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fourier series examples

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- MATH 2930 - Worksheet 10 Solutions
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- Fourier Series
- 7.Half Range Series
- Revision Fourier
- Fourier series and transforms
- Trogonometric Equation Theory_e
- 07AP_I_sol
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- Sajc 2010 Prelim Math p1 Soln
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- 130511-130001-MATHEMATICS-3
- 1111518955_156015_larson_fourier_series
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- Fourth Exam Fourier - Notes
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Introduction Derivation Examples Aperiodicity Printable

Contents

Even Pulse Function (Cosine Series)

Aside: the periodic pulse function

Example 1: Special case, Duty Cycle = 50%

Example 2: Special case, Duty Cycle = 40%

Even Square Wave (Exploiting Symmetry)

Even Square Wave (Exponential Series)

Even Triangle Wave (Cosine Series)

Example 3: Triangle wave

Odd Function (Sawtooth Wave)

Aside: using symmetry

Example 4: Odd Sawtooth Wave

Functions that are neither even nor odd

Example 5: Neither Even nor Odd

Effect of Function Symmetry on Coef icients

Symmetry Trigonometric Series and Symmetry

Exponential Series and Symmetry

Some Comments about the Pulse Function

Aside: the "sinc()" function

This document derives the Fourier Series coef icients for several functions. The functions shown here are fairly simple,

but the concepts extend to more complex functions.

Consider the periodic pulse function shown below. It is an even function with period T. The function is a pulse function

with amplitude A, and pulse width Tp. The function can be de ined over one period (centered around the origin) as:

Tp

⎧ A, |t| ≤

2

T T

xT (t) = ⎨ , − < t ≤

Tp

⎩ 2 2

0, |t| >

2

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The periodic pulse function can be represented in functional form as ΠT(t/Tp). During one period

(centered around the origin)

1

1, |t| ≤ T T

2

ΠT (t) = { , − < t ≤

1

0, |t| > 2 2

2

ΠT(t) represents a periodic function with period T and pulse width ½. The pulse is scaled in time by Tp

in the function ΠT(t/Tp) so:

Tp

⎧ 1, |t| ≤

t 2

T T

ΠT ( ) = ⎨ , − < t ≤

Tp

Tp ⎩ 2 2

0, |t| >

2

This can be a bit hard to understand at irst, but consider the sine function. The function sin(x/2) twice

as slow as sin(x) (i.e., each oscillation is twice as wide). In the same way ΠT(t/2) is twice as wide (i.e.,

slow) as ΠT(t).

The Fourier Series representation is

∞

n=1

∞ ∞

n=1 n=0

Tp

a0 = A

T

2

an = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt, n ≠ 0

T

T

Any interval of one period is allowed but the interval from -T/2 to T/2 is straightforward in this case.

T

2

an = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt

T

−T

Since xT(t)=A between -T p/2 to +Tp/2 and zero elsewhere the integral simpli ies and can be solved

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Tp

+

2

2

an = ∫ A cos(nω0 t)dt

T

Tp

−

2

Tp

+

2 A ∣ 2

= sin(nω0 t)∣

T nω0 ∣ Tp

−

2

2 A Tp Tp

= (sin(+nω0 ) − sin(−nω0 ))

T nω0 2 2

Since sine is an odd function, sin(a)-sin(-a)=2sin(a), and using the fact that ω0=2π/T and

4 A tp A tp A tp

an = sin(nω0 ) = 4 sin(nπ ) = 2 sin(nπ )

T nω0 2 n2π T nπ T

Consider the case when the duty cycle is 50% (this means that the function is high 50% of the time, or

Tp=T/2), A=1, and T=2. In this case a0=average=0.5 and for n≠0:

A tp A nπ

an = 2 sin(nπ ) = 2 sin( )

nπ T nπ 2

n−1

nπ −1 2 , n odd

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . . sin( ) = 0, 1, 0, −1, 0, 1, . . . = {

2 0, n even

n−1

A

2 (−1 2 ), n odd

nπ

an = {

0, n even, n ≠ 0

The values for an are given in the table below. Note: this example was used on the page introducing the

Fourier Series. Note also, that in this case an (except for n=0) is zero for even n, and decreases as 1/n as n

increases.

n an

0 0.5

1 0.6366

2 0

3 -0.2122

4 0

5 0.1273

6 0

7 -0.0909

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 3/17

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The graph shows the function xT(t) (blue) and the partial Fourier Sum (from n=0 to n=N) (red)

∑ an cos(ω0 t)

n=0

as well as the highest frequency harmonic, a cos(N ω t) (dotted magenta). Lower frequency harmonics

N 0

in the summation are thin dotted blue lines (but harmonics with a 0 are not shown. You can change n by

n

As you add sine waves of increasingly higher frequency, the approximation improves.

The addition of higher frequencies better approximates the rapid changes, or details, (i.e., the discontinuity) of the

original function (in this case, the square wave).

Gibb's overshoot exists on either side of the discontinuity.

Because of the symmetry of the waveform, only odd harmonics (1, 3, 5, ...) are needed to approximate the function.

The reasons for this are discussed below

The rightmost button shows the sum of all harmonics up to the 21st harmonic, but not all of the individual sinusoids

are explicitly shown on the plot. In particular harmonics between 7 and 21 are not shown.

Now consider the case when the duty cycle is 40%, A=1, and T=2. In this case a0=average=0.4 and for

n≠0:

4 A tp A

an = sin(nω0 ) = 2 sin(0.4nπ)

T nω0 2 nπ

The values for an are given in the table below (note: this example was used on the previous page).

n an

0 0.5

1 0.6055

2 0.1871

3 -0.1247

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4 -0.1514

5 -0.0000

6 0.1009

7 0.0535

The graph shows the function xT(t) (blue) and the partial Fourier Sum (from n=0 to n=N) (red)

∑ an cos(ω0 t)

n=0

Note that because this example is similar to the previous one, the coef icients are similar, but they are no

longer equal to zero for n even.

In problems with even and odd functions, we can exploit the inherent symmetry to simplify the integral. We will exploit

other symmetries later. Consider the problem above. We have an expression for an, n≠0

2

an = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt

T

T

−

2

If xT(t) is even, then the product xT(t)·cos(n·ω0t) is even (the product of two even functions is even). We can then use the fact

that for an even function, e(t),

+a a

∫ e(t)dt = 2 ∫ e(t)dt

−a 0

so

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 5/17

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T

4

an = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt

T

0

which generates the same answer as before. This will often be simpler to evaluate than the original integral because one of

the limits of integration is zero.

Consider, again, the pulse function. We can also represent xT(t) by the Exponential Fourier Series

jnω0 t

xT (t) = ∑ cn e

n=−∞

We ind the cn

−jnω0 t

cn = ∫ xT (t)e dt

As before the integral is from -T/2 to +T/2 and make use of the facts that the function is constant for |t|<Tp/2 and zero

elsewhere, and the T·ω0=2*·π.

Tp

T

+ +

2 2

1 1

−jnω0 t −jnω0 t

cn = ∫ xT (t)e dt = ∫ Ae dt

T T

T Tp

−

2 −

2

Tp

+

A ∣ 2

A Tp Tp

= e ∣ = (e 2

− e 2

)

−T jnω0 ∣ Tp

−j2πn

−

2

and

−2jA Tp A Tp

cn = sin(nω0 ) = sin(nω0 )

−j2πn 2 πn 2

Note that, as expected, c0=a0 and cn=an/2, (n≠0) (since this is an even function bn=0).

Consider the triangle wave

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The average value (i.e., the 0th Fourier Series Coef icients) is a0=0. For n>0 other coef icients the even symmetry of the

function is exploited to give

T T

+ +

2 2

2 2 4

an = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt

T T T

T

T 0

−

2

T T T

+ + +

2

⎛ 2 2

⎞

4 4A 4A 4

an = ∫ (A − t) cos(nω0 t)dt = ⎜∫ cos(nω0 t)dt − ∫ t cos(nω0 t)dt⎟

⎜ ⎟

T T T T

0 ⎝0 0 ⎠

Perform the integrations (either by hand using integration by parts, or with a table of integrals, or by computer) and use the

fact that ω0·T=2·π

πn 2

2

⎛ T (2 sin ( ) − π n sin(π n)) ⎞

4A T sin(πn) 4 2

an = ⎜ + ⎟

2 2

T 2πn T 4π n

⎝ ⎠

πn 2 πn 2

2

4A T 2 sin ( ) 8A sin ( )

4 2 2

an = =

2 2 2 2

T T 4π n π n

n

πn 2 1 − (−1)

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, . . . sin ( ) = 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, . . . =

2 2

n

1−(−1)

4A , nodd

2 2

an = { π n

0, neven

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 7/17

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If xT(t) is a triangle wave with A=1, the values for an are given in the table below (note: this example

was used on the previous page).

n an

0 0

1 0.8106

2 0

3 0.0901

4 0

5 0.0324

6 0

7 0.0165

Note: this is similar, but not identical, to the triangle wave seen earlier.

Note:

As you add sine waves of increasingly higher frequency, the approximation gets better and better, and these higher

frequencies better approximate the details, (i.e., the change in slope) in the original function.

The amplitudes of the harmonics for this example drop off much more rapidly (in this case they go as 1/n2 (which is

faster than the 1/n decay seen in the pulse function Fourier Series (above)). Conceptually, this occurs because the

triangle wave looks much more like the 1st harmonic, so the contributions of the higher harmonics are less. Even

with only the 1st few harmonics we have a very good approximation to the original function.

There is no discontinuity, so no Gibb's overshoot.

As before, only odd harmonics (1, 3, 5, ...) are needed to approximate the function; this is because of the symmetry of

the function.

Thus far, the functions considered have all been even. The diagram below shows an odd function.

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 8/17

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∞

2

xT (t) = ∑ bn sin(nω0 t) bn = ∫ xT (t) sin(nω0 t)dt

T

n=1

T

(t) = 2At/T .

T T

+ +

2 2

2 2 2At

bn = ∫ xT (t) sin(nω0 t)dt = ∫ sin(nω0 t)dt

T T T

T T

− −

2 2

Performing the integration (and using the fact that ω0·T=2·π) the integral yields

bn =

2 2

T π n

2A n

bn = − (−1)

πn

In this case since xT(t) is odd and is multiplied by another odd function (sin(n·ω0t)), their product is

even and the integral can be rewritten as:

T T

+ +

2 2

2 4

bn = ∫ xT (t) sin(nω0 t)dt = bn = ∫ xT (t) sin(nω0 t)dt

T T

T 0

−

2

If xT(t) is a sawtooth wave with A=1, the values for bn are given in the table below

n bn

1 0.6366

2 -0.3183

3 0.2122

4 -0.1592

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 9/17

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5 0.1273

6 -0.1061

7 0.0909

Note: this is similar, but not identical, to the sawtooth wave seen earlier.

Note:

As you add sine waves of increasingly higher frequency, the approximation gets better and better, and these higher

frequencies better approximate the details, (i.e., the change in slope) in the original function.

Since this function doesn't look as much like a sinusoid as the triangle wave, the coef icients decrease less rapidly (as

1/n instead of 1/n2

There is Gibb's overshoot caused by the discontinuity.

So far, all of the functions considered have been either even or odd, but most functions are neither. This presents no

conceptual dif icult, but may require more integrations. For example if the function xT(t) looks like the one below

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 10/17

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Since this has no obvious symmetries, a simple Sine or Cosine Series does not suf ice. For the Trigonometric Fourier

Series, this requires three integrals

∞

n=1

2

a0 = ∫ xT (t) dt

T

T

2

an = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt, n ≠ 0

T

T

2

bn = ∫ xT (t) sin(nω0 t)dt

T

T

+∞

jnω0 t

xT (t) = ∑ cn e

n=−∞

1

−jnω0 t

cn = ∫ xT (t) e dt

T

T

For this reason, among others, the Exponential Fourier Series is often easier to work with, though it lacks the

straightforward visualization afforded by the Trigonometric Fourier Series.

In this case, but not in general, we can easily ind the Fourier Series coef icients by realizing that this

function is just the sum of the square wave (with 50% duty cycle) and the sawtooth so

n an bn

0 0.5 ----

1 0.6366 0.6366

2 0 -0.3183

3 -0.2122 0.2122

4 0 -0.1592

5 0.1273 0.1273

6 0 -0.1061

7 -0.0909 0.0909

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 11/17

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From the relationship between the Trigonometric and Exponential Fourier Series

an bn

∗

c0 = a0 and cn = − j f orn ≠ 0, with c−n = cn

2 2

n cn

-7 -0.0455 + 0.0455j

-6 -0.0531j

-5 0.0637 + 0.0637j

-4 -0.0796j

-3 -0.1061 + 0.1061j

-2 -0.1592j

-1 0.3183 + 0.3183j

0 0.5

1 0.3183 - 0.3183j

2 0.1592j

3 -0.1061 - 0.1061j

4 0.0796j

5 0.0637 - 0.0637j

6 0.0531j

7 -0.0455 - 0.0455j

Note: this is similar, but not identical, to the sawtooth wave seen earlier.

Note:

As you add sine waves of increasingly higher frequency, the approximation gets better and better, and these higher

frequencies better approximate the details, (i.e., the change in slope) in the original function.

There is Gibb's overshoot caused by the discontinuities.

If the function xT(t) has certain symmetries, we can simplify the calculation of the coef icients.

Symmetry Simplification

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xT(t) is even a0 = average

T

+

2

4

an = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt, n ≠ 0

T

0

bn = 0

an = 0

T

+

2

xT(t) is odd 4

bn = ∫ xT (t) sin(nω0 t)dt

T

0

an = bn = 0, n even

T

+

2

4

an = ∫ xT (t) cos(nω0 t)dt, n odd

xT(t) has half-wave symmetry. T

A function can have half-wave symmetry 0

+

2

4

bn = ∫ xT (t) sin(nω0 t)dt, n odd

T

0

The irst two symmetries are were discussed previously in the discussions of the pulse function (xT(t) is even) and the

sawtooth wave (xT(t) is odd).

The top function, xT1(t), is odd (xT1(t)=-xT1(-t)), but does not have half-wave symmetry. The bottom function, xT2(t) is nether

even nor odd, but since xT2(t)=-xT2(t-T/2) , it has halfwave symmetry. To visualize this imagine shifting the function by half a

period (T/2); for half-wave symmetry the shifted function should be the mirror image of the original function (about the

horizontal axis) as shown below

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 13/17

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The reason the coef icients of the even harmonics are zero can be understood in the context of the diagram below. The top

graph shows a function, xT(t) with half-wave symmetry along with the irst four harmonics of the Fourier Series (only sines

are needed because xT(t) is odd). The bottom graph shows the harmonics multiplied by xT(t).

Now imagine integrating the product terms from -T/2 to +T/2. The odd terms (from the 1st (red) and 3rd (magenta)

harmonics) will have a positive result (because they are above zero more than they are below zero). The even terms (green

and cyan) will integrate to zero (because they are equally above and below zero). Though this is a simple example, the

concept applies for more complicated functions, and for higher harmonics.

The only function discussed with half-wave symmetry was the triangle wave and indeed the coef icients with even indices

are equal to zero (as are all of the bn terms because of the even symmetry). The square wave with 50% duty cycle would

have half wave symmetry if it were centered around zero (i.e., centered on the horizontal axis). In that case the a0 term

would be zero and we have already shown that all the terms with even indices are zero, as expected.

Simpli ications can also be made based on quarter-wave symmetry, but these are not discussed here.

Since the coef icients cn of the Exponential Fourier Series are related to the Trigonometric Series by

c0 = a0

an bn

cn = − j f or n ≠ 0

2 2

∗

c−n = cn

(assuming xT(t) is real) we can use the symmetry properties of the Trigonometric Series to ind an and bn and hence cn.

However, in addition, the coef icients of cn contain some symmetries of their own. In particular,

The magnitude of the cn terms are even with respect to n: |c-n|=|cn|.

The real part of cn is even (Re(c-n) = Re(cn)) and the imaginary part is odd (Im(c-n) =-Im(cn))

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 14/17

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Let's examine the Fourier Series representation of the periodic rectangular pulse function, ΠT(t/Tp), more carefully.

Since the function is even, we expect the coef icients of the Exponential Fourier Series to be real and even(from symmetry

properties). Furthermore, we have already calculated the coef icients of the Trigonometric Series, and could easily calculate

those of the Exponential Series. However, let us do it from irst principles. The Exponential Fourier Series coef icients are

given by

+∞

t

jnω0 t

Πt ( ) = ∑ cn e

Tp

n=−∞

with

1 t

−jnω0 t

cn = ∫ Πt ( )e dt

T T

Tp

We can change the limits of integration to -T p/2 and +Tp/2 (since the function is zero elsewhere) and proceed (the function

is one in that interval, so we can drop it). We also make use of the fact the ω0=2π/T and Euler's identity for sine.

Tp

T

+ +

2 2

1 t 1

−jnω0 t −jnω0 t

cn = ∫ Πt ( )e dt = ∫ e dt

T Tp T

T Tp

−

2 −

2

Tp Tp nπTp nπTp

1 1 −j +j

2π

−jnω0 +jnω0

= (e 2

− e 2

) = (e T − e T ) ω0 =

−jnω0 T −jn2π T

1 nπTp 1 nπTp

= 2j sin(− ) = sin( )

−jn2π T nπ T

nπTp

sin( )

Tp T

=

nπTp

T

T

The last step in the derivation is performed so we can use the sinc() function (pronounced like "sink"). This function comes

up often in Fourier Analysis.

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sin(πx)

sinc(x) =

πx

Tp nTp

cn = sinc ( )

T T

sinc(x)=0 for all integer values of x except at x=0 where sinc(0)=1. This is because sin(π·n)=0 for all integer values of n.

However at n=0 we have sin(π·n)/(π·n) which is zero divided by zero, but by L'Hô pital's rule get a value of 1.

The irst zeros away from the origin occur when x=±1.

The function decays with an envelope of 1/(π·x) as x moves from the origin. This is because the sin() function has

successive maxima with an amplitude of 1, and the sin function is divided by π·x.

The diagram below shows cn vs n for several values of the duty cycle, Tp/T.

The graph on the left shows the time domain function. If you hit the middle button, you will see a square wave with a duty

cycle of 0.5 (i.e., it is high 50% of the time). The period of the square wave is T=2·π;. The graph on the right shown the values

of cn vs n as red circles vs n (the lower of the two horizontal axes; ignore the top axis for now). The blue line goes through

the horizontal axis whenever the argument of the sinc() function, n·Tp/T is an integer (except when n=0.). In particular the

irst crossing of the horizontal axis is given by n·Tp/T=1 or n=T/Tp (note this is not an integer values of Tp). There are several

important features to note as Tp is varied.

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 16/17

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As Tp decreases (along with the duty cycle, Tp/T), so does the value of c0. This is to be expected because c0 is just the average value of the

As Tp decreases, the "width" of the sinc() function broadens. This tells us that as the function becomes more localized in time (i.e., narrower) it

becomes less localized in frequency (broader). In other words, if a function happens very rapidly in time, the signal must contain high frequency

coef icients to enable the rapid change.

Let us call the "width" of the sinc() function the width of the main lobe (i.e., between the irst two zero crossings around ω=0), Δn=2·T/Tp. If we

T

(Δn) ⋅ (Δt) = (2 ) ⋅ (Tp ) = 2T = constant

Tp

This tells us explicitly that the product of width in frequency (i.e., Δn) multiplied by the width in time (Δt) is constant - if one is doubled, the

other is halved. Or - as one gets more localized in time, it is less localized in frequency. We will discuss this more later.

References

© Copyright 2005 to 2015 Erik Cheever This page may be freely used for

educational purposes.

Comments? Questions? Suggestions? Corrections?

Erik Cheever Department of Engineering Swarthmore College

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html 17/17

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