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CHE150-L Chemical Engineering Laboratory

1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Experiment 8: EFFICIENCY OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


Brillas, Catherine Jill., Domingo, Zairus Dref., Padilla, Christiana Mae., Virata, Melina Michelle.
1
Student, Mapúa University, School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry

INTRODUCTION
of head instead of pressure for a centrifugal pump's
In fluid dynamics, a hydraulic pump’s main purpose is energy is that the pressure from a pump will change if
to convert input power to kinetic energy by the specific gravity (weight) of the liquid changes, but
accelerating liquid in a revolving device - an the head will not.
impeller.[1] This kinetic energy is the pressure
elevating the liquid from lower level to higher level, Changes in kinetic energy are due to resistances in
allowing for fluid to flow even through long pipelines. the flow wherein the fluid coming out of an impeller is
obstructed by factors such as the pump casing which
The centrifugal pump is the most widely used catches the liquid, pipe roughness as well as pipe
hydraulic pump wherein fluid enters the pump through fittings; all of which slows the flow down. Taking this
the eye of the impeller which rotates at high speed into account, pump efficiency, η (%) is a measure of
then accelerating the fluid radially and outward from the efficiency with which the pump transfers useful
the pump. As this happens, a vacuum is created at work to the fluid
the impellers eye that continuously draws more fluid
into the pump.[2] 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
η= 𝑃𝑖𝑛
; where η = efficiency (%)
Pin = power input
Pout = power output

Furthermore, pumps can be connected to each other


and arranged in series or parallel to increase the
head or flow rate capacity of the fluid as well as
offering more flexibility.

Centrifugal pumps are connected in series if the


discharge of one pump is connected to the suction
Figure 1. Standard Centrifugal Pump side of a second pump. Two similar pumps, in series,
operate in the same manner as a two-stage
Assuming that the discharge of a centrifugal pump is centrifugal pump wherein each of the pumps is
positioned to point straight up, the fluid will be putting energy into the pumping fluid, therefore the
pumped up to a certain height (head), which is the resultant head is the sum of the individual heads and
maximum head also called the shut off head, which is the fluid flow rate is equal throughout. Parallel, on the
determined by the outside diameter of the pump's other hand, is when two or more pumps are
impeller along with the speed of the rotating shaft. connected to a common discharge line, and share the
Head is a measurement of the height of the liquid same suction conditions therefore the head is equal
column the pump could create from the kinetic energy through while the fluid flow rate is additive.
the pump gives to the liquid.[3] Measuring with the use

Experiment 08│ Group No.4│ August 31,2017 1 of 8


CHE150-L Chemical Engineering Laboratory
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

The experiment aims to determine and compare the initial pressure readings of the suction and discharge
performance and efficiency of two identical centrifugal were recorded.
pumps when operated, singly in series and in parallel The appropriate pump and valve arrangement were
configurations. set to the following operation:
A. Pump A operation - the valves A, D and E
METHODOLOGY were opened then the valves B and C were
closed.
I. Set-up B. Pump B operation – the valve B were
opened then the valves A, C, D and E were
closed.
C. Pump A and pump B in series operation -
the valves A and C were opened then the
valves B, D and E were closed.
D. Pump A and pump B in parallel operation -
the valves A, B and D were opened then the
valves C and E was closed.

The dynamometer motor was run by setting the


tachometer at the desired reading slowly.
Weights to the torque arm were applied until it
was again balanced. The pressure readings of
II. Procedure suction and discharge were recorded. Then, the
water level was waited to stabilize and the height
The system was primed by opening all the valves of water at the V-notch was determined in the
except the flow regulating valve and by filling up the stilling well by adjusting the Vernier hook gauge.
pipelines with water through the filling plug. The lines The Vernier reading was then recorded. It was
connecting the pressure tappings to the pressure then repeated at different rpm settings. After all
gauges were ensured that the lines were filled with data has recorded, all the electrical supply of the
water. The presence of air would result in erroneous equipment was disconnected. Then the water
reading of the pressure gauges. The motor stator was from the well was drained.
balanced by placing counter weight(s) on the motor
pan. The water level in the stilling well was adjusted
so that it is exactly at level with the apex of the “V- III. Treatment of Results
notch”. The height of the Vernier hook gauge level by
pointing the tip of the hook at the water level inside To obtain an analytical result using the gathered data,
the stilling well was adjusted. Then, the Vernier these equations are to be used.
caliper was also adjusted to zero reading. All the
For single pumps operated, the discharge flow (Q) is ℎ𝑜 = ℎ𝑣 + 0.00085 eq. 2
obtained using the equation (1) and (2) where g is the
acceleration due to gravity, hv is the v-notch reading and To obtain the total manometric head (HM), equation (3)
ho is the total v-notched reading. is used where HD is the discharge head while Hs is the
suction head.
𝑄 = 0.31ℎ𝑜2.5 √2𝑔 eq. 1
𝐻𝑀 = (𝐻𝑑 − 𝐻𝑠 ) + 1.17𝑥105 𝑄2
eq.3

Experiment 08│ Group No.4│ August 31,2017 2 of 8


CHE150-L Chemical Engineering Laboratory
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

η𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑙= 𝑄𝑡 eq. 8
𝑄 𝑄
To provide the power input (Pin) of the pump, equation ( 𝐴 )+( 𝐵 )
η𝐴 η𝐵

(4) is used where gc is the gravitational conversion


constant, N is the tachometer reading, L is the length of
the torque arm and mr is the torque mass. REFERENCES

𝑃𝑖𝑛 = 𝑚𝑟 𝐿 (
2𝜋𝑁 𝑔
)( ) eq.4 [1] [2] “Centrifugal Pumps.” The Engineering ToolBox,
60 𝑔𝑐
www.engineeringtoolbox.com/centrifugal-pumps-
d_54.html.
To provide the power output (Pout) of the pump, equation
[3] Singh, S. (2012). Experiments in Fluid Mechanic,
(5) is used where 𝜌 is the density of water at given
2nd Edition
temperature and pressure and HM is the total
manometric head obtained earlier.
[4] “Series or parallel pump operation.” Series or parallel
𝑔
pump operation, www.mcnallyinstitute.com/18-html/18-
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝜌𝑄𝐻𝑀 (𝑔 ) eq.5 1.htm.
𝑐

Finally, the efficiency of the pump is computed by using [5] Guitierrez, C. L., & Ngo, R. L. (2005). Chemical
equation (6) or dividing the power output by the power Engineering Laboratory Manual Part 1. Experiment 8:
input. Effieciency of Pumps

𝑃
η = ( 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) 𝑥 100 eq.6
𝑖𝑛

For pumps in series operation, the efficiency is


calculated using equation (7) where HMA is the total
manometric head of pump A, HMB is the total
manometric head of pump B, η𝐴 is the efficiency of
pump A which is taken from data A and η𝐵 is the
efficiency of pump B which is taken from data B.

η𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠= 𝐻𝑀𝐴 + 𝐻𝑀𝐵 eq. 7


𝐻 𝐻
( 𝑀𝐴 )+( 𝑀𝐵 )
η𝐴 η𝐵

For pumps in parallel operation, 𝑄𝑡 = 𝑄𝐴 + 𝑄𝐵 but


𝑄𝐴 = 𝑄𝐵 therefore the efficiency is calculated using
equation (8) where 𝑄𝑡 is the total discharge flow, QA s
the discharge flow in pump A, QB is the discharge flow in
pump B, η𝐴 is the efficiency of pump A which is taken
from data A and η𝐵 is efficiency of pump B which is
taken from data B.

Experiment 02│ Group No.4│ August 3,2017 3 of 8


CHE150-L Chemical Engineering Laboratory
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

APPENDIX
a. Raw Data PUMP IN SERIES:

Water properties : Length of torque arm : 0.25m Pump A pump B


Temperature: 28 deg Celsius Speed of V Torque Suction Discharge Suction Discharge
Density: 996.2365 Motor(rpm) notch, Mass, (m) (m) (m) (m)
Hv Mt
(mm) (kg)
PUMP A: 1200 0.095 1.06 1.6 0 1.5 0
1400 0.097 1.423 2 0 2 0.5
Pump A pump B 1600 0.101 1.723 2.4 0.2 2.1 1
1800 0.105 2.16 2.9 0.5 2 1.1
V Torque Suction Discharge Suction Discharge
notch, Mass, (m) (m) (m) (m) A B A B
Hv Mt
(mm) (kg) Q Hm Q Hm Pin Pout ɧ Pin Pout ɧ Series
(m3/s) (m) (m3/s) (m) (W) (W) (%) (W) (W) (%) ɧ (%)
0.088 0.66 1.3 0.9 2.9 0.4 0.0039 0.1847 0.0039 0.28 326.52 7.05 2.16 326.52 10.87 3.33 2.74

0.0041 0.0212 0.0041 0.48 511.39 0.85 0.17 511.39 19.25 3.76 1.80
0.091 0.783 1.5 0.9 3 0.8 0.0045 0.2178 0.0045 1.32 707.66 9.67 1.37 707.66 58.54 8.27 4.82

0.094 1.06 1.75 1.2 3.2 1 0.0050 0.5313 0.0050 2.03 998.03 25.99 2.60 998.03 99.37 9.96 6.28

0.1 1.283 2.2 2 4 2 PUMP IN PARALLEL

Pump A pump B
A B A Speed of V Torque Suction Discharge Suction Discharge
Motor(rpm) notch, Mass, (m) (m) (m) (m)
Q Hm (m) Q Hm (m) Pin Pout ɧ (%) Hv Mt
(m3/s (m3/s (W) (W) (mm) (kg)
) ) 1200 0.092 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.2 0.5
0.003 0.8206 0.003 -1.30 203.4 25.903 12.7 1400 0.099 0.923 1.1 2 1.5 1.9
2 0 2 0 9 4 1600 0.106 1.262 1.25 3 1.6 2.9
0.003 0.8332 0.003 - 281.5 28.069 9.97
1800 0.108 1.483 1.4 3.9 1.9 3.9
5 5 5 0.7667 3 3
5
0.003 1.1394 0.003 -0.51 435.5 42.317 9.71 A B A B
8 8 8 8 7 Q Hm Q Hm Pin Pout ɧ (%) Pin Pout ɧ (%) Parallel
0.004 2.0651 0.004 0.2651 593.1 88.803 14.9 (m3/s) (m) (m3/s) (m) (W) (W) (W) (W) ɧ (%)
4 2 4 2 1 4 7 0.0036 1.5224 0.0036 0.82 215.62 53.67 24.89 215.62 28.99 13.45 2.552
0.0043 3.0895 0.0043 2.59 331.70 130.62 39.38 331.70 109.48 33.01 35.9147
0.0051 4.8224 0.0051 4.37 518.32 241.52 46.60 518.32 218.98 42.25 44.3185
0.0054 5.8709 0.0054 5.37 685.22 307.98 44.95 685.22 281.75 41.12 42.9498
PUMP B:
Pump A pump B
V Torque Suction Discharge Suction Discharge
notch, Mass, (m) (m) (m) (m)
Hv Mt
(mm) (kg)
0.09 0.76 0 2.1 2 0
0.096 0.923 0 3 2 0.3
0.098 1.16 0 4 2.5 0.7
0.103 1.423 0 5 3 1

A B B
Q Hm Q Hm Pin Pout ɧ (%)
(m3/s) (m) (m3/s) (m) (W) (W)
0.0034 3.4525 0.0034 - 234.22 - 9.0579
0.6475 21.2154
0.0040 4.8720 0.0040 0.172 331.87 6.7239 2.0261
0.0042 6.0639 0.0042 0.2639 476.67 10.8323 2.2725
0.0048 7.6957 0.0048 0.6957 657.83 32.6358 4.9611

Experiment 02│ Group No.4│ August 3,2017 4 of 8


CHE150-L Chemical Engineering Laboratory
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

𝑄𝑇
𝜂𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑙 =
𝑄 𝑄
b. Calculations (𝜂 𝐴) + (𝜂 𝐵)
𝐴 𝐵
Consider Pump A at 1200 rpm: 0.0072
ℎ𝑜 = ℎ𝑣 + 0.00085 =
0.0036 0.0036
= 0.0880 + 0.00085 ( 24.89 ) + ( )
13.45
= 0.08885m = 2.552%

𝑄 = 0.31ℎ𝑜 2.5 √2𝑔


= (0.31)(0.08885)2.5 √2(9.81)
= 0.00323 𝑚3 /𝑠

𝐻𝑀𝐴 = (𝐻𝐷 − 𝐻𝑆 ) + 1.17 × 105 𝑄 2


= (0.9 − 1.30) + 1.17 × 105 (0.00323)2
=0.8206 m

2𝜋𝑁 𝑔
𝑃𝑖𝑛 = 𝑀𝑇 𝐿 ( )( )
60 𝑔𝑐
2𝜋(1200) 9.81
= (0.660)(0.25) ( )( )
60 1
= 203.4056 W
𝑔
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝜌𝑄𝐻𝑀 ( )
𝑔𝑐
9.81
= 996.2365(0.00323)(0.8206) ( )
1
= 25.9039 𝑊

𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 25.9039
𝜂= × 100 = × 100
𝑃𝑖𝑛 203.4056
= 12.7351 %

Consider C. Pumps in series operation at


1200 rpm:
𝐻𝑀𝐴 + 𝐻𝑀𝐵
𝜂𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 =
𝐻 𝐻
( 𝜂𝑀𝐴 ) + ( 𝜂𝑀𝐵 )
𝐴 𝐵
0.1847 + 0.28
=
0.1847 0.28
( 2.16 ) + (3.33)
=2.74%

Consider D. Pumps in parallel operation at


1200 rpm:
𝑄𝑇 = 𝑄𝐴 + 𝑄𝐵 =0.0036+0.0036
=7.2× 10−3 m3/s

Experiment 02│ Group No.4│ August 3,2017 5 of 8


CHE150-L Chemical Engineering Laboratory
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Domingo, Zairus Dref G. Table 3. Discharge Flow and Total Manometric Head of
Pump A and B respectively.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Pump A Pump B
Speed Dischar Total Discharg Total
The performance and efficiency of two identical of ge Flow, Manom e Flow, Manom
Motor (m3/s) etric (m3/s) etric
centrifugal pumps were determined using a Series- (rpm) Head, Head,
Parallel Pump Test Apparatus for this experiment. The (m) (m)
following tables are the measured values for pump 1200 0.0032 0.82060 0.06475 234.22
A and B respectively, each operating on their own. 1400 0.0035 0.83325 0.172 331.87

Table 1. Measured values for Pump A 1600 0.0038 1.13948 0.2639 476.67
Pump A 1800 0.0044 2.06512 0.6957 657.83
Motor V notch, Hv Torque Mass, Mt Suction Discharge
speed (mm) (kg) (m) (m)
(rpm) Now in comparing the efficiency of pumps A and B
1200 0.088 0.66 1.3 0.9
as they operate on their own, a ratio is made of the
1400 0.091 0.783 1.5 0.9
water (output) power to the shaft (input) power. The
power input of centrifugal pumps are dependent on the
1600 0.094 1.06 1.75 1.2 motor speed they operate in as well as the torque mass,
1800 0.1 1.283 2.2 2 this leads power to have a direct proportionality to these
two factors. The power output on the other hand is
dependent on discharge flow and manometric head
Table 2. Measured values for Pump B
Pump B therefore they are both directly proportional the power
Motor V notch, Hv Torque Mass, Suction Discharge output.
speed (mm) Mt (kg) (m) (m)
(rpm)
1200 0.09 0.76 2 0 Table 4. Efficiency of Pump A
Speed of Power Power Efficiency.
1400 0.096 0.923 2 0.3 Motors Input, (W) Output, (%)
1600 0.098 1.16 2.5 0.7 (rpm) (W)

1800 0.103 1.423 3 1


1200 203.40 25.9039 12.74
1400 281.53 28.0693 9.97
1600 435.58 42.3177 9.71
Both pumps show a trend wherein the v-notch,
1800 593.11 88.8034 14.97
suction head, discharge head and torque mass
increases as the speed of motor increases. This makes
Table 5. Efficiency of Pump B
sense since when the speed of the motor increases, the Speed of Power Power Efficiency.
amount of mechanical energy converted to fluid energy Motors Input, (W) Output, (%)
through the pump increases, leading to an increase in (rpm) (W)
volumetric flow of the fluid as well as an increase in 1200 234.22 21.2154 9.0579
manometric head (Hm). Table 3 displays this increase in
discharge flow and total manometric head, both of which 1400 331.87 6.7239 2.0261
were calculated using the equations from the lab 1600 476.67 10.8323 2.2725
manual. 1800 657.83 32.6358 4.9611

Experiment 02│ Group No.4│ August 3,2017 6 of 8


CHE150-L Chemical Engineering Laboratory
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Efficiency for both pumps A and B varies in different


motor speed setting with the highest efficiencies for
pumps obtained at 1200rpm and 1800rpm. At this motor
speed setting, the pumps most effectively converted the
mechanical energy to fluid flow energy making it ideal to
operate on either of these speeds for the two pumps.
With all their differences in their measured and For series, the resultant head is the sum of the
calculated values, pumps A and B aren’t so identical individual heads while the fluid flow rate is equal
with pump A as a more efficient pump than pump B. throughout. The flowrate is already equal while the
heads are added therefore increasing the head for the
Figure 1. Efficiency of Pumps A and B system, affecting the power input which then affects the
power output. These values should be greater than if
Efficiency of Pumps A and B they were operating singly. However, when in series it
seems that the head values are quite low as well as the
16
power out computed to the point that the efficiency
14
12 Pump determined for all motor speeds are all in the single
A digits. The pumps seem to work less efficient when put
10
8 together.
6
4 Pump Table 7. Pumps in Parallel Operation
2 B
0
1200 1400 1600 1800

Now that both pumps’ individual properties are


determined and is is now known that both pumps
that actually operate identically, the two can be put
in series and parallel arrangement to compare
performances when both pumps are at use. With
the use of valve openings in the apparatus, series
and parallel configurations can be made for the two For parallel, the fluid flow rate is the sum of the
pumps. We know that series operates in a way that individual flow rates while the head is equal throughout.
the resultant head is the sum of the individual The values for head are quite close to each other
heads and the fluid flow rate is equal throughout, enough that the difference is negligible since the system
is working in real conditions while the fluid flowrate are
while parallel has its head as equal throughout
added, doubling the total flow rate. The efficiency for the
while the fluid flow rate is additive.[1]
parallel configuration is a lot better than in series. One
conclusion that can be made for this is simple error in
Table 6. Pumps in Series Operation
the way the system was started. Perhaps the valves
were opened in a non-synchronized way leading to
fluctuations within the system and its readings as well
as not being able to have a stabilized flow throughout.
This was not the case for the parallel part. Its efficiency
got better as the motor speed is increased

Experiment 02│ Group No.4│ August 3,2017 7 of 8


CHE150-L Chemical Engineering Laboratory
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

the required valves at the same time to let the fluid flow
establish and not have fluctuations within the system.
Figure 2. Efficiency in Series and Parallel
Fluctuations within the system leads to fluctuations with
60 the readings, and it was observed in the series part that
Efficiency (%)

50
40 the readings would bounce up and down and was never
30 stable. Further experimenters should take note of this
20
10 because the most important thing in this experiment is
0 the fluid flow and if you start it incorrectly, the rest of the
1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
data leads to errors.
Speed of Motor (rpm)

Series Parallel
REFERENCES
[1] “Series or parallel pump operation.” Series or parallel
CONCLUSION pump operation, www.mcnallyinstitute.com/18-html/18-
1.htm.
After determining the performance and efficiency of two [2] Gillesania, D.I.T. (2003). Fluid Mechanics and
centrifugal pumps operated singly, in series, and in Hydraulics Revised Edition. GPP Gillesania Printing
parallel configurations, we can conclude which Press. Phillippines. Ormoc City, Leyte
configuration results to the best efficiency. With the [3]. Green, D. W., Perry, R. H. (2008). Perry’s
following parameters the V-notch head, suction head, Chemical Engineers’ Handbook 8th Edition.
discharge head, the required weights to balance the
McGraw- Hill Companies. United States of America
motor, the total V-notch reading, discharge flow,
manometric head, power input, and power output (these
values were calculated for), we can finally evaluate for
the configurations’ efficiencies.

In the first part, the pumps working alone did not show
great efficiencies, none of which even reached an
efficiency value greater than 20%. However for the
second part, notably the parallel part; effiecies ranging
around 40% was taken, which is decent for we can not
really reach 100% effieciency; real conditions in this
world does not allow such thing. The series part
however, did more poorly than if the two pumps were
working alone.

Obviously, working with two pumps requires more steps


than working with just one so there are more room for
errors when in the second part of the experiment. Errors
may be due to the inaccurate reading of the gauge
meters, as well as the readings for discharge and
suction heads. The most reasonable error however
could be said for the way the series and parallel
configurations were established. It is important to open

Experiment 02│ Group No.4│ August 3,2017 8 of 8