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ENERGY Intensity Duration Lactic Oxygen

SYSTEM Acid requirement
Physical Activity- any movement made by the muscles

Aerobic Activities- cardio exercise; increase the heart & Anaerobic High 10 s. or Does Does not
breathing rate A Lactic less not require
Anaerobic Medium 10 s. to Produce Does not
GUIDELINES FOR AEROBIC EXECISE Lactic to Low 2 min require
Aerobic Low 2 min to Does Requires
1. Frequency- number of aerobic exercise session per few hrs. not Oxygen
week. produce
Anorexia Nervosa – Eating disorder; intense fear of
2. Intensity – How intense; easy or hard gaining weight
3. Time – How long do you spend aerobic exercise? Overeating – eating too much; processed foods
Time allotment
Overweight and obese people - often encounter a lot of
4. Type – Type of aerobic exercise physical & emotional struggles

Muscle Strengthening Activities SLEEP MANAGEMENT

- Exercises in which groups of muscles work or hold 1.Staying up all night
against a force or same weight; push-ups, squats
2.Internet Addiction
Bone Strengthening Activities
3. Eating before sleeping
- Focusing to improve the muscle strength
 Bone Growth – stimulated by physical stress
 Bone Hypertrophy – increase bone density STRESS MANAGEMENT
throughout our skeletal system
1.Smoking 2.Bad Eating Habits
ENERGY SYSTEMS 3. Excessive intake of Alchol 4. Excessive Sleeping
Cellular Respiration – complex chemical process 5. Procastinating- trying to hide the problem

ATP – supplies energy to muscle cells for muscular

contraction during physical activity


1. Anaerobic A-Lactic(ATP-CP) Energy System

- a dominant source of muscle energy for high
intensity physical activities; does not produce
lactic acid

Underweight - people are often found to suffer from

Nationality – group of people who share the same C. Political Identity
history tradition& language -set if attitudes and practices that an individual
adheres to in relation to the political systems
- inhabits a particular territory delineated by factors within his or her society
a political border & controlled by a government.

Ethnic Groups – smaller cultural groups that share D. Religion

specific environmentsm tradition & histories that aren’t •Sorcerer of Les Gabillou- depicts the suprnatural
necessarily subscribed to by the mainstream culture ability of a religious practitioner to become half-
man, half-animal
[180] Ethnic [100]Tribal
E. Exceptionality/ Non-exceptionality
-Leans on the non0average capacity of an
A. Gender individual cultural variation

- Refers to the socially constructed roles, Ethnocentrism – perspective that promotes an

behaviors, acts & attributes that a given individual’s culture as the most efficient & and superior
society considers appropriate for men &
Cultural Relativism – promotes the perspective
that cultures must be understood in the context of ther

Sex – biological characteristic of humans such Social change – occurs as human populations
as male/ female(LGBTQI)Lesbian; Bisexual, adopt to their dynamic surroundings
Transgender, Queer, Intersex
Race – form of human classification that was
Heterosexual – attracted to opposite sex base on observable human traits & characteristics

Homosexual- attracted to the same sex Racism- creates a deep social cleavage that
further marginalizes the subject if facial oppression
Asexual- incapable of being attracted to
any sex Biological egalitarianism – promotes the
equality of our biological make-up despite our ancestry.
Polysexual – multiple genders

Pansexual – all types of gender

Culture – that complex whole which
Transgender – gender identifies don’t match
encompasses beliefs, practices, value -attitudes, laws,
their biological identities
norms, artifacts, symbols, knowledge & everything that
Transsexual – medical sexual reassignment a person learns and shares a member of a society

B. Socioeconomic Class
•Global South[developing]
•Biological capacity of humans for culture
•Global North[developed countries]
•Place of humans in the animal Kingdom
•How humans came to develop early forms of culture
1. Elite
2. Established Middle Class 1. Our thinking capacity
3. Technical Middle Class 1.4 kg – human
4. Newaffluent Workers 1.5 420 g – Cimpanazees
5. Traditional working class 1.6 500 g – Gorillas
6. Emergent service workers 2. Our speaking capacity
7. Precariat 3. Our Gripping Capacity
Power Grip- enables humans to hold and pick 4. Social Contract – creation of a state was a
objects steadily using their fingers. mutual agreement between the ruler & the
4. Our walking/ standing capacity 5. Natural Theory – innate need to be part of a
Bipedalism – capacity to walk/stand on two feet community
Quadropedalism – uses all four feet
Demokratia – political ideology that aimed at dispersing
power from the monopoly of the elirtes to the masses

OLDOWAN INDUSTRY[stone tool industry UNESCO[United Nations Educational, Scientific and

(HOMOHABIUS) Cultural Organization]

Hard water – worn cobbles made out of volcanic rock

Core tool (General Purposes)

Flake tool(knife)


-hand axes that were bifacial, shaped in both sides and
with straighter & sharper edges
-Chppers, Cleavers, hammers, flakes as knives/ scrapers


-premade core root/extraction of a flake tool that has
sharpened edges

-end of Paleolithic period
-application of heat, barbed harpoons, tenets made of
animal skin

Nolithic Revolution
-characterizeed by a major shift in economic
subsistence of the early humans from foraging to

State – political entity that 4 requisite elements

1. Territory 3. People
2. Sovereignty 4. Government


1. Divine Right Theory – right to rule is based on

their filial relationship with supernautal foces
and entities
2. Force Theory – group forces members of
another group to subject themselves to their
3. Paternalistic Theory – father essentially is the
leader of a political unit
KOMUNIKASYON Kahalagahan ng Vernakular sa Edukasyon pangwika ng
Pilipinas – Emma S. Castillo, PhD

Bernabe(1987) – Tinalakay ang kaugnayan na vernacular

WIKA – binubuo ng tunog at sagisag na giagamit ng mga sa kasaysayan ng edukasyong pangwuka sa Pilipinas
tao sa pakikipagkomunikasyon upang magkaunawaan
Saleeby (1924) – nagpahayag na walang higit pang
Wikang Pambansa – wikang pinagtibay ng pambansang makapagpatama sa isipan ng demokrasa kundi ang
pamahalaan at ginagamait sa pamamahala at pakikipag- katutubang wika
ugnayan sa mamayan
Gov. George Butte – mismo ang nakakita ng
Wikang Panturo – ginagamit upang matamo ang mataas kahalagahan sa paggamit ng vernacular na wika ng mga
na antas ng edukasyon nasasakupan
Wikang Opisyan – principal na wikang ginagamit sa DECS order No. 25, S.1979- May bilingguwal;
edukasyon, sa pamhalaan at sa political komersiyo at Pinapayagan ang paggamit ng vernacular ngunit
industriya patulong lamang

The 1987 Policy on Bilingguwal Edukasyon

GAMIT NG WIKA AYON SA ANTAS -Pinapayagan nag magamit ang wika sa ma rehiyon
bilang espesyal na mga wikang panturo
1. Balbal – pinakamahabang antas ng wika
[erpats,mudra] MEC order no. 22, s. 1987 – base resohisyon
2. Kolokyal – karaniwang pakikipag-usap ng isang
indibidawal; impormal ang pakkipag-usap
gayundin ang gamit ng mga salita Konsepto Ng Wika
3. Lalawiganin mga salitang ginagamit mula sa Lathalain – layun nitong magbigay at magadag dag ng
lalawigan impormasyon
4. Teknikal – Gamit sa ibat-ibang disiplina/
sitwasyon akademiko •register •Barayti •Homogenous •Heterogenous
5. Masinig o Pampanitikan – pinakamataas na
antas ng wika
Register – estilo ng pananalita batay sa paggamit
KOMUNIKASYON – Pagpapahayag at pagpalitan ng idey,
opinion o impormasyon sa pamamagitan ng pagsasalita, Barayti – higit na masaklaw ang konsepto kaysa sa
pagsulat o Senya tinatawag ng estilo ng wika

KULTURA – Kabuuang pamaraan ng pamumuhay ng •Permanente – para sa tagapagsalita ng bansa

isang pangkat ng mga tao sa isang teritoryo
Idyolek – kabuuhan ng mga katangian sa
•paniniwala •Pag-uugali •Wika •Tradisyon pagsasalita ng tao
•relihiyon •Politika •umiiral na Sistema sa lupinin
Diyalekto – barayti batay sa lugar, panahon
Bilingguwalismo – dalawang linggwahe
•Pansamantala – nagbabase sa sitwasyon nga
Multilingguwalismo – higit pang dalawa pahayag

Kautusang Pangkagawaran Blg. 74, S.2009 Heograpiko – iba’t-ibang diyalekto

nagkakaintindihan sa isang wika.
Mother Tongue – based multilingguwal na Edukasyon Sosyal- salitang iba’t-ibang kahulugan sa iba’t-
ibang lugar
Dekalogo ng Wikang Filipino – Jose Laderas Santos
Homogenous – Isang katangian ng Wika

Language Universals; isang wika ang gamit

Heterogenous – iba’t-ibang wika ang gamit

Oral Com Models of communication

1. Shannon-Weaver Model
- known as the mother of all communication
Nature of Communication models
1. Communication is a process. - one way process; no feedback
2. Communication occurs between two or more
people (the speaker and the receiver). 2. Transaction Model
3. Communication can be expressed through - is a two way process; has feedback as an
written or spoken words, actions(nonverbal), or element
both spoken words and nonverbal actions at 3. Schramm model
- The same with the Transaction Model but has
the same time.
experience as an element
Elements of Communication
Functions of Communication
1. Speaker – the source of information or message
2. Message – the information, ideas, or thoughts 1. Control – communication functions to control
conveyed by the speaker in words or in actions behavior
2. Social Interaction – Communication allows
3. Encoding – the process of converting the
message into words, actions, or other forms individuals to interact with others
that the speaker understands 3. Motivation – Communication motivates or
4. Channel – the medium or the means, such as encourages people to live better
4. Emotional expression – Communication
personal or non-personal, verbal or nonverbal,
in which the encoded message is conveyed facilitates people’es expression of their feelings
5. Decoding – the process of interpreting the and emotions
encoded message of the speaker by the 5. Information dissemination – Communication
receiver functions to convey information
6. Receiver – the recipient of the message, or Features of an effective Communication
someone who decodes the message
7. Feedback – the reactions, responses or 1. Completeness
information provided by the receiver 2. Conciseness
8. Context – the environment where 3. Consideration
communication takes place 4. Concreteness
9. Barrier – the factors that affect the flow of 5. Courtesy
communication 6. Clearness
7. Correctness

Barriers to communication

1. Emotional barriers
2. Use of jargon
3. Lack of confidence
4. Noisy environment

Verbal Communication and Nonverbal Communication

-refers to an interaction in which words are use to relay
a message

1. Appropriateness – the language that you use

should be appropriate to the environment or
2. Brevity – Speakers who often use simple yet Stage 4: Acceptance
precise and powerful words are found to be
Stage 5: Adaption
more credible
3. Clarity – the meaning of words, feeling or ideas Stage 6: Integration
may be interpreted differently by a listener
4. Ethics – words should be careful chosen in Characteristics of Competent Intercultural
chosen consideration of the gender, roles, Communicators
ethnicity, preferences and status of the person
or people you are talking to
5. Vividness – can add color and spice to 1. Flexibility and the ability to tolerate high levels
communication of uncertainty
2. Reflectiveness or mindfulness
Nonverbal communication 3. Open-mindedness
-refers to interaction where behavior is used to convey 4. Sensitivity
and represent meanings 5. Adaptability
6. Ability to engage in divergent thinking (or
1. It enhances and emphasizes the message of your thinking creatively) and systems-level thinking
speech, thus making it more meaningful, (or thinking creatively) and systems-level
thinking (or thinking how each one in a system
truthful, and relevant.
or organization influences each other)
2. It can communicate feelings, attitudes, and 7. Politeness
perceptions without you saying a word.

3. It can sustain the attention of listeners and keep

Types of speech context
them engaged in the speech.
1. Intrapersonal – This refers to communication
4. It gives the audience a preview to the type of speaker
that centers on one person where the speaker
you are.
acts both as the sender and the receiver of
5. It makes you appear more dynamic and animated in message
your delivery. 2. Intrapersonal – this refers to communication
between and among people and establishes
6. It serves as a channel to release tension and
personal relationship between and among
7. It helps make your speech more dramatic.

8. It can build a connection with listeners. Types of Interpersonal Context

9. It makes you a credible speaker. Dyad Communication – communication that

occurs between two people
10. It helps you vary your speaking style and avoid a
monotonous delivery. Small Group – this refers to communication that
involves at least three but not more that twelve
The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Public—this type refers to communication that
Stage 1: Denial. The individual does not requires you to deliver or send the message
recognize cultural differences before or in front of a group

Stage 2: Defense. The individual starts to Mass Communication – This refers to

recognize cultural differences. communication that takes place through
television, radio, newspapers, magazines,
Stage 3: Minimization.
books. Billboards, internet, and other types of

Type of Speech Style

1. Intimate – This style is private which occurs

between or among close family members or
2. Casual – This style is common among peers
and friends
3. Consultative – This style is the standard
one. Examples of situations are
communication between teachers and
students, employers and employees, doctor
and patient, judge and lawyer or President
and his/her constituents
4. Formal – This style is used in formal setting.
Unlike the consultative style this is one way
5. Frozen – This style is “frozen” in time and
remains unchanged.
Earth Science

The Origin of Earth

Formation of the Universe theories:

1. Big Bang Theory

2. Steady-State theory
3. Inflation theory

The Big Bang Theory – the top prevailing cosmological

model for the early development of the universe

CMB(Cosmic Microwave Background) – considered the

oldest light in the universe; also considered as
“afterglow” of the bigbang

Before the stars and planets existed, the universe was

denser and hooter and filled a uniform glow from a
white fog of hydrogen plasma

The universe also contains basic particles of:


Cosmic Inflation Theory

– answered the many puzzles that arose in the Big Bang
-Proposed by Alan Guth(1947) and Andrei Linde(1948)
in the 1980’s

Steady State Theory

-This theory states that the universe is always
expanding and that new matter is constantly formed as
the universe continues to expand
-Proposed by Sir James Jeans(1920); revised by Sir Fred
Hoyle, Sir Hermann Bondi, and Thomas Gold in 1948

Creationist Theory

This theory states that God , the Supreme Being

created the whole universe out of nothing.

Oscillating Universe Theory

This theory was proposed by Russian-born US

cosmologist George Gamow who helped explain the

big bang theory.