Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27

LECTURE 02

DRAWING STANDARDS

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Tugas 1
• Gambar dengan menggunakan mistar, penggaris segitiga dan jangka
pada kertas ukuran A4

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Drawing Standards
• Just like written language has standards, the
“grammar” of technical drawing is defined
by...
the ISO 128 or ANSI Y14.5 or BS 8888 or
other national standards

• The standards must be understood to read a


drawing. Lets look at a sample drawing..

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Isometric view

Projection View

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Standards Codes
• Standards are set of rules that govern how technical
drawing are represented. Organizations involved in
developing the standards for technical drawings:

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
ISO 128
• ISO 128 is an international standard (ISO), about the
general principles of presentation in technical
drawings.

• The ISO 128 replaced the DIN 6 standard about


drawings, projections and views, which was first
published in 1922, and updated in 1950 and 1968.

• The ISO 128 was first published in 1982. It contained


15 pages and specified the general principles of
presentation to be applied to technical drawings
following the orthographic projection methods.

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
ISO 128
Currently in 2009 it contains a series of twelve parts.
• ISO 128-1:2003. Part 1: Introduction and index
• ISO 128-20:1996. Part 20: Basic conventions for lines
• ISO 128-21:1997. Part 21: Preparation of lines by CAD systems
• ISO 128-22:1999 .Part 22: Basic conventions and applications for leader lines and
reference lines
• ISO 128-23:1999. Part 23: Lines on construction drawings
• ISO 128-24:1999. Part 24: Lines on mechanical engineering drawings
• ISO 128-25:1999. Part 25: Lines on shipbuilding drawings
• ISO 128-30:2001 .Part 30: Basic conventions for views
• ISO 128-34:2001. Part 34: Views on mechanical engineering drawings
• ISO 128-40:2001. Part 40: Basic conventions for cuts and sections
• ISO 128-44:2001 .Part 44: Sections on mechanical engineering drawings
• ISO 128-50:2001. Part 50: Basic conventions for representing areas on cuts and
sections

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Other ISO standard related to technical drawing

• See : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_128

• ISO Standards Handbook - Technical drawings, a


broad collection of all basic ISO drawing standards

ISO Standards Handbook: DRG WORKING


INSTRUCTIONS AND
DIRECTIVES

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Line styles and types
• Type A lines show the outline of the feature of an object. They
are the thickest lines on a drawing and done with a pencil softer
than HB.

• Type B lines are dimension lines and are used for


dimensioning, projecting, extending, or leaders. A harder pencil
should be used, such as a 2H.

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Line styles and types
• Type C lines are used for breaks when the whole object is not
shown. They are freehand drawn and only for short breaks. 2H
pencil

• Type D lines are similar to Type C, except they are zigzagged


and only for longer breaks. 2H pencil

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Line styles and types
• Type E lines indicate hidden outlines of internal
features of an object. They are dotted lines. 2H pencil
• Type F lines are Type F[typo] lines, except they are
used for drawings in electrotechnology. 2H pencil

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Line styles and types
• Type G lines are used for centre lines. They are dotted lines, but
a long line of 10–20 mm, then a gap, then a small line of 2 mm.
2H pencil

• Type H lines are the same as Type G, except that every second
long line is thicker. They indicate the cutting plane of an object.
2H pencil

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Line styles and types
• Type J lines indicate the special requirement on the surface of
the object. Draw with a pencil softer than HB.

• Type K lines indicate the alternate positions of an object and the


line taken by that object. They are drawn with a long line of 10–
20 mm, then a small gap, then a small line of 2 mm, then a gap,
then another small line. 2H pencil.

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Text on drawing
Text on engineering drawing is used:
• To communicate non-graphic information.
• As a substitute for graphic information, in those
instance where text can communicate the needed
information more clearly and quickly.

Thus, it must be written with:


• Legibility: shape, space between letters and words
• Uniformity: size, line thickness

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Rules for Writing

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
ISO A Drawing Sizes (mm)
Paper Size
ISO A Drawing Sizes (mm)

A4 210 X 297
A3 297 X 420
A2 420 X 594
A1 594 X 841
A0 841 X 1189

US Customary drawing size


A 8.5" X 11"
B 11" X 17"
C 17" X 22"
D 22" X 34"
E 34" X 44"

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Drawing scales

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Drawing scales

• Designation of a scale consists of the word


“SCALE” followed by the indication of its ratio,
as follow:

SCALE 1:1 for full size

SCALE X:1 for enlargement scales

SCALE 1:X for reduction scales

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
CAD
• Computer-aided design
(CAD) is the use of computer
technology for the design of
objects, real or virtual.

• CAD may be used to design


curves and figures in two-
dimensional ("2D") space; or
curves, surfaces, or solids in
three-dimensional ("3D")
objects.

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Freehand Sketching
• Definition
A rough freehand drawing used to document,
communicate, and refine ideas developed
primarily in the ideation phase of the design
process
• Follows standard practices
• A developed skill

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Sketching drawing
The lines are sketched without using instruments other
than pencils and erasers.

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Proportions and Construction Lines

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
Freehand Sketching
Why use sketches?
• Documentation
• Communication
• Creativity

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805
3D CAD

Sketch

Menggambar Teknik
Dept Metalurgi & Material
ENG 200805