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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
«Омский государственный технический университет»

Л. И. Воскресенская
И. А. Рожнова

МЕТАЛЛЫ И МЕТАЛЛОРЕЖУЩИЕ СТАНКИ

METALS AND METAL-CUTTING MACHINE-TOOLS


Учебное пособие по английскому языку

Омск
Издательство ОмГТУ
2009
УДК 811.111:669+621.9(075)
ББК 81.2Анг+34.431+34.63-5я73
В 76

Рецензенты:
В. П. Сороколетов, канд. филол. наук, доцент, декан факультета
иностранных языков ОмГПУ;
К. Ю. Симонова, канд. филол. наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой
«Иностранные языки» СибГУФК

Воскресенская, Л. И.
В 76 Металлы и металлорежущие станки = Metals And Metal-Cutting
Machine-Tools: учеб. пособие по английскому языку /
Л.И. Воскресенская, И.А. Рожнова.– Омск: Изд-во ОмГТУ, 2009. – 60 c.

Целью данного пособия является обучение студентов чтению и переводу


литературы по специальности «Металлорежущие станки»
машиностроительного факультета (института). Оригинальные тексты содержат
информацию о типах металлов, сплавов, их свойствах, способах обработки и
сферах применения.
В пособии описываются различные типы станков: токарный,
сверлильный, винторезный, фрезерный и станки с ЧПУ. Описываются
устройство станков и принципы их действия.
Система предтекстовых и послетекстовых упражнений способствует
усвоению способов словообразования, терминологии специальности, а также
развитию навыков говорения по основным аспектам специальности.
Пособие предназначено для студентов II курса машиностроительных
специальностей.

Печатается по решению редакционного-издательского совета


Омского государственного технического университета.

УДК 811.111:669+621.9(075)
ББК 81.2Анг+34.431+34.63-5я73

© ГОУ ВПО «Омский государственный


технический университет», 2009
Contents

Part I. Metals
Section I. Metals in Periodic Table...........................................................4
Section II. Types of Metals.......................................................................9
Section III. Metals and Alloys................................................................14
Section IV. Steels....................................................................................19
Section V. Fabrication of Metals.............................................................24

Part II. Metal-cutting Machine Tools


Introduction. Machine Tools...................................................................29
Section I. Drill Press...............................................................................33
Section II. Lathe......................................................................................39
Section III. Screw Machines...................................................................42
Section IV. Milling Machines.................................................................47
Section V. Numerical Control.................................................................51

Библиографический список.................................................................57

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Part I. Metals
SECTION I. Metals in Periodic Table
Grammar: Participle I; Absolute Participle Construction.
Word-formation: Suffixes of abstract nouns – ence, -ity, -tion.
Speaking: Discovery of Periodic Law.

Practise the reading of the words:


chemical [′kemIkəl]
century [′sentərI]
science [′saIəns]
analysis [ə′næləsIs] sing; analyses – pl.
atomic [ə′tɔmIk]
concept [′kɔnsəpt]
weight [weIt]
calcium [′kælsIəm]
germanium [dჳə:′meInIəm]
zinc [zIηk]
characteristic [/kærIktə′rIstIk]
iron [′aIən]

Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:


valence [′veIləns] валентность
gap промежуток, интервал, пробел
originator автор, создатель, изобретатель
toughness [′tΛfnIs] жесткость
to process обрабатывать (деталь)
to extrude [eks′tru:d] выдавливать
abundance изобилие, избыток
ductility эластичность, ковкость, тягучесть,
вязкость
malleability [/mælIə′bIlItI] ковкость (в холодном состоянии),
тягучесть
wrought [rɔ:t] сварочное железо
alloy [′ælɔ:I] сплав
to treat обрабатывать
specimen [′spesImIn] образец, экземпляр
predominant [prI′dɔmInənt] преобладающий, доминирующий
sapphire [′sæfaIə] сапфир
impurity [Im′pjuərItI] примесь
nitrogen [′naItrIdჳən] азот
grinding [′graIndIη] шлифовка
laceration [/læsə′reIn] разрывание, разрыв: здесь: разрезание
Vocabulary development: word building:

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Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words, using a dictionary and create
several new words by adding suffixes:
noun noun
verb adjective
(abstract) (personal)
- science scientist научный
to found foundation founder -
to classify classification - -
dependence dependent
to depend dependent
dependability dependable
to predict prediction predictor прогнозируемый
to discover discovery - -
to originate origination originator порождающий
определимый
to define definition -
definite
conductivity
проводник
to conduct conduction conductive
conductress
conduct
to treat treatment - -
comparable
to compare comparison -
comparative
to design проект designer -

Exercise 2. Define the tense forms and functions of Participle I and translate
the following sentences:
1. Lavoisier studied the chemical elements, having started the quantitative
analysis of them.
2. In 1875 gallium was discovered, having taken the place below zinc.
3. Scandium was discovered in 1879, filling the gap below calcium.
4. Later on germanium was discovered, taking place near gallium.
5. There were several scientists dealing with metals.
6. Aluminium oxide is used in production of superconducting devices.

Text
Read the text dealing with discovery of metals and opening the Periodic Law
Metals in Periodic Table
Chemical elements were being studied for a long time in the middle of thе 18th
century. French scientist Lavoisier laid the foundation of the chemical science, having
started the quantitative analysis of the elements. Early in the 19th century English
chemist John Dalton tried to establish the atomic theory. By the middle of the 19 th
century chemical elements had been classified into two general groups: metals and
non-metals.

5
The step forward during this period was the idea of new concept called
“valence”, which meant the capacity of atoms to combine with one another. Later, it
was found that the properties of chemical elements depend on their atomic weight.
So, a Russian scientist D. I. Mendeleyev (1834–1907) could build up a periodic
classification of all the then known elements. According to his theory, Mendeleyev
predicted the properties of some undiscovered elements for which he left blank
spaces. The theory became true and in 1875 such elements as gallium was
discovered, taking the place below zinc. Scandium was discovered in 1879, filling the
gap below calcium and germanium – in 1886, taking the place near gallium, below
zinc. In the memory of the originator of the Periodic Law the 101 st element
discovered by American scientists in 1951 was named mendeleyevum. Mendeleyev’s
Periodic law is regarded to be one of the most recognized and important
achievements in science.
D. I. Mendeleyev was not the only Russian scientist dealing with metals.
M. V. Lomonosov formulated the first definition of the word “metal” in the following
way: “A metal is a bright solid that can be forged”. Besides, the characteristic features
of metals are lustre, toughness, workability, electrical and heat conductivity and
others. Metals are well processed materials. They can be cast, forged, stamped,
extruded, rolled, cut, welded.
It is the presence of iron that divides metals into ferrous and non-ferrous. And it
is by this reason that iron may be considered to be the most important element in
Periodic Table. The abundance in which iron is founded, its great strength, its
remarkable ductility and malleability make it specially suitable for many works
where strength with lightness are required. However, in ancient states the use of iron,
either cast or wrought, was rather limited, bronze being the favourite metal almost for
all purposes. Bronze is known to be the alloy of copper and tin.
Bronze and other non–ferrous metals, such as gold and silver, may be treated in
various ways, the chief of which are: casting in mould and treatment by hammering
and punching. Along with bronze brass (an alloy of copper and zinc) is widely used
because of its cheapness in comparison with bronze. Besides, analyses of the iron of
prehistoric weapons showed that they contained a considerable percentage of nickel.
And in many specimens of ancient bronze, small quantities of silver, lead and zinc
were also found.
It is worth mentioning that both ferrous and non-ferrous metals are widely used
in a great variety of works and non-ferrous materials are predominant in works of art.
Many metals of Periodic Table can interact with each other and develop quite new
materials and alloys. For example, aluminium oxide which is also referred to as
corundum, sapphire, ruby or aloxite are mentioned in the mining, ceramic and
materials science. Rubies are given their characteristic deep red colour and laser
qualities by adding such metallic element as chromium. Sapphires come in different
colours given by impurities of iron and titanium. Aluminium oxide is widely used in
the fa

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brication of superconducting devices, particularly single electron transistors and
superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID).
Such metals as boron and nitrogen form boron nitride known as Borazon. The
latter is a crystal created by heating equal quantities of boron and nitrogen at
temperatures greater than 18000C (3300 F) at 7 GPa (1 million lbf/in2). Borazon
replaced aluminium oxide for grinding hardened steels due to its far superior abrasive
properties. Other uses include jewellery designing, glass cutting and laceration of
diamonds.

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences:


1. Chemist who established the atomic theory was…
2. There are two general groups of metals:…
3. The capacity of atoms to combine with one another is called…
4. For undiscovered elements Mendeleyev left…
5. The 101st element was named in the memory of …
6. The most important element in Periodic Table is…
7. In ancient works of art the most widely spread metal (alloy) was…
8. Aluminium oxide is widely used in …
9. Borazon replaced aluminium oxide due to …

Exercise 4. Insert the proper words into the sentences:


1. Chemists found a new (понятие) called (валентность).
2. (Свойства) of chemical elements (зависеть от) their (атомный вес).
3. According to Mendeleyev’s theory it is possible (предсказать) the properties
of elements.
4. Lomonosov gave the first (определение) of metal.
5. Iron owing to its (эластичность) and (ковкость) is widely used metal.
6. Bronze is (сплав) of copper and tin.
7. In many (образец) of ancient bronze some (примесь) of other metals have
been found.
8. (Цветные металлы) are mainly used in works of art.
9. Aluminium adds (сверхпроводимость) to its alloys.
10. Borazon is used for (шлифовать) hardened steels.

Exercise 5. Find in the text the sentences that correspond to the following
statements:
1. In the middle of 19th century classification of chemical elements appeared.
2. Due to the quantitative analysis of chemical elements new concept emerged.
3. Mendeleyev’s theory gave the opportunity to foresee the properties of
elements.

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4. Gradually several elements which filled the gaps in the Table were
discovered.
5. Metals can be processed by various operations.
6. Owing to its qualities iron is the most important element in the Table.
7. Earlier the most popular metal was bronze.
8. Ancient weapons contained impurities of several non-ferrous metals.
9. Interaction of metals can result in other materials and alloys.
10. Such metal as boron possesses high strength and is used for grinding
hardened steels and cutting diamonds.

Exercise 6. Translate into English:


1. Количественный анализ элементов, придуманный французским ученым
Лавуазье, стал основой химической науки.
2. Понятие валентности означает способность атомов соединяться друг с
другом.
3. Атомная теория Джона Дальтона была подтверждена русским ученым
Менделеевым.
4. Свойства химических элементов зависят от их атомного веса.
5. Предсказанные свойства неоткрытых элементов подтвердились.
6. В результате новые элементы заполнили пропуски в таблице.
7. Один из вновь открытых элементов был назван в честь создателя
периодической таблицы.
8. Одно из определений слова «металл» было дано Ломоносовым.
9. Основными свойствами металлов являются: прочность, эластичность,
ковкость, электро- и теплопроводность.
10. Металлы могут быть обработаны ковкой, штамповкой, прокаткой,
резанием, сваркой и другими способами.
11. Металлы делятся на цветные и черные и могут взаимодействовать друг
с другом, образуя сплавы.

Speaking:
Exercise 7. Give the summary of the text, using key vocabulary and tell about:
a) scientists engaged in chemical science;
b) atomic theory;
c) discovery of unknown elements;
d) characteristic features of metals;
e) the ways of processing metals;
f) ability of metals to interact with each other.

8
Checklist for Section I:
1. How is Absolute Participle Construction translated into Russian?
2. What are the suffixes of abstract nouns?
3. What were the preconditions of appearing Periodic Table?
4. What are the main properties of metals?
5. How can metals be processed?

SECTION II. Types of Metals


Grammar : Passive Voice.
Word-formation: Suffixes of adjectives – ant, -ive, -full, -less.
Speaking: Characteristics of metals.

Practise the reading of the words:


specific [spI′sIfIk]
environmental [In′vaIərənməntl]
corrosion [kə′rouჳən]
chromium [′kroumjəm]
cobalt [kə′bɔ:lt]

Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:


failure [′feIljə] авария, повреждение
formability обрабатываемость
drawback недостаток
density плотность
pure [pjuə] чистый
pig iron чугун (в болванках)
cast iron чугун (расплавленный)
scrap лом, отходы
puddling [′pΛdlIη] пудлингование
tungsten [′tΛηstən] вольфрам
lead [led] свинец
alkali [′ælkəlaI] щелочь
sulfuric acid [sΛl′fjuərIk] серная кислота
hydrochloric acid соляная кислота
crankshaft коленчатый вал
gear шестерня

Vocabulary development: word building:

9
Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words, using a dictionary and create
several new words by adding suffixes:

noun noun
verb adjective
(abstract) (personal)
resistant
to resist resistance - resistible
resistive
prevention
to prevent - preventive
preventer
production
producible
производить product производитель
productive
productivity
useful
to use использование user useless
usable
application
to apply applicant применяемый
appliance
modificatory
to modify modification -
modifiable
variety various
variability variable
отличаться -
variance variant
variant varied
to destruct destruction - destructive

Exercise 2. Translate word combinations with the verbs in Passive Voice and
define their tense:
engineering industry is based on…; metallic materials are divided into…; some
materials are categorized as…; the main difference is based on…; ferrous materials
are produced in large quantities; non-ferrous materials can be easily fabricated; the
term “pure metal” is used for…; all chemical elements but one are eliminated; the
designation “metal” is applied to…; almost all impurities have been removed; steel
may be shortly defined as…; to non-ferrous metals are referred…; the requirements
are met…; vanadium was discovered…

10
Text
Read the text telling about various types of metals:
Types of Metals
All engineering industry is based on processing and application of metals. The
selection of material can play very important role in terms of their qualities to prevent
failures. Selection of material for a specific purposes depends on many factors. Some
of the most important ones are: strength, ease of forming, and resistance to
environmental destruction.
Metallic materials are broadly divided into two types – ferrous and non-ferrous
ones. Ferrous materials are those in which iron (Fe) is the principle constituent. All
other materials are categorized as non-ferrous materials. The main difference between
both types of metals is based on their formability.
Ferrous materials are produced in large quantities. One main drawback of
ferrous alloys is their environmental destruction, i.e. poor corrosion resistance. Other
disadvantages include: relatively high density and comparatively low electrical and
thermal conductivities.
Non-ferrous materials have specific advantages over ferrous ones. They can be
easily fabricated, have relatively low density, and high electrical and thermal
conductivities. However, different materials have distinct characteristics, and are used
for specific purposes.
The term “pure metal” is used for materials in which almost all chemical
elements, but one are eliminated. The designation “metal” is applied to any metallic
materials in which metallic lustre and the ability for plastic deformation being
characteristic features.
To ferrous metals belong: pig iron, cast iron, wrought iron, steel and others. Pig
iron is the starting material in the production of all ferrous metals. It contains iron as
the main ingredient, the impurities being carbon, silicon, manganese, sulphur and
phosphorus. Cast iron is the pig iron modified in structure by remelting it with
addition of steel scrap. Wrought iron is the iron from which almost all impurities of
carbon, sulphur, phosphorus and other have been removed by the process known as
puddling. Steel may be shortly defined as an alloy of iron and carbon. The chief
alloying elements used being nickel, chromium, molybdenum, silicon, vanadium,
tungsten, cobalt and copper.
To non-ferrous metals are referred: gold, silver, aluminium, copper, lead, zinc,
mercury, magnesium, titanium, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten,
cobalt.
Some of these are the ingredients of cutting-tool materials which must combine
strength, toughness, hardness, and wear resistance at elevated temperatures. These
requirements are met in varying degrees by carbon steels (containing from 1 to 1,2
per cent of carbon), high-speed steels (iron alloys containing tungsten, chromium,
vanadium and carbon), tungsten carbide and aluminium oxide.
Let’s consider one of the mentioned metals – Vanadium. It is the chemical
element with the symbol V and atomic number 23. Vanadium was discovered in

11
1801, but renamed by its modern name in 1831. It is a soft, silvery, grey, ductile
transition metal. It has good resistance to corrosion and is stable against alkalis,
sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. Vanadium is used in the form of ferrovanadium as an
additive to improve steels. The considerable increase of strength in steel containing
small amounts of vanadium was the reason for using it for applications in axles,
bicycle frames, crankshafts, gear, and other critical components.

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences:


1. The selection of material is important to prevent…
2. Metallic materials are divided into…
3. Iron is the principle constituent in…
4. Beside ferrous materials, all other are categorized as…
5. The main drawback of ferrous alloys is …
6. Different materials have distinct…
7. To ferrous metals belong…
8. Steel may be defined as…
9. To non-ferrous metals are referred…
10. The strength of steel was the reason for…

Exercise 4. Insert the proper words into the sentences:


1. The selection of material is important (с точки зрения) their qualities.
2. One of the most important quality is (сопротивление) to (окружающая
среда) destruction.
3. Iron is (главный составляющий) of ferrous materials.
4. The main difference in the types of metals is their (обрабатываемость).
5. One of the drawbacks of ferrous metals is poor (сопротивление к коррозии).
6. The designation “metal” (применяется) to metallic materials with specific
(свойствами, характеристиками).
7. Most of the non-ferrous metals are (составная часть) of (режущий)
materials.
8. Vanadium has good (сопротивляемость к коррозии и кислотам).
9. Vanadium as (добавка) (улучшать) the (свойства) of steels.
10. The strength of steel is the reason of its (применение) in (коленчатый вал)
and (шестерня).

Exercise 5. Find in the text the sentences that correspond to the following
statements:
1. The choice of material is very important factor in machinery.
2. Strength, formability and corrosion resistance are the most important features.
3. Iron is the main ingredient of ferrous materials.
4. High density and low conductivity are the drawbacks of ferrous metals.

12
5. The word “metal” is used referring to metallic materials possessing specific
characteristics.
6. Alloying ingredients of steel are the majority of non-ferrous metals.
7. Tools for processing materials should be strong, hard and wear resistant.
8. Carbon steels meet the requirements necessary for cutting- tool materials.
9. Some metals are resistant not only to corrosion but to acids.
10. Many metals are used in parts where strength is needed.

Exercise 6. Translate into English:


1. Машиностроение имеет дело с обработкой различных металлов.
2. Металлы должны обладать такими качествами, как прочность, ковкость,
обрабатываемость.
3. Черные и цветные металлы обладают различными свойствами.
4. Недостатком черных металлов является их низкая сопротивляемость
коррозии.
5. Цветные металлы имеют низкую плотность и легко обрабатываются.
6. Термин «чистый металл» означает материал, в котором содержится
только один элемент.
7. Отличительной чертой металлов является блеск, тягучесть и
способность к пластической деформации.
8. К черным металлам относятся чугун, литой чугун, сварочное железо и
стали.
9. Элементами сплавов, как правило, являются никель, хром, молибден,
ванадий, вольфрам, кобальт и другие.
10. К цветным металлам относятся алюминий, золото, серебро, медь,
магний, титан, ртуть и другие.

Speaking:
Exercise 7. Give the summary of the text, using key vocabulary and tell about:
a) division of metallic materials into groups;
b) qualities of ferrous metals;
c) characteristics of non-ferrous metals;
d) what materials can be alloying elements;
e) the role of alloying elements.

Checklist for Section II:


1. What are the Tense forms of Passive Voice?
2. What is the meaning of suffixes –ful and - less?
3. What are ferrous and non-ferrous metals?
4. What are characteristic features of these groups?

13
SECTION III. Metals and Alloys
Grammar : Compound Conjunctions.
Word-formation: Conversion.
Speaking: Properties of metals and alloys.

Practise the reading of the words:


medium [′mI:djəm]
temperature [′temprItə]
although [ɔ:l′ðou]
ductile [′dΛktaIl]
characterize [′kærIktəraIz]
thermal [′θə:məl]
artificial [/ɑ:tI′fIəl]

Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:


nodular cast iron чугун с шаровидным графитом
malleable cast iron [′mælIəbl] ковкий чугун
flake зерно (минерала)
ferrite феррит (структурная составляющая стали
и чугуна, представляющая собой чистое
железо)

pearlite [′pə:lIt] перлит (структурная составляющая


стали, представляющая собой
мельчайшую смесь железа и карбида
железа)
damping амортизация
roller ролик, каток, вал, валец
rolling mill прокатный стан
manganese [/mæηgə′nI:z] марганец
foundry литейное дело, литье, литейный цех
surgery [′sə:dჳərI] хирургия
oxygen [′ɔksIdჳən] кислород

14
Vocabulary development: word building:
Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words, using a dictionary and create
several new words by adding suffixes:
noun noun
verb adjective
(abstract) (personal)
to transform transformation - -
transformer
ограничивать limit - limitary
limitation ограничивающий
limited
limitless
to add addition - additional
additive
формировать form former formative
formation бывший, прежний
former
to desire желание - desirous
desirability desirable

Exercise 2. Translate the sentences, paying attention to compound


conjunctions:
1. In ancient states the use of iron, either cast or wrought, was rather limited.
2. It is known that both ferrous and non-ferrous metals are widely used.
3. The carbon content may be either less or higher than 2,14 %.
4. Graphite flakes in gray cast iron are surrounded by either ferrite or pearlite.
5. Both ferrous and non-ferrous metals possess many characteristic features.
6. Some alloying elements can form either compounds or carbides.

Text
Read the text about the properties of some metals resulting in alloys:
Metals and Alloys
Each metal possesses certain distinct combinations of properties, that may be
varied for specific engineering applications by alloying it with relatively, small
amounts of other materials. The term “alloy” is used to determine a material
containing more than one chemical element. The properties of the alloy being
determined by the properties of the elements it consists of. The main alloying element
in ferrous metals is carbon (C). Depending on the amount of carbon, alloys have
different properties. The carbon content may be either less or higher than 2,14 %.
Below this amount of carbon material undergoes hard cast eutectoid* transformation,
while above that limit ferrous materials undergo easy cast eutectic** transformation.
The ferrous alloys with less than 2,14 % C are termed as steels, and the ferrous alloys
with higher than 2,14 % C are termed as cast irons.

15
Steels are alloys of iron and carbon with other alloying elements. Steels can be
low, medium and high carbon. Cast irons may contain 3.0–4.5 % C along with some
other alloying additions and melt at lower temperatures than steels. Cast irons are
specified as gray, white, nodular and malleable cast irons.
Gray cast iron consists of carbon in the form of graphite flakes, which are
surrounded by either ferrite or pearlite. Although gray cast irons are weak and brittle
they possess good damping properties and are applied in base structures, beds for
heavy machines as they have high resistance to wear.
White cast irons are very brittle. Hence their use is limited to wear resistant
applications, such as rollers in rolling mills. Usually white cast iron is heat treated to
produce malleable iron.
Malleable cast irons are stronger and possess high amount of ductility. Their
typical application include railroad, connecting rods, marine and other heavy-duty
services.
Nodular (or ductile) cast irons are stronger and more ductile than gray cast irons.
Their applications are pump bodies, crank shafts, automotive components, etc.
Non-ferrous alloys are also widely used in engineering.
Aluminium alloys are characterized by low density, high thermal and electrical
conductivities, good corrosion resistant characteristics. But the great limitation of
these alloys is their low melting point (660 єC). Aluminium alloys with Lithium (Li),
Magnesium (Mg) and Titanium (Ti) are paid much attention when vehicle weight
reduction is concerned. They are very useful in aircraft and aerospace industries.
Common applications of Al alloys include: beverage cans, automotive parts, bus
bodies.
It is worth mentioning that aluminium alloys are used where light weight is
needed. They are also used because of their resistance to corrosion. Aluminium alloys
also possess desirable property of thermal and electrical conductivity.
Beside aluminium alloys there are some other non-ferrous ones: copper, lead,
tin, zinc, nickel alloys. It is necessary to point out that both ferrous and non-ferrous
metals possess many characteristic features: elasticity, ductility, malleability,
toughness, brittleness, hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Copper
alloys form such metals, as brass and bronze. The aluminium alloys with copper,
manganese, silicon and nickel are widely used where corrosion resistance, high
electrical conductivity, ductility and high strength are needed. Zinc alloys have some
advantages over others in foundry: excellent casting properties, machinability and
lower density than bronze.
In machinery there is one of the most interesting metals, called titanium.
Titanium has wonderful property – it is completely inert in biological media and that
is why is being widely used in medical purposes for making artificial joints and
surgery instruments. Owing to its high corrosion resistance, lightness, tensile strength
and ease of forging, rolling and stamping titanium is used in a great variety of fields.
Titanium alloys are applied in mechanical engineering, medical and chemical areas.
Alloying elements are added to achieve certain properties in the material.
Alloying elements are added in lower percentages (less than 5 %) to increase strength

16
or hardenability, or in larger percentages (over 5 %) to achieve special properties,
such as corrosion resistance or extreme temperature stability.
Manganese, silicon, or aluminium are added during the steelmaking process to
remote dissolved oxygen from the melt. Manganese, silicon, nickel, and copper are
added to increase strength by forming solid solutions in ferrite. Chromium,
vanadium, molybdenum, and tungsten increase strength by forming second-phase
carbides. Nickel and copper improve corrosion resistance in small quantities.
Molybdenum helps to resist embrittlement. Zirconium, cerium, and calcium increase
toughness by controlling the shape of inclusions. Manganese sulfide, lead, bismuth,
selenium, and tellurium increase machinability. All mentioned alloying elements can
form either compounds or carbides.
* eutectoid – эвтекетоид (сплав, точка плавления которого выше точек
плавления входящих в его состав компонентов).
** eutectic – эвтектический (сплав, точка плавления которого ниже).

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences:


1. The term “alloy” determines…
2. The main alloying element in ferrous metals is …
3. The ferrous alloys with less than 2,14 % С are termed as…
4. Ferrous and non-ferrous alloys are widely used in …
5. Aluminium alloys are mainly used because of …
6. Aluminium alloys possess desirable property of …
7. Zink alloys have advantages over…
8. Titanium alloys are applied in …
9. Alloying elements are added to some metals in order to…
10. All alloying elements can form …

Exercise 4. Insert the proper words into the sentences:


1. The term (сплав) determines material (содержащий) more than one element.
2. (Углерод) is the main (легирующий) element in (черный) metals.
3. Each metal (обладать) distinct (свойствами).
4. Steels are alloys of (железо) and (углерод) with other (легирующими)
elements.
5. Gray (чугун) is weak and (хрупкий).
6. (Ковкий чугун) possesses high amount of (тягучесть).
7. (Недостатком) of aluminium alloys is their low (температура плавления).
8. Aluminium alloys are used where (требуется легкий вес).
9. (Медные сплавы) form such metals, as (латунь) and (бронза).
10. Titanium is inert in (биологической среде) and is widely used in
(медицина).

Exercise 5. Find in the text the sentences that correspond to the following
statements:
1. The amount of carbon in metals may differ.

17
2. Different amount of carbon form quite different alloys.
3. Each metal has its own properties depending on the alloying elements.
4. Different amount of carbon affects the types of steels.
5. Cast irons can be divided into several groups.
6. Aluminium alloys show various useful features.
7. In engineering there is a great variety of non-ferrous alloys.
8. The aluminium alloys can have some other alloying elements and are useful
in particular technical conditions.
9. Titanium is used in different fields due to its numerous remarkable properties.
10. Alloying elements in certain proportions improve the properties of metals.

Exercise 6. Translate into English:


1. Термин «сплав» означает материал, состоящий более чем из одного
элемента.
2. Основным легирующим элементом черных металлов является углерод.
3. В зависимости от процентного содержания углерода сплавы делятся на
стали и чугуны.
4. Существуют не только черные, но и цветные сплавы.
5. Как черные, так и цветные металлы обладают эластичностью,
тягучестью, ковкостью и прочностью.
6. Такие металлы, как медь, магний, никель и цинк придают сплавам
особые свойства.
7. Титан обладает уникальными качествами и широко применяется в
медицине.
8. Титан проявляет высокую устойчивость к коррозии, легкость, прочность
на растяжение, но главным является инертность по отношению к
биологической среде.
9. Легирующие элементы добавляются к другим металлам, чтобы создать
новые, улучшенные свойства материала.
10. Известными легирующими элементами являются силикон, хром,
свинец, висмут, селен и теллур.

Speaking:
Exercise 7. Give the summary of the text, using key vocabulary and tell about:
a) the concept of alloy;
b) ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys;
c) importance of metals and alloys in engineering;
d) the aim of melting various elements with metals;
e) the properties of alloys;
f) the spheres of application of some metals and alloys.

Checklist for Section III:


1. How are compound conjunctions translated into Russian?
2. What is conversion?
3. What are the widely used metals for forming alloys?

18
4. What properties do metals give the alloys?
SECTION IV. Steels
Grammar : Gerund.
Word-formation: Suffix -ity.
Speaking: Types and properties of steels.

Practise the reading of the words:


enough [I′nΛf]
microstructure [/maIkrə′strΛktə]
typical [tIpIkəl]
require [rI′kwaIə]
pressure [′preə]
surgical [′sə:dჳIkəl]

Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:


cost-effective затратный, расходный
treatment обработка
austenitize [/ɔ:stənItaIz] аустенитизировать (создавать
немагнитный твердый раствор углерода)
quench [kwent] закаливать (металл)
temper закаливать с последующим отпуском
hacksaw blade ножовочное полотно
plain carbon steel низкоуглеродистая сталь
alloy steel легированная сталь
high-strength low alloy steel высокопрочная низколегированная сталь
pressure vessel сосуд высокого давления
stainless steel нержавеющая сталь
cutlery [′kΛtlərI] ножевые изделия
susceptibility [sə/septə′bIlItI] подверженность, чувствительность,
восприимчивость
punch штамп, пуансон, пробойник
stamping die [daI] штамповочная пресс-форма
suitability [/sju:tə′bIlItI] пригодность
tap метчик (для нарезки резьбы)
milling cutter фреза
tool bit вставной резец
gear cutter зуборезная фреза

19
Vocabulary development: word building:
Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words, using a dictionary and create
several new words by adding suffixes:
noun noun adjective
verb
(abstract) (personal)
to improve improvement improver допускающий улуч-
шение
to divide делимость divider dividual
division divisible
divisor divisional
to quench quencher - незакаленный
quenching
to temper temper - -
- susceptibility - susceptible
восприимчивый
подводить suit suitor -
пригождаться suitability

Exercise 2. Translate the following word combinations with Gerund:


alloying material, alloying metal, quenching, alloying additions, tempering, alloying
elements, hardening tool steel, alloying constituent, stamping die, metal cutting tool,
cutting edge, tool steels are used for making tools, impact loading, milling cutter.

Text
Read the text giving classification and properties of steels:
Steels
Steels are widely known and mostly used materials in comparison with any
other ones. Steels are alloys of iron and carbon with other alloying elements. Carbon
is the most cost-effective alloying material for iron, but various other alloying
elements are used – manganese, chromium, vanadium and tungsten. The latter are
necessary to improve many properties of steels – corrosion resistance, strength,
formability and others. Mechanical properties of steels greatly depend on carbon
content. According to this indication the steels are basically divided into three kinds:
low carbon, medium carbon and high carbon.
Carbon is limited in low carbon steels and not enough to strengthen them by
heat treatment, but only cold one. The microstructure of low carbon steels consists of
ferrite and pearlite, they are relatively soft, ductile and possess high toughness. They
are weldable and easily machined. The typical applications of these steels are:
structural shapes, tin cans, automobile body components, building, etc.

20
Medium carbon steels are stronger than low carbon steels, although are less
ductile, but their strength can be improved by heat treatment. Usual heat treatment
includes austenitizing, quenching and tempering. Such alloying additions as nickel,
chrome and molybdenum improve their hardness. The sphere of application of
medium carbon steels is railway tracks and wheels, gears, the machine parts which
require strength and toughness.
High carbon steels are the strongest and hardest and therefore their ductility is
very limited. Their hardness is achieved with addition of such alloying elements as
chrome, vanadium, molybdenum and bismuth. These steels possess very high wear
resistance and are used for sharp edged tool application: knives, razors, hacksaw
blades, etc.
The other parameter for classification of steels is amount of alloying addition.
According to this criterion the steels are of two kinds: plain carbon steels and alloy
steels. A special group of ferrous alloys with considerable amount of alloying
additions is known as HSLA (high-strength low alloy steels). Common alloying
elements are copper, vanadium, nickel, bismuth, chrome, molybdenum and others.
These alloys are ductile, formable and applied in support columns, bridges, and
pressure vessels.
Another widely used kind of steel is stainless steels. They are highly resistant to
corrosion and are called rustless or stainless. Highly corrosion resistance is achieved
by addition of special alloying elements, especially a minimum of 12 % chrome
along with nickel and molybdenum. The typical application of such steels is cutlery,
razor blades, surgical tools, etc. Besides, in engineering it is accepted to differ some
other kinds of steels: structural steel, carbon steel, alloy steel, tool steel, self (air)
hardening tool steel, heat-resisting steel, high speed steel.
Structural steel is widely applied because of its strength, toughness, workability,
but it has two drawbacks – heavy weight and susceptibility to rust.
Carbon steel is steel where the main alloying constituent is carbon, and when no
minimum content is required for chromium, cobalt, niobium, molybdenum, nickel,
titanium, tungsten, vanadium or zirconium. High carbon steel is very strong and used
for springs, high-strength wires, knives, axles, punches, stamping dies, metal cutting
tools, etc.
Alloy steel is steel alloyed with other elements in amounts of between 1 and
50 % by weight to improve its mechanical properties. These steels have greater
strength, hardness, hot hardness, wear resistance, hardenability and toughness
compared to carbon steel. However, they require heat treatment in order to achieve
such properties. Common alloying elements are molybdenum, manganese, nickel,
chromium, vanadium, silicon and boron. Such steels are used where high corrosion
resistance in certain environmental conditions is needed.
Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-
suited to be made into tools. Their suitability comes from their hardness, resistance to
abrasion, ability to hold a cutting edge and resistance to deformation at elevated

21
temperatures. Tool steels are generally used in a heat-treated state for making tools
which have to withstand impact loading.
High speed steel (HSS) is basically iron – carbon alloy in which various
elements, principally tungsten and molybdenum, have been added to improve their
hardness, toughness, heat resistance and wear resistance. High speed steels are
usually used in the manufacture of various cutting tools: drills, taps, milling cutters,
tool bits, gear cutters, saw blades, punches and dies. High speed steel tools maintain
their edge longer than carbon steel ones.

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences:


1. Mechanical properties of steels depend on…
2. Depending on carbon the steels are divided into…
3. Steels are alloys of…
4. The microstructure of low carbon steels consists of …
5. The applications of low carbon steels are…
6. The strength of medium carbon steels can be improved by …
7. The sphere of application of medium carbon steels is…
8. The hardness of high carbon steels is achieved with…
9. One of the parameters for classification of steels is the amount of…
10. Stainless steels are highly resistant to…
Exercise 4. Insert the proper words into the sentences:
1. (Углерод) is the most (затратный) (легирующий материал).
2. Alloying elements are necessary (чтобы улучшать) (свойства) of steels.
3. Steels (широко известные) материалы.
4. Carbon steels are (свариваемые) and (легко обрабатываемые на станках).
5. Medium carbon steels (прочнее) than low carbon steels, but (менее ковкие).
6. (Прочность) of high carbon steels (достигается) with addition of some
(легирующих металлов).
7. High carbon steels (обладают) very high (износоустойчивостью).
8. The steels are divided into (низко углеродистую) and (легированную).
9. High-strength low alloy steels have (значительное количество) of
(легирующих добавок).
10. (Нержавеющая сталь) is widely used for (хирургических инструментов).

Exercise 5. Find in the text the sentences that correspond to the following
statements:
1. Carbon is the main constituent affecting the mechanical properties of steel.
2. Depending on carbon content the steels are divided into three types.
3. The main purpose of using alloying elements is to make steels strong and
corrosion resistant.
4. The amount of carbon influences the mechanical characteristics of steels.
5. Carbon is the most expensive ingredient comparing with others.

22
6. The amount of alloying additions is one of the parameters that change the
type of steels.
7. In machine building there are various types of steels.
8. Structural steel besides its advantages has also some drawbacks.
9. Alloy steel possesses higher characteristics and is used in the most difficult
environmental conditions.
10. A lot of tools which need special strength are made of high speed steel.

Exercise 6. Translate into English:


1. Стали – наиболее используемые материалы в машиностроении.
2. Сталь – это сплав железа и углерода.
3. Легирующими элементами стали являются многие металлы: магний,
хром, ванадий, вольфрам, никель, алюминий и другие.
4. Добавки к железу меняют свойства сплавов.
5. Легирующие элементы нужны, чтобы улучшить свойства сталей.
6. Стали должны обладать такими свойствами, как прочность,
устойчивость к коррозии, ковкость, обрабатываемость.
7. В технике существуют различные сорта сталей: нержавеющая,
инструментальная, теплостойкая, высокопрочная, углеродистая.
8. Свойства стали зависят как от количества углерода, так и от количества
добавочных элементов.
9. Одни стали должны выдерживать высокие температуры, другие –
высокое давление.
10. Для различных строительных сооружений, инструментов и деталей
машин используются соответствующие сорта сталей.

Speaking:
Exercise 7. Give the summary of the text, using key vocabulary and tell about:
a) what is steel;
b) the role of carbon in steels;
c) the necessary properties of steels;
d) the necessity of using alloying elements;
e) metals serving as alloying materials;
f) the kinds of steels;
g) the sphere of application of steels.

Checklist for Section IV:


1. What are the functions of Gerund and its difference from Participle I?
2. What is the meaning of the suffix - ity?
3. What properties should steels possess?
4. What are the types of steels and where are they applied?

23
SECTION V. Fabrication of Metals
Grammar : Participle II as an attribute.
Word-formation: Suffix –er of abstract and personal nouns.
Speaking: Techniques of forming and processing metals.

Practise the reading of the words:


technique [tek′nI:k]
liquid [′lIkwId]
dimensional [dI′menənl]
accuracy [′ækjurəsI]
jewelry [′dჳu:əlrI]
crown [kraun]

Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:


to fabricate производить, изготавливать
casting литьё, отливка
forming формовка, штамповка
machining механическая обработка
joining соединение, сборка
to pour in [pɔ:] заливать, разливать (металл)
die [daI] пресс-форма
investment casting помещение в форму, точное литье по
выплавляемым моделям
continuous casting непрерывная разливка
cope верхняя часть разъемной модели
(верхняя опока)
drag нижняя полуформа
die casting литье в постоянные формы
wax [wæks] воск
slurry [′slə:rI] взвесь, суспензия
strand пучок, поток
jet [dჳet] струя
to induce вызывать, стимулировать, заставлять
forging ковка
extrusion [eks′tru:ჳən] выдавливание, штамповка с вытяжкой
successive [sək′sesIv] последующий
squeezing [skwI:zIη] сжатие, сдавливание
strip полоса, лента, рейка
I-beam двутавровая балка
orifice [′ɔrIfIs] сопло, насадка
rectangular [rek′tæηgulə] прямоугольный
cross section поперечное сечение
seamless бесшовный, цельнотянутый (о трубах)

24
tensile [′tensaIl] растяжение, разрыв
tolerance допуск
brazing твердая пайка; пайка твердым припоем
soldering пайка (мягким припоем)
riveting клепка
cohesive [kou′hI:sIv] способный к сцеплению; связующий
bond связь, соединение, сцепление

Vocabulary development: word building:


Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words, using a dictionary and create
several new words by adding suffixes:
noun noun
verb adjective
(abstract) (personal)
- technics technician technical
technicality
to liquefy liquefaction - liquid
жидкость liquescent
to dimension dimension - dimensional
to temper temper - -
- accuracy - accurate
accurateness
скручивать strand - -
stranding
strander
to forge forge - forgeable
ковкость
forgery
to extrude extrusion - -
extruder
to squeeze squeezability - squeezable
сжатие
squeezer
паять solder solderer поддающийся пайке
soldering
to rivet rivet riveter -
riveter
riveting
to cohere связь - coherent
coherency связующий(ся)
coherer
сцепление
cohesiveness
Exercise 2. Translate the following word combinations with Participle II:

25
desired characteristics, required shape, complicated shape, mold formed by compact
packing of sand, mold made of steel, refined metal, desired shape, forged products,
applied forces, reduced area.

Text
Read the text describing various means of metal fabrication:
Fabrication of metals
Metals are fabricated by different means to achieve metals and alloys of desired
characteristics. Metal fabrication techniques are mainly of four kinds: casting,
forming, machining and joining.
Casting is the process of giving a shape by pouring in liquid metal into a mold
that holds the required shape, and letting harden the metal without external pressure.
This technique is employed when a product is of large and/or complicated shape and
when material is of low ductility. There are different casting techniques: sand, die,
investment, continuous casting. In common casting methods sand is used as casting
material. This method consists in a two-piece mold (cope and drag) formed by
compact packing of sand around a pattern of required shape.
In die casting metal is forced into mold by external pressure at high velocities.
Here usually a permanent two-piece mold made of steel is used. In this technique
rapid cooling rates are achieved.
By investment casting the pattern (mold) is made of wax. Then fluid slurry of
casting material is poured over which eventually hardens and holds the required
shape. This technique is employed when high dimensional accuracy of fine details is
required, for example, jewelry, dental crowns, gas turbine blades, jet engine
impellers.
In continuous casting solidification and primary forming process are combined,
where refined metal is cast directly into a continuous strand which is cooled by water
jets.
Forming is the process of giving shape in solid state by applying pressure. In
these techniques, a metallic piece is subjected to external pressures to induce
deformation when material acquires a desired shape. Most common forming
techniques are: forging, rolling, extrusion and drawing.
Forging involves deforming a single piece of metal by successive blows or
continuous squeezing. Forged products have very good mechanical properties and
typically include crane hooks, wrenches, crank shafts, connecting rods.
Rolling involves passing a piece of metal between two rotating rolls.
Deformation is terms of reduction in thickness resulting from applied compressive
forces. This technique is employed to produce sheets, strips, foil, I-beams, rails, etc.
Extrusion is the technique in which a piece of material is forced through a die
orifice by a compressive force. Final product will have the desired shape and reduced
constant rectangular cross sectional area over very long length. The main extrusion
products are: rods, (seamless) tubes, complicated shapes for domestic purpose.
Drawing is pulling material through die orifice using tensile forces. By using
drawing technique rods, wire and tubes are commonly produced.

26
Machining is the process when metal is removed from certain areas of the
workpiece to give final required shape to the product. Machining is usually employed
to produce shapes with high dimensional tolerance, good surface finish and complex
geometry.
Joining is the process where different parts are joined by various means:
welding, brazing, soldering and riveting. The first three techniques involve melting
metal which upon cooling provides cohesive bonds. In riveting parts are put together
by mechanical locking. These techniques are employed to join two pieces of metal
with complicated shapes.

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences:


1. There are four main methods of metal fabrication…
2. In casting metal hardens without…
3. The main casting techniques are …
4. In die casting metal is forced into mold by…
5. In investment casting the mold is made of…
6. Forming metals is realized in solid state by…
7. The most common forming methods are …
8. Forged products have very good…
9. Machining produces goods with high dimensional…
10. In riveting different parts are joined by the following means…

Exercise 4. Insert the proper words into the sentences:


1. (Изготовление металлов) is realized by different methods.
2. (При литье) (жидкий металл) is poured into molds.
3. Casting technique (применяется) in the case of large and (сложных форм).
4. In die casting (внешнее давление) is applied.
5. By investment casting (форма) is made of (воск).
6. (Высокая точность размеров) is required in (лопастях турбин),
(пропеллерах реактивных двигателей).
7. By forming the details (подвергаются) (внешнему давлению).
8. One of the forming techniques is (ковка).
9. By drawing process (прутья) and (проволока) are produced.
10. (Механическая обработка) is the process of removing metal (с заготовки).

Exercise 5. Find in the text the sentences that correspond to the following
statements:
1. To achieve necessary characteristics of metals four main fabrication methods
are used.
2. The most common method is to pour in liquid metal into the mold.
3. There are some varieties of casting technique.
4. As a rule a mold consists of two parts.
5. Metal molds allow quick cooling.

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6. When high accuracy of small details is needed the special molds are used.
7. In continuous casting two processes are joined.
8. The materials acquire a designed shape when they are subject to external
pressures.
9. Deformation of metal in forging process results in good mechanical features
of products.
10. Rolling technique gives the opportunity to fabricate products of small
thickness.

Exercise 6. Translate into English:


1. Существуют различные способы обработки металлов и сплавов.
2. Наиболее распространенными способами являются: литье, штамповка,
механическая обработка и сборка.
3. Обычно литье осуществляется в формах, где металл затвердевает.
4. Способы литья разнообразны: песочная форма, пресс-форма, по моделям
и непрерывная разливка.
5. Как правило, форма состоит из двух частей: верхней части и нижней
полуформы.
6. Металлические формы способствуют быстрому охлаждению жидкого
металла.
7. Все способы литья дают точные размеры деталей.
8. При штамповке детали придается форма в холодном состоянии.
9. Технология формовки включает ковку, прокатку, выдавливание и
протяжку.
10. Сборка – это механическое соединение деталей различной формы
путем сварки, пайки и клепки.

Speaking:
Exercise 7. Give the summary of the text, using key vocabulary and tell about:
a) casting metals;
b) types of molds;
c) the difference between forming and forging;
d) opportunities to meet requirements of high dimensional accuracy;
e) various means of joining.

Checklist for Section V:


1. How is Participle II is translated into Russian in the function of an attribute?
2. What is the difference of the suffix – er for abstract and personal nouns?
3. What are the main techniques of metal fabrication?
4. What are subdivisions of processes of metal fabrication?
PART II. Metal-cutting Machine Tools
Grammar : Participle I and II.

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Speaking: Machine Tools.

INTRODUCTION. Machine Tools


Study vocabulary:
a machine tool – механический станок
to fabricate – 1) создавать, придумывать, изобретать 2) собирать из отдельных
деталей; компоновать из составных частей
machining – обработка (на станке)
shaping – 1) придание формы; формирование 2) фасонирование
stamping – печатание; тиснение
a lathe [leið] – токарный станок
a screw-cutting lathe – токарно-винторезный станок; резьботокарный станок
a flywheel – маховик, маховое колесо
the numerical control (NC) machine – станок с числовым
программным управлением, станок с ЧПУ
a paper tape – перфолента
a punch card – перфокарта
computerized numerical control (CNC) – управление от ЭВМ
a drill machine – сверлильный станок
a magazine – магазин

a drill bit – сверло

a machining center – 1) центр механизированной обработки 2)


многоцелевой станок, центр
a broaching machine – протяжной станок
a drill press – вертикально-сверлильный станок
a gear [΄giə] shaper – 1) зубострогальный станок 2) зубообрабатывающий станок
a hobbing machine – зубофрезерный станок
a hone – 1) оселок, точильный камень, абразивный брусок 2) хонинговальная
головка
a screw machine = screw-cutting machine – 1) винтонарезной станок 2) прутковый
автомат, прутковый токарный автомат
milling machine – фрезерный станок
a shaper – об агрегате, аппарате, придающем чему-л. определенную, требуемую
форму а) поперечно-строгальный станок б) фрезерный станок (по дереву)
a saw – пила
a planer – (дольно-)строгальный станок

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a stewart platform mill – станок-гексапод с фрезой
a grinder[΄graində] – шлифовальный станок

Exercise 1. Find the proper Russian equivalent:

machining a) обработка b) формирование c) тиснение d)


фрезерование
shaping a) формирование b) тиснение c) фрезерование d) обработка
stamping a) обработка b) формирование c) печатание d) фрезерование
a lathe a) шлифовальный станок b) фрезерный станок c) протяжной
станок d) токарный станок
ag rinder a) шлифовальный станок b) токарный станок c) протяжной
станок d) фрезерный станок
a drill machine a) токарный станок b) сверлильный станок c)
протяжной станок d) фрезерный станок
a planer a) токарный станок b) сверлильный станок c) протяжной
станок d) строгальный станок
a screw machine a) шлифовальный станок b) винтонарезной
станок c) протяжной станок d) фрезерный станок
a broaching machine a) токарный станок b) сверлильный
станок c) протяжной станок d) строгальный станок
a milling machine a) шлифовальный станок b) винтонарезной
станок c) протяжной станок d) фрезерный станок

Exercise 2. Define the right English equivalent:


создавать a) to shape b) to fabricate c ) to grind d) to broach
обрабатывать a) to drill b) to hone c) to machin e d) to fabricate
формировать a) to shape b) to screw c) to grind d) to broach
отпечатывать a) to mill b) to stamp c) to machine d) to drill
фрезеровать a) to drill b) to hone c) to machine d) to mill

сверлить a) to mill b) to screw c) to machine d) to drill


шлифовать a) to shape b) to fabricate c) to grind d) to broach
хонинговать a) to drill b) to hone c) to machin e d) to mill
прошивать отверстие a) to shape b) to fabricate c) to grind d) to broach

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нарезать резьбу a) to screw b) to fabricate c) to grind d) to broach

Exercise 3. Find the Participle I or II, define its function, translate the
sentences into Russian:
A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate
metal components of machines by machining , which is the selective
removal of metal.
Many historians of technology consider that the true machine tools were born
when direct human involvement was removed from the shaping or stamping
process of the different kinds of tools.

The earliest lathe with direct mechanical control of the cutting tool was a screw-
cutting lathe dating to about 1483.
Human and animal power are options, as is energy captured through the
use of waterwheels.

Early machines used flywheels to stabilize their motion and had complex
systems of gears and levers to control the machine and the piece being
worked on.
Such machines became known as computerized numerical control (CNC)
machines.
Before long, the machines could automatically change the specific cutting and
shaping tools that were being used.
When fabricating or shaping parts, several techniques are used to remove
unwanted metal.

Text: Machine Tools


Read and translate
A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate
metal components of machines by machining, which is the selective removal of metal.
The term machine tool is usually reserved for tools that used a power source other
than human movement, but they can be powered by people if appropriately set up.
Many historians of technology consider that the true machine tools were born when
direct human involvement was removed from the shaping or stamping process of the
different kinds of tools. The earliest lathe with direct mechanical control of the
cutting tool was a screw-cutting lathe dating to about 1483. This lathe "produced
screw threads out of wood and employed a true compound slide rest".
Machine tools can be powered from a variety of sources. Human and animal
power are options, as is energy captured through the use of waterwheels. However,

31
machine tools really began to develop after the development of the steam engine,
leading to the Industrial Revolution. Today, most are powered by electricity.
Machine tools can be operated manually, or under automatic control. Early
machines used flywheels to stabilize their motion and had complex systems of gears
and levers to control the machine and the piece being worked on. Soon after World War
II, the numerical control (NC) machine was developed. NC machines used a series of
numbers punched on paper tape or punch cards to control their motion. In the 1960s,
computers were added to give even more flexibility to the process. Such machines
became known as computerized numerical control (CNC) machines. NC and CNC
machines could precisely repeat sequences over and over, and could produce much
more complex pieces than even the most skilled tool operators.
Before long, the machines could automatically change the specific cutting and
shaping tools that were being used. For example, a drill machine might contain a
magazine with a variety of drill bits for producing holes of various sizes. Previously,
either machine operators would usually have to manually change the bit or move the
work piece to another station to perform these different operations. The next logical
step was to combine several different machine tools together, all under computer
control. These are known as machining centers, and have dramatically changed the way
parts are made.
From the simplest to the most complex, most machine tools are capable of at
least partial self-replication since they are machines, and produce machine parts as their
primary function.

Examples of machine tools are:


▪ Broaching machine ▪ Milling machine
▪ Drill press ▪ Shaper
▪ Gear shaper ▪ Saws
▪ Hobbing machine ▪ Planer
▪ Hone ▪ Stewart platform mills
▪ Lathe ▪ Grinders
▪ Screw machines

When fabricating or shaping parts, several techniques are used to remove


unwanted metal. Among these are:
 EDM (electrical discharge machining)
 Grinding
 Multiple edge cutting tools (cutting tool (metalworking))
 Single edge cutting tools (cutting tool (metalworking))
Other techniques are used to add desired material. Devices that fabricate
components by selective addition of material are called rapid prototyping machines.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences:

32
 The term machine tool is usually reserved for tools that used … .
 The earliest lathe with direct mechanical control of the cutting tool was … .
 Machine tools can be powered from … .
 Machine tools can be operated … .
 NC and CNC machines could precisely repeat sequences …, and could
produce much more ….
 A drill machine might contain … .
 Machine tools under computer control are known as … .

Speaking
Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:
1) What for is a machine tool used?
2) When were the true machine tools born?
3) How can machine tools be powered?
4) How are machine tools powered today?
5) How can machine tools be operated?
6) When was the numerical control (NC) machine developed?
7) What machines became known as computerized numerical control (CNC)
machines?
8) What are machining centers?
9) What examples of machine tools can you name?
10) What techniques are used to remove unwanted metal?

Exercise 6. Make up the plan of the text “Machine Tools”.

Exercise 7. Retell the text according to your plan.

SECTION I. Drill Press


Grammar : Infinitive.
Speaking: Drill Presses.
Drill Presses
Study vocabulary:
a drill press – вертикально-сверлильный станок
a stand – станина
workbench – автоматизированное рабочее место, АРМ
a base – основа, основание; базис
column (or pillar) – колонна, стойка (опора)
table – стол (станка)
spindle [‘spindl ] (or quill) – шпиндель (пиноль)

33
drill head – 1) сверлильная головка 2) шпиндельная бабка сверлильного станка
a set of handles – набор рукояток
a central hub – центральная втулка
chuck – 1) зажимный патрон; держатель (на токарном станке, электродрели)
2) = chuck jaw – кулачки зажимного патрона; magnetic chuck – магнитный зажим
a rack – зубчатая рейка
pinion – шестерня, малое зубчатое колесо пары
swing – поворот
the throat distance – глубина зева
a vise or clamp – зажимное устройство
a stepped pulley arrangement – ступенчатое расположение шкива
miscellaneous – смешанный; разнообразный
sanding – шлифование песком
honing – хонингование
polishing – шлифование, шлифовка
the chuck arbor – хвостовик зажимного патрона
a taper fit – посадка (подгонка) уклона
dislodge – перемещать, передвигать, смещать; удалять, вытеснять
a geared head drill press – станок со шпиндельной бабкой, имеющей зубчатый
редуктор
spur gearing – цилиндрическая ЗП (зубчатая передача)
lever – рычаг
a radial arm drill press – (круглопильный) радиально-сверлильный станок
overhead crane or derrick – мостовой кран или различные подъемные приспо-
собления
mill drill – фрезерно-сверлильный станок

Exercise 1. Read the following words and wordcombinations, remember them,


give Russian equivalents:
drill, drilling machine; drilling head; upright drilling machine; multiple-spindle;
radial spindle drilling machine; hole; plane; adapt; to save time; swivel;
simultaneous; in addition to; from ... to; adjust; adjustment.

Exercise 2. Pronounce the words correctly:


vary; variety; various; upright; multiple; diameter; brass: bronze; cylindrical; vertical;
horizontal; mechanism; mechanical; material; adjust; adjustment; to be classified;
simultaneous; worm; delicate; sensitive; provide; considerable.

Exercise 3. Give the Russian equivalents of the following English words and
wordcombinations:
worm gear; gear box; suitable gearing; high speed; a wide range of speeds; at a
proper speed: feed shaft; mechanical feed; power feed; by hand; by power; a great

34
number of; a lot of; in addition to; because of: by means of: to drill holes; drilling
head: at any point; to any point; at any angle; in any position; upright column;
workholding device; heavy drilling; a delicate work; the same shaft; feet per minute;
rev. per minute; inch per rev.

Exercise 4. Match Russian and English equivalents:


1) drill a) устанавливать
2) upright b) нести
3) to move c) использовать
4) to carry d) радиальная траверса
5) to employ e) вал подачи
6) radial arm f) сверлильная головка
7) heavy duty machine g) вертикальный
8) to mount h) сверло
9) drilling head i) высокомощный станок
10) feed shaft j) двигаться
11) clamp k) длина
12) considerable l) направляющие
13) length m) зажимать
14) ways n) значительный

Exercise 5. Define the form and function of the Infinitive, translate the
sentences into Russian:
1) То drill is to remove some metal from the work.
2) A great variety of operations may be performed on the drilling machine.
3) The holes are to be drilled to the size required.
4) The radial drilling machine is used to drill holes in a large, heavy work.
5) To start the spindle one can use either the head or apron control.
6) The machine has a feed mechanism to cut the drill into the work at a proper
speed.
7) Provision is made for changing the spindle speeds to use cutters of various
diameters.
8) Several cutters may be mounted together on the spindle to machine several
surfaces at the same time.
9) The work to be drilled should be damped in a chuck.
10) We know the drilling machines to be used for many metal cutting
operations.
11) The drilling machines are known to be employed for drilling holes of
different size in metal.
12) The heavy duty drilling machines are said to be used for heavy drilling.

Text: Drill Presses

35
Read and translate the text
A drill press.
A drill press (also known as pedestal drill, pillar drill,
or bench drill) is a fixed style of drill that may be mounted
on a stand or bolted to the floor or workbench. A drill press
consists of a base, column (or pillar), table, spindle (or quill),
and drill head, usually driven by an induction motor. The head
has a set of handles (usually 3) radiating from a central hub that, when turned, move
the spindle and chuck vertically, parallel to the axis of the column. The table can be
adjusted vertically and is generally moved by a rack and pinion; however, some older
models rely on the operator to lift and reclamp the table in position. The table may
also from the spindle's axis and in some cases rotated to a position perpendicular to
the column. The size of a drill press is typically measured in terms of swing. Swing is
defined as twice the throat distance, which is the distance from the center of the
spindle to the closest edge of the pillar. For example, a 16-inch (410 mm) drill press
will have an 8-inch (200 mm) throat distance.
A drill press has a number of advantages over a hand-held drill:
 less effort is required to apply the drill to the workpiece. The movement of
the chuck and spindle is by a lever working on a rack and pinion, which gives the
operator considerable mechanical advantage.
 the table allows a vise or clamp to be used to position and restrain the work,
making the operation much more secure.
 the angle of the spindle is fixed relative to the table, allowing holes to be
drilled accurately and repetitively.
Speed change is achieved by manually moving a belt across a stepped pulley
arrangement. Some drill presses add a third stepped pulley to increase the speed
range. Modern drill presses can, however, use a variable-speed motor in conjunction
with the stepped-pulley system. Some machine shop (tool room) drill presses are
equipped with a continuously variable transmission, giving a wide speed range, as well as
the ability to change speed while the machine is running.
Drill presses are often used for miscellaneous workshop tasks such as sanding,
honing or polishing, by mounting sanding drums, honing wheels and various other
rotating accessories in the chuck.

Geared head drill press


Geared head drill press. Shift levers on the head and a two
speed motor control immediately in front of the quill
handle select one of eight possible speeds.
A geared head drill press is a drill press in
which power transmission from the motor to the
spindle is achieved solely through spur gearing
inside the machine's head. No friction elements

36
(e.g., belts) of any kind are used, which assures a positive drive at all times and
minimizes maintenance requirements.
Levers attached to one side of the head are used to select different gear ratios to
change the spindle speed, usually in conjunction with a two- or three-speed motor.
Most machines of this type are designed to be operated on three phase power and are
generally of more rugged construction than equivalent sized belt-driven units.
Virtually all examples have geared racks for adjusting the table and head position on
the column.
Geared head drill presses are commonly found in tool rooms and other
commercial environments where a heavy duty machine capable of production drilling
and quick setup changes is required. In most cases, the spindle is machined to accept
Morse taper tooling for greater flexibility. Larger geared head drill presses are
frequently fitted with power feed on the quill mechanism, with an arrangement to
disengage the feed when a certain drill depth has been achieved or in the event of
excessive travel. Coolant systems are also common on these machines to prolong tool
life under production conditions.

Radial arm drill press


A radial arm drill press is a large geared head drill press in which the head can
be moved along an arm that radiates from the machine's column. As it is possible to
swing the arm relative to the machine's base, a radial arm drill press is able to operate
over a large area without having to reposition the workpiece. The size of work that
can be handled may be considerable, as the arm can swing out of the way of the table,
allowing an overhead crane or derrick to place a bulky piece on the table or base. A vise
may be used with a radial arm drill press, but more often the workpiece is secured
directly to the table or base, or is held in a fixture. Power spindle feed is nearly
universal with these machines and coolant systems are common. The biggest radial
arm drill presses are able to drill holes as large as four inches (101.6 millimeters) in
diameter.

Mill drill
Mill drills are a lighter alternative to a milling machine. They combine a drill press
(belt driven) with the X/Y coordinate abilities of the milling machine's table and a
locking collet that ensures that the cutting tool will not fall from the spindle when
lateral forces are experienced against the bit. Although they are light in construction,
they have the advantages of being space-saving and versatile as well as inexpensive,
being suitable for light machining that may otherwise not be affordable.

Exercise 5. Make up the sentences:


1) to be, a fixed style, a drill press, of.

37
2) to consist of, a drill press, a base, column (or pillar), table, spindle (or quill),
and drill head, driven, an induction motor, by.
3) can be adjusted, to be moved, vertically, the table, and, a rack, and pinion, by
4) to be defined, swing, as twice, the throat distance.
5) can, use, modern, drill presses, variable-speed, a, motor, conjunction, the
stepped-pulley system, with, in.
6) to be, to be achieved, a geared head drill press, a drill press, power
transmission, the motor, the spindle, solely, in, which, from, to.
7) to be, geared head drill presses, commonly, found, tool rooms, and other
commercial environments, in.
8) to be, can be moved, a radial arm drill press, a large geared head drill press,
the head, an arm, that, to radiate, the machine's column, in, along, from, which.
Exercise 6. Fill the gaps with the words that are given under the line.
1) A drill press (also known as pedestal drill, pillar drill, or bench drill) is a fixed
style of drill that may be mounted on … or bolted to the floor or workbench.
2) The head has a set of handles (usually 3) radiating from … that, when turned,
move the spindle and chuck vertically, parallel to the axis of the column.
3) The table may also from … and in some cases rotated to a position
perpendicular to the column.
4) Speed change is achieved by manually moving … across a stepped pulley
arrangement.
5) Some machine shop (tool room) drill presses are equipped with a continuously
variable … .
6) Drill presses are often used for … workshop tasks such as sanding, honing or
polishing, by mounting sanding drums, honing wheels and various other
rotating accessories in the chuck.
7) No friction elements (e.g., belts) of any kind are used, which … a positive
drive at all times and minimizes maintenance requirements.
8) Most machines of this type are designed to be operated on … and are
generally of more rugged construction than equivalent sized belt-driven units.
9) … systems are also common on these machines to prolong tool life under
production conditions.
10) Mill drills are a lighter … to a milling machine.
11) They combine a drill press (belt driven) with the X/Y coordinate abilities of
… and a locking collet.
the milling machine's table, alternative, coolant, three phase power ,
assures, miscellaneous, transmission, a belt, the spindle's axis, a central hub, a
stand

Speaking
Exercise 7. Answer the questions:

38
1) What does a drill press consist of?
2) How is the size of a drill press measured?
3) What are the advantages of a drill press?
4) How is speed change achieved?
5) What for are drill presses used?
6) What is a geared head drill press?
7) What is a radial arm drill press?
8) What are mill drills?

Exercise 8. Read the text one more, define the main features of a geared head
drill press, a radial arm drill pres and a mill drill (work in pairs).

Exercise 9. Write your own composition on the topic “Drilling Machines”,


retell it then orally.
SECTION II. Lathe

Grammar : Infinitive.
Speaking: Lathe.
Lathe
Study vocabulary:
lathe [leið] – токарный станок variety [va'raiəti] – разнообразие,
circular cross-section ['sə:kjula] – разновидность
круглое поперечное сечение depth [depӨ] – глубина
surface ['sə:fis] – поверхность headstock ['hedstok] – передняя бабка
stationary – неподвижный, spindle [spindl] – шпиндель
стационарный chuck – зажим, патрон
sideways ['saidweiz] – в сторону faceplate – планшайба
to enable – давать возможность lathe bed – станина станка
knurling – накатка; насечка tolerance – допуск

Exercise 1. Read the following words and wordcombinations, give the Russian
equivalents, remember them:
bed; headstock; tailstock; carriage; thread cutting mechanism; feeding
mechanism; casting; support; align; slide; locate; carry; bearing; obtain; shaft;
hollow; bore; taper; insert; thread; nose; move; graduate; measure; contain;
either.....or; both.....and; apron; engage; saddle; ways.

Exercise 2. Read the attributive groups, translate them into Russian:


thread cutting mechanism; feeding mechanism; gearing mechanism; sliding
elements; live centre; dead centre; taper bore; hollow shaft; spindle speeds; face

39
plate; left hand side; right hand side; at any point; to any point; to provide the
bearing; outer end; to be of hollow construction; to be locked; feed rod; lead screw;
cross slide; tool holder; thread cutting; change gears; gear box.

A lathe from 1911 showing component parts.


a = bed, b = toolrest, c = headstock, d = gear train to drive
automatic screw shaft, e = pullies for belt drive from an external
power source, f = spindle, g = tailstock. h = automatic screw shaft.

Lathe

40
Text: Lathe
Read and the text, write out the sentences with the Infinitive, translate them.
Brief Introduction
A lathe (pronounced /ˈleɪð/) is a machine tool which spins a block of material to
perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation with
tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about
an axis of rotation.
Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking.
Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the potter's wheel.
Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids
of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Ornamental lathes can
produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The material is held in
place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can be moved horizontally to
accommodate varying material lengths. Examples of objects that can be produced on
a lathe include candlestick holders, cue sticks, table legs, bowls, baseball bats, musical
instruments (especially woodwind instruments), crankshafts and camshafts.
Lathe
Lathe is still the most important machine-tool. It produces parts of circular
cross-section by turning the workpiece on its axis and cutting its surface with a sharp
stationary tool. The tool may be moved sideways to produce a cylindrical part and
moved towards the workpiece to control the depth of cut. Nowadays all lathes are
power-driven by electric motors. That allows continuous rotation of the workpiece at
a variety of speeds. The modern lathe is driven by means of a headstock supporting a
hollow spindle on accurate bearings and carrying either a chuck or a faceplate, to
which the workpiece is clamped. The movement of the tool, both along the lathe bed
and at right angle to it, can be accurately controlled, so enabling a part to be
machined to close tolerances. Modern lathes are often under numerical control.

Exercise 3. Find English equivalents in the text:


1) обрабатываемый материал 8) сверление ультразвуком
2) электропривод 9) резание с помощью лазерного
3) более точный луча
4) отдельные детали 10) гибкие производственные
5) процесс массового производства системы
6) приспособления для держания 11) детали круглого сечения
резца и детали 12) поворачивать деталь вокруг ее
7) операции по механической оси
обработке детали 13) двигать в сторону, двигать по
8) высоковольтный разряд направлению к детали
14) глубина резания
15) непрерывное вращение детали

41
Exercise 4. Translate into English:
1) Токарный станок позволяет производить детали круглого сечения.
2) Деталь зажимается в патроне или на планшайбе токарного станка.
3) Резец может двигаться как вдоль станины, так и под прямым углом к
ней.
4) Современные токарные станки часто имеют цифровое управление.

Speaking
Exercise 5. Answer the questions:
1) What are machine-tools used for?
2) How are most machine-tools driven nowadays?
3) What facilities have all machine-tools?
4) How are the cutting tool and the workpiece cooled during machining?
5) What other machining methods have been developed lately?
6) What systems are used now for the manufacture of a range of products
without the use of manual labour?
7) What parts can be made with lathes?
8) How can the cutting tool be moved on a lathe?
9) How is the workpiece clamped in a lathe?
10) Can we change the speeds of workpiece rotation in a lathe?
11) What is numerical control of machine tools used for?

Exercise 6. Read the following text, discuss in pairs the technical


characteristics of metalworking lathes.

Metalworking lathes
A metalworking lathe
In a metalworking lathe, metal is removed from the
workpiece using a hardened cutting tool, which is usually
fixed to a solid moveable mounting called the "toolpost",
which is then moved against the workpiece using
handwheels and/or computer controlled motors. These
(cutting) tools come in a wide range of sizes and shapes depending upon their
application. Some common styles are diamond, round, square and triangular.
The toolpost is operated by leadscrews that can accurately position the tool in a
variety of planes. The toolpost may be driven manually or automatically to produce
the roughing and finishing cuts required to turn the workpiece to the desired shape
and dimensions, or for cutting threads, worm gears, etc. Cutting fluid may also be pumped
to the cutting site to provide cooling, lubrication and clearing of swarf from the
workpiece. Some lathes may be operated under control of a computer for mass production
of parts (see "Computer Numerical Control").
Metalworking lathes are commonly provided with a variable ratio gear train to
drive the main leadscrew. This enables different pitches of threads to be cut. Some
older gear trains are changed manually by using interchangeable gears with various

42
numbers of teeth, while more modern or elaborate lathes have a quick change box to
provide commonly used ratios by the operation of a lever.
The threads that can be cut are, in some ways, determined by the pitch of the
leadscrew: A lathe with a metric leadscrew will readily cut metric threads (including
BA), while one with an imperial leadscrew will readily cut imperial unit based threads
such as BSW or UTS (UNF,UNC).
The workpiece may be supported between a pair of points called centres, or it
may be bolted to a faceplate or held in a chuck. A chuck has movable jaws that can
grip the workpiece securely.
There are some effects on material properties when using a metal working lathe.
There are few chemical or physical effects, but there are many mechanical effects
which include, residual stress, microcracks, workhardening and tempering in
hardened materials.

Exercise 7. Prepare the brief report about modern lathes.

SECTION III. Screw Machines


Grammar : Gerund.
Speaking: Screw Machines.
Screw Machines
Study vocabulary:
a screw machine = screw-cutting machine – винтонарезной станок
to turn – точить, обтачивать
a misnomer [mis΄nəumə] – неправильное употребление имени/термина;
неправильное имя, название места
CNC (computerized control) – управление от ЭВМ
cam – копир; кулачок; поводковый патрон
screw-cutting lathe – токарно-винторезный станок;
резьботокарный станок
turret – револьверная головка (станка)
retron – ритрон
cage – обойма (подшипника); сепаратор
a Gatling Gun – пулемет Гэтлинга Первый американский пулемет
(1862), предшественник "максима" [Maxim, The]; назван по фамилии
изобретателя [Gatling, Richard Jordan]. Скорострельность – 350
выстрелов в минуту при
5–10 барабанах. Начал использоваться в конце Гражданской войны и

43
находился на вооружении армии США с 1866 по 1911 гг., позже был взят на
вооружение многими зарубежными армиями. Активно применялся в борьбе
с индейцами. В 20-е гг. XX в. служил основным оружием нью-йоркским и
бостонским гангстерам.
a threading die = tapping die – 1) плашка 2) винторезная головка
a die head – 1) матрицедержатель 2) винторезный патрон; винторезная
головка
Exercise 1. Study the word-building of the following groups, define the part of
speech, give the Russian equivalents:
to turn, turn, turner, turning, turned, turning-along, turning-off
to screw, screw, screwdown, screwdriver, screwhead, screwing

to retron, retronymous, retronymously


to thread, thread, threader, threading

Exercise 2. Match Russian and English equivalents:


1) a screw machine a) винторезный патрон
2) to turn b) ритрон

3) amisnomer c) токарно-винторезный станок

4) cam d) обойма

5) screw-cutting lathe e) неправильное употребление


имени/термина
6) turret f) винторезная головка

7) retron g) обтачивать
8) cage h) кулачок

9) athreading die i) револьверная головка

10) a die head j) винтонарезной станок

Exercise 3. Define the Gerund and its function, translate sentences into
Russian:

All screw machines are fully automated, whether mechanically (via cams) or by
CNC (computerized control), which means that once they are set up and
44
started running, they continue running and producing parts with very little human
intervention.

The name “screw machine” is somewhat of a misnomer, because screw


machines spend much of their time making things that are not screws and that in

many cases are not even threaded.


1. There are many variables involved in answering the question of which is best
for a particular part at a particular company.

The outside of the bar is machined to shape ( turning operation). The bar is
drilled (boring operation) and finally, the part is cut off (parting operation).
It is impractical to reverse the rotation of the spindle[s] of the machine so it is
necessary to have a cutting tool that can cut in one direction and cut fast and be
removed without interrupting the rotation of the machine.

45
Text: Screw Machines
Read and translate the text
Brown & Sharpe Single Spindle screw machine. Model
2G Sq Base, four-slide machine. 1 1/2 cap or 1 3/4 Air
Feed.
A screw machine is a metalworking
machine tool used in the high-volume
manufacture of turned components. Screw
machines are fundamentally a type of lathe that
is specialized for the automated production of
small parts. The name “screw machine” is
somewhat of a misnomer, because screw machines spend much of their time making
things that are not screws and that in many cases are not even threaded. However, the
archetypal use for which screw machines were named was screw-making.
All screw machines are fully automated, whether mechanically (via cams) or by
CNC (computerized control), which means that once they are set up and started
running, they continue running and producing parts with very little human
intervention.
Nomenclature
The definition of the term screw machine has changed with changing
technology. Any use of the term prior to the 1840s, if it occurred, would have referred
to any machine tool used to produce screws, that is, there would have been no
established differentiation from the term “ screw-cutting lathe”. When turret lathes were
developed in the 1840s, the term screw machine was applied to them in overlapping
usage with the term “turret lathe”. In 1860, when some of the movements, such as
turret indexing, were mechanically automated, the term automatic screw machine was
applied, and the term hand screw machine or manual screw machine was retronymously
applied to the earlier machines. Within 15 years, the entire part-cutting cycle had
been mechanically automated, and machines of the 1860 type were retronymously
called semi-automatic. From that time on, machines with fully automated cycles were
called automatic screw machines, and eventually the term screw machine no longer
was used to refer to manual or semi-automatic turret lathes, having become reserved
for one class of machine, the fully mechanically automated type. This narrow
meaning of screw machine remained stable from about the 1890s until the 1950s.
Within this class called screw machines there were variations, such as single- spindle
versus multispindle, horizontal-turret versus vertical-turret, etc.
Choice of machines
Mechanical screw machines have been replaced to some extent by CNC lathes
(turning centers) and CNC screw machines. However, they are still commonly in
operation, and for high-volume production of turned components it is still often true
that nothing is as cost-efficient as a mechanical screw machine.
In the hierarchy of manufacturing machines, the screw machine sits at the top
when large volume of product is needed. An engine lathe sits at the bottom, taking the
least amount of time to set up but the most amount of skilled labor and time to

46
actually produce a part. A turret lathe has traditionally been one step above an engine
lathe, needing greater set-up time but being able to produce a higher volume of
product and usually requiring a lower-skilled operator once the set-up process is
complete.
The advent of the CNC lathe (or more properly, CNC turning center) has blurred
these distinct levels of production to some extent. The CNC turning center most
appropriately fits in the mid-range of production, replacing the turret lathe. However,
it is often possible to produce a single component with a CNC turning center more
quickly than can be done with an engine lathe. To some extent too, the CNC turning
center has stepped into the region traditionally occupied by the (mechanical) screw
machine. CNC screw machines do this to an even greater degree, but they are
expensive.
Design
Close up view of a Brown & Sharpe Single Spindle
screw machine. Notice the six station turret, the front
and rear slides, and the two vertical slides. Also notice
the black shaft just over the turret for use of swing stop.
A screw machine may have a single spindle
but, in contrast to a lathe, a screw machine may
also have multiple spindles. Each spindle
contains a bar of material that is being machined
simultaneously. A common configuration is six
spindles. The cage that holds these six bars of
material indexes after each machining operation is complete. The indexing is very
reminiscent of a Gatling Gun.
Each station may have multiple tools that cut the material in sequence. The
operation of these tools being very similar to that of a turret lathe.
By way of example: a bar of material is fed forward through the spindle. The
face of the bar is machined (facing operation). The outside of the bar is machined to
shape (turning operation). The bar is drilled (boring operation) and finally, the part is
cut off (parting operation).
In a single spindle machine, these four operations would most likely be
performed sequentially with four cross-slides
each coming into position in turn to perform
their operation. In a multiple spindle machine,
each operation would be performed on each
spindle simultaneously, with the material being
positioned at each station in sequence.

View of Lead Cam and Seconds Gear Box for a


Brown & Sharpe screw machine, Sq-base 542 Series.
Screw machines are mechanically driven, the position of the cutting tool is
determined by the shape of a cam that rotates in step with the machine, but at a
slower speed.

47
For the machining of complex shapes, it is common to use a Form Tools. This
contrasts with the cutting that is performed on an engine lathe where the cutting tool
is usually a Single-Point Tool. A form tool has the form or contour of the final part but
in reverse, so it cuts the material leaving the desired component shape. A single-point
tool is designed to cut on one point at a time and the shape of the component is
dictated by the motion of the tool rather than its shape.
Unlike on a lathe, single-point threading is rarely if ever performed; single-point
threading is too time-consuming for the short cycle times that are typical of screw
machines. A threading die can cut rapidly but it requires the machine to reverse in order
to be removed from the work. It is impractical to reverse the rotation of the spindle[s]
of the machine so it is necessary to have a cutting tool that can cut in one direction
and cut fast and be removed without interrupting the rotation of the machine.
Threading is performed with a die head – a device that cuts the thread then opens and
withdraws rapidly.

Exercise 4. Find English equivalents in the text:


1) металлообрабатывающий станок
2) обработанная на токарном станке деталь
3) автоматизированное производство мелких деталей.
4) первичное использование
5) компьютерное числовое программное управление
6) механическая автоматизация
7) револьверный токарный станок
8) полуавтоматический
9) одношпиндельный токарный автомат в сравнении с
многошпиндельным токарным автоматом
10) токарный многоцелевой станок
11) крупносерийное производство
12) токарно-винторезный станок
13) квалифицированная рабочая сила
14) режущий инструмент
15) обработка сложных форм

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences:
1) Each spindle contains … .
2) A common configuration is six … .
3) Each station may have multiple tools that cut … .
4) In a single spindle machine, these four operations would most likely be
performed sequentially with … .
5) Screw machines are mechanically driven, the position of the cutting tool is
determined by … .
6) A form tool has the form or contour of the … .

48
7) A threading die can cut rapidly but it requires … .
8) Threading is performed with … .

49
Speaking
Exercise 6. Work in pairs. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of the screw
machines usage. Use the following phrases:From my point of view …
I think … I see what you mean, but …
I don’t know, but … Oh, I agree entirely …
Maybe you’re right … My own view/opinion exactly …
Don’t you think … I’m not sure …
That’s true, but… That’s not the way I see it …
I agree in principle, but …

SECTION IV. Milling Machines


Grammar : Non-final forms.
Speaking:. Milling Machines.

Milling Machines
Study vocabulary:
milling machine – фрезерный станок to slide – скользить
series – серия, ряд stroke – ход
cutting edge – режущий край, острие lateral – боковой
circumference – окружность displacement – смещение
to feed [fi:d] – подавать straight [streit] – прямой
longitudinal – продольный idle ['aidl] – на холостом ходу
horizontal – горизонтальный workshop – цех, мастерская
vertical – вертикальный to mount [maunt] – крепить
versatile – универсальный holder – держатель
flat – плоский to execute – выполнять
contoured – контурный simultaneous – одновременный
angle – угол multiple – многочисленный
slot – прорезь, паз grinder – шлифовальный станок
gear teeth – зубы шестерни wheel [wi:l] – круг, колесо
drill – дрель, сверло, сверлить bonded – скрепленый
hole – отверстие to remove – удалять
to enlarge – увеличивать pass – проход
thread – резьба fine – точный
portable – портативный conventional – обычный
unit – единица, целое, узел device – устройство, прибор
previously – ранее fragile – хрупкий

50
Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and wordcombinations:
milling cutter; toolroom; production line; column; base; overarm; cutting fluid; knee;
screw; nut; housing; tank; supply; rectangular; heavy duty operation; rigidity; unit;
ensure.

Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents of the following English words and
phrases:
machine shop; machine types toolroom; machine control; a wide variety of; by hand;
by power; hand operated; automatically operated; power feed; metal cutting; to form
the metal surface, to cut the metal surface, main casting; hollow base; cutting fluid;
upper, lower part; at the proper speed; to hold an overarm; to serve as a housing; to
ensure rigidity; column-and knee type milling machine; rotary type milling machine;
multi-toothed cutter; to adjust the workplace; to be rectangular in section; to drive the
spindle; set of change gears.

Text: Milling Machines


Part I
Read the text consulting the dictionary, be ready to discuss different types of milling
machines
Example of a CNC vertical milling center
A milling machine is a machine tool used for the shaping
of metal and other solid materials. Milling machines exist in
two basic forms: horizontal and vertical, which terms refer
to the orientation of the cutting tool spindle. Unlike a drill
press, in which the workpiece is held stationary and the drill
is moved vertically to penetrate the material, milling also
involves movement of the workpiece against the rotating cutter, the latter which is
able to cut on its flanks as well as its tip. Workpiece and cutter movement are
precisely controlled to less than 0.001 inches (.025 millimeters), usually by means of
precision ground slides and leadscrews or analogous technology. Milling machines
may be manually operated, mechanically automated, or digitally automated via
computer numerical control (CNC).
Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, some very complex,
such as slot and keyway cutting, planing, drilling, diesinking, rebating, routing, etc.
Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut, and to
sluice away the resulting swarf.

51
52
Text: Milling Machines
Part II
Read the text, write out the sentences with non-final forms, define them,
translate the sentences.
In a milling machine the cutter (фреза) is a circular device with a series of
cutting edges on its circumference. The workpiece is held on a table that controls the
feed against the cutter. The table has three possible movements: longitudinal,
horizontal, and vertical; in some cases it can also rotate. Milling machines are the
most versatile of all machine tools. Flat or contoured surfaces may be machined with
excellent finish and accuracy. Angles, slots, gear teeth and cuts can be made by using
various shapes of cutters.
Drilling and Boring Machines
To drill a hole usually hole-making machine-tools are used. They can drill a hole
according to some specification, they can enlarge it, or they can cut threads for a
screw or to create an accurate size or a smooth finish of a hole.
Drilling machines (сверлильные станки) are different in size and function,
from portable drills to radial drilling machines, multispindle units, automatic
production machines, and deep-hole-drilling machines.
Boring (расточка) is a process that enlarges holes previously drilled, usually
with a rotating single-point cutter held on a boring bar and fed against a stationary
workpiece.
Shapers and Planers
The shaper (поперечно-строгальный станок) is used mainly to produce
different flat surfaces. The tool slides against the stationary workpiece and cuts on
one stroke, returns to its starting position, and then cuts on the next stroke after a
slight lateral displacement. In general, the shaper can make any surface having
straight-line elements. It uses only one cutting-tool and is relatively slow, because the
return stroke is idle. That is why the shaper is seldom found on a mass production
line. It is, however, valuable for tool production and for workshops where flexibility
is important and relative slowness is unimportant.
The planer (продольно-строгальный станок) is the largest of the reciprocating
machine tools. It differs from the shaper, which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece
because the planer moves the workpiece to expose a new section to the tool. Like the
shaper, the planer is intended to produce vertical, horizontal, or diagonal cuts. It is
also possible to mount several tools at one time in any or all tool holders of a planer
to execute multiple simultaneous cuts.
Grinders
Grinders (шлифовальные станки) remove metal by a rotating abrasive wheel.
The wheel is composed of many small grains of abrasive, bonded together, with each
grain acting as a miniature cutting tool. The process gives very smooth and accurate

53
finishes. Only a small amount of material is removed at each pass of the wheel, so
grinding machines require fine wheel regulation. The pressure of the wheel against
the workpiece is usually very light, so that grinding can be carried out on fragile
materials that cannot be machined by other conventional devices.

Exercise 3. Translate into English:


1) Токарный станок все еще остается самым важным станком.
2) Все современные токарные станки оборудованы элетроприводами.
3) Движение инструмента контролируется с высокой точностью.
4) Электропривод позволяет обрабатывать заготовку на различных
скоростях.

Speaking
Exercise 4. Answer the following questions:
1) What is the shape of a cutter in a milling machine?
2) What moves in a milling machine, a table or a cutter?
3) What possible movements has the table of a milling machine?
4) What kind of surfaces and shapes maybe machined by a milling machine?
5) What can we use a drilling machine for?
6) What kinds of drilling machines exist?
7) What is rotated while boring, a cutter or a workpiece?
8) Describe the work of a shaper (planer).
9) What must be done to execute multiple simultaneous cuts on a planer?
10) What is the working tool in a grinder?
11) Can we obtain a very smooth surface after grinding and why?
12) Can we grind fragile materials and why?

Exercise 5. Prepare the oral report of the milling machines applications.

SECTION V. Numerical control


Grammar : Non-final forms.
Speaking:. Numerical control.
Numerical control
Study vocabulary:
numerical control (NC) – числовое программное управление, ЧПУ
augment – усиливать; повышать, поднимать, увеличивать, расширять
computer numerical controlled (CNC) machine tool – многоцелевой станок с ЧПУ
типа CNC

54
CAD/CAM program – программа из системы CAD (computer-aided design система
автоматизированного проектирования) /CAM (computer-aided manufacturing
автоматизированное производство)
punch tape – перфолента редко используемый ныне носитель для хранения
программ и данных
mylar – майлар (искусственная пленка, напр., для магнитных лент или дисков)
mylar tape – майларовая перфолента
robust – трудный, трудоемкий, требующий затрат сил и энергии
floppy disk – гибкий магнитный диск, дискета
USB (Universal Serial Bus) – универсальная последовательная шина, шина USB стандарт,
предложенный в 1995 г. консорциумом из семи ведущих компью терных и
телекоммуникационных фирм ( Compaq, IBM, Intel, NEC, Micrisoft, Digital, Northern Telecom)
для обмена данными по недорогой шине между ПК и среднескоростными периферийными
устройствами.
flash drive – флэш-память
local area networking = local area network = LAN – локальная [вычислительная]
сеть.
encumber – 1) а) загромождать б) усложнять 2) задерживать, затруднять, мешать,
препятствовать, стеснять
APT automatically programmed tool – станок с автоматическим программным
управлением
EIA ( Electronics Industries Alliance) – Альянс отраслей электронной промышлен-
ности, альянс EIA до октября 1997 г. называлась Electronics Industries
Association. Расположенная в США профессиональная организация, разрабаты-
вающая электрические и функциональные стандарты с идентификатором RS
(Recommended Standards). Самый известный из её стандартов – RS-232C)
diesinking – нарезание ручьев штампов
engraving – изготовление клише
2.5D surface – 2.5 мерная организация поверхности
relief sculpture – рельефная скульптура

 Exercise  1. Match the abbreviation with its full form:
1) NC a) computer-aided design
2) CNC b) Universal Serial Bus
3) CAD c) numerical control
4) CAM d) Electronics Industries Alliance
5) USB e) computer numerical controlled
6) LAN f) local area network
7) APT g) computer-aided manufacturing
8) EIA h) automatically programmed tool

55
Exercise 2. Define the non­final forms of the verb, their functions and
translate the sentences into Russian:
1) Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are
operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium,
as opposed to manually controlled via handwheels or levers or mechanically
automated via cams alone.
2) The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 50s, based on existing tools
that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed
into the system on paper tape.
3) These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital
computers, creating the modern computer numerical controlled (CNC)
machine tools that have revolutionized the design process.
4) In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated
using CAD/CAM programs.
5) The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the
commands needed to operate a particular machine, and then loaded into the
CNC machines for production.
6) In either case the complex series of steps needed to produce any part is highly
automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design.
7) This is because it was often easier to add a punch tape reader to a
microprocessor controller than it was to re-write large libraries of tapes into a
new format.
8) An entire product line of different sizes can be programmed using logic and
simple math to create and scale an entire range of parts, or create a stock part
that can be scaled to any size a customer demands.
9) It is even possible to build your own.

Text: Numerical control


Read the text, find the explanation of NC and CNC

A CNC Turning Center Siemens CNC panel

56
Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated
by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to
manually controlled via handwheels or levers or mechanically automated via cams
alone. The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 50s, based on existing tools
that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the
system on paper tape. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with
analog and digital computers, creating the modern computer numerical controlled
(CNC) machine tools that have revolutionized the design process.
In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated
using CAD/CAM programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted
to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine, and then loaded into
the CNC machines for production. Since any particular component might require the
use of a number of different tools - drills, saws, etc. - modern machines often
combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other cases, a number of different
machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that
move the component from machine to machine. In either case the complex series of
steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely
matches the original CAD design.
Today
Although modern data storage techniques have moved on from punch tape in
almost every other role, tapes are still relatively common in CNC systems. This is
because it was often easier to add a punch tape reader to a microprocessor controller
than it was to re-write large libraries of tapes into a new format. One change that was
implemented fairly widely was the switch from paper to mylar tapes, which are much
more mechanically robust. Floppy disks, USB flash drives and local area networking have
replaced the tapes to some degree, especially in larger environments that are highly
integrated.
The proliferation of CNC led to the need for new CNC standards that were not
encumbered by licensing or particular design concepts, like APT. A number of
different "standards" proliferated for a time, often based around vector graphics markup
languages supported by plotters. One such standard has since become very common, the
"G-code" that was originally used on Gerber Scientific plotters and then adapted for
CNC use. The file format became so widely used that it has been embodied in an EIA
standard. In turn, G-code was supplanted by STEP-NC, a system that was deliberately
designed for CNC, rather than grown from an existing plotter standard.
A more recent advancement in CNC interpreters is support of logical commands,
known as parametric programming. Parametric programs include both device
commands as well as a control language similar to BASIC. The programmer can make
if/then/else statements, loops, subprogram calls, perform various arithmetic, and
manipulate variables to create a large degree of freedom within one program. An
entire product line of different sizes can be programmed using logic and simple math
to create and scale an entire range of parts, or create a stock part that can be scaled to
any size a customer demands.

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As digital electronics has spread, CNC has fallen in price to the point where
hobbyists can purchase any number of small CNC systems for home use. It is even
possible to build your own.
Exercise 3. Complete the sentences:
1) Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are
operated by … .
2) These early servomechanisms were rapidly … .
3) In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated
using … .
4) In other cases, a number of different machines are used with … .
5) Floppy disks, USB flash drives and local area networking have replaced … .
6) The proliferation of CNC led to the need for new … .
7) A more recent advancement in CNC interpreters is support of … .
8) An entire product line of different sizes can be programmed using … .
9) As digital electronics has spread, CNC has fallen in price to the point where
hobbyists can purchase any number of small … .

Exercise 4. Fill the gaps with the words under the line:
1) The first … machines were built in the 1940s and 50s, based on existing tools
that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed
into the system on paper tape.
2) These early … were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers,
creating the modern computer numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools that
have revolutionized the design process.
3) The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the
commands needed to operate a particular machine, and then loaded into the
… machines for production.
4) In either case the complex series of steps needed to produce any part is highly
automated and produces a part that closely matches the original … design.
5) One change that was implemented fairly widely was the switch from paper to
mylar tapes, which are much more … .
6) The file format became so widely used that it has been embodied in an …
standard.
7) A more recent advancement in CNC interpreters is support of logical
commands, known as … programming.
8) The programmer can make if/then/else statements, loops, subprogram calls,
perform …, and manipulate variables to create a large degree of freedom
within one program.
various arithmetic, parametric, EIA, mechanically robust, CAD, CNC,
servomechanisms, NC

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Text: Computer numerical control
Read the text, make up the annotation
Most CNC milling machines (also called machining centers) are computer
controlled vertical mills with the ability to move the spindle vertically along the Z-
axis. This extra degree of freedom permits their use in diesinking, engraving
applications, and 2.5D surfaces such as relief sculptures. When combined with the use
of conical tools or a ball nose cutter, it also significantly improves milling precision
without impacting speed, providing a cost-efficient alternative to most flat-surface
hand-engraving work.

Five-axis machining center with rotating


table and computer interface

CNC machines can exist in virtually any of the forms


of manual machinery, like horizontal mills. The most
advanced CNC milling-machines, the 5-axis machines, add
two more axes in addition to the three normal axes (XYZ).
Horizontal milling machines also have a C or Q axis, allowing the horizontally
mounted workpiece to be rotated, essentially allowing asymmetric and eccentric
turning. The fifth axis (B axis) controls the tilt of the tool itself. When all of these axes
are used in conjunction with each other, extremely complicated geometries, even
organic geometries such as a human head can be made with relative ease with these
machines. But the skill to program such geometries is beyond that of most operators.
Therefore, 5-axis milling machines are practically always programmed with CAM.
With the declining price of computers, free operating systems such as Linux, and
open source CNC software, the entry price of CNC machines has plummeted. For
example, Sherline, Prazi, and others make desktop CNC
milling machines that are affordable by hobbyists.

High speed steel with cobalt endmills used for cutting operations in a
milling machine.

Speaking
Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:
1) What is numerical control (NC)?
2) When were the first NC machines built?
3) What programs are used in modern CNC systems?
4) What devices have replaced the tapes?
5) What does parametric programming include?
6) What are CNC milling machines?
7) How many and what axes can CNC machines have?

Exercise 6. Prepare the oral report on the topic “CNC machine tools”.

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БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК
1. http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/webcourse-contents/IISc-BANG/Material
%20Science/pdf/Lecture_Notes/MLN_09.pdf
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanadium
3. http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articled=215393
4. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Metal-Work
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borazon
6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alumika
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alloy-Steel
8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/plain-carbon_steel
9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tool_steel
10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_speed_steel
11.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_tool
12.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drill#Drill_press
13.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lathe_(tool)
14.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Screw_machine
15.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milling_machine

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