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CONSTRUCTION CODE OF TURKMENISTAN

CONSTRUCTION
IN SEISMIC AREAS
Design standards

Part 4.
PIPELINE UTILITIES AND
STRUCTURES

SNT 2.01.08-05

MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS INDUSTRY OF


TURKMENISTAN

Ashkhabad - 2005
CCT 2.01.08-05 «Construction in seismic areas. Design standards”
Part 4. Pipeline utilities and structures.

Developed by the Research Institute of Seismology of the Ministry of Construction and


Building Materials Industry of Turkmenistan.

Theme leader - Ilyasov B.I., candidate of technical science

Executors in charge: Saprina S.P., Lopashev V.A., Mordvinkin А. А.

Prepared for approval by the Architecture, Town-planning, Science and New Technology
Department of the Ministry of Construction and Building Materials Industry of
Turkmenistan

CCT 2.01.08-99 “Construction in seismic areas. Design standards”.


Part 1. Residential, public and industrial buildings and structures
CCT 2.01.08 –2001. «Construction in seismic areas. Design standards».
Part 2. Hydraulic structures, Part 3. Transport structures,

After putting in force of CCT 2.01.08-05 «Construction in seismic areas”. Design standards.
Part 4. Pipeline utilities and structures. Design standards, relevant parts of chapters in the
following Construction Codes: chapter 15 – CCT2.04.02-2000, 14 – CCT2.04.01-98, 9 –
CCT2.04.03-98, 13 – CCT3.05.04-94, chapter 10 – SNiP2.04.08-87, 5 and 8 –
SNiP2.05.06-85 become invalid in the territory of Turkmenistan
In addition to the aforementioned chapters, calculations of seismic impact of pipelines of
water supply, sewerage and irrigation systems are included in CCT Part 4. “Pipeline utilities
and structures”.

Ministry of Construction and Building Materials Industry of Turkmenistan. – А.-2005


Ministry of Construction Construction code of Turkmenistan
and Building
Construction in seismic areas.
Materials Industry of CCT 2.01.08- 05
Design standards
Turkmenistan
Part 4. Pipeline utilities and structures
1. PRINCIPAL PROVISIONS

1.1. This code shall be applied for designing of the following pipeline utilities with structures
in seismic areas with the anticipated intensity of 6, 7, 8 and 9 grades according to M S K-64 scale:
water supply;
sewerage;
internal water-pipe and sanitary piping in buildings;
main pipelines;
natural gas supply;
heat networks;
irrigation systems;
structures (of reserve and regulating reservoirs, pump stations, chambers and wells on
networks, etc. )
1.2. When designing pipeline systems, buildings and structures for construction in seismic
areas, one should take into account: a) the intensity of seismic impact calculated in grades; b) the
recurrence of seismic impact (recurrence interval of earthquakes with standard intensity shown in
years). The intensity and recurrence should be taken from the National map of seismic zoning of
Turkmenistan territory (Attachment 1), or from the List of settlements of Turkmenistan (Attachment
2).
The seismicity indicated in Attachmentes 1 and 2 refers to the areas with the average soils
according to their seismic properties (II category under Table 1).
1.3. For all structures, stated in clause 1.1, the seismicity of the building site should be
determined based on seismic micro-zoning (SMZ), having been carried out for regions with
seismicity of 6 grades and above.
For regions where no SMZ is available, it is permissible to determine the seismicity of the
building site, proceeding from the region’s seismicity and results of the site’s geological engineering
surveys in accordance with Table 1.
1.4. When selecting the route of pipeline systems in seismic areas, one should avoid areas
with declivities, unstable and slumping soils, territories with mine workings and active tectonic
fractures as well as areas which seismicity exceeds 9 grades.
Such sectors of routes should be passed around or crossed along the shortest way, thereat, in
the project additional measures should be taken to ensure the reliability of the pipeline system with
structures. In these cases the seismicity of such sites shall be determined according to Table 1 with
an allowance for the alteration of the building properties of the foundation soils.
1.5. At the sites which seismicity exceeds 9 grades, the erection of structures is allowed only
after the agreement with the Ministry of Construction and Building Materials Industry of
Turkmenistan in accordance with established procedure.
1.6. Designing of networks and structures in regions, having seismicity higher than 9 grades,
is to be carried out in accordance with provisions of part 5.
Approved Date of putting into action
By the Resolution of the Ministry of Construction and July 1, 2005
Building Materials Industry of Turkmenistan under №MOK-14 dated
October 12, 2004
Table 1

Seismicity of the
Category
building site at the
of soils
region’s seismicity,
according Soils
grades
to seismic
properties
6 7 8 9
1. Magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary consolidated
non-softened and insoluble, unweathered and slightly
I weathered rocks. 6 6 7 8
2. Bulky fragmental dense soils of the aforementioned
rocks without filler or containing up to 30% of sandy filler.
1. Magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary consolidated
non-softened and insoluble, unweathered and strongly
weathered rocks, excluding those attributed to the I
category.
2. Bulky fragmental soils containing more than 30% of
sand filler and mud fill with the low content of moisture up
to 40%.
3. Gravelly sands, coarse and medium-sized ones, dense
with
the porosity coefficient e < 0,55 and sands having the
average density (е= 0,55-0,73) with the low content of
II moisture and wet. 6 7 8 9
4. Fine dense sands (е< 0,6), having the average density
(е=0,6-0,75) and powdery dense sands (е < 0,6), with the
low content of moisture (moisture W < 10%), including
slumping soils.
5. Clayey soils with the low content of moisture (moisture
W ≤ 10%) with the porosity coefficient е< 0,9 for clays
and е  0,7 –for the loamy soils and clay sands, including
slumping soils with the consistency index IL 0.5.
6. Man-made soils of all kinds (according to TDS 25100-
95) at the deformation module Ео 12MP.
III 1. Sedimentary consolidated softened and soluble to a 7 8 9 9
variable extent rocks.
2. Bulky fragmental soils containing more than 40% of wet
and waterlogged mud fill.
3. Loose sands irrespective of their moisture and size;
gravelly sands, coarse and medium-sized, dense and
having the average density, waterlogged.
4. Fine and powdery sands, dense and having the average
density, wet and waterlogged.
5. Clayey wet (W > 10%) soils with the porosity index е ≥
0,9 for clays and е ≥ 0,7 for the loamy soils and clay sands,
and waterlogged.
6. Loess wet (W > 10%) and waterlogged slumping soils.
7. Man-made waterlogged soils of all kinds.

Notes:
1. Attributing the strata of soils of the site to the I category according to its seismic
properties s allowed when the thickness of the stratum, corresponding to the I category, is
above 30 m from the ground elevation in case if it is an embankment or from the reference
mark in case if it is an excavation. In case of heterogeneous composition, the soils of the
building site are attributed to the more unfavourable category according to their seismic
properties if within 10 m layer of soil (from the reference mark) the layer, belonging to this
category, has the total thickness above 5 m.
2. When predicting the rise of the level of the underground waters and watering of
soils (including slumping ones) in the process of exploitation of the pipelines with
structures, the soil category should be specified depending on the soil’s property (moisture,
consistency) in the soaked state. If loess-like slumping soils are available in the soil
stratum, it is recommended to carry out measures for the liquidation of slumping, and the
design seismicity is to be defined according to the results of the artificial improvement of the
base.
3. If data about consistency or moisture are not available, according to seismic
properties clayey and sandy soils are attributed to the III category when the level of the
underground waters is above 5 m.
4. For especially important buildings and structures, being erected within regions
with 6 grades seismicity, the designed seismicity should be taken amounting to 7 grades at
the building sites with the soils of the II category according to their seismic properties, and
8 grades – with the soils of the III category according to their seismic properties.

2. GENERAL DIRECTIONS

2.1. Within the period of the design operation life, the pipeline utilities and structures,
being erected in the seismic active areas, shall meet the following seismic resistance
requirements:
- provide people’s security, the undamaged state of constructions, valuable
equipment, as well as objects which damage may cause environmental pollution and menace
for the population during earthquakes with the design intensity;
- ensure the mode of normal operation of constructions, and preserve their
maintenance ability during earthquakes with the intensity lower than the design one.
2.2. In the underground structures and engineering systems, damages not affecting
the assurance of undisturbed operation of the national economy and industry during strong
earthquakes are allowed.
2.3. When calculating system’s elements of different functions for seismic loads, one
should be guided by this part and the following standards: CCT 2.01.08-99, CCT 2.04..02-
2000, CCT 2.04.03-98, CCT 2.04.01-98, SNiP 2.05.06-85, SNiP 2.04.08-87, CCT 3.05.04-
94, SNiP 2.06.03-85, РСН – 37-86.
2.4. Bases should be calculated in accordance with CCT 2.02.01-98. The calculation
should be made according to two groups of marginal states:
I - according to the load bearing capacity;
II - according to deformations.
Deformation calculations for bases are made in all cases and the load bearing capacity
calculations are made in cases of:
a) erection in seismic areas;
b) arrangement of tubular systems on a slope or nearby it;
c) availability of structurally unstable soils in the base.
2.5. When slumping soils are available in the base of tubular systems, the erection of
structures and pipeline laying should be carried out:
a) after preliminary transformation of the building properties of soils under the base
within the bounds of the whole slumping stratum or its upper part, if the value of possible
deformation in the underlayer is permissible under the conditions of normal operation;
b) using of lightened foundations in the base that will allow to decrease the specific
load per the unit of area
c) using devices that perceive nonuniform slumping deformations of bases without
the essential decrease of the system’s serviceableness as a whole.
2.6. The construction of engineering structures shall ensure a free movement of the
linear sectors and complex fittings of the pipe, the aforesaid is attained by arrangement of
spacings between the walls of engineering structures and the pipe.
2.7. While designing networks structures to be built in seismic areas, one should take
into consideration the following factors:
a) when using steel, reinforced concrete pressure and glass-fibre-reinforced plastic
pressure pipes, as well as elastic materials (rubber gaskets, different mastics, etc.) in spigot-
and-faucet joints of pipes and pipes, being connected with the help of sleeves, the network’s
seismic resistance increases;
b) when increasing distances between wells on the linear sectors and in places of
home inlets, the network’s seismic resistance increases;
c) if the pipeline layout is correctly chosen in the plan and profile with an allowance
for the decrease of the amount of complex fittings of the network and selection of the
optimal depth of laying, proceeding from the technological necessity, state and properties of
soils forming the route, the network’s seismic resistance increases essentially;
d) when laying a network in the sectors of soils having low load bearing capacity and
on slumping soils without additional engineering measures, seismic hazard increases
abruptly;
e) when laying pressure pipelines made of glass-polyester pipes in the canals, pipes
are recommended to be fixed with metal sleeves with anchor bolts built-in the bottom plate
according to the pipe’s diameter. Places of sleeves’ clamping to the pipe should be fixed
with flexible pads. Pipes should be laid on the sand layer having thickness not less than 10
cm.
2.8. Seismological characteristic of the pipelining route is the earthquake intensity in
terms of grades. Seismological characteristics of soils - speeds of waves propagation Ср and
periods of soils vibration Т, which are defined according to data of geological engineering
surveys taking into account changes of soils’ properties during the network operation. In the
absence of such data, the value of the period of soils vibration may be taken as per Table 2.

Table 2

Ср, m/s 5600-2100 2100-900 900-600 600-200 200


Т, s 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7

Speeds of seismic waves propagation in soils of the area of pipelines laying are
defined in accordance with Attachment 4 recommended.
2.9. Seismic resistance of structures and pipelines is provided by:
- the selection of pipelining routes and buildings sites auspicious from the seismic
point of view. A route is auspicious if its formed of firm and homogeneous soils;
- the implementation of rational constructive decisions and antiseismic measures;
- the selection of the pipes’ strength class based on their static calculation for strength under
conventional conditions of construction and additional seismic impact defined by calculations.
2.10. Main criterion of seismic resistance of buildings and structures is a high quality
of designing, building and operation. Concealed parts of structures and constructions shall
be examined: certificates of materials, soil density, preparation of bases, seams, junctions,
pipeline joints and other constructions.
Rules of acceptance quality tests of building materials, components of buildings,
structures, and building and assembly jobs shall meet requirements of corresponding state
standards, norms of the building process organization, project documentation.
2.11. An engineering seismometric agency shall be envisaged in responsible
structures. The list of responsible structures is approved by ministries and departments after
agreement with the Ministry of Construction and Building Materials Industry of
Turkmenistan.
2.12. Materials protecting building structures against corrosion should be used
pursuant to CCT 2.03.11-99* «Building structures protection against corrosion».

3. STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS OT THE


PIPELINE SYSTEM ELEMENTS

3. 1. Water supply

3.1.1. In regions with the seismicity of 8 and 9 grades, when designing water supply
systems of the I and, as a rule, II category, one should envisage the utilization of not less
than two water supply sources. It is allowed the usage of one surface source with the
arrangement of water intake in two ranges excluding the possibility of simultaneous
interruption of water delivery.
For the water supply systems of the III category and, if substantiated, for the II
category as well as for the water supply systems of all categories in regions with the
seismicity of 7 grades, the usage of one water supply source is allowed.
In regions with the seismicity of 7, 8 and 9 grades, when using the underground
waters from fractured and karst grounds as the water supply source for the water supply
systems of all categories, one should take the second source - the superficial or underground
waters from sandy and gravelly soils.
3.1.2. In the water supply systems, when using one water supply source (including
the superficial one with water intake in one range), in regions with the seismicity of 8 and 9
grades in reserve and regulating reservoirs one should envisage two times more volume of
water for fire fighting than for normal working conditions and the emergency volume of
water, providing the production needs under the emergency schedule and economic drinking
requirements amounting to 70% of the design consumption for not less than 8 hours in
regions with the seismicity of 8 grades and for not less than 12 hours in regions with the
seismicity of 9 grades.
3.1.3. The design number of simultaneous fires in regions with the seismicity of 9
grades, as well as in regions with the seismicity of 8 grades with the III category of soils
(according to Table 1) should be taken by one number higher than for normal working
conditions (excluding settlements, enterprises and detached buildings with the water
consumption for the outer fire fighting not more than 15 l/s).
3.1.4. In order to increase the reliable operation of the water supply system, one
should consider the opportunity of dispersal of pressure reservoirs; replacement of water
towers by water reservoirs; organization of crosspieces between the networks of the
economic drinking production water-pipe and the fire line after agreement with the bodies
of sanitary-epidemiological agencies as well as delivery of untreated disinfected water to the
network of economic drinking water-pipe.
3.1.5. In places of abrupt change of the profile or direction of the pipelining route,
one should envisage flexible junctions permitting angular and lengthwise motions of the
ends of pipelines – different types of compensators, pipes’ joints with annular rubber
gaskets, sealing of joints with the help of a strand and bitumen mastic.
3.1.6. When designing supply conduits and networks in seismic areas, the usage of
all types of pipes, like for usual conditions that ensure a reliable operation under the impact
of seismic loads is allowed. Thereat, the depth of pipes’ laying should be taken the same as
for usual conditions.
3.1.7. When selecting the pipes’ strength class, one should classify them according to the
following characteristics:
a) supply conduits and main networks;
b) distributing systems;
c) networks inside a quarter.
3.1.8. The selection of the pipes’ strength class for water conduits and main networks in
regions with the seismicity of 7- 9 grades, and distributing systems in regions with the
seismicity of 8 - 9 grades should be carried out with an allowance for a special combination
of loads.
3.1.9. The selection of the pipes’ strength class for networks inside a quarter should be
carried out with an allowance for only the main combination of loads
3.1.10. The amount of lines of supply conduits from each source shall not be less
than two. The amount of switches is to be fixed proceeding from the conditions of
occurrence of two breakdowns in supply conduits, thereat, total water delivery for the
economic drinking needs is allowed to be decreased not lower than by 30% of the design
consumption, for production needs - under the emergency schedule.
For the water supply systems of the III category and, if substantiated, for the II
category, laying of supply conduits in one line is allowed. Thereat, the volume of reservoirs
should be taken in accordance with the requirements of clause 3.1.2.
Water-supply networks shall be projected to be ring.

3.2. Sewerage system

3.2.1. Requirements of this subsection shall be performed when designing sewerage


systems in regions with the seismicity of 7 - 9 grades in addition to requirements of
subsection 3.1. “Water supply”.
3.2.2. When designing sewerage systems of industrial enterprises and settlements,
situated in seismic areas, one should envisage measures excluding the territory’s flood with
wastewaters and the contamination of the underground waters and open reservoirs in case of
failure of the sewer pipelines and structures.
3.2.3. When selecting schemes of sewerage systems, one should envisage the
decentralized placement of sewage structures, and take into consideration the division of
technological elements of the treating facilities into separate sections.
3.2.4. In case of favourable local conditions, natural wastewater purification methods
should be applied.
3.2.5. In order to protect the territory of the ducted object against the flood with
wastewaters and the contamination of the underground waters and open reservoirs
(waterways) in emergency situations, one should arrange by-passes (under pressure) from
the network to other networks or drop-out sumps without dumping into the water objects.
3.2.6. For collectors and networks of free-flow and pressure sewerage system all
types of pipes should be taken with an allowance for the pipelines’ purpose, the required
pipes’ strength, compensating capacities of joints, as well as results of technical-economic
estimations. Thereat, the depth of laying of all types of pipes in any soils is not rated.
3.2.7. Compensating capacities of joints should be ensured by using flexible butt-
joints defined by the calculation.
3.2.8. It is not recommended to lay collectors in the waterlogged soils (excluding
rocks, half-rock and bulky fragmental soils), in fill-up soils irrespective of their moisture, as
well as in sectors having traces of tectonic violations.
Laying of collectors in the aforementioned conditions may be carried out in case of
especial necessity with the relevant feasibility study and agreement with the corresponding
bodies of State supervision. Thereat, additional measures securing the pipelines’ reliability
shall be envisaged in the project.

3.3. Internal water-pipe and sanitary piping inside buildings

Water-pipe

3.3.1 When designing water supply networks and structures for the regions having
seismicity of 7 – 9 grades, one should envisage special measures (installation of emergency
pumps, electrical facilities, etc. in permissible places) to provide water delivery for
extinguishing fires that may occur during earthquakes, an uninterrupted delivery of the
drinking water, as well as water delivery for urgent needs of the production.
3.3.2. When designing water supply systems for buildings of industrial enterprises,
being placed in the regions having seismicity of 8 – 9 grades, for which water delivery
discontinuance may cause a failure or significant material damages, one should envisage
two inlets using two independent water supply sources.
3.3.3. Pipe’s anchorage in the blockwork and foundations of buildings and structures
is prohibited. Holes for pipes’ pass through the walls and foundations shall not be less than
by 0,2 m broader than the diameter of the input pipe. Gaps should be sealed by an elastic
incombustible material. Pipes’ pass through the walls of structures-reservoirs should be
carried out using glands embedded into the walls.
3.3.4. Pipe laying under the foundations of buildings should be envisaged in casings
made of steel or reinforced concrete pipes. Thereat, the distance between the upper part of
the casing and the base of the foundation shall not be less than 0, 2 m.
3.3.5. In the regions having seismicity of 7 – 8 grades, inside buildings in the
crossover points of deformation seams the installation of compensators should be envisaged
on pipelines.
In the regions having seismicity of 9 grades, crossing of the buildings’ deformation
seams by water running pipelines is prohibited.
3.3.6. In inlets forward of the measuring devices, as well as in the points of pipelines’
joining to the pumps and tanks, flexible joints should be envisaged to permit angular and
longitudinal displacements of the ends of pipelines.
3.3.7. Inlets of the water-pipe, internal water-supply networks, pipelines of pumping
units, water treating and preparing plants, as well as vertical pipelines (lifting pipes) of
elevated tanks should be made of steel or polyethylene heavy-type pipes.
The usage of cast-iron, asbestos-cement, glass, and polyethylene light-type or
medium-type pipes for the aforesaid purposes is prohibited.
3.3.8. When joining steel pipes, one should provide the uniform strength of the
welded joint with the pipe’s body. Manual gas welding is not allowed to be used. In the
inlets to the building and distributing networks having the pipes’ diameter D y  25 mm, and
with the seismicity of 9 grades also with the pipes’ diameter D y  25 mm, welding joints of
pipelines should be strengthened by overlaid sleeves on the welding.
3.3.9. Fire hydrants, and wells with valves on the pipelines should be placed on the
side of the butt ends of buildings so that the probability of their blockage in case of
breaking-down of surrounding buildings and structures was the least.

Sewerage

3.3.10. Pipeline’s anchorage in the blockwork and foundations of buildings and


structures is prohibited. Holes for pipes’ pass through the walls and foundations shall have
sizes securing the pipe’s spacing in the blockwork not less than 0,2 m. The gap shall be
sealed with an elastic waterproof and gas-tight material.
3.3.11. Crossing of constructions of the buildings’ deformation seams by sewer
pipelines is prohibited.
3.3.12. Butt-joints of inserted-joint pipes and pipes being connected on sleeves and
laid in the regions having seismicity of 8, 9 grades, shall ensure the compensation of
possible subsidence, in view of the aforesaid annular rubber gaskets should be used.
3.3.13. In the turning-points of the lifting pipe from the vertical to the horizontal
position one should envisage concrete stops.

3.4. Heat networks

3.4.1. When designing heat networks and structures thereon for the regions having
seismicity of 8, 9 grades, on the underworking territories, in the regions with slumping soils
of the II type, saline and swelling soils, along with the requirements of this standards and
rules one should apply also requirements of parts 1 and 2.
When designing structures-reservoirs on the slumping soils of the II type, one should
observe also requirements of parts part 2 and part 4.1.
Note. In case of slumping soils of the I type, heat networks shall be designed
disregarding requirements of this section.
3.4.2. Irrespective of the pipes’ diameter and heat carrier parameters, shutoff, variable
and pressure-relief valves should be steel.
3.4.3. Distances between sectionalizing valves should not be more than 1000 m. If
substantiated, the distance is allowed to be increased on transit pipelines up to 3000 m.
3.4.4. Laying of heat networks made of non-metal pipes is prohibited.
3.4.5. Conjoint laying of heat networks and gas-pipelines in canals and tunnels is
prohibited, irrespective of the gas pressure.
3.4.6. For buildings and structures of heat networks, the design seismicity shall be
taken to be equal to the seismicity of the developed land.
3.4.7. Channel-free laying of heat networks is allowed to be foreseen for pipelines
with Dy  400 mm.
3.4.8. Laying of transit heat networks under residential, public and production
buildings, as well as on the buildings’ walls, trusses, columns, etc. is prohibited.
3.4.9. In places where heat networks pipelines pass through foundations and walls of
buildings, one should envisage a gap not less than 0.2 m between the surface of the pipe’s
heat-insulated construction and the upper part of the opening. The gap should be sealed with
elastic waterproof and gas-tight materials.
3.4.10. In places where pipelines are joined with pumps, water heaters and tanks, one
should envisage measures to provide angular and longitudinal displacements of the
pipelines.
3.4.11. Steel expansion glands are allowed only in case of the subsoil laying of heat
networks for pipes having Dy  400 mm.
The design compensating capability of expansion glands should be taken to be by
100 mm lower than the value envisaged in the construction of compensators.
3.4.12. Movable roller and ball supports of pipes are prohibited.
3.4.13. In case of above-ground laying, one should use trestles or low detached
buttresses not higher than 1.2 m. Laying on high detached buttresses and utilization of pipes
of heat networks for binding buttresses are prohibited.

3.5. Natural gas supply

3.5.1. Determination of seismicity of the building sites for gas control points (GCP),
gas-filling stations (GFS), gas-filling points (GFP), buffer stores for gas bottles (BSB),
service gas-filling station (SGFS) and the gas-pipeline route should be carried out on the
basis of seismic microzoning or in accordance with directions given in part 1.
3.5.2. The construction from polyethylene pipes is not allowed in the regions having
seismicity above 6 grades, in soils of the II type of subsidence, in rocks and in the regions of
the underworking territories.
3.5.3. Internal gas equipment should be designed in accordance with directions for
usual conditions of construction.
3.5.4. When designing natural gas supply for cities with the population more than 1
million people, at the region’s seismicity of 7 grades and above, as well as for cities with the
population more than 100 thousand people, at the region’s seismicity of 8 and 9 grades, one
should envisage not less than two gas-distributing stations (GDS) to be placed on the
opposite sides of the city. As a rule, for enterprises with continuous technological processes
gas supply should be envisaged from two municipal gas-pipelines.
3.5.5. For GCP with the inlet pressure above 0.6 MP (6 kgf/cm 2) and GCP of
enterprises with continuous technological processes, one should envisage external bypass
gas-pipelines (bypasses) with mounting of shutdown devices outside the zone of possible
breaking-down of GCP.
3.5.6. Gas-pipelines of high and medium pressure intended for gas supply of
settlements and objects, stated in clause 3.5.4., should be designed to be loopback with their
division into sections by shutdown devices.
3.5.7. Tell-tale tubes should be envisaged on the subsurface gas-pipelines
- in tie-in points of gas-pipelines;
- on the turning angles of the gas-pipeline;
- in the crossover points with the underground engineering networks laid in canals;
- on the inlets to buildings.
3.5.8. Placing of shutoff valves (shutdown devices) should be envisaged in
accordance with the directions as for usual conditions.
3.5.9. In places where gas-pipelines pass through walls of buildings and walls of
wells, one should envisage an elastic waterproof sealing not preventing the possible
displacement of the gas-pipeline between the pipe and the casing.
3.5.10. On the above-ground gas-pipelines, being laid in the regions having
seismicity of 8 and 9 grades, if homing action is not available, one should envisage bucking-
out systems in the crossover points of natural and artificial obstacles, the connection of gas-
pipelines with equipment, having been mounted on foundations (tanks for liquefied
hydrocarbon gas (LHG), compressors, pumps, etc.), as well as on inlets to buildings.
3.5.11. For the construction of the underground gas-pipelines, being designed for the
regions with slumping soils, in seismic areas and on the underworking territories, the usage
of pipes made of unskilled steel is not allowed.
3.5.12. On the underground gas-pipelines, being laid in the regions having seismicity
of 8 and 9 grades, one should use steel shutoff valves.
3.5.13. For the underground gas-pipelines, being laid in the regions having seismicity
of 7 grades and above and on the underworking territories, the thickness of the pipe wall
should be taken to be not less than 3 mm for pipes with the diameter up to 80 mm, inclusive,
and for pipes with the diameter of 100 mm and above – by 2-3 mm more than for the design
thickness, being defined in accordance with the requirements of Building Code 2.04.12-86
and Building Code 2.04.08-87.
3.5.14. For internal and above-ground gas-pipelines, being laid in the regions with
slumping soils, in seismic areas and on the underworking territories, pipes and technical
products are made the same demands as for the corresponding gas-pipelines, being erected
in usual conditions of construction.

3.6. Main pipeline


(gas pipelines, oil pipelines and oil-products pipelines)

3.6.1. Designing of the linear part of pipelines and branches therefrom that are
intended to be laid in the regions having seismicity of 7 grades and above for the above-
ground pipelines, and 8 grades and above for the underground pipelines should be carried
out with an allowance for seismic impacts.
3.6.2. All field welding connections of pipelines, being laid in the regions having
seismicity of 7 -9 grades pursuant to clause 3.61, shall undergo radiographic control
irrespective of the category of the pipeline or its sector.
3.6.3. Rigid connection of pipelines with the walls of buildings (structures) and
equipment is prohibited.
If such connections are necessary, one should envisage the arrangement of curvilinear
inserts or bucking-out systems, which size and compensating capability shall be fixed
through calculations.
Pipelines should be introduced into buildings (compensating, pumping, etc.) through
openings which dimensions shall exceed the pipeline diameter by not less than 0.2 m.
3.6.4. In case if the pipeline crosses the route sectors having soils that distinctly differ
from each other according to their seismic properties, one should envisage the possibility of
free displacement and deformation of the pipeline.
In case of the underground pipeline laying in such sectors, the arrangement of a ditch
with gentle slopes, backfilling of the pipeline with coarse-grained sand, etc. are
recommended.
3.6.5. In sectors where the pipeline route crosses active tectonic fractures, one should
use the overground padding.
3.6.6. In case of the underground pipeline laying, the foundation bed of pipelines
shall be compacted.
3.6.7. Constructions of pipeline supports shall secure the possibility of pipelines’
displacement that appears during earthquakes.
3.6.8. In order to damp vibrations of the above-ground pipelines, one should envisage
the installation of dampers in each span that would not hinder pipelines’ displacement when
pipe’s temperature and the pressure of the transported product are changed.
3.6.9. In the sectors of the route that are the most dangerous from the seismic point of
view, one should envisage the automatic control system and pipelines’ fault sectors
disconnection
3.6.10. For pipelines having diameter more than 1000 mm, as well as in the areas
where pipelines cross natural and artificial obstacles, if duly substantiated, the installation of
engineering-seismometric stations for recording vibrations of the pipeline and the
surrounding soil massif during earthquakes is allowed.
3.6.11. For pipelines, being laid in seismic areas, the intensity of possible
earthquakes for various sectors of pipelines is defined in accordance with part one from
maps of seismic zoning and the list of settlements of the republic, located in seismic areas,
taking into account data of seismic microzoning.
3.6.12. When carrying out seismic microzoning, one should specify data concerning
tectonics of the area lengthwise the whole dangerous sector of the route, in the corridor
which borders are distant from the pipeline not less than 15 km.

3.7. Irrigation system

3.7.1. Seismic resistance of the pipeline systems for irrigation purposes depends
mainly on the reliability of operation of separate sections and elements of the network in the
linear sectors, as well as in the points of turning and joining or coupling of their components
to main (distributing) structures.
3.7.2. When constructing a closed irrigation network on slumping soils in seismic
areas, the utilization of metallic, reinforced concrete, asbestos-cement, glass-fibre-
reinforced plastic and plastic pipes is possible. In the prefabricated variants of the pipeline
systems, in order to increase the reliability one should provide the required depth of laying
and the preset flexibility, having ensured the quality in butt-joints and in their entries into
the distributing units. At the same time, one should aspire to decrease the amount of joints
and junctures and, consequently, possible sources of soils’ wetting by the usage of pipes
having the maximal length, stipulated by TDS.
3.7.3. The preparedness of beds for the closed pipeline systems on slumping soils is
recommended to be carried out by dint of preliminary wetting of the ditch thereunder with
subsequent ramming of the bottom by heavy rammers or trench explosion. Pipe laying is
carried out on the designed ditch bottom after its drying up. Backfilling of the ditch should
be performed thoroughly, and compaction should be carried out after the systems’ proof test.
3.7.4. In seismic areas, the depth of laying of all types of pipes in various soils is not
rated.
3.7.5. When pipelines cross tectonic or relief fractures in 8 and 9 grade seismic areas,
one should use the above ground padding in corresponding sectors.

3.8. Building structures

Pump stations, reserve and regulating reservoirs, production buildings

3.8.1 Pump stations for fire-prevention and economic-drinking water supply are not
allowed to be interlocked with production buildings and structures.
Note. Above ground pump stations for fire-prevention and economic-drinking water
supply are allowed to be interlocked with buildings and structures provided that they have
no a division wall with interlocked structures (walls of interlocked buildings are isolated by
a deformation seam).
When interlocking pump stations for fire-prevention and economic-drinking water
supply with the water supply buildings and structures, one should envisage measures that
exclude the possibility of flooding of machine halls and premises for electrical devices in
case if hermiticity of structures-reservoirs has been damaged.
3.8.2. Subsurface, semi-hardened and underground pump stations for water supply,
sewerage and irrigation system shall be placed at a distance (clear distance) not less than 10
m away from reservoirs and pipelines.
3.8.3. At water treatment stations, structures-reservoirs should be divided in separate
blocks amounting to not less than two.
3.8.4. At water treatment stations, one shall envisage bypass lines for water delivery
to the network omitting structures. The bypass line should be laid at a distance (clear
distance) 5Dн but not less than 5 m away from structures and communications. Thereat, one
should envisage the simplest device for chlorination of the potable water supplied to the
network.
3.8.5. In one unit the amount of reservoirs for a single purpose shall be less than two,
thereat, the connection of each reservoir with the delivery and lateral pipelines shall be
independent, without arranging a common changeover chamber between adjacent
reservoirs.
3.8.6. The anchorage of pipes in the walls and foundations of buildings is prohibited.
Holes for pipes’ pass shall have sizes securing a spacing along the perimeter not less than 10
cm; in the presence of slumping soils the spacing shall not be less than 20 cm in height; the
gaps shall be sealed with dense elastic materials.
Pipes’ pass through the walls of the underground part of pump stations and
structures-reservoirs are to be taken so that reciprocal seismic effects of walls and pipelines
are excluded. As a rule, glands shall be used for such purposes.
3.8.7. In the pipeline’s inlets and outlets from buildings or structures, in points of
pipeline’s joining to pumps, water wells, in points of the lifting pipes of the water-supply
towers joining with the horizontal pipelines, one should envisage flexible junctions
permitting angular and lengthwise motions of the ends of pipelines. Flexible junctions
permitting angular and lengthwise motions of the ends of pipelines, in particular, include
various types of compensators, rubberized fabric hoses which design pressure is higher than
Рисп, pipe couplings with annular rubber rings, sealing of the joint by using a strand and
bitumen mastic.
On the building sites having seismicity of 7 – 8 grades, pipelines’ flexible junction to
pumps is allowed to be carried out outside buildings of the pump station at a distance 5-10
Dн. This limit distance is chosen in inverse dependence on the diameter of the pipeline being
designed.
3.8.8. Constructions of buildings and structures should be designed in accordance
with requirements of parts 1, 2 and this part.

Chambers and wells

3.8.9. The construction of wells and chambers shall ensure a free movement of the
linear sectors and complex fittings of pipes therein, the aforesaid is attained by arrangement
of spacings between the walls of wells (chambers) and the pipe.
3.8.10. Wells shall be designed with using measures against shearing on a contact of
adjacent horizontal sections of the well in height, in view of the aforesaid one should
envisage
- for round wells made of prefabricated units, strengthening of seams by
connection elements;
- for round and rectangular wells made of brick and concrete - structural
armouring ;
3.8.11. Steel elements should be embedded in seams of wells made of precast
reinforced concrete rings. In the mating of the lower ring and the bottom, one should
arrange a ferrule made of cast-in-situ concrete of В10 class.
3.8.12. Walls of the working chamber and the manhole chimney made of cast-in-situ
concrete should be armoured with fabrics according to standards.
3.8.13. Walls of brick wells should be armoured in the horizontal direction pursuant
to standards.
3.8.14. Spacing between the face of the hole of the ring and a pipe shall not be less
than 0.1 m. The gap shall be sealed with an elastic material.
3.8.15. Erection of well with the height of the working chamber less than 1.5 m is not
recommended, and on the trafficway with the manhole chimney less than 0.5 m is
prohibited.

4. SEISMIC IMPACT CALCULATION

4.1. Calculation of water supply, sewerage, irrigation pipeline systems


Calculation of buildings and structures

4.1.1. Design seismicity of buildings and structures on water supply, sewerage,


irrigation systems shall be taken as per Table 3.

Table 3

Characteristics of
responsibility of Design seismicity buildings and structures at the building site
buildings and seismicity, grades
structures in 7 8 9
accordance with
CCT 2.04.02-2000
1–2 7 8 9
3 Disregarding seismic 7 7
impacts

Note. Buildings and structures are calculated for loads corresponding to the design
seismicity according to formulas of CCT 2.01.08-99. For buildings and structures which
operation is necessary when eliminating earthquake consequences such loads are
multiplied by the responsibility coefficient Ко = 1.2, and for water intake facilities of surface
water - Ко = 1.5.

4.1.2. Structures-reservoirs of water supply and sewerage systems and the


underground parts of buildings shall be calculated for the most dangerous possible
combinations of seismic effects caused by the dead weight of the construction, the weight of
the fluid filling the reservoir and the soil, including the dike.
Determination of the value of seismic effects caused by the weight of the fluid and
the soil should be carried out pursuant to CCT 2.01.08-2001, part 2.
Note. When calculating water towers, requirements of this clause are applied only to
the calculation of the tank’s constructions.
4.1.3. Seismic impacts on structures-reservoirs and the underground parts of
buildings that are caused by the dead weight of the constructions and loads thereon are
defined as for buildings.
Note. Structures, deepened in the soil, are calculated as underground ones if the
value of deepening exceeds the half of their height, and as above ground ones at the less
value of burial.
4.1.4. The calculation of seismic resistance of responsible structures should be
carried out according to CCT 2.01.08-99, responsibility coefficient Ко is taken as per Table
3 of the aforementioned CCT.

Calculation of pipeline systems

4.1.5. The sequence of calculation of systems with an allowance for seismic effects is
as follows:
- the design seismicity of the route and system is specified;
- the selection of the system’s design scheme in connection with branches and
separate structural decisions is carried out taking into account the combination of basic and
additional loads;
- if necessary, measures for increasing of their load bearing capacity and of the load
bearing capacity of their base are taken into consideration;
- the calculation for principal combinations of loads are made;
- seismic loads on the system are fixed and checking calculations are made.
4.1.6. For the underground and above ground pipeline systems on the embankment,
when defining seismic load in the design scheme, the pipeline should be considered as an
endless beam with a circular section in the ground ferrule. Thereat, the system should be
taken with a different extent of its jamming in the ground. If the soil possesses slumping
phenomena, then one should attain their elimination through using advanced techniques of
the base preparedness. In case of low embankments (lower than 6 m) slopes are allowed to
be fixed either by the calculation or structurally.
4.1.7. The calculation of supply conduits and networks is formed from the
calculation of linear sectors and sectors adjoining the units (wells, points of branching,
mating and fixing in places of feeding to pumps, tanks, artesian lifting pipes, water-towers,
etc.) in the following order:
a) the selection of the material and the pipes’ strength class is carried out;
b) the design modified environmental load on the pipeline is defined taking into
account seismic force that is directed perpendicularly to the pipeline’s axis and the pipes’
strength class is specified;
c) seismic load that is directed along the pipeline’s axis is defined, and the pipes’
strength in the longitudinal direction is checked;
d) the calculation of pipes located nearby an intricate unit is made;
e) the calculation of pipeline joint is carried out.
4.1.8. The design modified environmental load with an allowance for the seismic
force that is directed perpendicularly to the pipeline’s axis is defined from the formula
_
Рр = с Рр , (1)

where Рр – design load on the pipeline disregarding seismic effects, kN/m;


с – coefficient taking into account the increase of the load under seismic effect

g
с  1 AT 2 DН K 0 KPp1 , (2)
4 2

where: g – 9.81 m/s2 ;


А –coefficient which values for 7, 8, 9 grades should be taken to be equal to 0,1; 0,2; and
0,4, respectively;
Т – period of the soil vibration, defined from Table 2;
К – coefficient of the transverse interaction of the pipe with the soil, kN/m 3 ;

К = 2(1 + )Кх , (3)

where:  - Poisson's ratio of the soil;


Кх - coefficient of the longitudinal interaction of pipelines with the soil;

GB
K x  (    )100, (4)
100 B

where:  and  - coefficients, depending on soil conditions and being defined from Table 4;
GB – vertical soil pressure on the running length of pipes, kN/m; it is found depending on the
pipes’ size, conditions of their laying, the depth of laying, base type, type of the backfilling
soil or embankment;
В – width of a ditch in case of trench laying of the pipeline, m. If the pipeline is laid in the
embankment, then one should take

В = DH;

К0 - coefficient, depending on the pipeline’s responsibility class in accordance with


CCT 2.04.02-2000 and pipes’ material, is take from Table 5

Table 4

Coefficients
Soil conditions
, (-1/m) , (кН/m3)
Fine, mid-size, coarse-grained sand and gravel with sand 313 50
Powdery sands, plastic clay sand, semisolid, soft and plastic loamy 113 50
soils
Clay sands, solid loamy sands, clays and other hard rocks 304 335

Table 5

Pipes Class of pipelines responsibility/ Ко


1 2 3
Steel 0,25 0,15 0,12
Cast-iron 0,30 0,20 0,12
Reinforced concrete pressure 0,35 0,25 0,15
Asbestos-cement and glass-
- - 0,25
fibre-reinforced plastic pressure
Polyethylene - - 0,20

4.1.9. Pipes’ strength in the longitudinal direction is checked from the following
condition

Rp   p , (5)

where: R p - a design tensile strength of the pipeline, kN/m2;


  p - a sum of longitudinal tensile stresses in the pipeline’s section under calculation;

 p     с , (6)

where:  - a sum of longitudinal tensile stresses disregarding seismic effects;


  с - longitudinal tensile stresses under seismic effect;
g 1
c  ATB np K N C p1 At n g , (7)
2

where Впр – a modified rigidity of the pipeline, kN ( per 1 running meter of the pipeline);

ЕAt
Впр 
EАt (8)
1
KNl

where: Е – modulus of elasticity of the pipeline’s material, kN/m2 ;


l – length of one pipe joint (a distance between junctions) m;
KN - stiffness coefficient of pipe junctions under the effect of the longitudinal force.
Values of KN at different types and techniques of junctions’ sealing for one external
diameter of pipes are given in Tables 6-10.
For other diameters of pipes stiffness coefficients of junctions are found the
following formula

n m
 D   D H 1l СТ  l СТ  1СТ
К N   H    К n1, (9)
 DH1   D H l1СТ  l1СТ  СТ
where: КN - a stiffness coefficient of junction of the desired pipeline diameter DH;
КN1 – stiffness coefficient of junction for the given external diameter of the pipeline DH1,
defined according to data of Tables 6-9;
lСТ, СТ and l1СТ, 1СТ - nominal depth and width of the working gap of the butt joint with the
external diameter of the pipe DH and DH1, respectively, taken according to standards of the
pipe, m.
For the underground network structures made of steel pipes, being connected by
welding, КN = ;
Cр – speed of longitudinal seismic waves propagation in the soil, being defined
experimentally, m/s. In the absence of such data the value of Ср is allowed to be taken in
accordance with this part of CCT;
At –cross-sectional area of the pipeline, m2;
ng - dynamic coefficient which value is defined depending on 0 and  according to data of
Fig.1 in Attachment 3:

С pТ D H K Х
 0 ,  , (10)
2l Впр (1  M 2 )

In formula (10)
Ср
М  , (11)
Ct

where Ct – a modified speed of waves propagation in the pipe,

B пp g
Ct  (12)
  At

 - a specific weight of the pipeline’s material, kN/m3.


If М=1, then in the calculation one should take ng=1.
4.1.10. For pipelines having length l1, adjoining to intricate units, the values of ng are
defined according to data of Fig. 2 in Attachment 3. For steel, cast iron, asbestos-cement,
glass-fibre-reinforced plastic pipe the length l1 shall be equal to the length of one pipe joint
but not less than 3 m. for ceramic pipe the length l1 shall be equal to the length of three pipe
joints. For concrete and reinforced concrete pipes l1 = 6DH, but not less than 3 m and not
more than 10 m.
Table 6
Joints of cast-iron inserted-joint pipes

Sealing by strand and


Joints on rubber
Parameters asbestos-cement bitumen mastic
gaskets
mortar
КN (кН/m)
For DH1 = 0,118m 17,70104 4,75104 5,00104
N 1,5 1,2 1
M 0,5 0,1 0
  CT , % 0,7 2,2 3

Table 7
Joints of concrete and reinforced concrete pipes

Sealing by pipe strand


Inserted-joint Flanged
Parameters
asbestos-cement bitumen mastic asbestos-cement bitumen mastic
mortar mortar
КN1 (кН/m) 75,00104
For DH1= 70,00104 9,80104 11,00104
0,4m
n 1 1 1 1
m 0 0 0 0
  CT , % 0,5 2,0 0,6 2,5

Table 8
Joints of asbestos-cement pipes

Parameters Sealing by strand and on rubber Cast-iron sleeve


asbestos-cement bitumen mastic gaskets on rubber gaskets
mortar
КN1 (кН/m) 44,0104 0,82104 0,44104 0,42104
For DH1 =
0,119m
n 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0
m 0 0 0 0
  CT , % 0,5 2,3 3 3,2

Table 9
Joints of glass-fibre-reinforced plastic pipes
Parameters on rubber gaskets sleeve on rubber gaskets
КN1 (кН/m)
For DH1 = 0,119m 0,44104 0,42104
n 1,0 1,0
m 0 0
  CT , % 3 3,2

Table 10
Spigot-and-faucet joints of ceramic pipes

Parameters Sealing by strand and


asbestos-cement mortar bitumen mastic
КN1 (кН/m)
For DH1 = 0,24m 1,20104 0,25104
n 1,0 1,0
m 0 0
  CT , % 0,5 0,5

4.1.11. Butted joints of cast iron, concrete, reinforced concrete, asbestos-cement,


glass-fibre-reinforced plastic and ceramic pipes shall be calculated for the effect of the
seismic wave that is directed along their axes proceeding from the condition that

U CT  U CT (13)

where UCT - a permissible absolute deformation of the junction defined from formula
(14)

U CT    СТ l CT ,(14)

where СТ - a permissible relative deformation of the junction defined from data of
Tables 6-10.

In formula (13) UCT – the absolute deformation of the junction is found from the
following formula

g
AT 2 K N n g l  2l C PT 
1
U CT  (15)
2

If resulting from calculations, UCT is found to be more than UCT, then an additional
compliant junction should be arranged with the stiffness coefficient
2 СAt l
С (16)
 2l C PT U CT

C PT
at a distance L (17)
4
If LLK (LK – a distance between intricate units), then additional compliant junctions
are necessary in pipeline junctions with intricate units. The stiffness coefficient of junction
is defined proceeding from the condition

2 С At l
С (18)
L K U CT

In case if LK  L additional compliant junctions should be arranged in intervals that are


equal to L.
4.1.12. The durability of sewerage systems should be ensured by the choice of the
material and pipes’ strength class based on their static calculation with an allowance for additional
seismic load, thereat the value of coefficient Кн is taken from Table 11.

Table 11

Pipes Кн value
Steel 0,12
Cast-iron 0,12
Reinforced concrete pressure and nonpressure 0,15
Asbestos-cement and glass-fibre-reinforced 0,25
plastic pressure and nonpressure
Polyethylene 0,20

4.2. Calculation of main pipelines

4.2.1. The design intensity of earthquakes for the above ground and underground
pipelines is fixed pursuant to the first part. The design seismicity for the underground main
pipelines and parameters of seismic vibrations of the soil are fixed disregarding the
pipeline’s burial as for structures located on the earth surface.
4.2.2. When fixing the design intensity of earthquakes for pipelines areas, in addition
to the seismicity of the building site one should take into account the extent of responsibility
of the pipeline that is defined by introducing coefficient К0, taken in accordance with clause
4.2.9, depending on the pipeline characteristic, into the calculation to the load reliability
coefficient.
4.2.3. Pipelines, being laid in seismic areas irrespective of the type of heir laying
(underground, above ground or overground), are calculated for principal and especial
combinations of loads with an allowance for seismic impacts.
4.2.4. Pipelines and their components to be laid in seismic areas should be calculated
for:
- conventional static loads being defined with an allowance for seismic impacts. Thereat,
marginal states should be taken as for pipelines being laid outside seismic areas;
- seismic impacts, obtained on the basis of analysis of records of
seismometric stations (in the form of accelerograms, velocigrams, seismograms) of
earthquakes previously occurred on the developed land or in localities having analogous
seismic conditions. The values of maximal design accelerations accepted according to
accelerograms shall not be less than those, stated in Table 12.

Table 12

Earthquake intensity, 7 8 9 10
grades
Earthquake acceleration, 100 200 400 800
cm/s2

When calculating for the most dangerous seismic impacts, inelastic deformation, the
appearance of residual deformations, local damages, etc. are permissible in constructions
supporting the pipeline.
4.2.5. The calculation of the overground pipelines on supports should be carried for
the effect of seismic forces, directed
- along the pipeline’s axis, thereat, values of stresses in the pipeline are defined, and
constructions of supports are checked for the effect of the horizontal seismic loads;
- along the normal to the longitudinal axis of the pipeline (in vertical and horizontal
planes), thereat, one should define the values of the pipeline displacements and adequacy of
the crossbars’ length at which no pipeline’s falling off the support will occur, additional
stresses in the pipeline, and constructions of supports should be checked for the effect of the
horizontal and vertical seismic loads;
In addition, checking calculation of the pipeline for the loads appeared during mutual
displacement of supports should be carried out.
4.2.6. Additional stresses in the underground pipelines and pipelines, being laid in the
embankment, should be defined as a result of the effect of a seismic wave directed along the
longitudinal axis of the pipeline and caused by the stress condition of the soil.
The calculation of the underground pipelines and pipelines laid in the embankment
for the effect of seismic loads directed along the normal to the longitudinal axis of the
pipeline is not carried.
4.2.7. Stresses in the straight-line underground or above ground (in the embankment)
pipelines caused by the effect of seismic forces directed along the longitudinal axis of the
pipeline should be found from the following formula

 пр , N  0.04m0 K 0 K n a c E 0T0 C p1  , (19)


where:
mo - coefficient of pipeline’s jamming in the ground defined in accordance with clause
4.2.8;
Ko - coefficient considering pipeline’s responsibility, defined from Table 14;
Kn - coefficient of earthquake recurrence, defined in accordance with clause 4.2.9;
ac - seismic acceleration, cm/s2, defined with an allowance for requirements of clause
4.2.4;
Ео - a variable elasticity parameter (modulus of elasticity), MP;
То - a predominant period of seismic vibrations of the soil massif, having been defined
during surveys, s;
Cр - speed of longitudinal seismic wave propagation along the longitudinal axis of the
pipeline, cm/s, in the soil massif, having been defined during surveys; at the stage of the
project development it is allowed to be taken as per Table 13.
Note: In the absence of data in the survey materials concerning the values of То and
Ср, the latter are allowed to be taken in accordance with this part of CCT
4.2.8. The coefficient of pipeline’s jamming in the ground mo should be defined on
the basis of the survey materials. For preliminary calculations they are allowed to be taken
from Table 13.
When selecting values of coefficient mo one should take into account changes in the
state of the soil surrounding the pipeline in the process of its operation.

Table 13

Speed of propagation of Coefficient of


longitudinal seismic pipeline’s jamming
Soils
wave in the soil m0
Cр, cm/sec
Fill-up, loose sands, clay sands, loamy soils,
etc., excluding waterlogged 12000 0,50
Sandy with low content of moisture 15000 0,50
Sandy with average moisture 25000 0,45
Sandy waterlogged 35000 0,45
Clay sands and loamy soils 30000 0,60
Clayey, wet, plastic 50000 0,36
Clayey, semisolid and solid 200000 0,70
Loess and loess-like 40000 0,50
Gravel, macadam and pebble 110000 See note 2
Limestone, shale, sandstone 150000 The same
Rocks (solid rock) 220000 The same

Notes: 1. The Table gives the lowest values of Cр , which should be specified during
surveys.
2. The values of the coefficient of pipeline’s jamming should be taken according to
the filling soil.

4.2.9. The recurrence of seismic effects should be taken according to the map of
seismic zoning in Attachment 1.
Values of coefficients of earthquake recurrence should be taken from Table 14.

Table 14

Earthquakes recurrence once per 100 years per 1000 years per 10000 years
Repeatability coefficient Kn 1,15 1,0 0,9

4.2.10. Coefficient Ко, taking into account the extent of pipeline’s responsibility,
depends on the pipeline characteristic and is defined from Table 15.

Table 15

Value of К0
Pipeline characteristic
coefficient
Gas pipelines with the operating pressure 2.5 to 10.0 MP (25-100 kgf/cm2), 1.5
inclusive; oil pipelines and oil-products pipelines with the passage diameter
1000 to 1200 mm.
Gas pipelines irrespective of the value of the operating pressure, as well as
oil pipelines and oil-products pipelines with any diameter that secure
functioning of especially responsible objects.
Passages of pipelines across water barriers with the water surface width in
mean water 25 m and broader.
Gas pipelines with the operating pressure 1.2 to 2.5 MP (12-25 kgf/cm2); 1.2
Oil pipelines and oil-products pipelines if diameter is 500 to 800 mm.
Oil pipelines if diameter is less than 500 mm. 1.0

Note: If the site’s seismicity is above 9 grades, Ко coefficient for pipelines stated in
position 1 is additionally multiplied by coefficient
4.2.11. The calculation of the overground pipelines for seismic impacts should be
carried out pursuant to requirements of CCT 2.01.08-99.

5. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO PIPELINE SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURES


IN REGIONS WITH SEISMICITY HIGHER THAN 9 GRADES

5.1. Regions with seismicity more than 9 grades are taken pursuant to Attachments
1,2 and clause 1.2.
5.2. The calculation of structures and networks for seismic impacts is carried out for
conventional static loads, being defined pursuant to part 4, thereat the value of seismicity coefficient
А for regions with seismicity more than 9 grades is taken to be:
- for main networks and structures – more than 0,4 to 0.8 (depending on the value of
seismicity of the building site and foundation soils);
- for especially responsible buildings and structures - 0,8 pursuant to clause 3.88 of
CCT 2.01.08-99.
5.3. The selection of pipes’ strength class for supply conduits, distributing and main
networks in regions with seismicity more than 9 grades should be carried out with an
allowance for special combination of loads and pursuant to clause 5.2.
5.4. When implementing requirements of clause 3.3.7., one should use only steel
pipes.
5.5 For sites with seismicity more than 9 grades, it is allowed to design using the
normative-rated basis for the 9 grade seismicity provided that the following measures are
utilized in the projects: - for buildings and structures – strengthening of constructions and
stabilization of bases, having worked out calculation method and practice of utilization in
the construction; for pipelines - strengthening of constructions and stabilization of the
peritubal space.

6. RECONSTRUTION AND RESTORATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS


IN SEISMIC AREAS

6.1. Requirements of this part shall be observed when ensuring or increasing seismic
resistance of exploited pipeline systems with structures, including retrofitting (replacement)
of pipeline systems with structures, having been damaged by earthquakes and other natural
disasters, strengthening of structures caused by the alteration of the building site’s
seismicity or design seismic resistance, reconstruction of the object, alteration of the extent
of responsibility.
6.2. Decision concerning the implementation of reconstruction or strengthening shall
be taken with an allowance for the service life of the pipeline system, its physical and moral
depreciation, operational purpose and economic expediency of carrying out repair-and-
renewal operations.
6.3. Load bearing and self-bearing constructions of structures are considered to be
damaged if displacements, flexures, concrete fragmentation, cracks with the opening width
exceeding requirements of relevant parts of CCT are available.
6.4. Decision concerning restoration or strengthening of the pipeline system is taken
by the Ministry of Construction and Building Materials Industry of Turkmenistan by
submission of the exploiting organizations, and interstate pipelines – by agreement with the
Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan.
6.5. The restoration or strengthening of the pipeline system and structures shall be
carried out after the object has been examined by specialists of research and design
engineering organizations, specializing in the field of earthquake engineering and
development of technical decisions on the aforesaid basis.
The level of the restoration or strengthening of the structure is specified depending
on the extent and type of damage, depreciation and the amount of costs for their realization.
As a rule, the object is to be demolished if costs for its restoration exceed 50% of the
object’s price (neglecting costs for its dismantling).
6.6. It is allowed not to carry out the strengthening (or replacement) of constructions
of the existing pipeline systems because of the increase of the site’s seismicity if the extent
of the object’s responsibility has not changed, and its constructions have no damages and
deformations lowering its load bearing capacity.
ATTACHMENT 1
OBLIGATORY
ATTACHMENT 2
Obligatory

LIST OF TURKMENISTAN SETTLEMENTS, LOCATED IN SEISMIC


AREAS, STATING IN GRADES THE SEISMICITY ADOPTED FOR THEM
AND THE INDEX OF SHOCKS RECURRENCE

Akhal velayat

Settlement In Settlement In Settlement In


Ashhabat* city 92* vil. Gannaly 62 vil. Rukhabat 92*
vil. Babadaykhan 62 vil. Gekdepe 92* vil. Sarakhs
vil. Bagabat 92* vil. Derveze 5 Tedjen city 62
vil. Bakharly 92* vil. Djulghe 92* vil. Enev 62
vil. Bokurdak 72 vil. Dushak 72* vil. Yashlyik 92*
Abadan city* 92* vil. Kaka 82* 92*

Balkan velayat

Settlement In Settlement In Settlement In


vil. Akdash 92 vil.Guvlyimayak 82 vil.Oglanly 92
Balkanabat *city 92* Gumdag city 92 Turkmenbashi* city 92*
Garabogaz city 72 Serdar* city 82 vil. Turkmenbashi 92*
vil.Belek 92 Etrek city 72 vil. Kenar 92*
Bereket city 82* vil.Gyizyilgaya 62 Khazar* city 93
vil. Garagel 93 vil.Gyizyil-Suv 92 vil.Esenguly 72
vil. Garadepe 72 vil. Uzboi 92 vil.Ekerem 72
vil. Garrygala 82 vil. Djebel 92*

Dashoguz velayat.

Settlement In Settlement In Settlement In


vil. Akdepe 63 Dashoguz city 73 vil. Saparmurat 63
vil. Boldumsaz 73 vil. Yinlanly 73 Turkmenbashi 73
vil. Gubadag 73 vil. Niyazovsk 73 vil. Gorogly
Keneurgench city 63
Lebap velayat.

Settlement In Settlement In Settlement In


vil. Amudarya 73 vil. Zeid 83 vil. Svintsovyi rudnik 83
vil. Bashsaka 83 vil. Katretdin 73 Seydi city 73
vil. Gazachak 72 vil. Kelif 83 vil.Suvchyoba 73
vil. Garabekevul 73 Atamurat city 83 Turkmenabat city 72
vil. Garametniyaz 73 vil. Kerkichi 83 vil. Farap 83
Magdanly city 83 vil. Lebap 72 vil. Khalach 73
vil. Birat 72 vil. Mukry 83 vil. Khodjakala 72
vil. Djjeykhun 72 vil. Niyazov 73 vil. Khodjambas 73
vil. Dostluk 83 vil. Sakar00 73 vil. Koitendag 83
vil. Galkynysh 73 vil. Sayat 73

Mary velayat

Settlement In Settlement In Settlement In


Bayramaly city 63 vil. Mollanepes 63 vil. Sakarchyage 63
vil. Vekilbazar 63 vil. Murgap 63 vil. Saparmurat Turkmenbashi 63
Serkhetabat city 73 vil. Oguzkhan 62 vil. Tagtabazar 63
Vil. Denizkhan 63 vil. Parakhat 63 vil. Uch-adji 63
Yoloten city 63 vil. Peshanaly 63 Shatlyk city 63
vil. Zakhmet 63 vil. Ravnina 63
Mary city 63 vil. Tukmengala 63

I – shocks’ intensity in grades;


n– index of shakeability category, defining the average recurrence of shocks with I intensity
at the given point (n = 2 – once per 1000 years , n = 3 once per 10 000 years).

Points with 9 grades seismicity, locating within zones of possible occurrence of the
earthquake sources (OES zones) with magnitudes 7.1 and above, are marked with * by the
number.

In case if works on seismic microzoning have been conducted and relevant maps are
available, the point is marked with * by the name.
ATTACHMENT 3.
DIAGRAMS OF DYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS NG

Fig.1 ng dependences on λ (for intermediate values of τ0 values of ng are found by interpolation; at τ0 >100
зvalues of ng are taken to be the same as at τ0 =100, and at λ>4 – as at λ=4).

Fig.2 ng dependences on λ
ATTACHMENT 4 (RECOMMENDED)
Approximate speeds of seismic waves propagation
in the soils of the area of pipelines laying

Category
of soils
according Soils
to seismic
properties
1. All types of unweathered and slightly weathered, non-softened and insoluble
rocks - speeds of seismic waves propagation Cp 3000 and Cs 1700 m/s ;
I 2. Bulky fragmental soils (boulder) of the aforementioned soils dense with low
content of moisture, containing up to 30% of sandy filler - speeds of seismic waves
propagation Cp2500 and Cs900 m/s.
1. All types of rocks, excluding those of the I category, weathered and severely
weathered, speeds of seismic waves propagation Cp 1800 and Cs 600 m/s;
2. Bulky fragmental soils (pebble, gravel, macadam) with more than 30% of sand
filler and mud fill with the low content of moisture up to 40% - speeds of seismic
waves propagation Cp 800 and Cs 500 m/s;
3. Gravelly sands, coarse and medium-sized ones, dense and having the average
density with the low content of moisture and wet - speeds of seismic waves
propagation Cp 500 and 350 m/s;
II 4. Fine and powdery sands, dense and having the average density, with the low
content of moisture - speeds of seismic waves propagation Cp 400 and Cs 300
m/s;
5. Clays with the consistency index IL 0.5 - speeds of seismic waves propagation
Cp 900 and Cs 500 m/s;
6. Clayey and loess soils with the consistency index I L 0.5, - - speeds of seismic
waves propagation Cp 500 and Cs 300 m/s;
7. Man-made soils of all types - speeds of seismic waves propagation Cp 500 and
Cs 300 m/s;
1. Loose sands irrespective of their moisture and size;
2. Gravelly sands, coarse and medium-sized, dense and having the average density,
waterlogged - speeds of seismic waves propagation Cs350 m/s;
3. Fine and powdery sands, dense and having the average density, wet and
waterlogged - speeds of seismic waves propagation Сs  300 m/s;
III 4. Clays and clayey soils with the consistency index I L  0.5, - speeds of seismic
waves propagation Cs  500 m/s;
5. Clayey and loess soils with the consistency index I L  0.5, - speeds of seismic
waves propagation Cs  300 m/s;
6. Man-made soils of all kinds - speeds of seismic waves propagation Cs  300
m/s.
Note: Values of speeds of propagation of longitudinal Cp and transverse Cs waves are
additonal parameters for determining the category of soils of the building site according to
their seismic properties, and are found theoretically or experimentally from the results of
geological engineering and geophysical engineering surveys for large interstae water
conduits and main pipelines.

ATTACHMENT 5
Nomenclature and name of reference documents

№ Nomenclature Name

1 CCT 2.01.08-99 Construction in seismic areas.


Part 1. Residential, public and production buildings and
facilities
2 CCT 2.01.08-2001 Construction in seismic areas.
Part 2. Hydraulic structures
3 CCT 2.03.11-99 Building structures protection against corrosion

4 CCT 2.04.02-2000 Water supply. External networks and structures

5 CCT 2.04.03-98 Sewerage system. External networks and structures

6 CCT 2.04.01-98 Internal water plumbing and sewerage services for


buildings

SNiP 2.05.06-85 Trunk pipelines

8 SNiP 2.04.08-87 Gas supply

9 SNiP 2.04.12-86 Strength calculation of steel pipelines

10 CCT 3.05.04-94 Heating networks

11 CCT 2.06.03-2003 Meliorative systems and structures

12 CCT 2.02.01-98 Foundation beds for buildings and facilities

13 РСН –37-86 Instructions for the seismic impact calculation and


designing of tubular and trough-type irrigation systems.
Gosstroi TSSR, 1986
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. PRINCIPAL PROVISIONS
2. GENERAL DIRECTIONS
3 STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS OT THE PIPELINE SYSTEM ELEMENTS..................7
3. 1 Water supply...................................................................................................................... 7
3.2 Sewerage system...............................................................................................................9
3.3 Internal water-pipe and sanitary piping inside buildings.................................................10
3.4. Heat networks.................................................................................................................. 11
3.5. Natural gas supply...........................................................................................................12
3.6. Main pipeline................................................................................................................... 13
3.7 Irrigation system............................................................................................................... 14
3.8. Building structures..........................................................................................................15
4. SEISMIC IMPACT CALCULATION....................................................................................17
4.1 Calculation of water supply, sewerage, irrigation pipeline systems ......................................
4.2 Calculation of main pipelines...........................................................................................24
5. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO PIPELINE SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURES
IN REGIONS WITH SEISMICITY HIGHER THAN 9 GRADES...........................................27
6. RECONSTRUTION AND RESTORATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS
IN SEISMIC AREAS.............................................................................................................28
ATTACHMENT 1 National map of seismic zoning of Turkmenistan territory.........................30
ATTACHMENT 2 List of Turkmenistan settlements, located in seismic areas, stating in
grades the seismicity adopted to them and the index of shocks recurrence................................31
ATTACHMENT 3 Diagrams of dynamic coefficients ng..........................................................33
ATTACHMENT 4 Approximate speeds of seismic waves propagation in the soils of the
area of pipelines laying …………………………………………………………29
ATTACHMENT 5 Nomenclature and name of reference documents ……………….. 29
Official edition

Ministry of Construction and Building Materials Industry


of Turkmenistan

Construction Code of Turkmenistan


CCT 2.01.08-05 «Construction in seismic areas”
Design standards
Part 4. Pipeline utilities and structures

Developed by the Research Institute of Seismology of the Ministry of


Construction and Building Materials Industry of Turkmenistan

Theme leader: Ilyasov B.I., candidate of technical science


Executors in charge: Saprina S.P., Lopashev V.A., Mordvinkin А. А

Prepared for the publication by the Data-computing Center


of the Ministry of Construction and Building
Materials Industry of Turkmenistan

Translation from Turkmen – Khandurdyyev K.

Technical editing — Saprina S.P.

Signed for printing 16.06.05 Format 60х84 1/8 printer's sheet

Run of 100 copies