Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

│CHAPTER 1│

Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Learning Objectives
 Appreciate the concept of limit state design and the application of
partial factors of safety
 Determine the design forces for simple structural elements
 Appreciate the concept of load combination and envelope of
design forces

CONTENTS

1.0 Design Code and References


1.0.1 The Design Code and Scope
1.0.2 Other References

1.1 Reinforced Concrete Structure


1.2 Limit State Design
1.2.1 Limit States
1.2.2 Design Approach
1.3 Material Strength
1.3.1 Concrete
1.3.2 Reinforcing Steel
1.3.3 Partial Safety Factor for Material Strength
1.3.4 Example – Tension Capacity of a Reinforcement Bar

1.4 Design Loads


1.4.1 Characteristic Dead Load
1.4.2 Characteristic Imposed Load
1.4.3 Design Load
1.4.4 Examples – Design Load for a Slab
1.4.5 Examples – Design Forces for a Simply-supported Beam
1.5 Load Pattern
1.5.1 Example – Loading for a 2-span Continuous Beam
1.5.2 Loading Arrangement for Design of Continuous Beam
1.5.3 Example – Design Moment and Shear Envelope
1.6 Effective Span
1.6.1 Example – Clear Span and Effective Span

1.7 Moment Redistribution

Chapter 1 1
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.0 Design Code and References

1.0.1 The Design Code and Scope

The Hong Kong Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete – 2013
(hereinafter called HKCP-2013) published by the Buildings Department of
HKSAR is adopted in this course.

Although HKCP-2013 covers the strength of concrete up to grade 100, for


simplicity, concrete not higher than grade 45 is adopted in this course to
illustrate the basic principles of design.

Essential design data, formulae and tables, which are useful for studying this
course, are extracted and summarized in the “Annex – R C Design
Formulae and Data”.

1.0.2 Other References

Other design codes commonly used in Hong Kong are:

(a) BS8110: 1985 and BS8110: 1997, Structural Use of Concrete – Part 1:
Code of Practice for Design and Construction.
 The design rules of HKCP-2013 are quite similar to that of
BS8110: 1985.
 The major change in the 1997 code is that the partial safety
factor for steel reinforcement is changed from 1.15 to 1.05.
However, HKCP-2013 retains the 1.15 partial factor of safety for
steel.
 Both versions of BS8110 have been superseded by Eurocode 2
in UK and European countries.

(b) Eurocode 2 (BSEN1992-1-1:2004): Design of Concrete Structures:


General Rules and Rules for Buildings.
 It is the RC design code for UK and European countries.

(c) 混凝土結構設計規範(GB50010-2010)/中華人民共和國國家標準.

Chapter 1 2
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

 It is the code of practice for design of RC structures in Mainland


China.

(d) Structures Design Manual for Highways and Railways published by


the Highways Department of HKSAR.
 It provides specific requirements on the design of bridges and
associated structures. BS5400: Part 4: Code of Practice for
Design of Concrete Bridges is adopted in this manual.

(e) Code of Practice for Dead and Imposed Loads – 2011 published by
the Buildings Department of HKSAR.
 It specifies the dead loads and imposed loads for design of
buildings and street works in Hong Kong.

(f) Code of Practice for Fire Safety in Building – 2011 Part C – Fire
Resisting Construction published by the Buildings Department of
HKSAR.
 It specifies the minimum size of structural elements and the
minimum concrete cover to reinforcement bars for specified fire
resisting construction of building.

Chapter 1 3
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.1 Reinforced Concrete Structure

Reinforced concrete (R.C.) is commonly referred to concrete embedded with


steel bars1. The beauty of R.C. is the perfect complementary of these two
materials. The relatively poor tensile strength and ductility of concrete are
improved by the inclusion of steel bars while the relatively vulnerable to
corrosion and fire damage of steel are protected by concrete cover,
rendering the composite one of the most versatile construction materials.
The following figure shows a typical R. C. beam and how it behaves under
loads.

Elevation of a Concrete Beam under Load

X
Elevation of the Reinforcement

Section X-X
 

Figure 1.1 – Cracking Pattern and Reinforcement Details


of an R.C. Beam

1
Reinforcement can also be provided in other forms, e.g. welded fabric wire mesh, plates, etc. This course
focuses on the design using steel bars.

Chapter 1 4
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

The main features in the design of reinforced concrete are:

a. Reinforcement bars (rebars) are designed to take up the tensile stress


in the structural element. Tensile stress is induced by structural
action, like direction tension, bending, shear, torsion and also by
shrinkage, temperature effect, etc. Rebars are designed and
positioned in the tension zone of the structural elements to resist the
tensile stress. Concrete is assumed not to take up any tensile
stress.

b. Rebars are used to prevent brittle failure of concrete, or, in other


words, it provides ductility to the concrete structure. It is undesirable
for a structure to collapse suddenly without excessive deformation.
The ability of a structure to undergo "plastic deformation", i.e. large
deformation without actual breakage, (i) allows the structure to
re-distribute its internal forces, (ii) dissipates the energy of the
external force and (iii) gives warning for the occupants to escape
before failure. Ductility is an important requirement in structural
design.

c. Rebars may be used to improve the compressive strength of concrete


element provided that the compression bars are adequately
restrained from buckling.

d. Rebars can be properly detailed to disperse cracks in concrete so as


to render them unnoticeable. It is usually accomplished by limiting
the minimum steel ratio and the maximum clear spacing of rebars
near the surface of concrete.

e. Rebars can improve the stiffness of concrete element, i.e. reduce


deflection. The elastic modulus of steel is much higher than that of
concrete and therefore its inclusion increases the sectional modulus
of the concrete element.

f. Rebars are used to tie concrete structural elements together to form a


robust structure so that it will not fall apart with its elements still
hanged together by rebars, when part of the structure is damaged by
accidental load.

Chapter 1 5
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

g. Rebars have to be adequately embedded in concrete for protection


from corrosion and fire; the alkaline concrete passivizes the corrosion
activities, and the low thermal conductivity of concrete insulates steel
from fire. Provide adequate concrete cover to rebars.

h. Rebars have to be provided with adequate length of interface with


concrete for effective transfer of stresses between steel and concrete
so that they can work together to take up the loads. In other words,
provide adequate bond length to rebars.

Key Words

Tensile stress
Ductility
Buckling
Cracks
Min steel ratio
Max clear bar spacing
Stiffness and deflection
Robustness
Concrete cover
Fire resistance
Corrosion
Bond length

(Identify the key words, which are


printed in italics, when you read
through the text of the teaching
notes.)

Chapter 1 6
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.2 Limit State Design

1.2.1 Limit States

Before the advent of limit state design, structural design is based on the
concept of permissible stress design, by which the structure is designed
such that the stresses in any parts of the structure would not exceed the
elastic limit of the materials. In other words, it aims to ensure all the
materials in the structure remain linear elastic.

However, it is found that a structure may not collapse or even can still
perform satisfactorily if certain parts of the materials in a structure have
stressed beyond the elastic limit. Hence, a more rational and realistic
assessment of the uncertainties in structural design, the Limit state design
(LSD), is advocated. It aims to ensure an acceptable probability that a
structure will perform satisfactorily during its design life. In other words, it
ensures the structure would not exceed its limit states, which are broadly
classified into two: (i) ultimate limit state (ULS) and (ii) serviceability limit
state (SLS).

Ultimate limit state (ULS) is the state when the structure collapses. It
concerns with the strength and stability of the structure.

Serviceability limit state (SLS) is the state when the structure fails to serve its
purposes. It concerns with deflection, cracking, durability, vibration, etc. of
the structure.

In design, both limit states have to be checked. For commonly


encountered building structures, the usual approach is to design for the
strength under ULS first, and then check if other limit states under SLS, e.g.
deflection and cracking, will not be exceeded.2

2
For some special structures, the most critical limit state may not be the strength under ULS. For examples,
control of crack width dominates the design of water retaining structure; deflection dominates the design of
long-span prestressed concrete girder; settlement dominates the design of footing, etc.

Chapter 1 7
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.2.2 Design Approach

Two important parameters for structural strength design are loads and
material strengths. Loads induce forces in the structure while material
strengths provide capacity for the structure to resist the forces. However,
the values of loads and strengths cannot be ascertained with definite values.
They are statistical values, and therefore their "characteristic values"
together with "safety factors" come in play in structural design.

The characteristic load (Fk) is a magnitude of load that is sufficiently larger


than the average load so that only a very low probability it will be exceeded
during the design life of the building, as illustrated in Figure 1.2 below. The
characteristic load is further multiplied by partial safety factor (f) to obtain
the design load for calculating the design forces of the structural elements.

Design Load = Characteristic Load x f

Frequency of
occurrences Not more than 5%
of the occurrences
exceed the
characteristic load

Load
Mean load, Characteristic Design Load,
Fm load, Fk f Fk

Figure 1.2 – Distribution Curve of Imposed Load

The characteristic strength of the material (fk) is a value of the strength of the
material that is sufficiently lower than the mean value so that only a small
portion of the materials in the structure is expected to fall below it, as
illustrated in Figure 1.3 below. The characteristic strength is further
reduced by partial safety factor (m) to arrive at the design strength for

Chapter 1 8
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

calculating the design capacity of the member.

Design Strength = Characteristic Strength / m

Frequency Not more than 5%

of test of the test results


fall below the
results
characteristic
strength

Strength
Design Characteristic Mean
strength, fk / m strength, fk strength, fm

Figure 1.3 – Distribution Curve of Test Results of Material Strength

Structural element is designed such that its design capacity or resistance,


which is calculated from the reduced characteristic strength of the materials,
is larger than the design forces, which is calculated from the increased
characteristic loads:

Design Capacity (fk / m) > Design Force (f Fk)

Different partial factors of safety are adopted for different types of load and
different material stresses to account for their variability and their effect on
the probability and consequence of structural failure.

The above approach is for ULS checking. On the other hands, SLS
checking in principle uses mean values instead of characteristic values and
almost always does not apply partial factor of safety (i.e. partial factor of
safety for SLS = 1.0.)

Chapter 1 9
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.3 Material Strength

1.3.1 Concrete

Characteristic strength of concrete is:


 28-day cube strength
 Not more than 5% of test results will fall below it
 Denoted by fcu in N/mm2 (or MPa)
For example, Grade C40 concrete, fcu = 40 N/mm2 (or 40 MPa)

For simplicity in illustrating the basic principles of design, grade of concrete


not higher than Grade C45 is adopted in this teaching material. Higher
grade concrete requires stricter design on ductility, of which the design
formulae and detailing requirements are slightly modified, that can be found
in the design code.

As the testing condition and the shape and size of test specimen for
compressive cube test is quite different from the actual effect on the concrete
in the structure, in order to accommodate the differences, the cube strength
fcu, is modified by a coefficient for deriving the design formulae in the design
code. In the UK codes and HKCP-2013, a coefficient of 0.67 is adopted
and therefore,

Compressive strength of concrete in the structural element


= 0.67fcu

1.3.2 Reinforcing Steel

Characteristic strength of steel is:


 Yield strength3
 Not more than 5% of test results will fall below it
 Denoted by fy in N/mm2 (or MPa)

Two specified grades of steel are used in Hong Kong as given the following

3
For certain type of steel, where a yield is not present, 0.2% proof strength is adopted.

Chapter 1 10
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

table4:

Mild Steel High Tensile Steel


Grade 250 500B or 500C5
Specified characteristic strength, fy 250 500
2
(N/mm )
Appearance Plain Ribbed
Notation6 R T

Table 1.1 – Properties of Reinforcement Bars

Preferred nominal size (mm) Nominal cross-sectional area (mm2)


(8) 50.3
10 78.5
12 113.1
16 201.1
20 314.2
25 490.9
32 804.2
40 1256.6
(50) 1963.5
Notes: Sizes in brackets are not commonly used.
For design purpose, the values of area for T12 or above are rounded to nearest 1 mm2.

Table 1.2 – Sizes of Reinforcement Bars


(Extracted from Table 2 of CS2:2012)

4
In the previous version of HKCP, there are two grades of steel, 250 and 460. HKCP-2013 retains grade 250 but
replaces 460 with 500B and 500C. Grade 250 steel is seldom used nowadays.
5
BS4449:2005 replaces grades 250 and 460 with three grades of steel, namely 500A, 500B & 500C, with the
same characteristic proof or yield strength of 500 MPa but of different levels of ductility. Grade 500B is
commonly used. Grade 500A is cold form steel with low ductility while 500C is hot rolled steel with very high
ductility.
6
The notation is according to BS4466:1989. Some engineers in Hong Kong prefer to use "Y" to denote high
yield bars. However, BS4466 has been superseded by BS8666:2005, which uses H to denote Grade 500 steel
and is further subdivided to HA, HB & HC to denote Grade 500A, 500B & 500C. It is expected the current
notation, using T and R, will be used in parallel with the new system for certain period of time.

Chapter 1 11
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.3.3 Partial Safety Factor for Material Strength

In estimating the capacity or resistance of a structural element, the


characteristic strengths of the material are reduced by the following partial
factors of safety (m):

Material/design consideration Values of m for ULS

Reinforcement 1.15

Concrete in flexure or axial load 1.50

Concrete in shear strength without shear 1.25


reinforcement

Bond strength 1.40

Others (e.g. bearing stress) >= 1.50

Table 1.3 – Values of Partial Safety Factors for


Material Strength (m) for ULS
(Extracted from Table 2.2 of HKCP-2013)

The partial factors of safety for material strength (m) are usually incorporated
in the design formulae or design table provided in the design code.

For SLS, m is generally taken as 1.0.

1.3.4 Example – Tension Capacity of a Reinforcement Bar

The design tension capacity of steel is:


Ts = (fy / m) As
= (fy / 1.15) As
= 0.87 fy As
where As = Cross-sectional area of reinforcement bars
or simply called steel area

Question A
Determine the design tension capacity of 2T32 rebar.

Chapter 1 12
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Solution
fy = 500 MPa
Steel area, As = 2 x 804 mm2
= 1608 mm2
Design Tension Capacity = 0.87 fy As
= 0.87 x 500 x 1608 / 103
= 700 kN

Question B
Determine the design tension capacity of a T16-150 rebars.

Solution
(T16-150 means T16 bars at 150mm center-to-center spacing)
fy = 500 MPa
Steel area, As = 201 / 0.15
= 1340 mm2 per meter width
Design Tension Capacity = 0.87 fy As
= 0.87 x 500 x 1340 / 103
= 583 kN/m

?
Q.1 – Q.3

1.4 Design Loads

In general, there are three types of load:

 Dead load
 Imposed load
 Wind load.

There are other types of load, like water pressure, earth pressure,
construction load, etc. Details can be found in the relevant design codes.
For the purpose of this course, only dead and imposed loads are
considered.

Chapter 1 13
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.4.1 Characteristic Dead Load (Gk , gk)

Dead loads are the self-weight of permanent items, e.g. structural element
itself (or called self-weight, s/w), partitions, finishes, etc.

It is usually calculated by multiplying the nominal dimensions of the element


with the density of the materials, which is usually specified in the design
code. Examples of material density are given in the table below:

Materials Density (kN/m3)

Reinforced concrete 24.5

Cement mortar 23

Natural stone (granite) 29

Soil 20

Table 1.4 – Examples of Density of Material


(Extracted from Appendix A of the
Code of Practice for Dead and Imposed Loads – 2011)

1.4.2 Characteristic Imposed Load (Qk , qk)

Imposed load7 arises from the usage of the building. It is highly variable
and depends on the type of occupancy. It is usually specified by the
building regulations or design code. Examples are given in the table below:

7
In the previous design codes, it is called live load. So, the abbreviation, LL, is still frequently used.

Chapter 1 14
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Usage qk (kPa) Qk (kN)

Domestic 2.0 2.0

Offices for general use 3.0 4.5

Department stores, shops, etc. 5.0 4.5

Table 1.5 – Examples of Imposed Load


(Extracted from Table 3.2 of the
Code of Practice for Dead and Imposed Loads – 2011)

Either the uniformly distributed load qk (kPa) or concentrated load Qk (kN)


whichever produces the most adverse effect shall be used for design.

1.4.3 Design Load (F, w)

The design load is obtained by summation of the characteristic loads


multiplied by their corresponding partial safety factors (f):

F = (f Fk)

If the structure is designed for dead and imposed loads only, the partial
safety factors for ULS are:8

Dead Load Imposed Load

Adverse effect 1.4 1.6

Beneficial effect 1.0 0

Table 1.6 – Values of Partial Safety Factors


for Load (f) for ULS
(Extracted from Table 2.1 of HKCP – 2013)

8
For simplicity, only partial safety factors for dead load and imposed load are considered in the course. There are
other partial safety factors for other loads, like wind load, earth load, fire load, etc. Details can be found in the
relevant design code.

Chapter 1 15
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Therefore, the maximum design load for ULS can be expressed as:

F = 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk (in kN)

w = 1.4gk + 1.6gk (in kN/m or kN/m2)

For SLS, f is generally taken as 1.0.

1.4.4 Examples – Design Load for a Slab

Question A
Determine the design load for the following slab:
Overall slab thickness, h : 175 mm
Weight of finishes : 1.5 kPa
Usage : Offices for general use

Solution
Dead Load
Finishes : 1.50 kN/m2
Self-weight : 24.5 x 0.175 = 4.29 kN/m2
gk = 5.79 kN/m2
Imposed Load
Office for general usage: qk= 3.00 kN/m2
Design Load, w = 1.4 x 5.79 + 1.6 x 3.00
= 12.91 kN/m2

Question B
Determine the design load for the following slab:
Overall slab thickness, h : 225 mm
Finishes : 20 mm granite + 25 mm cement mortar
Usage : Department stores
Other loads : Allow 1.5 kPa for movable light-weight partitions

Chapter 1 16
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Solution
Dead Load
Finishes : 29 x 0.02 = 0.58 kN/m2
23 x 0.025 = 0.58 kN/m2
Self-weight : 24.5 x 0.225 = 5.51 kN/m2
gk = 6.67 kN/m2
Imposed Load
Department stores : 5.00 kN/m2
Partitions9 : 1.50 kN/m2
qk = 6.50 kN/m2
Design Load, w = 1.4 x 6.67 + 1.6 x 6.50

?
= 19.74 kN/m2
Q.4 – Q.5

1.4.5 Examples – Design Forces for a Simply-Supported Beam

The design forces for a simply-supported beam are mainly mid-span


moment, M, and support shear, V. For simply-supported beam subjected to
uniformly distributed load (udl), their formulae are as follows:


Mid-span Moment, M = 0.125 F L or 0.125 w L2 or w L2


Shear at Support, V = 0.5 F or 0.5 w L or

wL

where

L = Effective span (in m)

F = 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk (in kN)

w = 1.4gk + 1.6gk (in kN/m or kN/m2)

9
Partitions which are permanent in nature with its construction and position indicated on the building plan are
considered as dead load. Partition, the location of which is not defined in the building plan and subject to
change during the usage of the building, shall be regarded as imposed load.

Chapter 1 17
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Question A
Determine the design forces for the following simply-supported beam under uniformly
distributed load (udl):
Effective Span, L = 8 000 mm
Characteristic Dead Load, gk = 29.2 kN/m
Characteristic Imposed Load, qk = 23.5 kN/m

Solution
Gk = 29.2 x 8 = 233.6 kN
Qk = 23.5 x 8 = 188.0 kN
The design load, F = 1.4 x 233.6 + 1.6 x 188.0
= 627.8 kN
Design Mid-span Moment, M = 0.125 F L
= 0.125 x 627.8 x 8
= 627.8 kN-m
Design Shear at Support, V = 0.5 F
= 0.5 x 628
= 313.9 kN

Question B
Determine the design forces for the following simply-supported beam under uniformly
distributed load (udl):
Effective Span, L = 9 000 mm
Overall depth of the beam, h = 750 mm
Breadth of the beam, b = 300 mm
Details of the slab supported by the beam:
Slab thickness = 160 mm
Finishes = 2.0 kPa
Imposed load = 5.0 kPa
Width of slab supported by the beam = 3 300 mm
[Refer to the beam 5B2 on the framing plan in DWG-01 attached at the end of this Chapter
for the details. It is adapted from the 2012/13 examination paper.]

Chapter 1 18
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Solution
Dead Load
Finishes: 2.0 x 3.3 = 6.6 kN/m
Slab S/W: 24.5 x 0.16 x 3.3 = 12.9 kN/m
Beam S/W: 24.5 x 0.3 x (0.75-0.16) = 4.3 kN/m
gk = 23.8 kN/m
Imposed Load
5.0 x 3.3 = 16.5 kN/m
qk = 16.5 kN/m
The design load, w = 1.4 x 23.8 + 1.6 x 16.5
= 59.7 kN/m

Design Mid-span Moment, M = 0.125 w L2


= 0.125 x 59.7 x 92
= 604.5 kN-m

Design Shear at Support, V = 0.5 w L


= 0.5 x 59.7 x 9

?
= 268.7 kN
Q.6 – Q.11

Chapter 1 19
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.5 Load Pattern

For a continuous beam, i.e. beam with more than one span, all spans being
loaded with maximum design ultimate load, i.e. [1.4Gk + 1.6Qk], may not
necessarily produce the most adverse bending moment for design. As
illustrated in the following example for a 2-span continuous beam, the most
critical mid-span moment occurs when only one span is maximum loaded,
i.e. [1.4Gk + 1.6Qk] and another span is minimum loaded, i.e. [1.0Gk].

1.5.1 Example – Loading for a 2-span Continuous Beam

Question
Determine the mid-span design moment for the following 2-span continuous beam.

gk = 11.5 kN/m
qk= 6.0 kN/m

6 000 6 000

Solution
Maximum design load = 1.4gk + 1.6qk
= 1.4 x 11.5 + 1.6 x 6.0
= 25.7 kN/m
Minimum design load = 1.0gk
= 1.0 x 11.5
= 11.5 kN/m

Chapter 1 20
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Case I – All spans are maximum loaded

25.7 kN/m 25.7 kN/m

115.7 kN-m

65.0 kN-m

Case II – Only one span is maximum loaded while the other span is minimum loaded

25.7 kN/m 11.5 kN/m

Moment Diagram of Case I

83.7 kN-m

78.4 kN-m

Therefore, the design mid-span moment is 78.4 kN-m.

Chapter 1 21
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.5.2 Loading Arrangement for Design of Continuous Beam

The design code requires the following three load arrangements have to be
considered to determine the design forces, i.e. moment and shear, for
continuous beam (Cl. 5.2.5.2 of HKCP-2013):

Case I: all spans maximum loaded to obtain the maximum support reactions

1.4Gk+1.6Qk 1.4Gk+1.6Qk 1.4Gk+1.6Qk 1.4Gk+1.6Qk 1.4Gk+1.6Qk 1.4Gk+1.6Qk

Case 2: alternate spans loaded with maximum and minimum load to obtain
the maximum sagging mid-span moments

1.4Gk+1.6Qk 1.4Gk+1.6Qk 1.4Gk+1.6Qk


1.0Gk 1.0Gk 1.0Gk

Case 3: any two adjacent spans maximum loaded and all the other spans
minimum loaded to obtain the maximum hogging support moment

1.4Gk+1.6Qk 1.4Gk+1.6Qk
1.0Gk 1.0Gk 1.0Gk 1.0Gk

Figure 1.4 – Loading Arrangement


for Design of Continuous Beam

1.5.3 Example – Design Moment and Shear Envelopes

The concept of bending moment and shear force envelopes is illustrated by


the following example.

Chapter 1 22
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Question
Find the shear force and bending moment envelopes of the beam 1-2-3-4 simply supported
at 2 and 3 with overhang over each support as shown in the following figure.

gk = 15.0 kN/m
qk = 23.0 kN/m

1 2 3 4

2 000 7 000 2 000

Solution
Maximum design load = 1.4gk + 1.6qk
= 1.4 x 15 + 1.6 x 23
= 57.8 kN/m (say 58 kN/m)
Minimum design load = 1.0gk
= 1.0 x 15.0
= 15.0 kN/m
The following table lists 5 possible load patterns and Figures A, B, C, D & E in the following
pages show their load patterns and their shear force and bending moment diagrams.
Load Span with
Effects
Pattern max. load
A 2-3 Max sagging moment of span 2-3
Max shear of span 2-3
B 1-2 & 3-4 Max hogging moment of span 2-3
Max shear and moment of cantilevers 1-2 & 3-4
C All Max support reactions
D 1-2 & 2-3 Max support moment at 2 (but not controlling)
E 2-3 & 3-4 Max support moment at 3 (but not controlling)

By plotting all the shear force diagrams for different load patterns on a single drawing, we
can obtain the shear force envelope which is the outer boundary of all the shear force
diagrams, as shown in Figure F. In similar manner, we can obtain the bending moment
envelope as shown in Figure G. These envelops will then be used for reinforcement
design and detailing.

Chapter 1 23
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Figure A - Load Pattern A

Figure B - Load Pattern B

Chapter 1 24
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Figure C - Load Pattern C

Figure D - Load Pattern D

Chapter 1 25
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Figure E - Load Pattern E

Figure F – Shear Envelope

Figure G – Bending Moment Envelope

Chapter 1 26
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.6 Effective Span

In the analysis of beams and slabs, the supports are idealized as a point
without width. However, in reality supports have width, so we have to
identify the effective span for analysis. 10 The design code defines the
effective span as follows (Cl.5.2.1.2(b) of HKCP-2013):

Effective span, L = Ln + a1 +a2

where Ln = Clear span, i.e. distance between faces of


support

a1, a2 = lesser of h/2 or Sw/2 at each support

h = overall depth of the beam

Sw = width of the support

Except for beam seating on bearing, where the center of bearing should be
used to assess the effective span.

BEAM
Sw   Sw
Clear Span, Ln a2 = h/2 (if h < Sw)
a1 = Sw/2 (if Sw < h)
Effective Span, L

SUPPORT 1 SUPPORT 2
Elevation
 

Figure 1.5 – Effective Span

10
The design code allows moment reduction over supports to account for the width of the support. They are not
taken into consideration in this course. Details refer to Cl. 5.2.1 of HKCP-2013.

Chapter 1 27
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1.6.1 Example – Clear Span and Effective Span

Question
Determine the effective spans of the beam 5B2 and the slab 5S1 as shown in drawing
DWG-01 attached at the end of this Chapter.

Solution
Beam 5B2
Clear Span Ln = 9000 – 250 – 250 = 8 500 mm
a1 = a2 = Min(750/2 or 500/2) = 250 mm
Effective Span L= Ln + a1 + a2
= 8500 + 250 + 250
= 9 000 mm

Slab 5S1
Clear Span Ln = 3300 – 150 – 150 = 3 000 mm
a1 = a2 = Min(300/2 or 160/2) = 80 mm
Effective Span L= Ln + a1 + a2
= 3 000 + 80 + 80
= 3 160 mm

?
Q.12 – Q.17

1.7 Moment Redistribution

The concept of moment redistribution is illustrated with the 2-span


continuous beam in Example 1.5.1. The design moment envelope of the
beam is as follows:

Chapter 1 28
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

115.7 kN-m

78.4 kN-m

It has to note that this moment envelope is generated by linear elastic


analysis with the assumption that no part of the beam has reached the
ultimate moment of resistance, or, in other words, the materials are linear
elastic.

However, if the design moment of resistance of the beam section at the


support is only 92.6 kN-m, under load case I, the support moment will not be
able to reach 115.7 kN-m. If it can maintain at 92.6 kN-m and continue to
deform without rupture, the corresponding moment at midspan will then be
increased to 74.1 kN-m, which is still within the lower boundary of the
original envelope. The design moment envelope is then changed to as
follows:

92.6 kN-m

78.4 kN-m

Hence, the beam is safe to design for a reduced support moment, i.e.

Chapter 1 29
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

92.6kN-m instead of 115.7kN-m, as shown in the above envelope, and


therefore, the amount of reinforcement at the support is reduced. However,
it has to take note of the following condition when using redistribution11 to
design:

a. The beam section has adequate ductility


b. The crack widths are properly controlled
c. The deflection is within the limit

Cl.5.2.9 of HKCP-2013 allows moment redistribution for design and the limit
is 30%. The percentage of redistribution for the above beam is (1 -
92.5/115.7) = 20%. It is within this limit.

In the design code, the effect of redistribution is taken into account by the
following parameter:

moment at the section after redistribution


βb = [1.1]
moment at the section before redistribution

For the above example, βb = 92.6/115.7 = 0.80.

11
In addition to plastic redistribution as illustrated in the example, bending moment in beam, or indeterminate
structure, will also undergo redistribution when its sections cracks, or even under service load. The section
modulus reduces when the section cracks and therefore the stiffness of the beam is no more uniform, and the
moment will then be redistributed according to the changes in stiffness along the beam. This effect is ignored
and outside the scope of this course.

Chapter 1 30
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Chapter 1 31
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

│Key Concepts/Terms│

Ultimate Limit State and Serviceability Limit State ULS & SLS

Gk & Qk
Characteristic Dead Load and Imposed Load
gk & qk

Concrete Strength and Steel Strength fcu & fy

Partial Safety Factors for Load and Materials f & m

Clear Span and Effective Span Ln & L

Design Load F&w

Design Moment and Shear M&V

Moment Redistribution βb

Chapter 1 32
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

│Self-Assessment Questions│

Q.1 What is the design tension capacity of a T25?

A. 123 kN
B. 213 kN
C. 245 kN
D. 107 kN

Q.2 What is the design tension capacity of 5R12?

A. 141 kN
B. 246 kN
C. 123 kN
D. 57 kN

Q.3 What is the steel area, As, of T12-200?

A. 565 mm2 /m
B. 113 mm2
C. 22.6 mm2
D. 5656 mm2

Q.4 Determine the characteristic dead load, gk, of a 150 mm thick R C slab with 1.0 kPa finishes.

A. 4.68 kN/m
B. 6.75 kN/m2
C. 6.55 kN/m2
D. 4.68 kN/m2

Chapter 1 33
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Q.5 Determine the characteristic dead load, gk, of a 175mm thick R C slab with 25 mm thick
cement mortar and 450 mm thick soil on it.

A. 13.9 kPa
B. 19.4 kPa
C. 4.86 kN/m2
D. 13.9 kN/m

Q.6 Determine the design moment, M, for the following simply-supported beam under a uniformly
distributed load (udl):
Effective Span = 7 000 mm
gk = 21.5 kN/m; qk = 15.2 kN/m

A. 381 kN
B. 225 kN-m
C. 3.33 x 105 kN-m
D. 333 kN-m

Q.7 Determine the design moment, M, for the following simply-supported beam under udl:
Effective Span = 7.0 m
Gk = 151 kN; Qk = 106 kN

A. 381 kN
B. 225 kN-m
C. 3.33 x 105 kN-m
D. 333 kN-m

Chapter 1 34
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Q.8 Determine the design load, F, for the following simply-supported beam under udl:
Effective Span = 7 000 mm
gk = 21.5 kN/m; qk = 15.2 kN/m

A. 381 kN
B. 257 kN
C. 3.33 x 105 kN-m
D. 333 kN-m

Q.9 Determine the design moment, M, for the following cantilever beam under udl:
Effective Span = 3 740 mm
gk = 21.5 kN/m; qk = 15.2 kN/m

A. 381 kN-m
B. 257 kN-m
C. 3.33 x 105 kN-m
D. 333 kN-m

Q.10 Determine the design moment, M, for the following cantilever beam under udl:
Effective cantilever span = 4 000 mm
Characteristic dead load = 15.2 kN/m
Characteristic imposed load = 10.3 kN/m

A. 302 kN-m
B. 151 kN
C. 3.03 x 105 kN-m
D. 204 kN-m

Chapter 1 35
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Q.11 Determine the design moment, M, for the following cantilever beam under udl:
Effective cantilever span = 3.5 m
Characteristic dead load = 53 kN
Characteristic imposed load = 35 kN

A. 456 kN-m
B. 154 kN-m
C. 228 kN-m
D. 797 kN-m

Q.12 Determine the effective span, L, of the following simply-supported beam:


Center-to-center distance between supports = 5 400 mm
Width of the supports at both ends = 300 mm
Effective depth of the beam = 395 mm
Overall depth of the beam, h = 450 mm

A. 5400 mm
B. 5100 mm
C. 5495 mm
D. 5550 mm

Q.13 Determine the effective span, L, of the following simply-supported beam:


Center-to-center distance between supports = 5 400 mm
Width of the supports at both ends = 500 mm
Effective depth of the beam = 395 mm
Overall depth of the beam, h = 450 mm

A. 5400 mm
B. 4900 mm
C. 5295 mm
D. 5350 mm

Chapter 1 36
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Q.14 Determine the clear span, Ln, of the following simply-supported beam:
Center-to-center distance between supports = 5 400 mm
Width of the supports at both ends = 500 mm
Effective depth of the beam = 335 mm
Overall depth of the beam, h = 400 mm

A. 5400 mm
B. 4900 mm
C. 5235 mm
D. 5550 mm

Q.15 Determine the design moment, M, for the following simply-supported beam under udl:
Clear Span = 6 700 mm
Width of the supports at both ends = 300 mm
Overall depth of the beam, h = 500 mm
gk = 21.5 kN/m; qk = 15.2 kN/m

A. 381 kN-m
B. 257 kN-m
C. 3.33 x 105 kN-m
D. 333 kN-m

Q.16 Determine the design shear, Vs, at the face of the support for the following simply-supported
beam under udl:
Center-to-center span = 7 000 mm
Width of supports at both ends = 300 mm
Overall depth of the beam, h = 500 mm
gk = 21.5 kN/m; qk = 15.2 kN/m

A. 381 kN
B. 182 kN
C. 190 kN
D. 333 kN-m

Chapter 1 37
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Q.17 Determine the design shear, Vs, at the face of the support for the following simply-supported
beam under udl:
Center-to-center span = 9 500 mm
Width of supports at both ends = 400 mm
Overall depth of the beam, h = 500 mm
Design load, w = 73.2 kN/m

A. 381 kN
B. 311 kN
C. 348 kN
D. 333 kN

Answers:
2
Q1 B T: Grade 500 steel, fy = 500MPa; area of a 25 bar = 491mm ; design tension = 500 x 491 / 1.15 = 213 kN
2
Q2 C T: Grade 250 steel, fy = 250MPa; area of a 12 bar = 113mm ; design tension = 5 x 500 x 113 / 1.15 = 123 kN
2 2
Q3 A Area of a 12 bar = 113mm ; total area for 12 bar at 200 spacing = 113 / 0.200 = 565 mm per meter
2
Q4 D gk = 24.5 x 0.150 + 1.0 = 4.68 kN/m
2
Q5 A gk = 24.5 x 0.175 + 23 x 0.025 + 20 x 0.450 = 13.9 kN/m
2
Q6 D M = 0.125 x (1.4 x 21.5 + 1.6 x 15.2) x 7.0 = 333 kN-m

Q7 D M = 0.125 x (1.4 x 151 + 1.6 x 106) x 7 = 333 kN-m

Q8 A F = (1.4 x 21.5 + 1.6 x 15.2) x 7 = 382 kN


2
Q9 A; M = 0.5 x (1.4 x 21.5 + 1.6 x 15.2) x 3.740 = 381 kN-m
2
Q10 A M = 0.5 x (1.4 x 15.2 + 1.6 x 10.3) x 4.0 = 302 kN-m

Q11 C M = 0.5 x (1.4 x 53 + 1.6 x 35) x 3.5 = 228 kN-m

Q12 A As Sw = 300 < h = 450, Sw controls, and therefore, L = c/c distance btw supports = 5400 mm

Q13 D As h = 450 < Sw = 500, h controls, and therefore, L = 5400 – 500 + 450 = 5350 mm

Q14 B Ln = 5400 – 500 = 4900 mm


2
Q15 D L = 6700 + 300 = 7000mm; M = 0.125 x (1.4 x 21.5 + 1.6 x 15.2) x 7 = 333 kN-m

Q16 B Ln = 7000 – 300 = 6700mm, Vs = 0.5 x (1.4 x 21.5 + 1.6 x 15.2) x 6.7 = 182 kN

Q17 D Ln = 9500 – 400 = 9100mm, Vs = 0.5 x 73.2 x 9.1 = 333 kN

Chapter 1 38
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)
CON4332 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

│Tutorial Questions│
[Present your answers with detailed working steps in a neat, tidy and logical manner.]

AQ1 For the slab 5S1 shown on DWG-01:


(a) Determine the effective span for the slab.
(b) Determine the design udl load in kPa.
(c) Determine the total design load in kN per m width of the slab.

AQ2 Determine the design forces for the beam 5B2 shown in DWG-01 with the
following changes:
i. The center-to-center distance between adjacent beams is changed
from 3300 mm to 3500 mm, i.e. the distance between gridlines 6
and 7 is changed to 10 500 mm.
ii. An additional allowance for 300 mm thick soil is required.
iii. The width of the beam is increased to 400mm.
The other design parameters remain unchanged.
(Reference: Question B of Example 1.4.5)

AQ3 Figure AQ3 shows a three-span continuous beam subjected to uniformly


distributed characteristic dead load (Gk) and characteristic imposed load (Qk).
Sketch the load patterns for obtaining:
(a) Maximum span moment of BC.
(b) Maximum support moment at B.
(c) Maximum span moments of span AB & CD.

A B C D

Figure AQ3

Chapter 1 39
HD in Civil Engineering (Aug 2014)