspersed with details of the at £199 (excluding VAT) and must thus be ume 1 can be highly recommended. It is
student -centred assignments. Each work- outside the budget of many E.E. readers. thorough, comprehensive, very profes-
book should be regarded more as personal Packages like Electronic Circuits will, how- sionally presented, and ideally suited to
reference of progress through the course ever, become increasingly available from those with no previous knowledge of elec-
rather than as a conventional textbook. contains between 83 and 101 pages and the tronics.
Furthermore, since the course is highly workbook for part 3 contains an index of NCT Ltd are at Bicester Hall, 5 London
structured, the workbooks should be fol- topic references for all three parts of the Rd., Bicester, Oxon, OX6 7BU. Tel. (0296)
lowed in exact sequence. Each workbook course. 613067 Ext. 202.

We would like to thank the hundreds of readers who sent in
entry coupons for our joint EE/Maplin competition fea-
tured in the September '89 issue.
The results have now been decided and the following
readers have won prizes.
1ST PRIZE-The Maplin Road Winner Radio Control Car,
Controller, Batteries and mains charger.
Mr. D. Forsyth of Edinburgh.
2ND TO 5TH PRIZES - Maplin Road Winner Radio Control
Cars and Controllers.
Mr. C. Boyde of Comberbach, Cheshire, Mr. G. Mays of
Knaphill, Surrey, Mr. R. Nanton of Luton, Beds, Mr. R. Wil-
ton of Alwoodley, Leeds.
CONSOLATION PRIZES - EE subscriptions and binders.
Mr. A. Dunn of Neilston, Mr. G. McClean of Bangor, Co.
Down, Mr. D. Morrissey of Wynchombe, Glos., Mr. W. Burd
of Kirton of Premnay, Aberdeenshire, Mr. Salmon Ahmed
Syed of Knightsbridge, Mr. E.A. Cook of Cwmbran, Gwent.
Mr. W. Daley of Walworth, London, Mr. A. Farr of Bangor,
Co. Down.

802 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

Tel 109391 32763 Telex: 35565

Fax: 109391 33800






Afr. W



118100 - INCLUDES: Camera. monitor.
S Bracket. Poser Supply and 40 scc:se of S
A complete wireless microphone system comprising a G201 receiver with matching G202
microphone. windshield, 1 am patch lead for connection of receiver to amp mixer and one pair of VI4200 KITE WILT -IN INTERCOM - INCLUDES: .
Camera,nonfroc. Camera aracket. Power n
racking brackets for the receiver All packed in a tough vinyl case Supply and 40 metres of cable.
Receiving frequencies . . 1 73 8MHz 174 I MHz 17a 5MHz 174 8MHz or 175 OMH7
Single super helerodyne conversion FM detector Transmitter. U
Receiving system
Intermediate frequency 10 7MHz Receiving frequencies ... 173 81411z. 174 I MHz. IN 5MHz 174 8MHz or 1750M113
7511 Frequency slaty* 0
Antenna impedance
RF sensqvrty 0 7f.nr Modulen. system Crystal controlled FM
Harm.. and spurious output power CM than -4506 below cart* level IDEAL FOR HOME, OFFICE OR SHOP. THE MONITOR
S N any Better than 90dEl
Squelch threshold Adjustable from 10060 to 400Bug
At leas' -80418 Max frequency deviation 1-50kHz ACCIMSORIILS FOR 1114100 SYSTEM: FOR VM200
Image and spurious reetkre
75uS Frequency response 71311z - 1201:04:
Audio outpid revel 254HW at 60011 Distortion Lass than 0.5%
Audio harmonC asicshon Less tan 05'. S N ratio Better lhan B7d8 SNITCH BOX [65.00 AVAILABLE JANUARY 1990
Power 240Vac 50Hz 12Vdc Ambient temperature range PC - 40C ukallfee SHIELD EI5.00
190 04 x 200rnm Operating voltage range 38V to45Vdc
Simply Add £ 12 P&P to each order.
SPECIAL OFFER PRICE £150.00 Nothing More to add - V.A.T. Included in price.



10 x 'D' 'ire ni-cads (4 Ah) encapsulated

24eV AC.
e -11
in a black plastic case. Fuse holder. C -15W IRON £7.65
Gives __V output when charged. CS -17W IRON £7.75
Ex -equipment, fully guaranteed.
XS -25W IRON £7.85 £4.99
Dimensions: 245 x 75 x 75mm XS KIT 25W £10.85 J
EITHER VERSION. Free-standing or hanging, with 15ft. cable terminating BATTERIES
in cigar lighter plug. For use in car, boat, caravan, van ALL BITS FOR IRONS - £1.60 PRICE EACH
or home emergency. 12V d.c.
£9.20 Overall dimensions: 430x3Omm. AAA f1.50 £1.30
ORDER CODE OPTO/PFL12 £5.99 STANDS £2.99 AA 95p 85p
C f 1.95 £1.80
MARCO KITS D £2.00 £1.85
FM TRANSMITTER PP3 £3.90 £3.75
PRICE - 19 E9.20 (9-E2.12F&F)
10x E8.05 (PIP E4.50 PER 10) Ceramic 50V (125) £3.99 Dimensions 4.25 x 2.25 £9.99 12V TWIN FLUORESCENT LAMP
Electrolytics Red. 11001 £8.50
Fuse 20mm 0181801 £4.75 12 DOUBLE TUBES
4 WAY EX -SOCKET Pre-set Pots. Horiz. (120) ..... £7.75
Pre-set Pots. Vert. (120) £7.75 -
* Optima Alarm Control Panel
A 4 -way fused and with neon
indicator. * External Red Bell Box PERSPEX DIFFUSER.
Colour available: White. 0.25W Popular (1000) £6.99
0.25W 5 off 13051 E3.75
* 2 x 1 Internal Passive I.R. ON/OFF SWITCH.
£5.10 * 2 x Door Contacts
Fps 3 3 3
0.25W 10 off 16101
0.5W Popular 110001
0.5W 5 off (365)
* Siren for bell box
£5.99 EACH
368 z 67443nun
* 100 mtrs. cable and clips
0.5W 10 off 17301
1W5 off 13651 £15.25 * Full fitting instructions
ELEcims/4 £3.99
2W5 off 13651
Zener Diodes 5 off (55) E3.99
ONLY £115 + £2.50 CARRIAGE
(Phone for further details) Travelling, Fancy a hot drink) Simply plug
into cigar lighter socket and boil water, soup

19" 7 -piece construction with 3mm aluminium front panel. ABS BOXES
RACKS Top and bottom covers removable for easy access. £2.50
Supplied ea separate parts for easy drilling, machining etc.


CASE Vrior..;
19.0 1.75 16.75 6.0 1.375 800/0106 £12210
Hand-held or hanging, 12N. Curly cable. 5
19.0 1.75 16.75 9.0 1.375 BOX/U109 0370 Cost DEPT ANNE MOTH times normal headlamp intensity. On/off
Colour available: Black. switch. Simply plugs into
19.0 1.75 16.75 12.0 1.375 BOX/U112 £16.20
cigar lighter socket.
3.5 26.75 6.0 3.125 so1/U206 £14110 ORDER DIMENSIONS PRICE
BOX/U209 £1670 A B C
3.5 16.75 9.0 3.125
76 58 35 E1.08
19.0 3.5 16.75 12.0 3.125 sox/0212 flame BOX/MB1

35 E1.10
19.0 5.25 16.75 6.0 4.875 101/0306 £19.110 BOX/R112 95 71
9.0 s0x/0309 £21.10 sox/me3 115 35 37 E1.40
19.0 5.25 16.75 4.874 Simply plug into cigar lighter socket. Outputs
£23.60 BOX/MB5 145 95 55 12.00 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5. 9 & 12V at 800mA, via spider
19.0 5.25 16.75 12.0 4.875 BOX/0312
plug, 9v battery snap.
19.0 7.0 16.75 6.0 6.625 B0X/U406 f2350 BOX/MB7 165 119 75 E2.50 Polarity reversing
7.0 16.75 9.0 6.625 BOX/U409 £25.90 BOX/M114 207 122 77 E3.40

19.0 7.0 16.75 12.0 6.625 100/0412 £21130 BOX/ME6 213 142 57 E3.20 £2.75

Everyday Electronics, December 1989

Constructional Project

Enthusiasts who have experimented
Check the condition of your Biofeedback with EEG circuits before may have ex-
perienced such delights as the apparent
electrodes with this safe to use meter and increase "flashes of light" when checking electro-
your chances of picking up your "brainwaves". des placed over the eyes; the effect of
similar currents passing through the brain

F OLLOWING completion of the EEG

Biofeedback Monitor featured in last
month's issue, it was quickly dis-
between any pair of electrodes can be as
low as 2k, but for successful operation of
the EEG monitor it must be less than 10k.
can be imagined. Not to be recom-
A further problem which may occur if a
covered that some means of measuring multimeter is used for impedance check-
impedance between the electrodes was SAFETY ing is "polarisation", where d.c. current
essential for serious use. Whilst a quick passed between the electrodes causes ion
wipe with the surgical spirit often pro- Whilst the trusty workshop multimeter migration between them, resulting in a
duces an excellent contact, no amount of could be pressed into service for electrode residual potential when the meter is re-
careful preparation guarantees one, so an checking, this practice is to be discouraged moved. This effect may also interfere with
electrical check before use is vital. for several reasons. Foremost among the impedance reading obtained.
Although the EEG monitor has a high these is, of course, safety.
impedance input, the resistance between The current flow between the test leads ELECTRODE IMPEDANCE
the electrodes must be as low as possible of a meter depends upon the particular
to keep induced noise to a minimum and model in use, but may reach unsafe levels. METER
ensure best possible pickup of the minute To obtain sufficient current flow for To overcome the above problems, this
signals from the brain. In practice, it has measurement, many meters use 15V bat - dedicated EEG Electrode Impedance
been found that the measured resistance teries for their higher resistance ranges. Meter was designed. It applies a maxi -
Fig. 1. Complete circuit diagram for the EEG Electrode Impedance Meter. Pins 7 of IC1, IC2 and pin 4 of IC3 are connected
to the battery negative (OV) line.



2 ...ft., TO IC3 PIN 8

TO IC1 PIN 14 0/P Sic

1C2 PIN14 78L05
IC1 b' R8 COM
40168 15 100 C5
IC1c C6
40168 100n "PI
C7 PP3
R9 100.0
T470).1 T-
IC2 a IC2 b IC2 c IC2d
4011B 4011B 40118 4 118

4016B ills GIN Alm aVOC147
1. OFF
2. 1 TO COM
3.2 TO COM
4. 1 TO 2 C1 VR2
MINI 1y 22k
R6 R7
22k 1M lj


804 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

mum potential of one volt between the
electrodes on test whilst limiting the test
current to no more than 100 microamps, COMPONENTS
values which should guarantee complete
safety. Resistors
To avoid the risk of polarisation, the R1, R2,
polarity of the test current is reversed
about fifteen times a second by electronic
switches. These factors should make it
R8, R9
10k (4 off)
See page 783
totally safe to use whilst giving sufficiently R5 27k
accurate readings and avoiding any chance R6 22k
of electrode performance being impaired R7 1M
by polarisation. All 0.6W 1% metal film.
The complete circuit diagram of the
EEG Electrode Impedance Meter is Potentiometers
shown in Fig. 1. As it proved a time- VR1 1k sub -min horizontal
consuming nuisance swapping electrode preset.
connections between sockets whilst trying VR2 22k sub -min horizontal
to place them, three sockets (SK1-SK3) preset.
are provided so that they can all be
plugged in together. Capacitors
The required combination of any two C1, C2 1µ min. polyester layer
out of the three is selected by switch SI , (2 off)
sections SI a and S1 b. Through these, the C3 10µ axial lead elec. 25V
selected sockets are then connected to the C4 100µ axial lead elec 10V
four switches in IC1, a CMOS 4016 device C5, C6 100n min. polyester
arranged to operate as two electronic layer (2 off)
single -pole, two-way switches. These C7 470µ axial lead elec 10V
change the polarity of the test voltage
applied to the electrodes about fifteen Semiconductors
times a second, driven by a low frequency D1, D2 0A47 germanium
oscillator built with IC2c and IC2d. diode (2 off)
IC1 4016B CMOS quad
electronic switch
IC2 4011B CMOS quad
NAND gate
IC3 LM358 dual op -amp
IC4 µA78L05 5V 100mA source impedance of these two resistors in
positive regulator parallel being sufficiently close to 10k.
Preset potentiometer VR1 and resistor R3
Miscellaneous control meter current and allow adjust-
SK1-SK3 Phono chassis ment of the full-scale reading. Resistor R1
sockets (3 off) and capacitor C2 suppress any tendency
S1 3 -pole 4 -way rotary, for the output to "jitter" because of the
break -before -make input's electronic switching arrangements.
ME1 1mA moving coil
Printed circuit board, available
from the EE PCB Service order
code EE665; case, ABS plastic
150mm x8Ommx5Omm; 8 -pin
d.i.l. socket; 14 -pin d.i.l. socket
Fig. 2. Simplified circuit diagram for (2 off); battery connector (PP3);
the meter circuit. pointer knob; connecting wire;
solder etc.

Two drives, of opposite polarity, are
required by IC1; these are provided by
Approx. cost
Guidance only 18.50
IC2a and IC2b which buffer and invert the
output from the oscillator. CMOS oscilla-
tors of this type often have rather poorly The amplifier will attempt to balance
balanced mark -space ratios, which in this the voltage at its inputs by raising its
circuit would cause a net voltage to appear output voltage until an equal but opposite
across the electrodes. current flows through Rf. This will also
To avoid this, a mark -space ratio ad- cause current to flow through the meter
justment is provided by trimmer VR2.
The diodes, D1 and D2, are germanium
and trimmer Rwhich is adjusted so that
the meter reads full-scale when the elect-
types, which have a lower forward voltage rode connections are shorted together. As
drop than the more common silicon the one volt source is in series with a 10k
variety. resistor, the maximum current that can be
drawn from it is 100 microamps.
METER CIRCUIT Returning to the full circuit of Fig. 1, it
The measuring part of the circuit is will be seen that IC3a is the meter
constructed around the dual op -amp IC3. amplifier, but there are some additions.
As shown in Fig. 1, the operation of this is To begin with, a five volt reference supply,
a little difficult to follow, so it has been re- is generated by IC4, a 5V 100mA regula-
drawn in simplified form in Fig. 2. tor. From this a 2.5V reference is obtained
From this it can be seen that the meter with the divider resistors R8 and R9 and
is driven by a simple inverting amplifier buffer amplifier IC3b, and this is used as
arrangement. A negative source of one the "ground" for the meter amplifier.
volt is applied to the electrodes on test, The one volt negative voltage for appli-
the resulting current flow between them cation to the electrodes is produced by
passing to the op -amp's inverting input. divider resistors R4 and R5, the effective

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 805

sockets are recommended for IC1 to IC3, IC3a, pin 7. The easy place to measure
CONSTRUCTION which should not be inserted at this stage. this is from the top of capacitor C2.
Apart from the meter, input sockets If the completed printed circuit board is Following these checks, IC2 can be
and selection switch S1, all components powered up without these i.c.s, the supply inserted and the voltage at pin 3 and pin 4
are mounted on a single -sided printed current can be checked. Following a surge checked. This should, in each case,be
circuit board. This board is available from as the electrolytics charge, it should settle somewhere between 1.5V and 3.5V, in-
the EE PCB Service, code EE665. to about 2.5mA. The five volt regulated dicating that oscillation is taking place. If
The component layout and full size supply should be present across capacitor an analogue meter is used for this, a slight
copper foil master pattern is shown in C4. tremor will probably be apparent on the
Fig. 3. There are no special points to note Next, IC3 can be inserted. This will add needle.
regarding construction, save that the three about half a milliamp to the supply cur- If these checks are successful IC1 can be
electrolytics and two diodes must of rent. The 2.5V rail should now be present inserted and the two trimmers VR1 and
course be fitted the correct way round. across the 10µF capacitor C3, and 2.5V VR2 adjusted. The first step is to monitor
There are two plain wire links. DIL should also be present at the output of the voltage between the test input connec-
tion points, that's the two wires that will
go to switch S1, and adjust VR2 for an
average of zero volts. This effectively
adjusts the oscillator output to an even
mark -space ratio.
Next, the project's own meter should be
temporarily connected, the inputs shorted
together and preset VR1 adjusted for a
full-scale reading. This completes the ad-
justments on the board so the project can
be assembled into the case and connected
to the switch and input sockets.
As there is plenty of room in the
suggested case and the layout is by no
means critical, precise details of this are
St/C St/B BAT T - not included. The general arrangement
should be clear enough from the photo-
graphs. Connections between the various
items are given in Fig. 4. Take care with
the switch wiring, which is slightly
Calibration of the completed project is
achieved by removing the meter cover - it
unclips - placing appropriate resistors
across the input and marking the resulting
indications on the meter scale. Suitable
calibration points are 500ohms, 1k, 2k,
5k, 10k, 20k, 50k, and 100k.

Fig. 3. Printed circuit board component layout and full size copper foil master IN USE
pattern. The i.c.s should be mounted in did. sockets. In use, all three electrodes should be
plugged in and the pair required for
testing selected by switch Sl. As it helps to
have a good reference electrode to begin
with, the best course is to start by placing
the common electrode, which is attached
to easily accessible bare skin. (The posi-
tions and application procedures for the
EEG electrodes were described last
month). Then one of the others can be
placed and the impedance between them
For successful operation of last month's
EEG Biofeedback Monitor, this should be
The completed printed circuit board showing the use of i.c. sockets. less than 10k. With care figures of less
than 2k can be quite easily obtained,
ensuring that even with unscreened elec-
Fig. 4. Interwiring from the circuit board to case mounted components. trode leads the signals displayed are in-
deed "brainwaves", not interference!
If the impedance is too high, the likely
cause is insufficient cleaning of the skin
surface, so another good scrub with a
cotton -wool pad moistened with surgical
spirit will usually clear the problem. Occa-
sionally a discernible tremor may be seen
on the meter needle, indicative of a slight
d.c. potential, probably caused by skin
acids reacting with the electrode material.
So long as the impedance is low this
doesn't appear to cause any difficulty,
though if it occurs a lot the electrodes
should be checked carefully for faults such
as damage to the chloride layer or a
leaking araldite seal over the soldered
lead connection.
Next month we present a low-cost Bio
Gen unit for checking the EEG Biofeed-
back Monitor described in the November
1989 issue.

806 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

SURVEILLANCE 6VeCtiOniZe Car Electronics
This new type of alarm is triggered by a unique pressure sensing system . As
A range of high quality kits as supplied to leading UK security companies, all any vehicle door is opened, air is drawn out, causing a minute drop in air
in-house designed and produced, not to be confused with cheap imports. All pressure. A sensor detects this sudden pressure change and sets off the
kits come fully documented with concise assembly and setting -up details, alarm.
fibreglass PCB and all components. All transmitters are fully tuneable and
can be monitored on a normal VHF radio or tuned higher for greater security. A sophisticated arrangement of electronic filters and timers provide features to
Build up service available if required. match ultra -sonic systems but at a fraction of the cost.
MTX. Micro -miniature audio transmitter. 17mm x 17mm. 9V operation. 1000m
f12.915 a 1 Micro -Pressure intruder detection.
VT500. Hi -power audio transmitter. 250mW output. 20mm x4Omm 9-12V a 2 Operates on all doors and tailgate.
operation. 2-3000m range £15.95
a 3 No door switches needed.
VOX75. Voice activated transmitter. Variable sensitivity. 3Ornm x4Omm 9V
operation. 1000m range £18.95 a 4 Automatically armed 1 minute after leaving vehicle.
CTX900. Sub -carrier scrambled audio transmitter. Cannot be monitored without a 5 10 second entry delay with audible warning.
decoder fitted to radio. 30mm x4Omm. 9V operation. 1000m range £21.95
DSX900. Sub -carrier decoder unit for monitoring CTX900. Connects to radio a 6 Sounds horn intermittently for 1 minute.
earphone socket. Provides output for headphones. 35mm x 50mm. 9-12V a 7 Easy fitting - only 3 wires to connect - no holes to drill.
operation 121.95
HVX400. Mains powered audio transmitter. Connects directly to 240V AC supply. a 8 Compact design can be hidden below dashboard.
30mm x 35mm. 500m range £18.95 a 9 All solid state Power MOSFET output - on relays.
XT89. Crystal controlled audio transmitter. High performance. 100mW output.
Supplied with xtal for 108MHz. Others available to 116MHz. 85mm x 28mm. 9V MICRO -PRESSURE ALARM KIT £12.95
operation. 2-3000m range E38.95 ASSEMBLED READY TO FIT £18.95
TKX900. Tracker/Bleeper transmitter. Transmits continuous stream of audio
pulses. Variable tone and rate. Powerful 200mW output. 63mm x 25mm. 9V
operation. 2-3000m range 01.95 VOLT DROP CAR ALARM
AT. Micro size telephone recording nterface.
i Connects between telephone Our latest alarm using the popular voltage drop method of triggering. Based on
line (anywhere) and cassette recorder. Tape switches automatically with use of the timers of the micro -pressure alarm it offers features 4 to 9 above but relies
phone. All conversations recorded. Powered from line lOmm x 35mm £12.95 on the existing door switch operation for triggering.
TLX700. Micro miniature telephone transmitter. Connects to line (anywhere)
switches on and off with phone use. All conversations transmitted. VOLT DROP ALARM KIT £11.75
20mm x 20mm. Powered from line 1000m range £12.95 ASSEMBLED READY TO FIT £17.75
XML900. RF bug detector. Variable sensitivity. Triggers LED and bleeper when in
presence of RF field. Detects MTX 15-20 feet. 55mm x 55mm. 9V operation
XL7000. Professional bug detector/locator. Variable sensitivity. Twin mode ten Our long established Extended COI system retains the contacts to allow easy
segment LED readout of signal strength with variable rate bleeper. Second mode fitting whilst the electronics removes the adverse effects. The unique spark
AUDIO CONFIRM distinguishes between localised bug transmission and normal generating system still out performs the latest all electronic systems.
legitimate signal such as pagers, cellular etc. 70mm x 100mm. 9V operations
UK customers please send cheques, PO's or registered cash. Please add
£1.50 per order for P&P. Goods despatched ASAP allowing for cheque All Electronize kits include clear, easy to follow instructions, quality components
clearance. Overseas customers send sterling bank draft or Eurocheque and and everything needed, right down to solder and heatsink compound.
add £5.00 per order for shipment. Credit card orders accepted on 0827
714476. Full catalogue available on receipt of 28p stamp. Trade enquiries Order direct (Please quote Ref. CO1 and add
welcome. or send for more details from:- £1 post and packing per item.)
441110i1 F\ The Workshops, 95 Main Rd drio1 ELECTRON/ZE DES/GN tel. 021 308 5877
Baxterley, Nr. Atherstone
DESIGNS Works CV9 2LE 0827 714476 2 Hillside Road, Four Oaks, Sutton Coldfield, B74 4D0

established since 1973 ELECTRONIC KITS & MODULES
trade a selection of nearly EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS ETC.
4,000 product lines covering
the following ranges Build your own:
Geiger-Meuller Indicator, Metal Detector,
Aerials & Accessories
Stereo Amplifier, Digital Combination Lock, or
Batteries & Accessories
Cables & Accessories
any of the many other kits available for numerous applications
Computer Accessories Each kit comes in component form with easy to follow instructions for assembly
Connectors (all types)
Electronic kits/Modules OVER 100 KITS TO CHOOSE FROM
Hardware/Fixings Some of the popular kits include
Connecting leads (all types) * Antenna Amplifiers * Lie Detectors * Alarm Systems & Monitors
* Infra -Red Light Barriers * Sirens - Kojak-Warship-FBI-Ships-Space
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* Lighting Consoles * Amplifiers (up to 200w) * Car Aerial Amplifiers
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Call us now for details of your local Stockist
Telephones & Accessories
Units 5 &6
Please phone or write quoting your Melinite Industrial Estate
company name & address for Brixton Road, Watford
copy of our 1990 catalogue Herts WD2 5SL
TRADE ONLY 0923 52000

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 807

By means of points raised to a very high voltage, ionisers re -structure the air
you breathe, turning ordinary air molecules into potent negative ions. The
effects of breathing in these ions can be quite startling. Almost everybody
reports that it makes them feel good, and there is now strong evidence that it
can also improve your concentration, make you more healthy and alert, make
you sleep better, and even raise your IQ.

The ultimate air ioniser. The Mistral has variable * The Vanishing Smoke
ion drive, built-in ion counter and enough power to
drive five multi -point emitters with ease. Its nine
main drive stages, five secondary drives and four
Light up a cigarette and gently puff smoke
booster stages give an immense 15 billion ions per
into a glass jar until the air inside is a thick,
minute output - enough to fill the largest room in
grey smog. Carefully invert the jar over the
a matter of seconds.
ioniser so that the emitter is inside. Within
The parts set contains everything you need to seconds the smoke will vanish! This is one
build the Mistral: components, PCB, case, emitter MISTRAL IONISER PARTS SET £32.66 of the best demonstrations of an ioniser's
and full instructions. If you're keen to increase the air cleaning action and with a large jar the
output still further, there's an optional eight -point INTERNAL EMITTER PARTS SET effect is quite dramatic.
internal emitter set to give extra ionising capability,
and an almost silent piezo-electric ion fan to drive
(optional) £3.22
the ions away from the emitter and into the room. ION FAN (optional) £11.27 * Triffids
Connect a length of wire from the ioniser
emitter to the soil in the pot of a
houseplant. One with sharp, pointy leaves
is best. Hold your hand close to the plant

< THE DIRECT -ION and the leaves will reach out to touch you!
In the dark you may see a faint blue glow
The ideal bedside ioniser. If you're keen to see what all the fuss is around the leaf tips - this works better with
about, and to experience the ion effect for yourself, this is the one to some plants than with others, so try several
go for. The Direct -Ion parts set contains PCB, 66 components, case, different types. The plants don't object to
mains lead, and even the components for the tester. Don't forget the this treatment at all, by the way, and often
experiments: there's the smoke trick, triffids, seem to thrive on it.
more. And full constructional details too, of course.

DIRECT -ION PARTS SET £14.72 * The Electric Handshake

Wear rubber soled shoes. Touch the
THE Q -ION ioniser emitter for a few seconds until your
body is thoroughly charged up. When your
Check out the ion levels around your house. The 0 -Ion will measure hair stands on end, that's just about
the output of any ioniser, test the air to see where the ions are enough. Then give everyone you meet a
concentrating, help you set up fans and position your ioniser for best jolly electric handshake. Just think, you
effect, and generally tell you anything you want to know about ion could lose all your friends in a single
levels in the air. The readout is in the form of a bar graph which moves evening! (A meaner trick still is to charge
up and down as the 0 -Ion sniffs the air in different parts of the room. up a glass of water or a pint of beer. Even
Readings up to 1010 ions per second, positive or negative. your family won't speak to you after that!)



Bioplamic fields, auras, or just plain corona discharge? No matter how you explain them, the effects are strange and
spectacular. Can you really photograph the missing portion of a torn leaf? Can you really see energy radiating from
your finger tips? Most researchers would answer `yes' to both questions.

Our Kirlian photography set contains everything you need to turn the Mistral into a Kirlian camera, your bedroom
or spare room into a darkroom, and to expose, develop and print Kirlian photographs (photographs made with high
voltage electricity instead of light). The set includes exposure bed, safelight bulb, developing and fixing chemicals,
trays, imaging paper and full instructions. A Mistral ioniser parts set is also required.


These kits also available from Greenweld Electronics Ltd.
All prices include VAT
UK orders: please add £1.15 postage and packing.
Eire and overseas: please deduct VAT and add

D)UgaD1112, £5.00 carriage and insurance.

Tel: (0600) 3715 LIMITED Phone 0600 3715 for immediate
SALES DEPT., ROOM 111, FOUNDERS HOUSE, REDBROOK, MONMOUTH, GWENT. attention to your Access order.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989
variety of fonts, styles and sizes. These
are mainly desk top publishing (DTP)
programs, and simple graphics prog-
rams of the paint type.
Both types of software are very
popular, and paint programs often
seem to be given away with compu-
ters, or with add-ons such as mice. For
some computers there are "public do-
main" paint programs and a few sim-
ple DTP type programs which cost very
11111111 CJ little to obtain.
These programs get around the limi-
tations of the printer's built-in type
styles by driving it in its graphics
6) _qiEDQTF7q _PDQCOCD__ mode. This enables any size and style
of lettering to be produced, but ob-
viously you must have a printer with
using an ultra -violet light box and graphics capability, and one that is
THE STANDARD methods of preparing compatible with the software. If you
and lettering front panels were dis- special photographic materials/
have one of the many Epson compati-
cussed in last month's article, and this chemicals. For those who are in- ble machines there should be no diffi-
month we will consider some alterna- terested in this method, it was descri-
tive methods of tackling the problem. I bed in some detail in a previous
"Actually Doing It" article (see the The output quality of these programs
suppose that virtually any method of varies substantially from one to
producing neat lettering is potentially September 1987 issue. another, and is sometimes not particu-
useful as means of making front The main difficulty with this system larly good. Some programs give a print
panels. is that the materials required seem to quality that is the same as the screen
Few people can produce neat letter- be difficult to obtain these days. Be quality (i.e. pretty terrible) whereas
ing by hand, but stencils are readily warned that even if you can obtain others introduce some smoothing to
available in a variety of letter sizes. The suitable supplies, the cost is likely to be
give improved print quality. In general,
choice of styles is likely to be a bit very high indeed. The results are usual-
outstanding, and the panels are DTP programs give better quality hard -
limited, but you should be able to find ly
extremely hard wearing, but they could copy than do paint programs.
something suitable. Producing individual labels should
You are not likely to find a pen that cost more than the projects them- be perfectly staightforward with either
will mark nicely direct onto the front selves! type of program. Some paint and DTP
panel. A fibre -tipped pen having a programs have on -screen rulers or
spirit based ink might do so, but these COMPUTER LABELS grids and can print accurately to scale.
mostly have "nibs" that are too large Moving on to slightly higher tech With a program that has these facilities
for all but the largest of stencils. methods of producing labels, any
reasonably good typewriter can pro- there should be no difficulty in produc-
If the panel is covered with paper or ing entire panel designs.
card, any pen should then be able to duce neat lettering at about the right Using paint programs, or DTP types
mark it properly. Alternatively, you can size for marking legends on controls that have some graphics capability
mark the words onto a sheet of paper, etc. A well worn machine fitted with an (most have at least some simple line
and then cut out the words and stick equally well used ribbon is not likely to
give good results, but a well main- drawing functions) you can add embel-
them onto the panel. lishments to panel designs. This could
An advantage of this method is that tained typewriter and a new ribbon (or
be something as simple as 'go faster'
it does not matter too much if a mis- better still, a carbon type) can give stripes, to something more complex
take is made. You can simply start extremely neat results indeed. such as using a headphone circuit
again on the word that is wrong, and Some very impressive results can be symbol as the legend for a headphone
will soon produce a replacement. If you obtained using computers to produce socket.
mark directly onto a paper ciavering on panels and labels. Being realistic about
the panel, correcting mistalZes might things, it is not going to be worth your
not be possible. Even a fairly minor while buying expensive equipment VECTOR GRAPHICS
error could result in the panel having to and software in order to produce a few Another form of software that is well
be covered with a fresh sheet of paper, labels for projects. On the other hand, suited to the production of labels or
and a fresh start being made! many electronic hobbyists have an complete panels is the CAD (computer
interest in computing and already have aided drawing) type. These differ from
LABELLERS suitable equipment and programs. paint programs in that they are object
A popular method of making panel Many more have access to sophisti- oriented and use vector graphics. In
labels some years ago was to use a cated computer systems at work, other words, the drawing is not stored
special gadget and tape which enabled school, college, etc. in the form of a bit -map of pixels.
self-adhesive plastic labels to be pro- At a most basic level, you can simply Instead, it is stored as lines, circles etc.,
duced quickly and easily. These label- print out the required words onto a with a co-ordinate system to define the
lers were certainly available until a sheet of paper, cut them up into neat positions of ends of lines, centres of
short time ago, but my recent attempts individual labels, and then stick them circles etc.
to obtain one drew a blank. Anyway, in position on the front panel. Obvious- The co-ordinate system is usually
this is certainly a good way of doing ly the printer should be used in its able to handle very large quantities
things if you can track down the neces- highest quality printing mode. Even a together with a large number of deci-
sary equipment. low cost nine pin dot-matrix printer mal places, giving extremely high re-
The only problem is that some label- should be able to produce lettering of solution. The drawing is produced on
lers produce labels that are slightly on reasonable quality. the monitor, printer, or whatever, us-
the large size for today's mostly dimi- Most dot-matrix printers these days ing the full resolution of the device
nutive projects. The labels can tend to seem to have more than one built-in concerned. Any true CAD program can
become unstuck and damaged at the font, and some offer a range of type output accurately to scale.
corners after a period of time, but sizes and styles. Many take add-on font For the production of labels and
replacements are easily produced and cartridges, and (or) can take download - panels you do not need a sophisticated
installed if necessary. able fonts. Obviously the greater the CAD program costing thousands of
There are relatively simple methods range of fonts, styles, and letter sizes pounds. The most simple of CAD soft-
for producing entire front panel your printer can handle, the better your ware running on a home computer
designs or individual labels photo- chances of finding a combination that should be perfectly adequate. The
graphically. This basically involves first is well suited to project panel labels. range of fonts available is strictly
producing the design on translucent Taking things a stage further, there limited with most CAD programs, since
material using ink or rub -on transfers, are plenty of programs that can pro- they are primarily intended for techni-
and then producing the panel from this duce lettering from printers in a wide cal drawings. They mostly provide

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 809

quite neat results though, and with text difficulty in keeping your imagination One slight problem is that some
any size you like. in check. combinations of lacquer and paper do
For the ultimate in front panel de- COLOUR not seem to mix well. You can find that
signs you need one of the illustration Printers with the ability to print in the paper tends to go translucent and a
programs. Unfortunately, these are colour have been something of a rarity bit blotchy looking, and you will almost
something of a rarity at present, are in the past. It seems to be a standard certainly have to put up with a certain
not very cheap, and only run on the feature on a number of recent printers amount of discolouration.
more powerful 16 -bit computers. though, and is an optional extra on My preferred method is to cover the
They combine paint program and several others. paper with transparent self-adhesive
CAD features, plus some of their own. Using colour can certainly give much plastic. As already explained, this is a
They are ideal for producing panel more impressive results, and it might little risky in that it is easy to end up
designs, since they are designed speci- be possible to do so even if you do not with wrinkles in the covering.
fically for commercial art applications have a colour printer. Some of the Peeling it back so that it can be
of this type (and the panels for many larger computer supplies companies repositioned is almost certain to dam-
pieces of commercial electronics are can supply ribbons in various colours age the lettering. This is not so impor-
now designed using software of this for some of the more popular dot tant with a computer printed panel,
type). matrix printers. since it takes little time to print out
Text can be in virtually any size, This limits you to one colour for the another one and try again. The cost of
there are numerous fonts to choose whole panel design, but this is prob- wasted materials is not going to be
from, and you can manipulate the text ably all you will want anyway. In fact, very great, and this method can pro-
in a variety of ways. This includes such you can probably produce multi- duce some very professional looking
things as shadow effects, outline text, coloured designs by printing one col- and long lasting results.
various fill patterns including fountain our, then putting the sheet of paper
fills (shading that varies from light to back into the printer and printing the FINALLY
dark), and fitting text to a curve or second colour, and so on. Provided If you are not very skilled with rub -on
other shape. you produce a design where a very transfers, and perhaps do not bother to
The panel design for Fig.1 was pro- slight lack of registration accuracy be- label the panels of your projects at all,
duced by playing with an illustration tween one colour and the next will not bear in mind that there are alternative
program for a couple of hours. The fact show up too clearly, this method can methods of labelling. These will often
that had never used this program
I produce some excellent results. give good results, and do not require a
before probably shows, but it shows One problem with a computer de- high level of expertise.
the type of thing that can be acieved. If signed front panel is that you will Even if you are skilled at using trans-
you can get access to a program of this probably only be able to print it onto fers, it would still be a good idea to
type it is well worthwhile giving it a try- ordinary paper. This will not give a give some thought to the alternatives
out. The only problem is likely to be particularly impressive finish, and will instead of automatically reaching for
probably soon become dirty and dis- the transfer sheets next time you come
Fig. 1. A computerised front panel coloured. Spraying the paper with a to label a panel. These alternative sys-
design produced using an illustration clear lacquer can give a good and quite tems of labelling should make an in-
program called "Corel Draw". hard wearing finish. teresting change if nothing else.

0 5ASs \czEB

Amiga FIER
application of these. Unlike transistor, transducer is not a word
BOOK REVIEWS that is so easily recognised. And yet there are a lot of them about.
Familiar examples are microphones and loudspeakers. Solar pow-
ered devices such as in calculators is another. However, the book is
ELECTRONICS Build and Learn 2nd Edition mainly concerned with the sensing and measuring use of transduc-
by Robert Penfold ers. And therefore, in the chapter on acoustics, it is the use of mic-
The electronics enthusiast may well be able to undertake many rophones in the measurement of sound levels rather than sound
projects without a great deal of theoretical knowledge but there is quality that is discussed.
no doubt that, sooner or later, a bit of basic theory will make all the A transducer is generally accepted to be a device that converts a
difference between being able to solve, say a fault finding problem non electrical physical quantity into an electrical signal or vice
and coming to a dead stop. ELECTRONICS Build & Learn is versa. Using the term "measurand" which is the physical quantity
intended to guide the electronics enthusiast through enough basic to be measured, such as acceleration, displacement, force, flow
theory to avoid this sort of frustration. level, position, pressure, strain, temperature, velocity etc., the
As the title suggests, it is practical as well as theoretical. The first book divides them into five types: thermal, solid, fluid, acoustic
chapter deals with the construction of a circuit demonstrator unit and optical (grouped together), and chemical measurands, with
which is used in subsequent chapters to illustrate the characteris- one chapter devoted to each type.
tics of electronic components so that one learns by doing. In addition, because transducers are at heart analogue devices,
ELECTRONICS Build & Learn was originally published in there is a final chapter which discusses ways that transducers can
1980. In this new, second edition, the author, R. A. Penfold (a be interfaced for digital conversion.
name that must be familiar to Everyday Electronics readers), has This is certainly a very useful reference book for designers and
updated the circuit demonstrator board which now includes i.c. engineers and although, as the author points out, it is not intended
holders and included a new chapter on logic circuitry and its rele- as an encyclopaedia or even a guide as to which transducer to use in
vance to computer binary code. Published by PCP it costs £5.95 - a particular application, it does compare one type with another
see Direct Book Service pages for more details. Paul Gabriel and so allow the designer to make an informed choice.
Sensors and Transducers is published by Heinemann Newnes and
SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS by Keith Brindley is priced at £12.95 - see Direct Book Service pages for more
Although the word SENSORS dominates the cover of this details.
book, it is really all about transducers, where sensors are one Paul Gabriel

810 Everyday Electronics, December 1989


SEE DIRECT BOOK SERVICE pages-for full ordering details
£2.45 plus P & P
ONLY £1.95plusp&p
A complete City and Guilds
By Michael Tooley BA and Certificate Course for 726/303
David Whitfield MA MSc CEng MIEE Introductory Microprocessors
A comprehensive background to modern elec- Written by Mike Tooley BA this course can lead
tronics including test gear projects. This 104 page, successful readers to a City and Guilds Certificate.
A4 size book forms a complete course in basic elec- Everything you need to know is included-even pre-test
tronics; designed for the complete newcomer it will, papers, etc.
however, also be of value to those with some previous From Terminology, Integrated Circuits and Logic
experience of electronics. Wherever possible the Families in Part One, the course progresses in easy
course is related to "real life" working circuits and each stages up to High- and Low-level Languages, Flow
part includes a set of detailed practical assignments. Charts and Assembly Language. Also featured is a
range of eight Data Pages giving information on popular
This book is an excellent companion for anyone interested in microprocessor chips. A comprehensive index is
electronics and will be invaluable for those taking G.C.S.E. or included, making this a valuable reference
B.T.E.C. electronics courses. ORDER CODE: EE/T-1 manual. ORDER CODE: TI 88/89

£2.45 plus P & P £245 plus P & P
Contains twenty of our best projects from previous
By Owen Bishop issues of EE, each backed with a kit of components.
The projects are:
Seashell Sea Synthesiser, EE Treasure Hunter, Mini
Designed to explain the workings of electronic com- Strobe, Digital Capacitance Meter, Three Channel
ponents and circuits by involving the reader in Sound to Light, BBC 16K Sideways Ram, Simple
experimenting with them. The book does not con- Short Wave Radio, Insulation Tester, Visual Guitar/
tain masses of theory or formulae but straightfor- Instrument Tuner, Stepper Motor Interface, Eprom
ward explanations and circuits to build and experi- Eraser, 200MHz Digital Frequency Meter, Infra Red
ment with. Alarm, EE Equaliser Ioniser, Bat Detector, Acoustic
The text is split into 28 easily digestible sections, Probe, Mains Tester and Fuse Finder, Light Rider -
each with a separate project. The breadboard exper- (Lapel Badge, Disco Lights, Chaser Light), Musical
iments assume no previous knowledge, start at Doorbell, Function Generator, Tilt Alarm, lOW
Semiconductor Diodes and progress through bista- Audio Amplifer, EE Buccaneer Induction Balance
bles, timers, amplifiers, binary etc up to f.e.t.s and Metal Detector, BBC Midi Interface, Variable Bench
shift registers. Power Supply, Pet Scarer, Audio Signal Generator.
The projects include radio receivers, various tim-
ers and alarms, plus temperature sensors and water Available from Direct Book Service
detectors etc. ORDER CODE EP1
An excellent source book for GCSE courses. OR ...
Available from Direct Book Service SEE YOUR NEWSAGENT NOW!

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 811

fully retain the screws so that they can be perfect square as it is periodically stopped
used to re -assemble the case halves. by the ULA). If the clock signal is absent,
4. Do not separate the case halves but care- this will usually indicate that the ULA
fully turn the Spectrum the correct way up. (IC1) is faulty.
Now remove the upper case half by gently 10. The next stage involves checking the
lifting and then moving it to the rear. The read (RD) and write (WR) lines (pin -21
upper case half contains the keyboard and pin -22 of IC2 respectively). If the Z80
assembly and is attached to the lower half is fetching and executing instructions,
by means of two lengths of printed wiring. these lines should be pulsing continuously.
This wiring can be easily damaged by over- If these lines are static, and provided the
stretching or bending! clock is present, this will usually point to
5. Disconnect the printed wiring from the failure of the Z80 itself.

&moan two connectors fitted to the p.c.b. This can

be done by firmly grasping the printed wir-
ing between the thumb and forefinger and
11. If the problem area can still not be
pinpointed, the logic probe (or
oscillosccope) should be connected to each

*rale* gently pulling upwards. Do not pull side-

ways or strain the printed wiring to the
keyboard matrix.
6. Having freed the upper half, put this
of the data and address lines in turn. The
signal present on each line should be
examined and, if any line is permanently
low (logic 0) or high (logic 1) or
0,e Sfre,eraikp safely aside storing it with the keyboard
permanently tri-state (i.e. floating and
neither logic 0 nor logic 1) this may indicate
failure of an integrated circuit connected to
7. Now re -connect the power supply and
Coter,.. TV.
8. Check each of the power rails (+12V,
+5V, and -5V). This can most easily be
the bus or the fault may be attributable to
the failure of one of the Z80's internal
buffer/drivers. In the latter case it will, of
done using any one of the eight RAM chips course, be necessary to desolder and
by Mike Tooley BA (IC6 to IC13) fitted at the front left-hand replace the Z80.
side of the p.c.b. These RAM chips are 12. Finally, and if all else fails to pinpoint
16K -bit 4116 devices and the supplies are the faulty component, the following
connected as follows: (unscientific yet effective!) procedure can
HIS month, as promised, we shall show be tried:
I how, with minimal software and Pin number Supply rail (a) Leave the system running for some
hardware, the humble Spectrum can be -5V time. Then touch the centre of each
used as a versatile clock/timer. We begin by chip in turn in order to ascertain its
attempting to provide an answer to a plea 8 +12V
9 +5V working temperature. If a chip is
from a reader with a defective Spectrum. running distinctly hot (i.e. very warm
Mr S. Durnin of Burnley describes a A ground (OV) connection to the or too hot to comfortably touch) it
fairly common problem; that of a non - multimeter can be obtained by simply should be considered a prime suspect.
initialising Series Two Spectrum. Unfortu- clipping the negative test lead to the (If possible compare with the heat
nately, failure to initialise (and produce the aluminium heatsink at the rear of the p.c.b. produced by a similar chip fitted in
normal copyright message) can be caused The pin connections for the RAM chips are another Spectrum).
by a number of faults. The prime suspect in shown in Fig. 1. In particular, where a RAM chip is
an early Spectrum (Issue Three or before) If any of these supplies is low or missing, running noticeably hotter than its
is the power supply, however almost any it will indicate that the fault is either neighbours, this usually indicates that
device which produces a fault on the bus attributable to failure of an integrated the device has failed. Such a failure will
lines will cause this symptom. Hence fai- circuit device or that the power supply is at also normally be associated with a
lure of a RAM device. ROM, CPU or fault. The power supply in the Issue Two reduction in one, or more, of the
ULA could be the problem. Spectrum was notoriously unreliable. (I supply rail voltages due to relatively
If the screen clears to a random display can remember endless faults involving the high current demand.
of flashing squares, this symptom is often infamous "TR4" and "TR5"!). (b) The 6C001 or 6C002 ULA fitted to the
associated with a failed RAM. If, on the 9. If the power supply rails are normal (i.e. Spectrum is invariably socketed. This
other hand, the display comprises a series within 10 per cent of their nominal complex device is prone to failure
of thick vertical black and white stripes, the voltages); the next stage involves checking (particularly by improper connection
fault could be within the ULA. If nothing the signal at the clock input to the Z80. If to the expansion bus) and it is thus
at all happens (completely black or white this signal is absent the system will be worth substituting a known device
screen), then I would suspect the CPU or completely dead. The clock signal can be (which must be from a Spectrum of
ROM. easily checked using a logic probe or an similar issue number).
Some years ago I was involved with pro- oscilloscope which should be connected to Take care when removing and
viding a course specifically for Spectrum pin -6 of the Z80 (IC2). The clock signal replacing the ULA as the pins can be
service engineers. I recall spending many should comprise a square wave of 3.5MHz easily damaged and the device is static
hours producing a dossier of screen dis- (note that this waveform will not be a sensitive. Don't forget to disconnect
plays and likely faults. Unfortunately, I the power supply and the TV when
cannot trace the paperwork but suspect handling the device. A replacement
that other people may have also attempted ULA will usually cost in the region of
this exercise. If you have any information £6 to £10!
on the screen displays produced by dud 13. Finally, if you do have to desolder an
Spectrums (should this be Spectra?) then integrated circuit device which you suspect
please get in touch. Between us, we should to be faulty, it is always worth fitting a low -
be able to provide something worth pub- profile d.i.l. socket before replacing the
lishing here in On Spec! device with a new component. This can
In any event, the procedure for dealing save much aggravation in the event of
with a defunct Spectrum (Issue Six, or ear- subsequent failure and will also allow you
lier) should broadly follow these to test a device (by substitution) if the need
guidelines: ever arises.
1. Disconnect the power supply and TV. 14. The procedure for re -assembling the
2. Invert the Spectrum so that the keyboard Spectrum is simply the reverse of disassem-
is face downwards (a plastic or rubber mat bly. Again, it is important to avoid strain-
should be used to protect the keyboard ing the printed wiring to the keyboard
from damage against the work surface). membrane and, in order to ensure an effec-
3. Remove the five cross -point fixing tive connection, it is important to push the
screws for the case which are accessible on printed wiring fully home into each of the
the underside of the case. Note that the p.c.b mounted connectors. Also, don't
rearmost screw is approximately 50 per forget that the longer of the case screws is
cent longer than the other screws. Care- Fig. 1 4116 pin connections fitted at the rear. Good luck!

812 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

Several years ago (July 1986, to be pre-
cise) I devoted an instalment of On Spec to
explaining how one can make use of the
FRAMES system variable in order to make
the Spectrum function as a reasonably
accurate clock. I also included a simple
program which could provide an on -screen
clock display in hours, minutes, and sec-
onds. More recently, I realised the need for
a programmable timer which would be cap-
able of driving a mains connected load.
Rather than go to the extreme length of
purchasing a ready made mains timer unit
or designing a circuit from scratch, I
decided, once again, to press my trusty
workshop Spectrum into service.
The problem with all this, of course, lies
rather more with the hardware than the
software; if at all possible, I wanted to Fig. 2 Circuit diagram of the timer interface
avoid having to build a complex interface
circuit which would require connection to There is some considerable scope for vide answers in future instalments of On
the Spectrum's expansion bus! experimentation with both the hardware Spec.
Since I was only concerned with a single and software of this little project. If the Mike Tooley, Faculty of Technology,
channel, I decided that it would be worth relay is to be energised throughout the tim- Brooklands College, Heath Road, Wey-
exploring the use of the cassette recorder ing period (rather than at the end)_ it may, bridge, Surrey, KT13 8T1'.
EAR connector as a means of deriving an for example, be connected to the Q output
output signal (a signal at the EAR connec- of IC1 (pin -12) rather than the 0 output
tor can very easily be produced by includ- (pin -13). Alternatively, if the reset button
ing a BEEP statement within a program). is not operated at the end of an initial tim- COMPONENTS
The BEEP signal can be used to trigger an ing period, the load will be maintained
external bistable latch and hence the prob- until the end of the next period of elapsed Resistors
lem can be readily solved! time. R1 100k
Fig. 2 shows the complete circuit diag- Software may be written to provide sev- R2,R3,R4 1k (3 off)
ram of the timer relay interface. The inter- eral consecutive on/off periods, each being R5 270
face is connected to the Spectrum by means initiated by a BEEP statement. As an
of a standard cassette cable fitted with two example, it would be eminently possible to (All resistors are 0.25W 5%)
3.5mm jack plugs. D1 and D2 provide a control a central heating system or domes-
means of detecting the BEEP signal whilst tic water heater (via appropriately rated Capacitors
TR1 and TR2 provide the necessary rising relays) with a pre -selected 24 -hour cycle C1 100n
edge pulse to clock the J -K bistable ele- for each day of the week. C2 1/1 elect. 12V
ment (IC1) at the end of a burst of BEEP C3 10µ elect. 1 2V
signal. A push-button switch, 51, provides Next month we hope to have some details
a means of resetting the bistable latch of Andy Wright's SAM BASIC (Andy will Semiconductors
(causing the relay to drop -out). be well known to many readers as the D1, D2 1 N4148 (2 off)
Power for the timer/relay interface may author of Beta BASIC). In the meantime, D3 red I.e.d.
be derived from the Spectrum (+5V rail if you would like a set of the latest Up -date TR 1, TR2 BC548 (2 off)
and GROUND) or alternatively may be sheets, please drop me a line enclosing a ICI 7473
taken from any bench supply capable of large (250mm x 300mm) and adequately
delivering a well -regulated +5V at about stamped (currently 42p for UK postage) Miscellaneous
50mA. Where d.c. (rather than a.c.) con- and addressed envelope. Please note that I RLA solid-state relay
nected loads are to be switched, a minia- am unable to provide individual replies to (see text)
ture relay with a coil rated at 5V and having queries. Instead, I will do my best to pro - Si miniature push-
a resistance of 300 ohms (or greater) may 5 button switch
be used. 10 REM it it (push to make)
15 REM tf Clock/Timer Demonstration **
It is vitally important to note that, when 20 REM it Everyday Electronics December 1989 SS SKI 3.5mm jack socket
25 REM ti
using a solid-state relay with a mains con- 30 REM
1210 60 TO 1130
nected load, great care must be taken to 40 REM 2000 REM fff Clock Subroutine ***
50 REM *** Initialise *Si 2010 CLS
avoid contact with the mains supply and to 60 PAPER 1: INK 7: BORDER 1 2020 PRINT AT 21,0;"Enter correct timei.
ensure adequate insulation at the mains 70 POKE 23658,8: REM Caps lock 2030 GO SUB 3000
80 POKE 23609,0: REM Disable keyclick 2035 CLS
contacts of the relay. It is always better to 90 REM 2040 PRINT AT 19,2;"Press <0> far menu options."
be safe than to be sorry! 100 REM tit Main Menu Options *if 2050 PRINT AT 8,10;"Time now ..."
102 CLS 2060 PRINT AT 10,10;"HOUR MIN SEC"
105 PRINT AT 4,81.E.E. CLOCK/TIMER" 2070 LET st=(60$60fhours.60*mins+secs)*50
Demonstration software 110
PRINT AT 8,8;"Options"
PRINT AT 10,8;"1. Timer'
2080 LET sta=INT (st/65536)1 LET rem=st-(stat65536)
A complete clock/timer demonstration 2090 LET stb=INT (rem/256)1 LET'rem=rem-(stb$256)
130 PRINT AT 11,8;"2. Clock" 2100 POKE 23672,rem: POKE 23673,stb: POKE 23674,sta
program is shown in Fig. 3. This program 135 PRINT AT 12,8;"3. Quit. 2110 GO SUB 4000
PRINT AT 14,8;"Solect option..."
provides the user with three options, 140
2120 PRINT AT 12,12;hour;"
including using the Spectrum as an elapsed 160 IF r$=." THEN GO TO 150 2140 GO TO 2110
165 IF r$="0" THEN 60 TO 150
timer (in conjunction with the timer relay 170 LET r=VAL r$
3000 REM tit Subroutine to set clock parameters Stir
3020 INPUT "Hours >";hours
interface) and using the Spectrum as a 180 IF r=1 THEN 60 SUB 1000 3030 INPUT "Minutes >.;mins
clock. In the former case, the user is 190
IF r=2 THEN SO SUB 2000
3040 INPUT "Seconds >.;secs
prompted to enter the time required (in 210 GO TO 100 4000 REM till Subroutine to calculate time ***
hours, minutes, and seconds) and then 1000
REM if* Timer Subroutine ***
4010 LET t=PEEK 23672,2561PEEK 23673+65536SPEEK 23674
4020 LET dt=INT (t/50)
invited to press the space bar to start the 1020 PRINT AT 21,0;"Set alarm time." 4030 LET hour=INT (dt/3600): LET rem=dt-(hourf3600)
GO SUB 3000
timing period. During the timing period, 1030
1050 CLS
4040 LET min=INT (rem/60): LET rem=rem-(minf60)
4050 LET sec=rem
elapsed time is displayed on the screen. At 1060 PRINT AT 8,10;.Alarm set fort" 4060 RETURN
the end of the time previously set by the 1062
PRINT AT 12,12;hours;" ";.ins;" ";secs;"
user, the Spectrum issues a BEEP and the 1070 PRINT AT 16,6;"Press <SPACE> to start."
1080 LET rS=INKEY$
relay will become energised. 1090 IF r*<>" " THEN GO TO 1080
In'the latter case, the user is prompted to 1095 CLS
enter the current time (also in hours, 1100
PRINT AT 13,10;"Elapsed times"
Fig. 3 Listing of the clock/timer
minutes and seconds) and thereafter the 1120 POKE 23672,0: POKE 23673,0: POKE 23674,0 program
time is displayed on the screen. Pressing 1130
GO SUB 4000
PRINT AT 12,12;hour;" ";min;" ";sec;"
the Q key will return the user to the main 1200 IF hour=hours AND min=mins AND sec=secs THEN BEEP 1,101 RETURN
options menu.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 813

RADIOCOMMUNICATION DIVISION'S tune with current needs, for example intended to be "a comprehensive and
ANNUAL REPORT through the inclusion of topics such as easy to understand guide to the sub-
In his introduction to the DTI electromagnetic compatibility, has also ject" for newcomers, "remaining an
Radiocommunications Division's been introduced. Four new information essential reference volume to be used
recently published Annual Report for sheets have been written to help licen- time and time again".
1988/89, Robert Atkins, Parliamentary sees with the new licence. The ever - For its size, Ian Poole's new book per-
Under Secretary of State for Industry, popular booklet How to become a Radio forms well as claimed, and includes a
notes the continuing growing demand Amateur has been substantially useful chapter on "Getting Started".
for use of the radio spectrum. The gov- enlarged and brought up to date. Basic aspects of the hobby, including
ernment, he says, has been examining a practical operating, are explained
wide range of options to ensure the RAYNET AT LOCKERBIE clearly and theoretical subjects are
most effective use of the spectrum. The review also refers to the public covered with a minimum of (albeit well -
Referring to the CSPI report Deregula- service aspect of amateur radio: explained) technical terms.
tion of the Radio Spectrum in the UK "RAYNET, the radio amateur This approach does not provide in-
(see this column, August 1987), the emergency service, is often to be found depth explanations, but that is not the
Annual Report (AR) records that Touche providing radiocommunications in sup- purpose of the book. For anyone
Ross Management Consultants were port of the emergency services at disas- interested in taking up amateur radio
commissioned in October 1988 to study ter scenes. A case in point was at Loc- many, but not all, aspects of the hobby
the commercial viability of a trial of Fre- kerbie where, within 30 minutes of the are covered or referred to, and the book
quency Planning Organisations (FP0s) fatal air crash on 21 December, three could be very useful in providing initial
to implement spectrum pricing. The DTI RAYNET members were deployed explanations/outlines for those study-
is now re-examining the options in the within Lockerbie. Shortly after midnight ing for the Radio Amateurs' Examina-
light of the Touche Ross report and communications links were established tion before going deeper into particular
other recent studies. "When proposals with each ambulance in the area and aspects.
are finalised, there will be a full oppor- during 22 December teams were Once licensed an amateur could well
tunity for interested parties to submit deployed with Police and Accident find it useful when coming across some
their views." Investigators and remained on site until new aspect of the hobby. Thinking back
The original CSPI report recom- 31 December." to my own early days on the amateur
mended that because of its potential "The number of RAYNET personnel bands such a book would have been
commercial value the amateur share of in service ranged from 30 just after the invaluable as fellow -operators on the
the spectrum should be reduced. crash to 100 at the peak of search activ- air, or at my club, expounded on a vari-
Despite the feeling of the Radio Society ity. Almost all the equipment used was ety of subjects making me feel very
of Great Britain at the time that it was of the members' personal property. Ser- much "at the back of the class". A quick
little significance, there are some who vice was provided 24 hours a day thus peek in its pages would have prompted
still believe there is a danger of this allowing night searches with the sec- my memory from earlier studies,
recommendation slipping through as urity of radiocommunications. Mem- primed me on overall principles, or put
"accepted in principle" somewhere in bers from as far south as the midlands me on the road to learn more.
the small print. provided support. The speed and scale Istill need such a prompter from time
of the RAYNET response to this disaster to time and shall be keeping my copy
YEAR IN REVIEW is a fitting testimony to the organisation handy as a quick -reference source. As a
In its comments on amateur radio, the and its members". good overall guide to what amateur
AR recalls that during the year in review radio is about, this small volume packs
HRH The Duke of Edinburgh presented RADIO INVESTIGATION SERVICE a lot into its 150 pages. (It is available
the DTI's Young Amateur of the Year The overall objective of the Radio from our Direct Book Service - see the
award to Andrew Keeble, aged 15, of Investigation Service (RIS) is to reduce book pages in this issue. Ed.)
Norwich at the RSGB's 75th anniversary interference to the radio spectrum. Its
convention in 1988. The Radiocom- work covers a wide range of services USA BANDS UPDATE
munications Division (RD) has agreed ranging from licensing and inspecting In my September column I reported
to continue this award for a further two private mobile radio (PMR) installations on the proceedings of the Congres-
years, and lends its broad supportto the to prosecuting pirate radio stations. sional House Sub -Committee looking
RSGB's Project YEAR (Youth into Elec- According to the AR the RIS received into charges that the Federal Communi-
tronics via Amateur Radio). For the sec- 522 requests during the year, accom- cations Commission (FCC) may not
ond year in succession the Division panied by the standard fee of £21, from have acted properly in dealing with pro-
manned a stand at the RSGB Conven- householders to visit them to diagnose tests about the allocation of part of the
tion "which proved very popular with the cause of reception difficulties. In 220MHz amateur band to commercial
licensees". order to underline the responsibility of interests.
The review continues, "After lengthy the trade in resolving reception prob- The FCC has now rejected all petitions
discussions between RD and the RSGB, lems, however, the RIS will now only received asking for reconsideration of
a licence amendment was made in Sep- carry out detailed investigations after its frequency re -allocation and the
tember 1988 which provided a legal dealers or aerial contractors have con- American Radio Relay League (ARRL) is
framework for digital communications firmed that they have checked the to ask a Federal Court of Appeals to
(including packet radio). The provisions domestic apparatus concerned. review the FCC decision.
are included in the revised Amateur The Service also received 4,242 In a surprise move the FCC, appa-
Radio Licence which came into effect in reports of possible illegal transmitters rently under pressure from the chair-
January 1989. Another highlight of the and other interference sources. Such man of the Congressional Sub -Commit-
licence is provision to allow UK reports, says the DTI, have assisted the tee, has grudgingly agreed that ARRL
amateurs to operate under their UK RIS in taking action against, unlicensed might apply for secondary access to the
licence in a growing number of CEPT broadcasters and people who misuse 216-220MHz band by way of compensa-
countries". CB and amateur radio. tion for loss of part of the 220MHz band.
"This major revision required the set- The broadcasting establishment, how-
ting up of a new computer system and NEW BOOK ever, is expected to oppose any such
the complete re -design of all licence An Introduction to Amateur Radio, by allocation because of the possibility of
stationery. A new Radio Amateurs' I.D. Poole, G3YWX, (paperback, Ber- interference to TV transmissions in the
Examination syllabus more closely in nard Babani [Publishing] Ltd, £3.50) is adjacent 210-216MHz band.

814 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

TEL: 021 553 0186 OFFICE: 021 559 1437
3 Hours

8 -way "PREOMAT" T.V. Tuning of band 1-111 & U.H.F. with AFC,
Main supply 240 volt fully enclosed case 14 x 71/2x31/4inches. These MEMOREX VIDEO TAPES FULL LIFETIME GUARANTEE (VHS)
translators may be used directly into a Cable T.V. or modified for use E180 High standard £2.69 P&P 50p, 3 for £7.99 P&P £2.
with monitor, or V.C.R. or T.V. sound tuner. 10 for£22.50 P&P £3.
The Monitors are in Al Condition fully guaranteed £4.99 P&P £3. V2000 (Grundig & Phillips) VCC360 £6.99VCC480 £7.99 P&P £1.
Not working but in good condition 3 for £10.00 P&P £4. VIDEOLAB VHS VIDEO tapes
Circuit & Modifications £1. E180 £1.99 P&P 50p, 10 for £17.99 P&P £3.

C.B. CONVERTER 40 Channel, plugs into 12 volt NM car radio.

GRUNDIG Brand new and boxed £1.99 P&P 75p
INFRA -RED SANYO £39, SONY £45. all fully tested, FAULTY machines £15.
REMOTE complete.
GRUNDIG 2 x 4 SUPER fully tested £49. Faulty but complete £25.
CONTROL PHILLIPS 2020/22 faulty £15.
VIF-K1 IMMERSION HEATERS made by "REMPLOY' 3Kw 230/50 volts 11
inches, Brand new Boxed £1.99 P&P £2.
consists of TRANSMITTER TPV 355 & RECEIVER VIF-E1 PANEL METERS Moving iron 72 x 72mm lamp F,S,D Thermoplastic
(13 Functions), will fit Grundig 2 x 4 super video, construction, Brand new boxed £2.99, 92 x 92mm £3.99 P&P £1.
Complete with battery £4.99 P&P £1. Circuit diagram 75p SURPLUS EQUIPMENT WANTED : VIDEOS, CAMCORDERS, AM-
PLIFIERS, HI-F1's, Etc. ANYTHING USEFUL, any quantity.




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For IBM PC/XI and clones including Amstrad 1512, 1640, RM

NIMBUS and BBC B, B+ and Master.
"Analyserqqq II" - Analyses complex circuits for GAIN, PHASE,
Are you still using tapes and a light box? DELAY, over a wide frequency range.

Have you access to an IBM PC/XT/AT or clone? Can save days breadboarding and thousands of pounds worth
Would you like to be able to produce PCB layouts up to 17" square? of equipment.
With up to 8 track layers and 2 silk screen layers?
With up to 8 different track widths anywhere in the range .002 to .531' ? PRICES FROM E130 + VAT.
With up to 16 different pad sizes from the same range?
With pad shapes including round, oval, square, with or without hole? Write or phone for full details:
With up to 1500 IC's per board, from up to 100 different outline?
That can be used for surface mount components? Number One Systems Ltd
That is as good at circuit diagrams as it is at PCB's? REF: EVD
Where you can learn how to use it in around half an hour? Harding Way,
Which outputs to dot matrix printer, pen -plotter or photo -plotter (via St Ives, Huntingdon,
bureaux)? Cambs PE17 4WR. Tel: St. Ives (04130161778 (5 lines)

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 815

H. P. 1740A Dual Trace 100MHz Delay Sweep. Trig
TELEOUIPMENT 063 Dual Trace SOMHz Delay Sweep
Daisy Sweep E500
GOULD OS3000ecilloecope Dual Trace 20MHz ........ E250
240V Cable Input 3 -pin
115V USA Socket Outlet
GOULD 1421 Digital Storage Dual Tram 20MHz E750
GOULD 053000A Dual Trace 40MHz Delay Sweep. TV Trig.
THANDAR TA2080 Logic Analyser 20A4HL 9 Channel. 30/15V or 15-0-15V 20 VA f 9.85 2.03
. MOO THURLBY PL3200MD 0-301/ 2A Twice. Clued Mode Pri 120V r 2 or 220/240V or 2 x 15V Tapped Secs. Vohs 80 13.38150 2.14
IELEOUIPMENT 0755 Dual Trace 50MHz Delay Sweep Digital Meters E200 17.34 2.53
. 1275 415/440V.Sec 440 or 240V available. 3, 4, 5, 6, 8,9, 10, 15, 18, 250
FEEDBACK FSG608 Sweep Function Generator 0.011411, 21.13 P 3.57
KIKUSUI 5630A Dual Trace 35MHz . E250 1MHz (P&P E71 1200 or 110V Centre Tapped Sec 20, 27, 30V or 15-0.150
COSSOR CD1.1150 Dual Treoe 35MHz Delay Sweep ... EWA SOlARTRON 7045 Millimeter 41/2 digit LED 30 ranges 15V f 500 & 3.90
P&P 34.66
GOULD 051100 Dual Trace 30MHz IV Trig .. 02111 AutoiManual MEP 61 ...................31..............115
E125 1000 P 4.90
SE. LABS SM1 1 1 Dual Trace 18MHz . 630 20 VA £8.33 2.51 0.5 1 4.55 1.81
LOGIC PROBE h/Pe 33003 E31 ....... E14 2000 86.70 6.16
TRIO CS1686A Dual Trace 20MHz . 1250 FARNELL Oscillator LFM310Hz-10MHz Sine/Square . 600 60 13.60 2.70 1 2 6.19 1.98
H. P. 1220A Dual Trace 15MHz IV Trig. .. 1200 3000VA 124.46 O'A
RACAL 9915 Prep Counter 101*-520MHz (Crystal Oven) 100 15.87 P 2.92 2 A 4 10.01 2.20
GOULD 05255 Dual Trace 15MHz IV Trig. .........,...... E210 6150
PHILIPS PM3233 Dual Beam 10MHz TV Trig. ............. E200 200 22.49 3.52 3 M 6 11.60 2.42
GOULD 052504 Dual Trace 10MHz TV Trig. ...... E140
RACAL 9900 Series Universal Counter limers from ..Ohm
4 P 8 13.84 2.53
96/48V or 48-0-48V
MARCONI ATTENUATORS TF2162 DC-1MHz 600 O 250 29.20 P 3.62
THIS IS JUST A SAMPLE- MANY OTHERS NAMABLE 2 x 0-36-48V Secs to give 60, 72,
0 -111c113 (P&P E71 E35 500 41.91 4.24 5 S 10 17.72 2.74
HATFIELD ATTENUATORS 50 Ohm DC 250Mliz 0-10048 1000 6 12 19.41 2.92 84, 96V, or 36-0-36V or 48-0-48V.
MARCONI/SANDERS 50588 Sig Source. 8-12.5MHz E650 . 600 ohm DC-1MHz. (New Price CI 35/ (P&P E4) .......... 60 76.01 5.33
MARCONI TF2008 AM/FM 10KHz-510MHz Sig. Gen. E375 1500 98.04 6.54 8 16 25.94 3.02 96V 48/36V P&P
MARCONI TF2015 AM/FM 10-520MHz Sig Gen with TF2171 AVO MULTIMETERS :P&P 110 all Units' 2000 117.96 7.64 10 20 29.94 3.24 0.5 1 £7.16 1.76
0550 12 24 33.42 3.35
MARCONI TF2015 without Synchroniser TF2171 ...... 625 AVO 8s; 9s and Ministry Versions. With Bahrein & Leads 3000 165.41 0/A 1 2 12.80 2.31
MARCONI TF2016 AM/FM 101V1Hz-120h4Hz Sig Gen with . From 60 6000 VA 353.43 0/A 15 30 37.43 4.01 2 A 4 21.05 2.91
TF2173 . . 600 TEST LEADS for AVOs. Red & Black with 2 croc Clips & 20 40 51.10 6.54 M 25.49
MARCONI TF2018 without Synchroniser TF2173 ...... 6300 2 prods IP & P 6 24/12V or 12-0-12V
4 P
8 32.54
MARCONI MOD Meters TF2300; TF23008; TF2110 from Black EVER READY Case for AVOs. Unwed IP & P141. E15 50/25V or 25-0-25V
600 BATTERIES 15 Volts ............ 6 each, 10 off E25 (P&P eland 2 x12V Secs 5 S 10 46.21 4,18
DYMAR 1525 AM/FM 0.1-184MHz Sig Gen. . E200 24V 12V E P&P 2 x 25V Tapped Secs to give
6 12 57.87 4.40
H.P. 6208 Signal Generator 7-11 G14. . . 600 AVO TRANSISTOR ANALYSER Mkt C7446 Suitcase style.
0.15 0.3 7,8, 10,13,17,20,25,33,40,50V or
M.P. 618C Signal Generator 3.8-7.6 GHz . 6103 Wrth batteries and operating instructions 3.44 1.87 8 16 63.12 5,28
600 ONLY 125 (P & P E7) 0.25 0.5 3.64 1.90 20-0-20V or 25-0-25V
H.P. 6168 Sigal Generator 1.84.2 GHz .
MARCONI AF Power Meter TF8934 20Hz-35KHz 2OrnW-10W 0.5 1 4.36 1.98 50V 25V f P&P
WOELKE Wow & Flutter Meter ME 108 ......... 600 0.5 1 5.91 2.09 TOOL TRANSFORMERS
LEADER LMV 1864 Two Channel Millivoltmeter 514:- MARCONI RF POWER METER TF1152A 1 DC 500MHz 1 2 6.08 2.09
0.5-25W. 50 Ohm With Manual ........ ONLY E30 IMP ETI 2 A 4 7.01 2.20
1 2 7.19 2.21
2 A 4 12.81 2.75
FEEDBACK F0601 Sig Gen iio.oisorrn 3 M 6 12.08 2.36
MARCONI Automatic Distortion Meter TF2337A

patterns. Pocket Size. Rechargeable Bananas. Complete 4 P 8 12.87 2.42 3 M 6 14.82 2.92 2.2KVA E90 -£5.33
with Battery Charger Adaptor. Unused IP&P 61 6 S 12 15.62 2.64 4 P 8 20.30 3.24
400Hz or 1Kliz. Measures down to
LEVELL OSCILLATORS TG152/76200 Series from ....... E715
LABGEAR Colour Bar Generator 901 8 test patterns. 8 16 18.59 6 S 12 25.81 3.41
MARCONI TF2700 UNIVERSAL LCR Bridge. Battery (P&P E4) . ONLY 60 es.
10 20 8 16 36.52 4.12 CONSTANT VOLTAGE
. From E150 10 20 43.34 4.41 TRANSFORMERS
Cross-hatch/Grey ScaleBlenk Raster. Mains or BATTERY. 15 30 31.10 3.63
PHILIPS PM6456 FM Stereo Generator Unused 12 24 51.87 5.22 For Spike -free Stable Mains
20 40 44.40 4.12
Usea.................. ........... Also Valve Mains Output &
TRIO RF SIGNAL GENERATOR Type SG402 100Kilin3OMFIr 30 60 63.75 4.89
60/30V or 30.0-30V Matching Transformers
73.41 6.32
HAMEG OSCILLOSCOPE HM1005 Tnole Trace 1COMHz 2 x 30V Tapped Secs
don't slide around the desk. Type No. 746 supplied with AUTOS Volts available: 16,18, 36, 40, INVERTERS
HAMEG OSCILLOSCOPE HM604 Dual Trace 60MHz Delay 60V or 24-0-24 or 30-0-30V
BT plug (used) ONLY E5 each P&P C3. Onty. discount. 105, 115, 200, 220, 230,240V 12/24V DC to 240V AC
Sweep 675
HAMEG OSCILLOSCOPE HM203.6 Dual Trace 20 MHz for step-up or down 60V 30V f P&P Square or Sine Wave
Component Tester .. 0314 BLACK STAR EQUIPMENT IP&P E5 all Units) 0.5 6.72 2.09
80 VA f 6.91 1.92
HAMEG OSCILLOSCOPE HIA205.2 Dual Trace 20MHz 150
1 2 10.25 2.21 TRANSFORMERS
Digital Storage APOLLO 10 - 100MHz Counter Timer RatioTerioraTime 10.03 2.09
E527 2 A 4 13.17 2.53
interval etc E222 250 12.25 2.31 WOUND TO SPEC
All Other Model* are/lable - all oscilloscopes 3 M 6 19.05 2.64
APOLLO 100 - 100MHz (As above with more functions) 350 14.05 P 2.64
supplied will. 2 probes 4 Batch Winding 3VA to 15KVA
E295 500 19.05 3.08
P 8. 21.72 2.75
HUNG CHANG DMM 7020. 31/2 digit. Hand held 28 ranges 5 S 10 27.46 3.19
METEOR 600 Frequency Counter 600Mlia .................. E126 1000 34.93 P 3.68
including 10 Amp ACMC 0.1%444. IP &P pt. ......... 139.50 6 12 31.32 3.41
As above DMM 60100.25% . . 03.50 METEOR 1000 Frequency Counter 1Gliz E179 1500 40.40 4.18 TOROIDALS
JUP1TOR 500 FUNCTION GENERATOR.0.111,500KHz. Sine 8 16 44.04 3.93
2000 60.41 5.11 Batches Wound to Order
E110 10 20 51.28 4.40
ORION COLOUR BAR GENERATOR Pal/TV/Video 3000 102.72 6.32 15VA to 4KVA
OSCILLOSCOPE PROBES. Switohable xl; 410 IP&P ES) E209 12 24 59.09 5.22
AP other Bled/ Star Equipment eveile0M 4000 133.35 0/A
5000 155.28 0/A Send SAE for Lists
This is a VERY SMALL SAMPLE OF STOCK. SAE or telephone for Lists. Please check availability before ordering.
7500 239.70 0/A
10kVA 283.23 0/A Please add 15% to all items after P&P Full range available
CARRIAGE all units El& VAT to be added to Total of Goods & Carriage.


Callers welcome Sam -5.30 pm Mon -En (until 8.00 pm Thurs.) ESSEX, IG5 OAP TELEPHONE: 01-551 8454

COMPO NENTS Carbon Film resistors 1/4W 5% E24 series 0.51R to 10M0
100 off per value -75p, even hundreds per value totalling 1000

45 Rutland St., Mansf ield, Notts NG18 4AP Metal Film resistors 1/4W 10R to 1M0 5% E12 series -2p, 1% E24 series
Mixed metal/carbon film resistors V2W E24 series 1R0 to 10M0
SPECIAL PACKS - Bigger ADDITIONAL PACKS 1 watt mixed metal/Carbon Film 5% E12 series 4R7 to 10 Megohms 5p
selection, SP50 25x5mm Red LEDs E2.00 Linear Carbon pre-sets 100mW and 1/4W 100R to 4M7 E6 series 7p
SP51 25x5mm Green LEDs E2.00 Miniature polyester capacitors 250V working for vertical mounting
better value. All at £1 each SP52 50x Rad. Elec. Caps. £1.95 .015, .022, .033, .047, .068-4p. 0.1-5p. 0.12, 0.15, 0.22-6p. 0.47-8p. 0.68-8p. 1.0-12p
SP1 12 x5mm Red LEDs 30x DIL sockets 10 each
SP2 12 x 5mm Green LEDs SP53 Mylar (polyester) capacitors 100V working E12 series vertical mounting
8, 14, 16 pin £2.00 1000p to 8200p -30..01 to .058 - 4p. 0.1- 5p. 0.12, 0.15, 0.22-6p. 0.47/50V -8p
SP3 12 x6mm Yellow LEDs
SP4 10x5mm Amber LEDs SP54 1 xTIL38+1 xTIL100 E1.60
Submin ceramic plate capacitors 100V wkg vertical mountings. E12 series
SP5 36x5mm 1 pan LED clips 2°. 1.8pf to 47pf - 3p. 2% 56 pf to 330pf - 4p. 10%390p - 4700p 4p
SP6 12 x3mm Red LEDs
SP7 12 x3mm Green LEDs RESISTOR PACKS Disc/plate ceramics 50V E12 series 1P0 to 1000P, E6 Series 1500P to 47000P 2p
SP8 10 x3mm Yellow LEDs 0.25W Carbon Film resistors 10R -10M Polystyrene capacitors 63V working E12 series long axial wires
SP9 40x3mm 1 part LED clips 5 each value - total 365 £2.75 lOpf to 820pf - 3p. 1000 pf to 10,000pf - 4p. 12,000 pf 5p
SP10 50x 1N4148 signal diodes 10 each value - total 730 £4.50 741 Op Amp - 20p. 555 Timer 22p
SP11 25 x1N4001 rectifier diodes 1000 popular values E6.00 cmos 4001- 20p. 4011- 22p. 4017
Individual resistors 2pea. 40p
SP12 25x 1N4002 rectifier diodes ALUMINIUM ELECTROLMS (MfdsNolts)
SP13 25 XRed.Elec.Caps. (1-10000) 10+ one value 1p ea.
100 one value 75p 1/50, 2.2 50, 4.7/50, 10/25, 10/50 5p
SP15 20x2K2 Min. Hor. presets 0.1W
SP16 20 x4K7 Min. Hor. presets 0.1W 22'16, 22 25, 22/50,47/16, 47/25,47/50 6p
SP17 20 x 100K Min. Hor. presets 0.1W CMOS 100 16,100 25 7p; 100/50 12p; 100/100 14p
SP18 15x13C182 Transistors 4000 25p 4070 27p 220 16 8p; 220/25, 220/5010p; 470/16,470/25 Ilp
SP19 15x13C183 Transistors 1000 25 25p; 100035, 2200/25 35p; 4700/25 70p
4001 25p 4071 27p
SP20 15x8C184 Transistors 4002 25p 4072 27p Submin, tantalum bead electrolytics (1VddsNotts)
SP21 15x BC212 Transistors 4011 25p
SP22 15x BC214 Transistors 4073 27p 0.1/35,0.22/35, 0.47/35,1.0/35, 3.3/16,4.7/16 14p
4012 27p 4075 27p 2.2/35, 4.7/25, 4.7/35, 6.8/16 15p; 10/16, 22/6 20p
SP23 15x 8C549 Transistors 4013 38p
SP24 5xCmos 4001 4077 32p 33/10,47/6, 22/16 30p; 47/10 35p; 47/16 60p; 47/35 80p
4017 55p 4081 27p
SP25 5x556 Timer 4023 30p VOLTAGE REGULATORS
SP26 5x741 Op -Amp 4093 27p
4025 25p 4510 65p 1A + or - 5V, 8V, 12V, 15V, 18V & 24V 55p
SP27 5xCmos 4002 4027 50p DIODES (piv/amps)
SP28 5xCmos 4011 4511 65p
4040 70p 4514 £1.25 75/25mA 1N4148 2p. 800/1A 1N4006 60. 400/3A 1N5404 14p. 115/15mA 0A91 6p
SP29 3 xCmos 4013 4047 65p
SP30 5xCmos 4025 4515 f 1.30 100/1A 1N4002 4p. 1000/IA 1N4007 7p. 60/1.5A SIMI 5p. 100/1A bridge 25p
4049 40p 4516 65p
SP31 4xCmos 4071 4066 40p 400/1A 1 N 4004 5p. 1250/1A BY127 10p. 30/.15A 0A47 8p
SP32 4x Cmos 4077 4528 70p
Zener diodes E24 series 3V3 to 33V 400 mW - 8p. 1 watt 12p
SP33 4xCmos 4081 Battery snaps for PP3 - 6p for PP9 12p
SP34 2xCmos 4510
SP35 2xCmos 4511 I.C.s V. REGS. L.E.D.'s 3mm. & 5mm. Red, Green, Yellow -10p. Grommets 3mm - 2p, 5mm 2p
SP36 20x 10µF/25V Rad.Elect.Caps. 555 22p 100mA Red flashing L.E.D.'s require 5V supply only 50p
SP37 15x 1000/35V Rad.Elect.Caps. 556 65p 78L05 25p Mains indicator neons with 220k resistor 10p
SP38 20 x470/25V Rad.Elect.Caps. 741 22p 78L12 25p 20mm fuses 100mA to 5A 0/blow 5p. A/surge Bp. Holders pc or chassis 5p
SP39 12x 4700/16V Rad.Elect.Caps. 747 65p 78115 26p
High speed pc drill 0.8, 1.0, 1.3, 1.5, 2.0m - 30p. Machines 12V dc E7.00
SP40 15x 80237 Transistors CA3140E 45p 79L05 30p
79112 30p HELPING HANDS 6 ball joints and 2 croc clips to hold awkward jobs f3.50p
SP41 25 x mixed Transistors CA3240E £1.25
SP43 2xLM1458 LM339 50p 79L15 30p AA/HP7 Nicad rechargeable cells 80p each. Universal charger unit f 6.50p
SP44 12 x 5mm Leds-4 each, Red, Green LM380-14 £1.20 Glass reed switches with single pole make contacts - 80. Magnets 12p
Yellow LM723 55p 1A TRANSISTORS
SP47 5x miniature push button switches LM1458 55p 7805 35p BC107/8/9-12p,BC547/8/9-8p, BC557/69-8p, BC182L4L-10p,ICIM, TEL -10p, rffl 2, 212L -10p,
SP102 15x8 pin DIL sockets TL071 55p 7812 35p BC327, 337, 337L -12p, BC727, 737-12p, 80135/6g/8/9 -25p, BCY70-15p, BFY50/51/52-20p.
SP103 12 x14 pin DIL sockets TL072 75p 7815 36p
SP104 12x16 pin DIL sockets TL081 40p 7905 36p BF/038-15p, 2N3055 -50p, TIP31,92-30p, TIP41,42-40 BUi08A-t1.20, 88195,197-12p
1 pack of your choice FREE when you buy any TL082 55p 7912 38p All prices are inclusive of VAT. Postage 25p (free over f5). Lists Free.
10 of the above packs 7915 38p

Cheques or P.O. to:

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Please add f1 P&P to orders under £20.00 NO VAT

816 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

The books listed have been
selected as being of special
interest to everyone involved in
electronics and computing. They
are supplied by mail order direct
16 to your door. Full details are
given on the last book page.

MUM For another selection of books

see next month's issue.



R. A. Penfold Published by Everyday Electronics in association with
R. A. Penfold Shows the complete beginner how to tackle the practical
We have at built projects only to find that they did not side of electronics, so that he or she can confidently build Magenta Electronics.
work correctly, or at all, when first switched on. The aim the electronic projects that are regularly featured in Contains twenty of the best projects from previous
of this book is to help the reader overcome just these magazines and books. Also includes examples in the issues of EE each backed with a kit of components. The
problems by indicating how and where to start looking form of simple projects. projects are: Seashell Sea Synthesiser, EE Treasure
for many of the common faults that can occur when 112 pages Order code No. 227 £1.95 Hunter, Mini Strobe, Digital Capacitance Meter, Three
building up projects. Channel Sound to Light, BBC 16k Sideways Ram, Simple
96 pages Order code BP110 £2.50 Short Wave Radio, Insulation Tester, Visual Guitar/
ELECTRONIC SCIENCE PROJECTS Instrument Tuner, Stepper Motor Interface, Eprom
0. Bishop Eraser, 200MHz Digital Frequency Meter, Infra Red
These projects range in complexity from a simple colour Alarm, EE Equaliser Ioniser, Bat Detector, Acoustic
HOW TO DESIGN AND MAKE temperature meter to an infra -red laser. There are novel-
YOUR OWN P.C.B.s ties such as an electronic clock regulated by a resonating Probe, Mainstester and Fuse Finder, Light Rider-(Lapel
R. A. Penfold spring, and an oscilloscope with solid-state display. Badge, Disco Lights, Chaser Light), Musical Doorbell,
Deals with the simple methods of copying printed circuit There are scientific measuring instruments such as a pH Function Generator, Tilt Alarm, 10W Audio Amplifier, EE
board designs from magazines and books and covers all meter and an electro-cardiometer. All projects have a Buccaneer Induction Balance Metal Detector, BBC Midi
aspects of simple p.c.b. construction including photo- strong scientific flavour. The way they work, and how to Interface, Variable Bench Power Supply, Pet Soarer,
graphic methods and designing your own p.c.b.s. build and use them are fully explained. Audio Signal Generator.
80 pages Order code BP121 £2.50 144 pages Order code BP104 £2.95 128 pages/A4 size) Order Code EP1 £2.45


In recent years, the range of opto devices available to the
R. A. Penfold
PRACTICAL ELECTRONIC Both books include practical circuits together with details
BUILDING BLOCKS -BOOK 2 home constructor has expanded and changed radically. of the circuit operation and useful background informa-
These devices now represent one of the more interesting tion. Any special constructional points are covered but
R. A. Penfold areas of modern electronics for the hobbyist to experiment p.c.b. layouts and other detailed constructional informa-
These books are designed to aid electronic enthusiasts in, and many of these devices have useful practical applica- tion are not included.
who like to experiment with circuits and produce their tions as well. This book provides a number of practical Book 1 is mainly concerned with getting signals in and
own projects, rather than simply following published designs which utilize a range of modern lopto-electric out of the computer;. Book 2 deals primarily with circuits
project designs. devices, including such things as fibre optics, ultra bright for practical applications.
I.e.d.s and passive IR detectors etc.
While many of these designs are not in the "dead simple" Book 1 112 pages Order code BP130 E2.25
BOOK 1 contains: Oscillators-sinewave, triangular, Book 2 112 pages Order code BP131 £2.75
squarewave, sawtooth, and pulse waveform generators category, they should be within the capabilities of anyone
operating at audio frequencies. Timers-simple mono - with a reasonable amount of experience in electronics con-
stable circuits using i.c.s, the 555 and 7555 devices, etc. struct.l.m and some of the more simple designs are suitable
Miscellaneous-noise generators, rectifiers, compara- for begintrers. SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS
tors and triggers, etc. 104 pages Order code BP194 £2.95 Keith Brindley
There are a considerable number of transducers. Look
BOOK 2 contains: Amplifiers-low level discrete and through any electronic components catalogue and you'll
op -amp circuits, voltage and buffer amplifiers including DIGITAL LOGIC GATES AND FLIP-FLOPS find a wide variety of types, and each type has many ver-
d.c. types. Also low -noise audio and voltage controlled Ian R. Sinclair sions. It's not easy to choose a transducer correctly for a
amplifiers. Filters-high-pass, low-pass, 6, 12, and 24dB This book, intended for enthusiasts, students and techni- particular function. In many specifications, terms and
per octave types. Miscellaneous-i.c. power amplifiers, cians, seeks to establish a firm foundation in digital elec- procedures are referred to which might deter you from
mixers, voltage and current regulators, etc. tronics by treating the topics of gates and flip-flops using one that is, in fact, the best for the job. Yet, opting
thoroughly and from the beginning. This is not a con- to use a transducer merely because it is easier to inter-
BOOK 1 128 pages Order code BP117 £1.95 structor's book in the sense of presenting circuits to build face into the measuring system is not the answer. A
BOOK 2 112 pages Order code BP118 £1.95 and use, it is for the user who wants to design and greater knowledge of all types of transducers capable of
troubleshoot digital circuitry with considerably more doing the task is the ideal, and only then can a totally
understanding of principles. satisfactory decision be made to use one in particular.
ELECTRONIC ALARM CIRCUITS MANUAL Topics such as Boolean algebra and Karnaugh map- 176 pages Order code NE17
R. M. Marston £12.95
ping are explained, demonstrated and used extensively,
One hundred and forty useful alarm circuits, of a variety and more attention is paid to the subject of synchronous
of types, are shown in this volume. The operating princi- counters than to the simple but less important ripple
ple of each one is explained in concise but comprehen- counters. ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS FOR THE COMPUTER CONTROL OF
sive terms, and brief construction notes are given where ROBOTS
No background other than a basic knowledge of elec- Robert Penfold
necessary. tronics is assumed, and the more theoretical topics are
Aimed at the practical design engineer, technician and explained from the beginning, as also are many working Robots and robotics offer one of the most interesting areas
experimenter, as well as the electronics student and practices. The book concludes with an explanation of for the electronics hobbyist to experiment in. Today the
amateur. microprocessor techniques as applied to digital logic. mechanical side of robots is not too difficult, as there are
124 pages Order code NE11 £9.95 200 pages Order code PC106 £8.95 robotics kits and a wide range of mechanical components
available. The micro controller is not too much of a problem
either, since the software need not be terribly complex and
DESIGNING DC POWER SUPPLIES HOW TO USE OP -AMPS many inexpensive home computers are well suited to the
G. C. Loveday C.Eng MIERE E. A. Parr task.
Covers all aspects of the design of regulated power units, This book has been written as a designer's ,guide The main stumbling block for most would-be robot builders
using discretes, i.c. regulators and switched units. It also covering many operational amplifiers, serving both as a is the electronics to interface the computer to the motors,
covers protection circuits and reference supplies. Many source book of circuits and a reference book for design and the sensors which provide feedback from the robot to
design examples and exercises all with fully worked sol- calculations. The approach has been made as non - the computer. The purpose of this book is to explain and
utions are given. mathematical as possible. provide some relatively simple electronic circuits which
131 pages Order code BM2 £6.95 160 pages Order code BP88 £2.95 bridge this gap.
92 pages Order code BP179 £2.95


R. N. Soar
Contains 50 interesting and useful circuits and applica-
tions, covering many different branches of electronics,
EieCtr"iC5 using one of the most inexpensive and freely available
components-the light -emitting diode (LED). Also in-
SiMPtified - cludes circuits for the 707 common anode display
Crystal Set 64 pages Order Code BP42
BOOK 2 50 more I.e.d. circuits Order code BP87
Construction £1.95

F. A. Wilson, C.G.I.A., C.Eng., F.I.E.E., F.I.E.R.E.,
Especially written for those who wish to participate in the
intricacies of electronics more through practical con-
struction than by theoretical study. It is designed for all
ages upwards from the day one can read intelligently and
handle simple tools.
80 pages Order Code BP92 £1.75

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 817


^ i
ELECTRONICS (published by Everyday Electronics)
Owen Bishop
Another EE value for money publication aimed at stu-
dents of electronics. The course is designed to explain
the workings of electronic components and circuits by
involving the reader in experimenting with them. The
book does not contain masses of theory or formulae but
straightforward explanations and circuits to build and
experiment with.
Exploring Electronics contains more than 25 useful
projects, assumes no previous knowledge of electronics
and is split into 28 easily digestible sections.
88 pages (A4 sire) Order code TI3 £2.45


R.A. Penfold
ELECTRONICS TEACH -IN ELECTRONICS TEACH -IN 88/89- Provides an inexpensive single source of easily located
Michael Tooley BA and David Whitfield MA MSc INTRODUCING MICROPROCESSORS information that the amateur electronics enthusiast is likely
CEng WEE (published by Everyday Electronics) Mike Tooley BA (published by Everyday Electronics) to need for the day-to-day pursuance of this fascinating
This value for money EE book provides a comprehensive A complete course that can lead successful readers to
the award of a City and Guilds Certificate in Introductory hobby. Covers common component colour codes. Details
background to modern electronics including test gear the characteristics and pinouts of many popular
Microprocessors 1726/3031. The book contains every-
projects. A complete course in basic electronics; designed thing you need to know including full details on register- semiconductor devices, including various types of logic
for the complete newcomer it will however also be of value ing for assessment, etc. ICs, operational amplifiers, transistors, FETs, unijunctions,
to those with some previous experience of electronics. 80 pages (A4 size) Order code 11-88/89 £2.45 diodes, rectifiers, SCRs, diacs, triacs, regulators and
Wherever possible the course is related to "real life" SMDs, etc. Illustrates many useful types of circuits, such
working circuits and each part includes a set of detailed NEWNES ELECTRONICS as timers and oscillators, audio amplifiers and filters, as
practical assignments. Includes details of eight items of POCKET BOOK well as including a separate section on power supplies.
related test gear giving full constructional information and E. A. Parr Also contains a multitude of other useful data.
diagrams for each one. They are: Safe Power Supply; Newnes Electronics Pocket Book has been in print for
88 pages Order code BP233 £4.96
Universal LCR Bridge; Diode/Transistor Tester; Audio over twenty years and has covered the development of
Signal Tracer; Audio Signal Generator; RF Signal electronics from valve to semiconductor technology and
Generator; FET Voltmeter; Pulse Generator. An excellent from transistors to LSI integrated circuits and micro- ESSENTIAL THEORY FOR THE
companion for anyone interested in electronics and processors. To keep up to date with the rapidly changing ELECTRONICS HOBBYIST
invaluable for those taking G.C.S.E. and BTEC electronics world of electronics, continuous revision has been G. T. Rubaroe, T.Eng (C.E.I.), Assoc.I.E.R.E.
courses. necessary. This new Fifth Edition takes account of recent The object of this book is to supply the hobbyist with a
104 pages (A4 size) Order code EE/T-I £1.95 changes and includes material suggested by readers of background knowledge tailored to meet his or her
previous editions. New descriptions of op.amp. applica- specific requirements and the author has brought to-
tions and the design of digital circuits have been added, gether the relevant material and presented it in a readable
along with a totally new chapter on computing, plus manner with minimum recourse to mathematics.
FROM ATOMS TO AMPERES other revisions throughout. 128 pages Order Code 228 £2.50
F. A. Wilson 315 pages (hard cover) Order Code NE02 £9.95
Explains in crystal clear terms the absolute fundamen-
tals behind electricity and electronics. Really helps you PRACTICAL DIGITAL ELECTRONICS HANDBOOK
to discover and understand the subject, perhaps for the Mike Tooley (Published in association with Everyday Elec-
first time ever. tronics)
Have you ever: Wondered about the true link between -segirinet s Guide to The vast majority of modern electronic systems rely heavily
electricity and magnetism? Felt you could never under- on the application of digital electronics, and the Practical
stand the work of Einstein, Newton, Boltzmann, Planck
and other early scientists? Just accepted that an electron
Practical Digital Electronics Handbook aims to provide readers with
is like a little black ball? Got mixed up with e.m.f. and Tvii""r°cessczs Digital a practically based introduction to this subject. The book
will prove invaluable to anyone involved with the design,
p.d.? Thought the idea of holes in semiconductors is a bit
much? Electronics manufacture or servicing of digital circuitry, as well as to
those wishing to update their knowledge of modern digital
Then flelp is at hand with this inexpensive book, in as
simple a way as possible and without too much complex Handbook devices and techniques. Contents: Introduction to
mathematics and formulae. integrated circuits; basic logic gates; monostable and
244 pages Order code 8P254 £3.50 bistable devices; timers; microprocessors; memories; input
and output devices; interfaces; microprocessor buses.
Appendix 1: Data. Appendix 2: Digital test gear projects;
BEGINNERS GUIDE TO MICROPROCESSORS ELECTRONICS -A "MADE SIMPLE" BOOK tools and test equipment; regulated bench power supply;
E.A. Parr G. H. Olsen logic probe; logic pulser; versatile pulse generator; digital
An excellent grounding in microprocessors, this book is This book provides excellent background reading for our IC tester; current tracer; audio logic tracer; RS -232C
broadly relevent to the whole of our Introducing Introducing Digital Electronics series and will be of interest breakout box; versatile digital counter/frequency meter.
Microprocessors course. It is easy to read and well to everyone studying electronics. The subject is simply ex- Appendix 3: The oscilloscope. Appendix 4: Suggested
illustrated. plained and well illustrated and the book assumes only a reading. Appendix 5: Further study.
224 pages very basic knowledge of electricity. 208 pages Order code PC100 £8.96
Order code NE03 £5.95 330 pages Order code NE10 £4.95

Michael Tooley N. Kantarls
COMPUTERS AND MUSIC- AN INTRODUCTION This guide is writen with the non -expert, busy person in
An invaluable compendium of facts, figures, circuits and R.A. Penfold
data, indispensable to the designer, student, service mind and, as such, it has an underlying structure based
engineer and all those interested in computer and Computers are playing an increasingly important part in on "what you need to know first, appears first".
microcomputer systems. It will appeal equally to the the world of music, and the days when computerised Nonetheless, the guide is also designed to be circular,
hardware or software specialist and to the new band of music was strictly for the fanatical few are long gone. which means that you don't have to start at the begin-
-software engineers-. This first edition covers a vast Computer -based music systems in the past have tended ning and go to the end. The more experienced user can
range of subjects at a practical level, with the necessary to be either horrendously expensive, very crude, or both! start from any section.
explanatory text. The data is presented in a succinct and These days, prices are much more modest and the The guide covers versions 3.0, 3.1 and 3.2 of both PC -
rapidly accessible form so that the book can become part potential of the equipment is much greater. Con- DOS and MS-DOS as implemented by IBM and other
of an everyday toolkit. sequently a lot of musicians are being tempted into the manufacturers of "compatible" microcomputers,
205 pages (hard cover) Order code NE01 £9.95 unfamiliar territory of computer music systems. including the AMSTRAD PC's. It covers both floppy disc -
If you are more used to the black and white keys of a based systems and hard disc -based systems.
64 pages Order code BP232 £2.95
synth keyboard than the QWERTY keyboard of a compu-
ter, you may be understandably confused by the jargon
AN INTRODUCTION TO Z80 MACHINE CODE and terminology bandied about by computer buffs. But
R. A. & J. W. Penfold fear not, setting up and using a computer -based music AN INTRODUCTION TO 68000 ASSEMBLY
Takes the reader through the basics of microprocessors making system is not as difficult as you might think. LANGUAGE
and machine code programming with no previous know- This book will help you learn the basics of computing, R. A. & J. W. Penfold
ledge of these being assumed. The Z80 is used in many running applications programs, wiring up a MIDI system Obtain a vast increase in running speed by writing
popular home computers and simple programming ex- programs for 68000 based micros such as the Commo-
amples are given for Z80 -based machines including the and using the system to good effect, in fact just about
everything you need to know about hardware and the dore Amiga, Atari ST range or Apple Macintosh range
Sinclair ZX-81 and Spectrum, Memotech and the Am- etc., in assembly language. It is not as difficult as one
strad CPC 464. Also applicable to the Amstrad CPC 664 programs, with no previous knowledge of computing
needed or assumed. This book will help you to choose might think and this book covers the fundamentals.
and 6128. 112 pages
144 pages Order code BP152 the right components for a system to suit your personal Order code BP184 £2.115
needs, and equip you to exploit that system fully.
174 pages Order code PC107 £7.95
A Z80 WORKSHOP MANUAL J. W. Penfold M. James, B.Sc., M.B.C.S.
E. A. Parr, B.Sc., C.Eng., M.I.E.E. Details how to use all the features provided on most dot-
It is one thing to have learnt how to use all the
This book is intended for people who wish to progress matrix printers from programs and popular word proces- Spectrum's commands and functions, but a very differ-
beyond the stage of BASIC programming to topics such ent one to be able to combine them into programs that
as machine code and assembly language programming, sor packages like Wordwise, Visawrite and Quill, etc. do exactly what you want them to. This is lust what this
Shows exactly what must be typed in to achieve a given book is all about-teaching you the an of effective
or need hardware details of a Z80 based computer. effect.
192 pages Order Code BP112 £3.50 96 pages programming with your Spectrum.
Order Code BP181 £2.95 144 pages Order code BP119 £2.50

Everyday Electronics, December 1989
Ian Skidair ENCLOSURE DESIGN R.A. Penfold
The Beginner's Guide to Hi-Fi will appeal to the audio V. Capel The Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is sur-
enthusiast, whether newly won over by advances in tech- This book explores the various features, good points and rounded by a great deal of misunderstanding, and many of
nology or well established and wondering whether to up- snags of speaker designs. It examines the whys and the user manuals that accompany MIDI equipment are quite
date equipment. The book deals with the sound from its wherefores so that the reader can understand the princi- incomprehensible to the reader.
sources in the studio to its ultimate end in your ears, and ples involved and so make an informed choice of design, The Practical MIDI Handbook is aimed primarily at
shows what sound is, how it is recorded and how it is repro- or even design loudspeaker enclosures for him or her- musicians, enthusiasts and technicians who want to exploit
self. Crossover units are also explained, the various the vast capabilities of MIDI, but who have no previous
Every aspect of Hi-Fi, from pickup cartridges to loudspeak- knowledge of electronics or computing. The majority of the
ers, has been covered, and the emphasis has been on ex- types, how they work, the distortions they produce and book is devoted to an explanation of what MIDI can do and
plaining design aims. Cassette systems have been given how to avoid them. Finally there is a step-by-step how to exploit it to the full, with practical advice on connec-
considerable prominence, including the more modern Dolby description of the construction of the Kapellmeister ting up a MIDI system and getting it to work, as well as
C and dbx noise reduction systems. The CD record has been loudspeaker enclosure. deciphering the technical information in those equipment
covered in detail so that you can find out just why this 148 pages Order Code BP256 £2.95 manuals.
system of sound reproduction is so superior. 128 pages Order code PC101 £5.95
194 pages Temporarily out of print.
R. A. Penfold
The Atari ST's are now firmly established as the comput-
ers to use for electronic music applications. The range
DATA & COMPONENT and sophistication of these applications are much grea-
ter than most people may realise, but there are still a lot
- see computer section
IDENTIFICATION of misconceptions about just what can and cannot be
achieved. This book will help you sort out the fact from
the fallacy and to get the most musically from the ST's.
K. H. Recorr
Shows the reader how, with just a test -meter, to go
about recording the particular signature of an unmarked
A wide selection of topics are covered, including the
internal sound chip; MIDI; applications programs such
as sequencing and score writing, etc; simple but useful
add-on projects and MIDI programming.
90 pages Order code BP246 £5.95
i.c. which should enable the i.c. to then be identified with
reference to manufacturers' or other data. An i.c.
signature is a specially plotted chart produced by mea-
suring the resistances between all terminal pairs of an i.c. ri3

Chart Order code BP101 £0.95

Designed to help the user in finding possible substitutes C. E. Miller (A Division of Wimborne Publishing Ltd.)
for a large selection of the many different types of diodes Used properly, should enable the reader to trace most
that are available. Besides simple rectifier diodes, also common faults reasonably quickly. Across the top of the
included are Zener diodes, I.e.d.s, diacs, triacs, thyris-
tors, OCIs, photo and display diodes.
chart will be found four rectangles containing brief TO ORDER
description of these faults, vis-sound weak but undis-
144 pages Order code BP108 £2.25 torted, set dead, sound low or distorted and background
noises. One then selects the most appropriate of these
Please state the title
and following the arrows, carries out the suggested
checks in sequence until the fault is cleared. and order code
A. Michaels
Shows equivalents and pin connections of a popular
Chart Order code BP70 £0.95
clearly, print your
selection of European, American and Japanese linear
i.c.s. Also includes details of functions, manufacturer
Ian Hickman
name and address
and country of origin.
320 pages Temporarily out of print Oscilloscopes are essential tools for checking circuit oper-
ation and diagnosing faults, and an enormous range of mod- and add the required
els is available. But which is the right 'scope for a particular
application? Which features are essential, which not so
important? What techniques will get the best out of the
postage to the total
B. B. Babani
Ian Hickman, experienced in both professional and hobbyist
Although this chart was first published in 1971 it
provides basic information on many colour codes in use
electronics, has revised this well -established book to help all
oscilloscope users -and potential users.
Add 75p to your total order for
throughout the world, for most radio and electronic 133 pages Order code NE09 £6.95 postage and packing (overseas
components. Includes resistors, capacitors, transfor-
mers, field coils, fuses, battery leads, speakers, etc. It is readers add £1.50 for countries
particularly useful for finding the values of old
in Europe, or add £2.00 for all
Chart Order code BP7 £0.95 countries outside Europe, sur-
COLOUR CODES &DATA face mail postage) and send a
cad* woo..
rea-rOuo4 *Poo as PO, cheque or international
money order (£ sterling only)
made payable to Direct Book
Service quoting your name and
RADIO, TV, SATELLITE address, the order code and
AN INTRODUCTION TO AMATEUR RADIO complex theory and mathematics of aerial design have quantities required to DIRECT
I.D. Poole been avoided.
Amateur radio is a unique and fascinating hobby which Also included are constructional details of a number of BOOK SERVICE, 33 GRAVEL
has attracted thousands of people since it began at the aerial accessories including a pre -selector, attenuator,
filters and tuning unit.
turn of the century.
This book gives the newcomer a comprehensive and 96 pages Order code BP105 £2.50 DORSET, BH21 1RW (mail order
easy to understand guide through the subject so that the
reader can gain the most from the hobby. It then remains
an essential reference volume to be used time and again. FA. Wilson
Topics covered include the basic aspects of the hobby, As a definitive introduction to the subject this book is pre- See next month's issue for another
sented on two levels. For the absolute beginner or anyone three page selection of books.
such as operating procedures, jargon and setting up a thinking about purchasing or hiring a satellite TV system, the
station. Technical topics covered include propagation, story is told as simply as such a complex one can be in the
receivers, transmitters and aerials etc.
Order code BP257 £3.50
main text. Although books are normally
150 pages For the professional engineer, electronics enthusiast, stu-
dent or others with technical backgrounds, there are numer- sent within seven days of receipt
ous appendices backing up the main text with additional
technical and scientific detail formulae, calculations, tables
of your order, please allow a
P. Shore
Provides the casual listener, amateur radio DXer and the etc. maximum of 28 days for deliv-
There is also plenty for the DIY enthusiast with practical
professional radio monitor with an essential reference work
advice on choosing and installing the most problematic part ery. Overseas readers allow
designed to guide him or her around the ever more complex
radio bands. This new edition has been completely revised of the system -the dish antenna.
104 pages
extra time for surface mail post.
and rewritten and incorporates much more information Order Code BP195 £5.95
which is divided into the following sections: Please check price and availability
Listening to Short Wave Radio; ITU Country Codes; World- COMMUNICATION (see latest issue of Everyday
wide Short Wave Radio Stations; European, Middle East and F. A. Wilson, C.G.I.A., C.Eng., F.I.E.E., F.I.E.R.E.,
North African Long Wave Radio Stations; European, Near F.B.I.M. Electronics) before ordering from
East and North African Medium Wave Radio Stations; Cana-
dian Medium Wave Radio Stations; USA Medium Wave
A look at the electronic fundamentals over the whole of old lists.
the communication scene. This book aims to teach the
Radio Stations; Broadcasts in English; Programmes for
DXers and Short Wave Listeners; UK FM Radio Stations;
important elements of each branch of the subject in a Note-our postage charge
Time differences from GMT; Abbreviations; Wavelength/F-
style as interesting and practical as possible. While not
getting involved in the more complicated theory and
is the same for one book or
requency Conversion.
320 pages Order code BP255 £4.95
mathematics, most of the modern transmission system
techniques are examined including line, microwave,
one hundred books!
submarine, satellite and digital multiplex systems, radio
AERIAL PROJECTS and telegraphy. To assist in understanding these more
R. A. Penfold thoroughly, chapters on signal processing, the electro-
The subject of aerials is vast but in this book the author magnetic wave, networks and transmissions assess-
has considered practical aerial designs, including active, ment are included, finally a short chapter on optical MORE BOOKS NEXT MONTH
loop and ferrite aerials which give good performances transmission.
and are relatively simple and inexpensive to build. The 256 pages Order Code BP89 £2.95

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 819

Constructional Project

Convert your 3 -in -1 car safety lantern much lower internal resistance and can
provide the required current with negligi-
to automatic charging. ble voltage drop. The lamps therefore
operate at full brightness.
CAR LANTERNS of the 3 -in -1 type are Operation of the circuit is automatic and A milliammeter (multimeter switched to
popular and inexpensive.
very while the lamp is not being used it is con- a d.c. current range) is needed for adjust-
These lamps are so called because nected to the charger continuously. Thus, ment of the output current at the end of
they provide three different light sources when the batteries are in a low state of construction. An inexpensive meter is suf-
-a conventional narrow -beam torch; a charge, the current delivered by the circuit ficient for the purpose since a high degree
flashing yellow light for emergencies and a will be high but, over a period of time, it of accuracy is not required.
flourescent tube for general illumination. reduces to a small value.
They usually use four "D" size cells and it is This low current may be passed continu- CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
for this type of lamp that the present pro- ously without damage and maintains the The entire circuit for the Car Lamp
ject was designed. cells in a fully -charged state ready for Charger is shown in Fig. 1. The design
Although these lamps are extremely use- immediate use. Such "trickle" charging is centres around IC1 which is a combined
ful, over a period of use the batteries will necessary since without it, this type of cell voltage regulator and current limiting i.c. It
need to be replaced. This is expensive, a set tends to self -discharge fairly quickly. is a robust device fully protected against
of four alkaline "D" cells costs approxi- While the engine is not running, the cur- most forms of mis-use.
mately £4. Weak batteries will cause poor rent drawn by the charger imposes negligi- With the on -off switch S1 on, current
operation of the lights and, in the case of ble load on a well -charged car battery. The flows through fuse FS1 and diode Dl into
flourescent tubes, permanent blackening circuit will be found particularly useful to ICI input (pin 1). Resistor R2 connected
may occur. caravanner's and boat owner's who can use between IC1 pins 2 and 5 sets the output
The best solution is to use a set of nickel - the on -board 12V supply for charging. current limit and with the value specified
cadmium (rechargeable) batteries in place this will be 100mA approximately. This is
of the standard ones. Although these will
cost about £9, savings are soon made even
OPERATING VOLTAGE appropriate for "D" size batteries.
The operating voltage of a nickel -cad- Resistors R1 and R3, in conjunction with
when the constructional costs of the mium cell is nominally 1.2 volts so four of preset VR1, set the output voltage deli-
charger are taken into account. In this way, these provide 4.8V. This contrasts with the vered by IC1 pin 2. Potentiometer VR1
the lamp will always operate at peak effi- 6V (4 x 1.5V) of conventional cells. allows this to be adjusted between 6V and
ciency. At first sight this would seem insufficient 7.5V approximately.
and lead to dim operation of the lamp but At full charge, the terminal voltage of
HOW IT WORKS this is not true in practice. The reason is each cell rises to 1.4V approximately -
This project is a charging circuit powered that the spotlight and flashing bulbs are of that is, 5.8V for the set. The unit therefore
by the car electrical system and can be 0.5A rating and when this rather large cur- delivers sufficient output voltage taking
placed in the glove compartment or rent is drawn, there is a significant voltage into account 0.7V approximately which
elsewhere. It appears as a small plastic box drop across the internal resistance of the appears across diode, D2, in forward bias.
with an on -off switch and terminal block battery. This leaves less terminal voltage to Charge regulation operates in the fol-
for the external connections. A short lead operate the bulb. lowing way. With a poorly -charged set of
with a plug on the end connects the charger To overcome this, the bulbs are rated at cells, B1, their combined terminal voltage
to a matching socket on the lamp. only 4.8V. Nickel -cadmium cells have a will be less than 4.8V. The voltage output
from the unit will exceed this considerably
Fig. 1. Complete circuit diagram for the Car Lamp Charger and a high current will be driven through
the cells so charging them. This will be
limited to a nominal 100mA by the action
1N4001 PL1/SK1 of resistor R2 as described earlier.
Later in the charging cycle, the cell ter-
T B1
240mA 1N4001 I Cl VR1
minal voltage rises. The charger output
voltage will be adjusted, using VR1, to

L 200 470
exceed this figure with only a small margin.
A low current is therefore obtained which
may be passed continuously without dam-
age to the cells.
Diode Dl, together with capacitor Cl,
12V CAR 470u 820 BATTERY BI I
provide smoothing of the car generator
BATTERY output. Diode D2 allows current to flow
into the battery but prevents it from pas-
sing back into the system if S1 is switched
TB1/ 3 off with the lamp connected.
P LI/SKI Fuse FS1 provides protection in the
event of overload. A further fuse is built
into the lamp itself - this provides protec-
I EE232161 tion from possible short-circuits at the plug
and socket or inter -connecting wires.

820 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

It is usually a simple matter to dismantle SI
the lamp sufficiently to find a free space in
which to fit the input socket SKI and 20mm 19 20


fuse FS2. However, it would be wise to 181/2

check this point before starting construc- id,
tion work. 02

This project is easily made up using a 181/3


piece of 0.1in. matrix stripboard, size 10

111 R


strips x 29 holes. Begin by cutting this 1

slightly too large then file it to fit the slots of 171

the plastic box. The component layout and a

details of breaks required in the underside LINK WIRE

copper tracks is shown in Fig. 2.
Drill the mounting hole in the board for
FS1 and mount this component (but do not
insert the fuse itself at this stage). Make all
track breaks and solder the link wire bet-
ween FS1 fuse holder tag and strip J as 5 15 20 IS 29
shown. 0 0000 0000 00 0 0 000 0 0 0 00000 000
Gently bend the five pins of IC1 to allow 00000000000000000000000000000
0000 00 0 0 00 000 0 0 0 0 00 0 000 0 0 00
them to pass through the circuit panel in 00000000000000000
0000 00 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 00 00

00000000000000000000 00000 0000
COMPONENTS 000000$0000.00000000000000000
0 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o 0 o o o o o o o o
0000000000000000000000000 0000
R1 820
R2 3529
R3 1k see page 783 Fig. 2. Stripboard component layout and details of breaks required in the under-
side copper tracks
All 0.25W 5% carbon
the positions shown in Fig. 2 - use the full insert the fuse and adjust preset VR1 slid-
Potentiometer length of the pins and take care when sol- ing contact to approximately mid -track
VR1 470 sub -min. preset, dering them to the copper tracks to prevent position.
vertical heat damage. Note that no heatsink is Prepare the case by drilling holes for the
needed for IC1 since it is used well below its on -off switch, Sl, and terminal block, TB1
Capacitors maximum power rating. mounting. Drill a few small ventilation
C1 470p, elec. 16V Solder all remaining on -board compo- holes in the lid above IC1 position. Drill a
C2 220n polyester. nents into position noting the polarity of small hole next to TB1 position for the
diodes D1, D2 and capacitor Cl. Solder three wires passing through from the circuit
Semiconductors 15cm pieces of light -duty stranded connect- panel.
D1, D2 1N4001 rec. diode ing wire to copper strips B and Eat the left- Referring to Fig.3, mount remaining
(2 off) hand edge of the panel and to the remain- components and complete all wiring.
IC1 L200 adjustable ing unconnected fuseholder tag as indi- Switch S1 off. Note that the circuit panel
voltage cated. Make a careful check for errors, should not be inserted at this stage.
and current
regulator The completed charger with the circuit board removed showing the fuseholder
at one end
S1 Miniature s.p.s.t.
or toggle switch,
1A rating.
TB1 3A 3 -way screw
PL1/SK1 2.1mm or 2.5mm
"power -in"
plug and matching
chassis socket.
fixings for SK1.
FS1 20mm chassis
FS2 20mm 250mA quick -
blow fuses (2 off).
Plastic tubing for
-see text.
Stripboard, 0.1in. matrix 10
strips x 29 holes; ABS plastic
case, 76mm x 58mm x 38.5mm;
3A auto -type wire; solder etc.

Approx. cost
Guidance only £6
Everyday Electronics, December 1989 821
This is acceptable practice since it is
unlikely that the fuse will ever need to be
Use the specified "power -in" socket, not
B a type having exposed metal parts such as a
jack socket. This could cause short-circuits.
'CIRCUIT PANEL I The socket SKI is arranged with the
Si centre pin (tip) connected to the fuse and
ON - 01 hence to the positive battery connector ter-
minal. SK1 sleeve connection is made to
the negative battery connector terminal.
Note that power -in sockets usually have a
pair of switch contacts which part when the
plug is inserted - take care not to make
connections here in error.
PL1 SLEEVE Before making connections to the electrical
CAR SYSTEM CONNECTION system, disconnect the car battery. Using
light -duty auto -type wire of 3A rating
PL1 TIP minimum, connect terminal point TB1/1 to
RE23;36) a fuse which is live all the time and TB1/3 to
an earth point (car chassis). If wire passes
Fig. 3. lnterwiring from the circuit board to the terminal block through a hole drilled in metal use a rubber
Make the output lead by soldering
"power -in" plug, PL1, to a piece of light -
duty twin stranded wire (see Fig.4). Use
the tip of PL1 for the positive connection
and the sleeve for the negative one. Make
certain that short-circuits are avoided in
the plug - make an insulating sleeve if
necessary to keep the wires apart. Connect CAR
the negative wire (sleeve connection) to SET TO mA O.0
terminal block TB1/3 but leave the positive
(tip) one unconnected for the moment.


Precise details for lamp preparation can-

not be given since this will depend on the
exact type of lamp being used. Careful dis-
mantling should reveal a free space in
which to accommodate the 20mm fuse and
socket. SK1
Space may be saved by avoiding an
actual fuse holder here. The fuse may be EE232SG1

slid tightly into a short piece of plastic tub-

ing and direct soldered connections used.
Fig. 5. Test set-up, using a multimeter, for adjusting the charging rate

FS2 Tests assume that the batteries are dis
charged - if not, operate the lamp until
they are. Set the multimeter to a d.c. cur-
rent range of at least 150mA. Connect
TB1/2 to the positive meter probe lead and
the free positive wire (leading to PL1 tip
connection) to the negative one (see
Fig.5). Take care to prevent bare wires
POWER -IN touching any part of the car bodywork as
this would cause short-circuits.
FROM TIP CONNECTION PL1 Plug in the lamp and switch on S1. The
meter should indicate a current in the range
80 to 130mA. This will probably fall a little
during the first few minutes then remain
steady. Watch the reading at intervals - if
the current falls by more than 20 per cent
TBI I 3 CONNECTION approximately before 4 hours have
elapsed, adjust VR1 anti -clockwise to raise
it again. Note that it is normal for IC1 to
feel quite hot while a high current is flow-
Towards the end of the charging cycle,
the current will fall and the meter will even-
tually indicate the end -point; somewhere
in the region 10mA to 50mA. Disconnect
FE 2324G j
the lamp and switch it on to discharge the
batteries completely again. Connect the
charger and observe the meter reading at
Fig.4. Wiring to the power -in plug and to the "torch" socket and fuse hourly intervals. Small adjustments to VR1

822 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

Completed charger showing the circuit board slotted in position. The terminal
block is mounted on the outside rear panel
The modified car lantern showing the
will ensure that a high charge rate is main- power -in socket and plug
too high, reduce R3. None of this should be
tained for as long as possible while giving necessary, however, since VR1 provides a Before fitting the lid, make sure no wires
an end -point current less than 50mA. good range of adjustment. are touching ICI to avoid heat damage.
If the charging current is too low even With VR1 correctly adjusted, the meter Now it only remains to label SI and leave
with preset VR1 adjusted fully anti- may be removed and the positive output the charger to do its job. You will never
clockwise, increase the value of resistor wire connected to terminal TB1/2. The cir- be left in the dark with the Car Lamp
R3. If the charging current is consistently cuit panel may then be slid into position. Charger!

RULES Maximum of 16 words plus address

and/or phone no. Private advertisers only
(trade or business ads. can be placed in our

MARCONI alignment oscilloscope 10MHz com-
plete with instructions and circuit diagram -
AVO METER £80, tuner amplifier £30, LCR
bridge £30. D.E. Jones 01 249 4829.
classified columns). Pen pals or items
related to electronics only. No computer
software. EE cannot accept responsibility for
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arising between readers as a result of a free
ad. We reserve the right to refuse advertise-
good working order (valve model) £40. Tel: PCB Ultra Violet Light Box by Radio Spares cost ments. Each ad. must be accompanied by a
Watford 36362. £150 sell £80. Tel: 0268 417775. cut-out valid "date corner". Ads. will not
TEKTRONIX'scope 585A £10, 581 for spares, WANTED HERO Junior Robot, as sold by Map- appear (or be returned) if these rules are
ESI audio generator £5, Tautron f10. Tel: 0491 broken.
lins. Call Andrew on 0603 871598 after 4pm.
575216 (Henley). WANTED Ferranti i.c. ZN401 E-2 for Sinclair poc- AMSTRAD 1512 twin disk computer, working.
WANTED Bernard's Radio Books 96. Crystal Set ket TV FTVIC. Tel: Stroud 763914 or write: J. Jor- Gives error, faulty serial port when running. Best
Construction 126. Boy's Book Crystal Sets. Tel: dan, 36 Hillcrest Road, Cashes Green, Stroud, reasonable offer. Tel: 031 664 2112.
0380 77600. Glos. SCOPEX 4D1OB dual trace 10MHz oscilloscope
WANTED AVO Valve Data Manual or photo- HELP! Does anyone know of a company or can v.g.c. £100 o.n.o. Avo 8 £30 o.n.o. Tel: 01 756
copy. Borrow, buy. M. Tollett, 81 Godston you make drilled printed front panels contact D. 0237.
Road, Wolvercote, Oxford OX2 8PE. Rees, 14 Bank Buildings, Llandeilo, Dyfed SA19 WANTED for vintage Philips EL3516G tape
MALE PEN PAL about 21. University student. 6BU. recorder. Drive belt or suitable equivalent. Can
My interests include digital and communica- PRACTICAL Electronics collection complete anyone help. Please phone 09278 2078.
tions. Shahryar Pasyar, P.O. Box 71365-1664, 1964-1986. Very good condition. Vols 1-9 in bin- TANDBERG series 12, 7 inch reel to reel stereo
Shiraz, Iran. ders. Sensible offers only please. Tel: 0735 tape recorder 1967 model. Exc. condition for
WANTED information on weather station kits/ 412756. year £65. Tel: 0904 84406.
circuit diagrams. If possible on atmospheric COUTANT GPT-500 regulated power supply unit MAPLIN Electronics 61 note keyboard only, as
pressure in digital form. Richard C. Davies, 16 2 x 15 + 15, 5 amp working order £15. plus £4 new, list price £50, selling for £30. Mr. F. Lucas, 6
Dingle Lane, Crundale, Haverfordwest, Dyfed, p.p. Mr. J.T. Hill, County High School, Gram- West Fryerne, Yateley, Nr. Camberley, Surrey
SA62 4DJ. lington, Northumberland. GU17 7SU.

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Please publish the following small ad. FREE in the next available
issue. I am not a dealer in electronics or associated equipment. I
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(One month later for overseas readers)

For readers who don't want to damage the issue send a photostat or a copy of the coupon (filled in of course) with a cut-out valid -date corner"

Everyday Electronics, December 1989

3 Video Wiper
Tea Tune
Time Switch
JULY '88

AUG '88
Suntan Timer 610 £3.07
Car Alarm 615 £3.12

Printed circuit boards for certain constructional projects are available Breaking Glass Alarm Ellfaal 617 £4.27
from the PCB Service, see list. These are fabricated in glass fibre, and Amstrad PIO 618 £6.77
are fully drilled and roller tinned. All prices include VAT and postage and Eprom Eraser OCT '88 620 £4.07
packing. Add £1 per board for overseas airmail. Remittances should be
sent to The PCB Service Everyday Electronics, 6 Church Street, Doorbell Delay NOV '88 616 £3.56
Wimborne, Dorset BH21 1JH. Cheques should be crossed and made Micro Alarm 621 £3.12
payable to Everday Electronics (Payment in sterling only). Infra -Red Object Counter Trans , 622 f4.61
Boards for some older projects - not listed here - can often be obtained Receiver } £9'2' 623 £3.23
Display as a set
from Magenta Electronics, 135 Hunter St., Burton -on -Trent, Staffs DE14 624 £3.05
2ST. Tel: 0283 65435 or Lake Electronics, 7 Middleton Close, Nuthall, Seashell Sea Synthesiser 625 £4.84
Nottingham NG16 1BX. Tel: 0602 382509. Reaction Timer Main Board DEC '88 626 £3.46
NOTE: While 90% of our boards are now held in stock and are Display Board 627 £3.00
dispatched within seven days of receipt of order, please allow a Downbeat Metronome 629 £4.84
maximum of 28 days for delivery - overseas readers allow extra if EPROM Programmer (On Spec) 630 £8.29
ordered by surface mail. Please check price and availability in the latest Phasor 631 £5.64
issue before ordering. We can only supply boards listed in the latest Monkey/Hunter Game JAN '89 634 £3.36
issue. Boards can only be supplied on a payment with order basis.
Continuity Tester FEB '89 619 £2.67
4 -Channel Light Dimmer 635 £7.67
PROJECT TITLE Order Code Cost Mini PSU 636 £3.23
Automatic Car Alarm CIMIEEI 550 £3.00 Sound -to -Light Interface MAR '89 637 £6.24
BBC 16K Sideways RAM 551 £3.00 Midi Pedal 639 £7.00
(Software Cassette) 551S £3.88 Midi Merge 640 £3.00
Mini Amp FEB '87 554 & 555 £5.68 Audio Lead Tester 641 £5.77
Video Guard 556 £3.80 Light Sentinel APR '89
Spectrum I/O 557 £5.35 Main Control Board 632 £9.20
Spectrum Speech Synthesiser 558 £4.86 Remote Interface (4 boards) 633 £4.59
Computer Buffer/Interface MAR '87 560 £3.32 Electron User Port 638 £6.64
Infra -Red Alarm: Sensor Head 561 £4.19 4 -Channel Auto -Fader Interface 642 £6.80
PSU/Relay Driver 562 £4.50 Pet Scarer MAY '89 644 £3.00
Experimental Speech Recognition APR '87 563 £4.75 Electron A/D Interface 645 £4.84
Bulb Life Extender 564 £3.00 Spectrum EPROM Programmer JUNE '89 628 £7.87
Fridge Alarm MAY '87 565 £3.00 Bat Detector 647 £4.95
EE Equaliser -Ioniser 566 £4.10 Programmable Pocket Timer JULY '89 648 £3.82
Mini Disco Light JUNE '87 567 £3.00 Electronic Spirit Level AUG '89 649 £3.85
Visual Guitar/Instrument Tuner 568 £3.97 Distance Recorder 651 £5.23
Fermostat JULY '87 569 £3.34 Treasure Hunter 652 £3.73
EE Buccaneer Metal Detector 570 £4.10 Xenon Beacon SEPT '89 650 £4.13
Monomix 571 £4.75 Probe Pocket Treasure Finder 653 £4.12
Super Sound Adaptor Main Board AUG '87 572 £4.21 Power Supplies {: Fixed Voltage 654 £4.08
PSU Board 573 £3.32 Variable Voltage 655 £4.48
Simple Shortwave Radio, Tuner & Amplifier 575/576 £4.90 Music on Hold OCT '89 646 £3.85
Noise Gate SEPT '87 577 £4.41 Power Supplies - 25V 700mA 656 £4.35
Burst Fire Mains Controller 578 £3.31 - 30V 1A 657 £4.55
Electronic Analogue/Digital Multimeter 579 £6.40 EE Seismograph - Control 658 £4.08
- Detector 659 £4.22
Transtest CIMICIA 580 £3.32 Lego/Logo & Spectrum 660 £6.49
Accented Metronome NOV '87 582 £3.77 Wash Pro NOV '89 643 £3.83
Acoustic Probe 584 £3.00 Biofeedback Monitor - Front End 661 £4.52
BBC Sideways RAM/ROM 585 £4.10 - Processor 662 £4.56
Power Supplies - 1.5V -25V 2A 663 £4.78
Dual Mains Light Flasher DEC '87 587 £3.66 Logo/Lego & Spectrum Interface
Twinkling Star 664 £5.60
588 £3.00
Audio Sine Wave Generator 589 £3.03 EEG Electrode Impedance Meter DEC '89 655 £3.98
Capacitance Meter JAN '88 590 £4.10
Bench Amplifier 591 £5.51 i Please note that when ordering it is important to give project title as well
Transistor Curve Tracer 592 £3.00 as order code. Please print name and address in Block Caps. Do not send
any other correspondence with your order.
Bench Power Supply Unit FEB '88 593 £4.01
Please send me the following p.c.b.s.
Semiconductor Tester MAR '88 594 £3.19 Make cheques/PO payable to: Everyday Electronics
SOS Alert 595 £3.00 (payment in £ sterling only)
Guitar/Keyboard Envelope Shaper 596 £4.23 Order Code Project Quantity Price
Stereo Noise Gate APR '88 597 £6.65
Pipe & Cable Locator 598 £3.00
Inductive Proximity Detector 574 £3.00 4
Multi -Chan Remote Light Dim IMICE3 a.
Transmitter 599 £3.00
Receiver 600 £3.07
Door Sentinel 605 £3.00 4
Function Generator - Main Board 606 £5.91 I enclose cheque/PO for £ I-
Function Generator - Power Supply 607 £4.19
Name 4
Multi -Chan Remote Light Dim EMBIKEI
Relay/Decoder 601 £4.86
Dimmer Board 602 £3.07
Power Supply 603 £3.00
Mother Board 604 £7.76 03
Headlight Reminder Please allow 28 days for delivery (see note above)
611 £3.00
824 Everyday Electronics, December 1989

The Components Division of Jidenco Machines International Ltd

Vale Road, Windsor, Berks SL4 5JW. Tel 0753 869723 Telex 847046 Fax 0753 830107
Mon/Fri 8.00am-5.30pm. Monitored Answerphone evenings/weekend.



79p 50mA-6 3A (5 x 20) 10p RED. GREEN, AMBER, CLEAR 50p
PIEZO DISC PCB/LEADS 3-28v 97p 100mA-15A (1/4 x11/4) 10p
50mA-6 3A (5 x 20) 12p
4PDT 24VDC 3A 14 PIN PLUG-IN £3.36
WITHOUT INTERNAL DRIVE 100mA-16A (1/4x 11/4) 12p
48VDC 3A 14 PIN PLUG-IN £3.59
240VAC 3A 14 PIN PLUG-IN £3.98

BULBHOLDERS 3.5.13A PACK 10 £1 00

50v 22/27/150/470/2000/5000pF PACK 50 £1.25 24VDC 10A ROUND 11 PIN PLUG-IN £4.49
50v 2200pF 40p 48VAC 10A ROUND 11 PIN PLUG-IN £4.49
W.111 1, H.33.5. DIA.9.5, FC.101 6 £2.69
25v 10pF PACK 10 50p 110VAC 10A ROUND 11 PIN PLUG-IN £4.61
16v 220pF PACK 10 50p 220VAC 10A ROUND 11 PIN PLUG-IN £4.68
16v 4700pF 40p 240VAC 10A ROUND 11 PIN PLUG-IN E4.68
16v 2200pF PACK 5 £1 00 RED. GREEN, AMBER. YELLOW PACK 20 £1 00
16v 4700pF 40p BICOLOUR 5mm RED/GREEN 3 LEADS 45p PCB SPDT 8A 24VDC FLATPACK £2 00
TANT BEADS 16v 2.2/4.7/10pF PACK 20 £2.00 SUPERBRIGHT 3 OR 5mm PCB SPDT 16A 24VDC UPRIGHT £2.13
POLYESTER RAD (5mm) 100pF5%63v PACK 10 80p 8mm RED. GREEN, AMBER, YELLOW 38p
FOR 3 OR 5mm LEDS PACK 10 50p
32.768KHZ TO 116.00MHZ P0A
FOR 8mm LEDS PACK 10 60p
NEC FC1057 1MB £76 00
£82.00 20 x 14 DOT MATRIX
3.5" DS
TOSHIBA ND 352T 1MB £76 00
NEC FD 1037A 1MB £71 42
40 x 40 x 10mm 12vdc *E7.00
TAXAN KX 123 12" GREEN (IBM COMPAT) £100.80 DIN 41612 RIGHT ANGLE CONN 2 x 32 WAY £1.00
40 x 40 x 20mm 12,24vdc E7.00
62 x 62 x 15mm 12,24vdc
* New Lower £7.00
COLOUR MBM27C512-25 FUJITSU 64K x 8 EPROM £5.75
80 x 80 x 20mm 12,24vdc prices f7.00
90 x 90 x 20mm 1 2.24vdc E7.00

Order by Access or Visa or in writing enclosing cash, cheque or PO. No minimum cash order. Minimum credit card or account order £10.00.
Account applications from approved organisations and companies welcome, as are trade enquiries.

Payment:- Add £1.00 P&P (unless otherwise shown) to all orders and then add VAT (15%). Prices:- Are for 1 off unless a Pack Qty is shown.
Discounts for larger Qtys. See our catalogue or phone. All components are brand new.

Send £1.50 for our full catalogue which includes discount vouchers - 50p off £5.00+ order, £1.00 off £10.00+ order, £5.00 off £50.00+ order.
Prices valid on all orders received before 31st December 1989. Our product range is continually increasing - please enquire for other items.

Everyday Electronics, December 1989 825

New components, lots of new packs, and a better
selection than ever in the old favourites. If you
haven't yet sampled these delicious component
Buzz like a butterfly, hoot like a bee; the computer you pay for, but the switches are free! Match this
assortments, you just don't know what you're famous quotation with our equally famous sound effects computer, and you could be on your way
missing! All the packs are £1 (+VAT) each, but if to a fortnight's holiday in the Canary Islands. On the other hand, you're much more likely to be sitting
you order five packs you can select an extra one in your front room. But you never can tell where people read their electronics mass, can you?
FREE. Order ten packs and you can have three
extra packs FREE. Go for it!
Take a powerful PIC655A single chip computer, mask
PASSIVE COMPONENTS program it to produce the most outrageously realistic
PACK 1 - 200 RESISTORS. Finest carbon film, with sound effects, add an audio amplifier to bring them up
lots of E12 values and a few precision. to loudspeaker level, and you have the Highgrade
PACK 2 -100 CAPACITORS. Polystyrene, ceramics, Sound Effects Computer. How about a motor rally,
metallised film. A fine selection! complete with gear changes? Or a ship hooting its
PACK 3 -30 ELECTROLYTICS. Values to 470pF. mournful way through the fog? Or a fly so realistic it'll
PACK 4 -15 LARGE ELECTROLYTICS. Values to have you running for the swat! Sirens, helicopters,
4,700µF. steam trains, aliens - you name it, it's in there. The
PACK 5 - 10 TANTALUM CAPACITORS. Values from computer is easily programmed with the thirteen switches supplied. In one mode you can even play
01µF to 68pF! it like a synthesizer! I have to admit, it's my favourite project of the moment.
PACK 6 - 20 HIGH VALUE POLYESTER CAPACITORS With your computer we also give you: a battery connector, a loudspeaker, thirteen switches, and a
Values to at least 43. wiring diagram and programming instructions. You add a PP3 battery