Contents................................................................................................................ 1
Current Source..............................................................................................11
Lets analyse the operation of the circuit. Vn must be +ve or else we woul need
transistor to pull current into emitter . npn can not do this , pnp can do this...11
We assume vn > 0, the op amp is ideal. We can say that a virtual short at the
op amp inputs, we can say that vp=vn=v1(please note that circuit works for
only v1>0)........................................................................................................ 11
To make sure circuit is functioning properly , vary V1 and then see what
happens............................................................................................................ 12
if v1 increases a little , the differential input voltage of the op amp , vp –vn, will
increase. We can say that differential input increases by an amount $. The op
amp output voltage will increase by $a(where a is the gain of the op.)...........12
the increase in op amp output voltage will in turn increase the vbe of the
transistor. Therefore current through transistor will increase..........................12
Since the ideal op amp input current is zero, we can say that vn=vr1=ier1....12
Feed back reduces the magnitude of $ and is negative. With an ideal op amp, a
goes to infinity and $ will be driven to 0.(virtual shorts)..................................12
We know that vn=v1, using ohm law we can say that plus op amp input
current is zero...................................................................................................12
This independence occur because feed back forces the op amp out put voltage,
transistor vbe is whatever required to set vn equal to v1. Must remember that
this circuit only works for +ve v1.....................................................................12
In Fig 2.............................................................................................................. 14
The analyses of the FET is same except that value of alpha is 1 for MOSFET at
low frequencies. The difference between two circuit:.......................................14
In FET, there must be load connection, so that current can be supplied to R1,
otherwise gat voltage does not control the voltage across R1, and negative
feed back is gone.............................................................................................14
Voltage regulators............................................................................................15
There are opamps available with commonmode input ranges down to the
negative supply.............................................................................................19
Slew rate....................................................................................................... 19
Interference signals..........................................................................................24
Basic OP AMP Circuits
Vo=a(vpvn)
a is the gain.
Point to note that only difference between input voltages that matters in
determining the output.
Vp

=
Vn Vo
Figa
Vcc
Vp

=
Vn
Vo
Gnd
An ideal Op amp has zero input current or can say that Infinite input impedance(
i.e. open circuit in between the inputs), zero output impedance. Infinite gain and
infinite bandwidth.
In order to understand this remember that input current of ideal op amp is zero.
The voltage across R1 is uneffected by the connection to the inverting input of
ap amp.
VR1 = VN = (R1/R1+R2)Vo
Vp

=
+
VID Vn Vo
Vs
V R2
R1
Now imagine that Vs increases the causes the Vid to change(which is normally
0), to change to small positive value.
As a result of this increase in Vid, the value of Vo will increase positively. The
increase in Vo will inturn increase the Vn and this change will reduce the
magnitude the orginal disturbance in VID.
The change will be compensated entirely and VId will again be zero. Same will
apply if Vss is decreased.
So in above connection , the Op amp has a virtual short circuit between Vp and
Vn(or vs and Vn). It is virtual because connection does not exist physically., and
no current can flow, it acts like short circuit since two voltage must be same.
What we have actually done in above circuit is that negative feed back the
amplifier. Negative feed back means that signal feed back from output to the
input of forward amplifier. Oppose any change in Vid.
The op Amp it self called open loop amplifier and R1, R2 and Op am together is
called closed loop amplifier.
Summerize about ideal Op amp will have virtual short circuit between its input
terminals as long as it has a negative feed back connection. This fact, combined
with the assumption of no input current, makes the analyses of ideal op amp
circuit simple:
Vs=Vp=Vn=( R1/R1+R2)Vo.
Vo =(1+R2/R1)Vs.
Exercise
The Inverting Amplifier
IR2 R2
IR1 Vn
+
+
+

R1 Vp Vo
Vs
Sin circuit uses negative feed back, assume Op amp to be ideal, the virtual
shorts exist between two input terminals.
With non inverting is connected to ground, the virtual shorts implies that the
inverting input will be a virtual ground. In other words voltage at the node will be
zero, also current will be zero as well.
iR1 = Vs/R1
note that no current will flow into ground at Vn, Op amp is assumed to be ideal ,
the current into the op amp is zero. Then we can say that
iR2 = iR1
The inverting amplifier has a agin, set by resistors ratio and has a low output
impedance just like non inverting amplifier. In contrast to non inverting amplifier,
inverting amplifier has very high input impedance equal to R1. Also negative
sign in transfer function imply that , output is inverted. In other word when vs is
+ve, vo is negative and vice versa.
Better way to look the inverting amplifier in two functions: 1st virtual ground is
used along with R1 to convert the input voltage into a current, IR1. This current
is then feed into a transresistance amplifier.(the gain has the units of resistance,
vo/iR2)formed by the op amp and R2.
IR2 R2
IR1 Vn
+
+
+

R1 Vp Vo
Vs1
Is2
R3
Vs3 Ir3
IR2= Ir1+Is2+Ir3
Example:
Consider the circuit in figure:. Determine values of R1 and R2, such that closed
loop gain is 20 and input resistance is 5K ohm.
The Unit gain Amplifier or voltage Follower
The unit gain amplifier, or voltage followrs is a special case of the noninverting
amplifier with R1 =0. Since feed back is negative, op amp is ideal. There is
virtual ground between two inputs:
Fig
Fig 9.
Differential Amplifier:
Differential amplifier as shown in fig 10.we can analyse this circuit using
superposition principal.
First we set VS2 equal to 0 and consider vs1 as the input. After doing that we
find out R3 and R4 are in parallel, fig 11:
Similarly, when vs1 is shorted and we consider vs2 as the input, the circuit is
identical to the non inverting amplifier of fig 12:except that of voltage divider
made up of R3 and R4.however, since the op amp input current is zero, the
connection of the non inverting input of the op amp to this divider does not
affect the operation of the divider, so then can write:
Vp= (R4/R3+R4)VS2
While VS1 is shorted, the gain from VP to Vo is given by the equation for the non
inverting amplifier:
We
Vo= (R4/R3+R4)(1+R2/R1)VS2
Now sum up the analyses we obtained for each input source individually:
Vo=(R2/R1)VS1+ (R4/R3+R4)(1+R2/R1)VS2.
After this analyses, we must think to know how to make the output voltage a
functions of only difference between VS1 and VS2. Or we can say how to make
this circuit into differential amplifier.
Differential signals are very important and commonly used. Differential signal
can improve the performance of our circuit in the presence of interference:
Negative feed back results in Vin at the inverting input, producing current
I=Vin/R through the load.
Biggest draw back with this circuit is floating load mean neither side grounded.
One way to getaway with this is to float the whole circuit., so that we can ground
one side of load.
Like in Figure 10
The circuit in the box is the previous current source, with its power supplies. R1
and R2 form a voltage divider. This circuit is good to generate current into a
source that is returned to ground. But the problem is that control input(input
voltage) is now floating.
So now we can not program the out put current with an input voltage referenced
to ground.
the increase in op amp output voltage will in turn increase the vbe
of the transistor. Therefore current through transistor will
increase.
Since the ideal op amp input current is zero, we can say that
vn=vr1=ier1.
We know that vn=v1, using ohm law we can say that plus op amp
input current is zero.
This independence occur because feed back forces the op amp out
put voltage, transistor vbe is whatever required to set vn equal
to v1. Must remember that this circuit only works for +ve v1.
Fig 11
In this circuit feed back forces a voltage vccvin across R, giving an emitter (an
out put current) IE=(vccvin)R. there are no vbe offsets, or their variations with
temperature.
Op amp will stabilizes the emitter current , where load sees the collector current.
Same circuit using FET transistor
In Fig 2
The analyses of the FET is same except that value of alpha is 1 for
MOSFET at low frequencies. The difference between two circuit:
An op amp can be used to perform part of the function of the voltage regulator,
as in fig 1.
This circuit is called series regulator, since regulator appears in series with the
unregulated supply Vcc and the load.
The transistor present is called pass transistor, since the load current pass
through it.
For a series regulator, the unregulated supply voltage must be larger than the
desired output.
The idea is that voltage reference provides an output voltage that is stable with
respect to changes in the unregulated supply,
It is fine to design a stable reference, if it does not need to provide much out put
current.
The pass transistor can be eliminated all together if the op amp can provide
sufficient current on its own. Anyway transistor is sometimes on separate silicon
because it dissipates most of the power in the circuit and there can be
significant problems with thermal feed back to the op amp internal circuit.
Frequency Dependant Op Amp Circuits
Circuits that are designed to have frequency dependent transfer functions are
called filters.
Filters that have op amps are called active filters because they include active
components , rather than passive RLC filters..
Unlike passive filters, active filters have power gain and low out put impedence.
Consider the op am circuit in fig 1. From the circuit we can say that it has a
negative feed back for all frequencies except DC(no frequency). Please note that
at DC , the impedence of the feed back capacitor does to infinity, and the feed
back is nonexistent.
We can say that negative feed back and ideal op amp will combine to produce a
virtual ground at the inverting input.
So we can say:
I1=Vs/R1
I1 = If.
Note that voltage across the capacitor is proportional to the integral of the
current into it.
Now lets see what happen at DC, real op amp have some non zero offset voltage
that can be modelled as a voltage source in series with one of it input. In fig 2 we
have added this small source in series with non inverting input of an op amp .
I1(t)= vs(t)Voff/R1
This shows that capacitors impedance goes to infinity at DC, so the DC gain of an
amplifier will be infinity. With an real amplifier, the gain of the circuit will not go
to infinity, but output will be limited by other mechanism.
To correct this problem, we either need a switch in parallal with the feed back
capacitor that will enable to periodically reset the voltage across to zero. In fig 3
show the integrator that has a finite DC gain.
Input current
The input terminals sink or source. A small current called input bias current Ib ,
which is defined as half of sum of the input current with the inputs tied
together(the two input currents are approximately equal and are simply the
base current or gate current of input transistor).
As a rough estimate, BJT input op amp have bias current in the tens of nano
amps. FET have inputs current in the tens of picoamps.
The importance of input bias current is that it causes a voltage drop across the
resistors of feed back network, bias network.
In general, transistor opamps intended for high speed operation have higher
bias currents.
Unlike input bias current, the offset current Ios, is a result of manufacturing
variations.
Input Impedance
Input impedance refers to the differential input resistance ( impedance looking
intone input, with the other input grounded).
Zin in practice raised to very high values and usually is not as important as input
bias current.
If the inputs go beyond this range, the gain of the opamp may change
drastically, even reversing sign.
For a 411 operating from +15 volt supplies, the guaranteed commonmode
input range is +11 volts.
However, manufacturer claims that 411 will operate with the commonmode
inputs all the way to that positive supply.
There are opamps available with commonmode input ranges down to the
negative supply.
Out put impedance Ro means the opamp’s intrinsic output impedance with out
feed back. For 411 it is about 40 ohms.
Feed back lowers the output into insignificance, so what usually matters more is
the maximum output current.
The difference in input voltages necessary to bring the output to zero is called
the input offset voltage vos.
Slew rate
The opamp capacitance and small drive current act together to limit the rate at
ahich output can change.
Because of finite openloop gain, the voltage gain of the amplifier with feed
back(closed loop gain) will begin dropping at a frequency where openloop gain
approaches R2/R1. As in figure 1:
This means that openloop gain is down to 100 at 50Khz, that mean amplifier will
show noticeable falloff of gain of frequencies approaching 50 Khz.
Slew Rate
In fig 1. Because of limited slew rate, the maximum undistorted sinewave output
swing, drops above a certain frequency.
The slew rate limitation of omamp can usually be exploited to filter sharp noise
from signal.
Output current
Because of limited output current , am opamp output swing is reduces for small
load resistances.
Offset voltage
For an inverting amplifier with voltage gain of 100 built with 411, the out put
could be as large as +0.2 v, when the input is grounded.
Solution:if we do not need dc gain then use capacitor to drop the gain to unity.
Even with a perfectly trimmed opamp(vos=0), out inverting amplifier circuit will
produce non zero output volts when its input terminal is connected to ground.
This is because of finite input bias current , IB, produces a voltage drop across
the resistors , which is then amplified by the circuit voltage gain.
In this circuit the inverting input sees a driving impedance of R1R2, so that bias
current produces a voltage Vin=Ib(R1R2), which is then amplified by the gain at
dc, R2/R1.
With FET input opamp the effect is negligible, but the substantial input current
of bipolar opamps can cause real issue.
Ex. take a inverting amplifier with R1 = 10 K and R2 = 1M, Zin 10k. if we choose
low noise bi polar LM833, the output for grounded input could be
100*1000nA*9.9k or 0.99 volt.
VA = VCM+VDM/2
Grounding , DifferentialMode signals and Interference
Rejection
For example: we are design control system for Air conditioning and Heating.
Such system use many sensors to measure air flow and temperature, these
sensors are often located at a considerable distance from control electronics.
Fig 1:
Fig 1 shows the connections of the sensors to the receiving amplifier. The wires
connecting the sensors to the amplifier are modelled by ideal conductor in
series with resistance , RW1 and RW2.
The sensor is modelled as a voltage source vs and its associated resistance Rs.
Node vg1 is the local ground at the sensor and node vg2 is the local ground at
the receive.
The amplifier is assume to have input resistance to local ground equal to Ri.
The local grounds are connected together by the wires of the distributed ground
system having resistance RG.
Because there may be current flow in the ground connection, we have no reason
to believe that two gound will have same potential.
In truth current from other electrical equipment flowing into the local ground
nodes can create differences in the ground potential that are quite large and also
time varying.
For the purpose of analysing the difference between grounds is denoted by VGD.
Analysing fig 1( we assume that we know VGD , we can treat this as voltage
source. Therefore Rw2 does not enter into the equation:
Vi =(Vs+VGS) Ri/Ri+Rs+Rw1.
From above we can say that Vi is not equal to Vs. it can be seen that signal is
attenuated going from Vs to Vi, but if Ri >> (RS+RW1), the loss can be
neglected.
A far more significant problem is that the unknow signal VGD, which has been
added to the desired signal VS. we can say that VGD represent the interference.
One way to solve this to use single point grounding scheme, which can be done
by disconnecting the sensor from its local ground at point “x”.
Vi=Vs Ri/Ri+Rs+RW1+RW2.
Above does not show an interference components because of VGD. Single point
grounding is often a good technique to avoid problem caused by differential
ground, but this has to be used with caution:
Single point grounding is fine at low frequencies for low level signal, but it can
cause problem at high frequencies. The impedance of the a wire increases
rapidly with increasing frequency because of inductance and skin effect of the
wire.
Another solution to the problem is to use differential amplifier for the receiver as
in fig 2:
In order to calculate the input voltage of the receiving amplifier, we will calculate
seperatly calculate the voltage at each of its input nodes, Vp and Vn.
To express these as single ended voltages, they will be calculated with respect to
the local ground at the receiving amplifier, using super position
Vp = vgd+vs(Rid+Rw2)/(Rid+Rw2+Rw1+Rs)
Vn= vgd+vs(Rw2/Rid+Rw2+Rw1+Rs)
From above equation we saw that same interference signal Vgd, appears at the
both inputs of diff. amplifier, hence it is a common model signal. The differential
mode input signal given by eq1 is only the function of vs, means common mode
signal will be rejected by the op amp and will not appear at the output.
Conclusion: now we can see the use of differential amplifier. The input voltage of
a single ended amplifier is defined with respect to its own local ground.
We can also see that diff. amplifier can be used to convert signal reference to
one ground into the same signal referenced to another ground.
Interference signals
1, If there are other signal wires close enough so that capacitance between those
lines and the sensors leads is significant, the signal can couple capacitively.
2, if the sensors leads are part of loop, changing magnetic magnetic field like
those around power lines can induce voltages in the loop, and
3, The sensors leads can act as antenna and pick up electro magnetic fields
In case 2 the interference produces a current in the input loop and will generate
a differential input, therefore, differential input amplifier will not help.
Diff. amp will also help the interference that couples into the circuit.
Interfernce capacitively coupling into the circuit as in fig 3. This figure does not
show the resistance of the sensors leads Rw1 and Rw2, since they are
comparatively small compared to Rs and Rid.
Interfering signals are represented as current source (i1 and i2) connected to
signal wires.
The local ground at the receiver is denoted by the symbol for chassis ground.
Once again, we calculate the voltages at vp and vn wit respect to the chasis
ground. We treat the ground differences vgd as it is voltage source.
Vp(due to i2)= 0
We see from above that although the ground differences has been rejected , the
interference can result in differential mode signal at the input of the receiving
amplifier.
Solution to this problem fact that interference to both wires are almost same ,
assuming that two wires are physically located close to each other, which is
standard practice., we can say i1=i2.
The circuit can also be balanced by disconnecting the signal source from its local
ground connection, as with single point grounding scheme.
The two leads used in differential amplifier are often twisted together(called
twisted pair).
Twisting the wire together reduces the area of the loop that is formed.
decreasing the magnitude of the magnetically induced voltage.
Each twisted can be seen as small area loop. But voltage induced in adjacent
ywists have opposite signs, so they cancel each other out