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Conformity and

Deviance

Conformity

behavior in accordance with socially accepted conventions or standards

The anticipated behavior to follow.

is the desire to go along with the norms of a

group of people, so you will be accepted as an

in-group person (and not rejected as an out-

group undesirable person).

Deviance

departing

or

standards,

in

behavior.

social

from

usual

accepted

especially

or

sexual

A

behavior

that

expected

violates

rules and norms

in behavior. social from usual accepted especially or sexual • A behavior that expected violates rules

Variety of Deviance

“What is deviant to one group may not be

considered deviant to another.”

1. The study of why people violates laws

or norms

2. The study of how society reacts to this

violations

• was an Italian criminologist and physician, founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology,
• was
an
Italian
criminologist
and
physician,
founder
of
the
Italian
School
of
Positivist
Criminology,
often
referred to as the
father
of
criminology
• Theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone
• Theory
of
anthropological
criminology essentially stated that
criminality was inherited, and that
someone "born criminal" could be
identified by physical (congenital)
defects, which confirmed a criminal
as savage or atavistic.

criminals had :

less sensibility to pain and touch;

more acute sight;

a

lack

of

moral

including

sense,

absence of remorse;

an

more vanity,

impulsiveness,

vindictiveness, and cruelty; and other manifestations, such as a special

criminal argot and the excessive use of

tattooing.

Deviance and the Social

Paradigms

Basic

Basis

of

Assumptions

Interpretation

Structural

Deviance

 

Deviance

Functionalism

promotes

performs

unity,

serves

important

as

a

moral

functions

in

compass,

and

the

overall

provides

operations

of

opportunities

society

where are none.

there

Paradigms

Basic

Basis

of

Assumptions

 

Interpretation

Historical

Deviance

is

a

Is a form of civic action. It aims to rectify

Conflict

result

of

unequal

distribution of

the unfair and

social desirables and life chances.

unjust syndromes of social

inequality.

Paradigms

Basic

Basis

of

Assumptions

Interpretation

Critical

Is a result of the

We are helping these entities

Interpretivi

exercise

of

sm

power. Symbols

maintain their

and ideas are

privileged

manipulated by powerful people

positions in society

in the society in

order to protect

their economic

and

political

interest

Theoretical Interpretations of Deviance
Theoretical Interpretations of
Deviance
Structural Strain Theory • Offered a “side-by- side” formulation of conformity and deviance. • He
Structural Strain Theory
• Offered
a
“side-by-
side”
formulation
of
conformity
and
deviance.
• He
developed
the
structural strain theory
Robert
Merton

Strain refers to the discrepancies

between culturally defined goals and the institutionalized means available to

achieve these goals.

This

theory

traces

the

origins

of

deviance to the tensions that

are

caused by the gap between cultural

goals and the means

available to achieve those goals

people

have

Culture- establishes goals for people

Social structure-provides (or fails to

provide) the means for the people to

achieve those goals.

CONFORMISTS
CONFORMISTS

a person who conforms to accepted behavior or established practices.

CONFORMISTS • a person who conforms to accepted behavior or established practices.
RITUALIST • A person who do not believe in the established cultural goals of society,
RITUALIST
A
person
who
do
not
believe in
the
established cultural goals of society,
but they do believe in and abide by the
means for attaining those goals.
INNOVATORS • Are those individuals that accept the cultural goals of society but reject the
INNOVATORS
• Are those individuals that accept the
cultural goals of society but reject the
conventional methods of attaining those
goals
RETREATISTS
RETREATISTS
• Who reject both the cultural goals and the accepted means of attaining those goals
• Who reject both the cultural goals and
the accepted means of attaining those
goals
REBELS • They are not only reject both the established cultural goals and the accepted
REBELS
• They
are
not
only
reject
both
the
established cultural goals and the
accepted means of attaining those goals
• They
substitute
new
goals
and
new
means of attaining these goals
Labeling Theory
Labeling Theory
• explains why people's behavior clashes with social norms. • holds that deviance is not
• explains why people's behavior clashes
with social norms.
• holds that deviance is not inherent to an
act, but instead focuses on the tendency
of majorities to negatively label minorities
or those seen as deviant from standard
cultural norms.
• Labeling theory holds that deviance is not inherent to an act, but instead the
• Labeling theory holds that deviance is not
inherent to an act, but instead the result of
the externally-imposed label of "deviant".
• Labeling theory takes the view that
people become criminals when labeled as
such and when they accept the label as a
personal identity.

Social Control Theory

-developed by Travis Hirschi -according to this theory, people care about what others think of
-developed by Travis Hirschi
-according to this theory, people care about
what others think of them and conform to
social expectations because their
attachments to others and what others
expect of them
• -this theory also suggests that most people probably feel some impulse towards deviant behavior
• -this
theory
also suggests that most
people probably feel some impulse
towards deviant behavior at some time,
but their attachment to social norms
prevents them from actually participating
in deviant behavior.

Social Control and Deviance

“effective socialization makes conformity an internally driven motivation, while externally driven conformity always
“effective socialization makes conformity an
internally driven motivation, while
externally driven conformity always
engages the mechanisms of social control”
Refers to the idea that a person has the innate right to be valued, respected,
Refers to the idea that a person has the
innate right to be valued, respected,
and treated well.
Are legal, social, and ethical principles that consider the human person as deserving of liberties
Are legal, social, and ethical principles that
consider the human person as deserving
of liberties and protection by virtue of his
or her human being

Are founded on natural rights,

are inalienable, and are not

contingent on laws, customs,

beliefs, or values of a particular

culture.

which

universal

and

The pursuance of the common good should not be a cause for the violation of
The pursuance of the common good should not be a cause for the violation of
The pursuance of the common good should not be a cause for the violation of
The pursuance of the common good should
not be a cause for the violation of rights of
individual…