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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses some points including background of the study, statement of

the problem, objective of the study, scope of the study, and advantages of the study.

A. Baekgaround

English of the one international language that is used as a means of communication


among countries in the world. In Indonesia, English is a foreign language and is taught
as a compulsory subject at the secondary school. That is why the Indonesian Government
choses English as the first foreign language to be taught at schools and it becomes a
compulsory subject from seventh year of Junior High School students up to twelfth year
of Senior High School students. In English learning, there are three basic components as
the basic components to build up four English s Those four skills are taught in an
integrated manner. In this research, the writer would deal with reading skill based on the
consideration that success in reading will be very important for students both for
academic and vocational advancement. For more than a quarter of a century
language teachers have been dominated by the idea that speech is the primary form of
language, writing is secondary. So, it is logic that there is such a common sense that
teaching language is nothing more than a remedial stage of preparation to the more
rigorous. kills namely, reading, writing, speaking and listening. Moreover, reading is
regarded as somewhat dull because today’s generation gets philosophy from the movie.
In fact, studying literature can assure intellectual stimulation even at the
beginning stages of learning Here, the object is very important. So, the object of all
readers is, or should be, reading skill of what they read. Therefore, it is clear that the
goal of reading is the comprehension of meaning Teacher has different ways to
present the material.

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Some teaching methods have been used to make students interested in learning
English. Teacher also uses several kinds of media to teach Englsh such as picture,
game ,song , poster realia etc. In order to mkae than work well.Young leaerners ussualy
respond well to being asked o use teir imagnation the many well be involved in puzzle
like actities, in making things, in drawing , in games , in phsycal movement or in song. It
means that English teacher should not remain passive or give up all efforts to make
improvements. Many reading skill studies consider the extent to which visuals,
that is any graphic display that portrays all or some accompanying text’s content,
help reader to comprehend factual information. Comic is an art form using a series of
static image in fixed sequence. There are two kinds of comics, comic strips and comic
books. A comic strip is defined in this study as series of pictures inside boxes that
tell a story. While comic books are collection of stories that have picture consist of
one or more titles as themes. In other words, comic is unification, work of art
among fine literary works in which there are usual forms are the verbal
explanation in fixed sequence and has cartoon story as theme. Reading comics is more
than the material in hand, that it involves a certain immersion into the culture of the
comics that one reader which involves any number of choices to be made. Comic
can help readers to get the right visualizations. . According to Csabay ( 2006 ) comic are
authentic and using authentic material is very important in language teaching and
learning. Comic book series is a book of comic strips or cartoons in series, often relating a
sustained narrative. Krashen (2008) summarize the previous research concludes that
comic book readers tend to be better overall readers. Using comics can alleviate the
negative view of reading for some students. In Indonesia, English is known as first
foreign language with very limited use including the place, time, and environment.
However, the age of information growth is likely demands on people’s reading ability
in English language.

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According states that comic books and other light reading can be an important part of
learning to read at an academic level Teacher should be selective in choosing
teaching media/aids. In the writer’s opinion, teaching English on reading skill using
comic was one of teaching aid in which students’ were given chance to learn
English more fun. The writer thought that comic was such supplementary cues that
provided a conceptual basis for organizing the input, the second language
comprehension process would be facilitated since learners would be better to make
imagery system when encountering words and expressions in a passage with which
they were unfamiliar. It combined pictures and sentence, so it would help the
students to understand content and context that teacher had taught easily. By using
comic strips, it was hoped that it could motivate students to read and pay attention
to the material. It would create fun learning in English.

B. Statements Of The Problem


1. How is the implementation of using comic to improve students’
reading skill in SMA NEGERI 1 KOTA TERNATE ?

C. Objective Of The Problem


1. To know Students can learn a comic use the media to enhance the capacity of
read in English ?
2. To know Students can understand the forms of nouns within comic ?
3. To know Students can clarify saying n speak English ?

D. The Limitation Of The Study

The study only focus on investigating whether or not the use of comic to is
effective to improve students reading skill of narrative texts and to find out students’
responses toward the use of comic in improving reading skill.

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E. Significance Of The Study
1. This experimental research could be used as process to improve the
teaching performance both teacher and researcher.

2. For students, it might motivate students to improve their interest in reading


since they would find out that English reading material was not
complicated, boring, and monotonous.

2. For teachers, it might show teacher that comic and other forms of
interesting material could be used for teaching reading. This study also
could give motivation to the English teacher to create new ways or media
in teaching learning English.

F. Hipotesis

1. whether using comics can improve students' reading ability

2. whether using comics can not improve students' reading ability

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CHAPTER 11

THEORETICAL BASIC

This chapter discusses definitions of comic books, types of comic books, English

comic in classroom, definition of reading, types of reading, and reading strategies.

2.1 Definitions of Comic Books

. According to Csabay ( 2006 ) comic are authentic and using authentic material is

very important in language teaching and learning. Comic book series is a book of comic

strips or cartoons in series, often relating a sustained narrative.

Acording to Krashen (2008) summarize the previous research concludes that comic

book readers tend to be better overall readers. Using comics can alleviate the negative

view of reading for some student

According to Witek (1989:3), “A comic book is defined as a booklet of words and

pictures integrated into a flexible and powerful format.”

Frank (1944:221) states “Comic books uses everyday language in dialogue ballons to

communicate a point quickly and directly.”

According to Disney (1965) “Animation, an element of comics offers a medium of

retelling story and visual entertainment which can bring pleasure and information to

people of all ages everywhere in the world.”

Another definition by Mc Cloud (1993:47) states “Comic books are a form of

narrative fiction and so they have a plot, characters, setting, dialogue, and symbolism.”

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2.2 Types Of Comic Books

According to Creek (2003) there are five types of comic books including:

1. Humor Comics, include : Teen humor, kids cartoon, and satire.

2. Super Hero Comic, this type could also be a sub-genre of action or adventure

comics, such as Traditional super heroes and heroines, Super hero teams and

Super hero parodies.

3. Fantasy Comic are include, Sword and sorcery, magic and mysticism, fantastic

worlds, Modern mythology, and Anthropomorphie (talking animals).

4. Manga, is the Japanese word for comic book. The term roughly translates as

picture books, motionless picture entertainment or random pictures. In the U.S,

Manga refers to Japanese comics that have been translated into English.

Amerimanga are comic books written and drawn by non Japanese in the japanese

style.

5. Miscellaneous Genres are Crime comics, Real-life comics, Historical fiction,

Literature, Myths and legends, Non fiction or educational (Comic books designed

to read a specific audience for educational, training, or publicity purposes).

Based on the types of comics above, researcher conclude that comic offer fantasy

story. People can find something funny, adventure, educational, legend, and also

related to human real life. It make comic become an interesting story.

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2.3 English Comic in Classroom

One of the primaries the goal of national Association of Comics Art Educators

(NACAE) is to assist educational institution and individual educators interested in

stabling a comic’s art curriculum.

A comic art curriculum is interdisciplinary. In reading English comic books, the

student would be a lot easier to guide them in learning from those comic books. The

teacher could read the stories with students. That way, a teacher can teach them how

certain words are properly pronounced.

Based on the statement above, the researcher conclude that in fact a comic became

one of the primaries goal of National Association of Comic art Educators. Teacher should

be apply comic in teaching learning processes at school.

According to Kamil (1996:383) in Suleman (2008), there are five aspects of speaking,

namely:

1. Vocabulary

Vocabulary is knowledge of words and words meaning. However,

vocabulary is more complex than this definition suggest.

First, words come in two forms, oral and print. Oral vocabulary includes those are

that we recognize and use in listening and speaking. Print vocabulary includes

those words that we recognize and use in reading and writing. Second, words

knowledge also comes in two forms receptive and productive vocabulary.

Receptive vocabulary includes words that we recognize when we hear or see

them, while productive vocabulary includes words that we use when we speak or

write.

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Learning vocabulary is a very important part of learning a language. The

more you know, the more you will be able to understand what you hear and read,

and better you will be able to say what you want to speaking or writing (Redman,

1986).

2. Pronunciation

Pronunciation is the way a words of a language is usually spoken of the

manner in which someone utters a word. If someone said to have correct

pronunciation. Good pronunciation is very important for good spoken

communication. Pronunciation is the biggest thing that the people notice about

your English.

The people should study it even the students think can already

communicate in English. Pronunciation is the ability to say words properly and

the correct sounds in the correct place.

3. Structure

Structure is patterns of arrangement of words in sentence and the patterns

of arrangement parts of words. Grammar is a basic component in English. By

mastering English grammar well students world be a good at speaking such as

discussion, conversation practice to written ideas on the paper. The study of

structural relationship in language including a pronunciation, meaning and the

system of rules implicit in language, viewed as a mechanism the generating for all

sentences possible in the language. Writing or speech judge with regard to such a

set of rules (Mifflin, 2000).

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4. Fluency

Fluency is the ability to see longer segment and phrases as whole as an aid

to reading and writing more quickly. (Nair, 2003) stated fluency in speaking about

people helps you master the semantic and syntactic resources needed to achieve

fluency in speaking about people and their behavior, attitudes, intelligences,

personality, traits, feelings and emotions.

5. Accuracy

Accuracy is the degree of veracity while precision is the degree of analogy

used to explain the difference between accuracy and precision is the target

comparison.

2.4 Definition of Reading

According to Rosenblatt (1978), “reading is a personal experience during which

readers connect the story They are reading to their own lives and previous experiences

with literature.”

Weaver’s (1988) states “reading is a transactive process in which readers negotiate

meaning or interpretation. The meaning does not go from the page to the reader; instead,

it is a complex negotiation between the text and the reader that is shaped by the

immediate situational context includes reader’s knowledge about the topic, and broader

sociolinguistic context include reader’s language community that the reader belongs to.

Reading stories with students is more than simply a pleasurable way to spend an hour; it

is how classroom communities are created (Cairney, 1992).

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From the definitions above, the researcher can conclude that reading is an important

activity where readers tries to understand the information and messages through text

books or story books in improving their knowledge.

2.5 Types of Reading

In classroom, there are five types of reading should be applied by the teachers,

namely:

1. Reading Aloud. Students listen to the teacher read the text, or they may listen to

the text aloud at a listening center. The listening center is especially useful when

students want to listen to the book a second time.

2. Shared Reading. Students follow along in the text as the teacher reads it or as the

class reads it together. Shared reading is possible if there are multiple copies of

the text. If the text is displayed on a chart, with an enlarged copy of a book, or

using sentence strips.

3. Buddy reading. This approach is similar to shared reading, and it is especially

useful for rereading familiar texts or for providing successful reading experiences

for students who are not fluent readers.

4. Guided reading. Students read the text with the teacher’s guidance. Teachers

invite students to make predictions before reading, and then students read silently

to confirm or reject their prediction. Teachers repeat the prediction cycle several

times during reading and may also stop students to discuss parts of the text.

Guided reading can be used with small groups or with the entire class when

multiple copies of the same text are available.

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This approach is used when students are reading unfamiliar texts and when

they need scaffolding in order to be able to interpret the text.

5. Independent reading. Students read independently. All students may read the

same text, or they may choose different texts. Independent

reading is the most authentic type of reading, and it allows students to be

responsible in choosing reading materials, read texts they want to read, and learn

the pleasures of reading.

Based on the types above teacher should be creative in choosing reading material

in order to be pleasure and interesting when teaching and learning processes.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH DESIGN

This chapter is intended to discuss research design, population and sample, the

vocabulary, prounacation, technique of collecting data, and technique of analyzing data.

3.1 Research Design

This research applied Quantitative Method. According to Sugiyono, (2009:23),

quantitative research is the research method which has the numeric data and also analyze

data collected by using dependent t-test.

3.2 Population and Sample

1. Population

According to Setiyadi (2006:38) “Populasi penelitian merupakan seluruh

individu yang menjadi target dalam penelitian tersebut (Research population is the

whole of person who become the research target)”. The total amounts of the first

grade at SMA Negeri 1 Ternate are 390 students divided into 13 classes, where in

each class consist of 30 students.

2. Sample

Setiyadi (2006:38) states “Sampel penelitian adalah sekelompok individu yang

mewakili seluruh individu yang menjadi bagian dari kelompok target (Research

sample is a group of person who represented the all of person that become the state of

research target)”. The population are 390 first grade students divided into 13 classes

that every class consists of 30 students. The researcher took one class only by using

simple random sampling (probability sampling). The class became research target is

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in X-1 class. Because this class had chosen randomly. At the beginning, the researcher

prepared 13 pieces of papers written only number one. Then she invited the chairman

in each class to choose the paper and whoever got the number one in the paper, so his

or her class became the research target. In fact, the chairman of X-1 class who got the

number one. For this reason, X-1 class became the sample of this research.

3.3 Technique of Collecting Data

In this research, students had to retell a story that they had read or heard. After

researcher took pre-test data from students, she taught them by using English comic of

“SpongeBob” as a medium in teaching learning process. The title is SpongeBob, candy,

and the worm. The researcher took that title because the title is interesting, funny,

enjoyable, and dealing with student’s daily activity. The student retell SpongeBob story

after reading a comic who taught by the researcher. The researcher taught the student

based on the lesson plan for sixth meeting in three weeks, then researcher took post-test

data as the end result of this research. The assessment processes were consisting of four

aspects of speaking namely vocabulary, pronunciation, structure or grammar, and fluency

or expression.

3.5 Technique of Analyzing Data

The researcher used dependent group T-test (Parametric Analysis) to analyze the data

because the researcher compared two kinds of data from the same sample by using

random sampling. According to Setiyadi, (2006:169), Dependent group T-test digunakan

untuk mambandingkan dua jenis data atau mean yang berasal dari sampel yang sama

(Dependent group T-test is used to compare the means of two kinds of data from the same

sample). The researcher used the formula as follows : Setiyadi (in Syawal, 2009:41)

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1) Structure/Grammar

Classification Score Criteria

They speak effectively and excellent in

Excellent 9.6 – 10 using structure or grammar

They speak effectively and very good in

Very Good 8.6 – 9.5 using structure or grammar

They speak effectively and good in using

Good 7.6 – 8.5 structure or grammar

They speak sometimes hasty but fairly good

Fairly Good 6.6 – 7.5 in using structure or grammar

They speak sometimes hasty and fair in

Fair 5.6 – 6.5 using structure or grammar

They hasty and more sentences are not

Poor 3.6 – 5.5 appropriate in using structure or grammar

They speak very hasty and more sentences

Very Poor 0.0 – 3.5 are not appropriate in using grammar and

also little or no communication

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2) Vocabulary

Classification Score Criteria

They speak effectively and excellent in

Excellent 9.6 – 10 using vocabulary

They speak effectively and very good in

Very Good 8.6 – 9.5 using vocabulary

They speak effectively and good in using

Good 7.6 – 8.5 vocabulary

They speak sometimes hasty but fairly good

Fairly Good 6.6 – 7.5 in using vocabulary

They speak sometimes hasty and fair in

Fair 5.6 – 6.5 using vocabulary

They hasty and more sentences are not

Poor 3.6 – 5.5 appropriate in using vocabulary

They speak very hasty and more sentences

Very Poor 0.0 – 3.5 are not appropriate in using vocabulary and

also little or no communication

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3) Pronunciation

Classification Score Criteria

They speak effectively and excellent in

Excellent 9.6 – 10 using pronunciation

They speak effectively and very good in

Very Good 8.6 – 9.5 using pronunciation

They speak effectively and good in using

Good 7.6 – 8.5 pronunciation

They speak sometimes hasty but fairly good

Fairly Good 6.6 – 7.5 in using structure or grammar

They speak sometimes hasty and fair in

Fair 5.6 – 6.5 using pronunciation

They hasty and more sentences are not

Poor 3.6 – 5.5 appropriate in using pronunciation

They speak very hasty and more sentences

Very Poor 0.0 – 3.5 are not appropriate in using pronunciation

and also little or no communication

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4) Expression/Fluency

Classification Score Criteria

They speak effectively and excellent in

Excellent 9.6 – 10 using expression

They speak effectively and very good in

Very Good 8.6 – 9.5 using expression

They speak effectively and good in using

Good 7.6 – 8.5 expression

They speak sometimes hasty but fairly good

Fairly Good 6.6 – 7.5 in using expression

They speak sometimes hasty and fair in

Fair 5.6 – 6.5 using expression

They hasty and more sentences are not

Poor 3.6 – 5.5 appropriate in using expression

They speak very hasty and more sentences

Very Poor 0.0 – 3.5 are not appropriate in using expression and

also little or no communication

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𝐷
t=
𝑆 𝑋 𝐷

(Setiyadi, 2006:)The formula analysis has being show below:

1. D, is used to counting mean score differentiation of post-test (X1) and pre-

test (X2).

2. SD, is used to counting the differentiation of standard deviation.

3. S X D, is used to counting standard error of mean differentiation.

4. Counting t-score (Gossett score).

5. N, is total sample

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CHAPTER IV

FINDING AND DISCUSSION

This chapter deals with data analysis and discussion

4.1 Data Analysis

The analysis of data was conducted by comparing the pre-test scores and the post-test

scoresnamely grammar or structure, pronunciation, vocabulary and expression or fluency.

The whole aspects are taken from the student’s speaking test in retelling a story. According to

Depdikbud, (1986:45) (in Jabu:2000), the students’ scores analysis are classified into seven

(VII) levels as follows.

Table of Scoring

Degree of Mastery Qualification

9.6 – 10 Excellent

8.6 – 9.5 Very Good

7.6 – 8.5 Good

6.6 – 7.5 Fairly Good

5.6 – 6.5 Fair

3.6 – 5.5 Poor

0.0 – 3.5 Very Poor

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter presents the conclusion and some suggestions

5.1 Conclusion

Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that retelling the use of comc to improve

students reading skill. For post-test scores, in grammar aspects there are 6 students who

obtained very good point (8.6-9.5), 23 students obtained good point (7.6-8.5), and 1 student

obtained fairly good point (6.6-7.5). In pronunciation aspects there are 3 students that

obtained excellent point (9.6-10), 12 students obtained very good point (8.6-9.5), and 15

students obtained good point (7.6-8.5). In vocabulary aspects there are 2 students that

obtained very good point (8.6-9.5) and 28 students obtained good point (7.6-8.5). In

expression or fluency aspects there are 11 students that obtained very good point (8.6-9.5), 18

students obtained good point (7.6-8.5), and only 1 student obtained fairly good point (6.6-

7.5).

5.2 Suggestions

Based on the conclusion of the study above, the researcher has some suggestions as

follows:

1. For English Teachers

It is expected that the teachers should be:

- Creative in selecting appropriate medium for teaching and learning processes

to improve students’ reading skill.

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- Using English comic as an effective medium to improve students’ reading

skill when teaching and learning processes.

- Using English comic in order to get more interesting and pleasing classroom.

- Able to encourage students’ self confidence to be more active in reading skill.

2. For the Students

It is expected that the students should be:

- More active to speak English in school environment and public environment

- Not shy to speak English.

- Reading and listening any material in English version especially comic books

in order to enrich vocabularies.

- More confident in increasing English knowledge.

3. For the Further Researchers

It is expected that the further researchers may apply English comic as an

effective and interesting medium for the beginners who want to study English

seriously.

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