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# Contents

Contents................................................................................................................ 1

## The Unit gain Amplifier or voltage Follower.....................................................9

Current Source..............................................................................................11

## An Op amp can be used to construct a current source as in fig 1. The transistor

can either be bi polar or field effect transistor. The important point is that
voltage at the top of R1 is controlled by the Op amp out put voltage and
current into the transistor base is negligible in comparision to the output
current. The circuit could more properly be called current sinks, since out put
current is directed inside..................................................................................11

Lets analyse the operation of the circuit. Vn must be +ve or else we woul need
transistor to pull current into emitter . npn can not do this , pnp can do this...11

We assume vn > 0, the op amp is ideal. We can say that a virtual short at the
op amp inputs, we can say that vp=vn=v1(please note that circuit works for
only v1>0)........................................................................................................ 11

To make sure circuit is functioning properly , vary V1 and then see what
happens............................................................................................................ 12

if v1 increases a little , the differential input voltage of the op amp , vp –vn, will
increase. We can say that differential input increases by an amount \$. The op
amp output voltage will increase by \$a(where a is the gain of the op.)...........12

the increase in op amp output voltage will in turn increase the vbe of the
transistor. Therefore current through transistor will increase..........................12

Since the ideal op amp input current is zero, we can say that vn=vr1=ier1....12

## When transistor current increases , so will vn..................................................12

Feed back reduces the magnitude of \$ and is negative. With an ideal op amp, a
goes to infinity and \$ will be driven to 0.(virtual shorts)..................................12

We know that vn=v1, using ohm law we can say that plus op amp input
current is zero...................................................................................................12

## Io=alpha*Ie=alpha(v1/r1) nearly equal to V1/R1(out put current)...................12

Above relation show interesting thing and that is that transistor Ic and VBE
does not effect in out put current.....................................................................12

This independence occur because feed back forces the op amp out put voltage,
transistor vbe is whatever required to set vn equal to v1. Must remember that
this circuit only works for +ve v1.....................................................................12

## Same circuit using FET transistor ....................................................................14

In Fig 2.............................................................................................................. 14

The analyses of the FET is same except that value of alpha is 1 for MOSFET at
low frequencies. The difference between two circuit:.......................................14

## In bipolar transistor, voltage at the R1 is controlled by the op amp out put

whether or not collector of transistor is connected to anything, since there is
pn junction between base to emitter , current through R1 can be supplied by
the om amp directly.........................................................................................14

In FET, there must be load connection, so that current can be supplied to R1,
otherwise gat voltage does not control the voltage across R1, and negative
feed back is gone.............................................................................................14

Voltage regulators............................................................................................15

## Common-mode input range...........................................................................18

There are op-amps available with common-mode input ranges down to the
negative supply.............................................................................................19

## Input offset voltage.......................................................................................19

Slew rate....................................................................................................... 19

## Grounding , Differential-Mode signals and Interference Rejection....................23

Interference signals..........................................................................................24
Basic OP AMP Circuits

and out:

Vo=a(vp-vn)

a is the gain.

## Vo is the output voltage.

Point to note that only difference between input voltages that matters in
determining the output.

## The output voltage Vo is single ended with respect to ground.

Vp
-
=--

Vn Vo

Figa

Vcc

Vp
-
=--

Vn

Vo

Gnd
An ideal Op amp has zero input current or can say that Infinite input impedance(
i.e. open circuit in between the inputs), zero output impedance. Infinite gain and
infinite bandwidth.

## Connection provided negative feed back.

In order to understand this remember that input current of ideal op amp is zero.
The voltage across R1 is uneffected by the connection to the inverting input of
ap amp.

VR1 = VN = (R1/R1+R2)Vo
Vp
-
=--

+
VID Vn Vo

Vs

V R2

R1

## Vo=a(vs-vn)= a(vs-R1/R1+R2) *vo)

Now imagine that Vs increases the causes the Vid to change(which is normally
0), to change to small positive value.

As a result of this increase in Vid, the value of Vo will increase positively. The
increase in Vo will inturn increase the Vn and this change will reduce the
magnitude the orginal disturbance in VID.

The change will be compensated entirely and VId will again be zero. Same will
apply if Vss is decreased.

So in above connection , the Op amp has a virtual short circuit between Vp and
Vn(or vs and Vn). It is virtual because connection does not exist physically., and
no current can flow, it acts like short circuit since two voltage must be same.

What we have actually done in above circuit is that negative feed back the
amplifier. Negative feed back means that signal feed back from output to the
input of forward amplifier. Oppose any change in Vid.

The op Amp it self called open loop amplifier and R1, R2 and Op am together is
called closed loop amplifier.

Summerize about ideal Op amp will have virtual short circuit between its input
terminals as long as it has a negative feed back connection. This fact, combined
with the assumption of no input current, makes the analyses of ideal op amp
circuit simple:

Vs=Vp=Vn=( R1/R1+R2)Vo.
Vo =(1+R2/R1)Vs.

## Use of non-inverting amplifier

This non inverting amplifier is a useful building block in analog signal
processing..it has a very high input impedance(ideally infinite) and low out put
impedance(ideally zero). And also well controlled voltage gain is set by the ratio
of resistors.

Exercise
The Inverting Amplifier
IR2 R2

IR1 Vn
+

+
+

-
R1 Vp Vo

Vs

## The configuration again is set to negative feed back.

Sin circuit uses negative feed back, assume Op amp to be ideal, the virtual
shorts exist between two input terminals.

With non inverting is connected to ground, the virtual shorts implies that the
inverting input will be a virtual ground. In other words voltage at the node will be
zero, also current will be zero as well.

## When Vn is ground , the current through R1 will be:

iR1 = Vs/R1

note that no current will flow into ground at Vn, Op amp is assumed to be ideal ,
the current into the op amp is zero. Then we can say that

iR2 = iR1

## the output voltage is given by Vo=(-R2/R1)Vs .

The inverting amplifier has a agin, set by resistors ratio and has a low output
impedance just like non inverting amplifier. In contrast to non inverting amplifier,
inverting amplifier has very high input impedance equal to R1. Also negative
sign in transfer function imply that , output is inverted. In other word when vs is
+ve, vo is negative and vice versa.

Better way to look the inverting amplifier in two functions: 1st virtual ground is
used along with R1 to convert the input voltage into a current, IR1. This current
is then feed into a transresistance amplifier.(the gain has the units of resistance,
vo/iR2)formed by the op amp and R2.

IR2 R2

IR1 Vn
+

+
+

-
R1 Vp Vo

Vs1

Is2

R3

Vs3 Ir3

IR2= Ir1+Is2+Ir3

## Vo= -R2/R1(VS1) - is2R2 – R2/R3(VS3)

Example:

Consider the circuit in figure:. Determine values of R1 and R2, such that closed
loop gain is -20 and input resistance is 5K ohm.
The Unit gain Amplifier or voltage Follower
The unit gain amplifier, or voltage followrs is a special case of the non-inverting
amplifier with R1 =0. Since feed back is negative, op amp is ideal. There is
virtual ground between two inputs:

Fig

## An amplifier of unit gain is sometimes called buffer because of it isolating

properties( high input impedance, low output impedance.

Fig 9.

Differential Amplifier:

Differential amplifier as shown in fig 10.we can analyse this circuit using
superposition principal.

First we set VS2 equal to 0 and consider vs1 as the input. After doing that we
find out R3 and R4 are in parallel, fig 11:

Similarly, when vs1 is shorted and we consider vs2 as the input, the circuit is
identical to the non inverting amplifier of fig 12:except that of voltage divider
made up of R3 and R4.however, since the op amp input current is zero, the
connection of the non inverting input of the op amp to this divider does not
affect the operation of the divider, so then can write:

Vp= (R4/R3+R4)VS2
While VS1 is shorted, the gain from VP to Vo is given by the equation for the non
inverting amplifier:

We

## Can say that Vs in above is equal to Vp, so we can write that:

Vo= (R4/R3+R4)(1+R2/R1)VS2

Now sum up the analyses we obtained for each input source individually:

Vo=-(R2/R1)VS1+ (R4/R3+R4)(1+R2/R1)VS2.

After this analyses, we must think to know how to make the output voltage a
functions of only difference between VS1 and VS2. Or we can say how to make
this circuit into differential amplifier.

Differential signals are very important and commonly used. Differential signal
can improve the performance of our circuit in the presence of interference:

## Vo= - (R2/R1)VS1 + (R2/R1)VS2 = R2/R1(VS2-VS1)

Current Source
The circuit in Fig 9 approximate an ideal current source with out the offset of a
transistor current source.

Negative feed back results in Vin at the inverting input, producing current
I=Vin/R through the load.

Biggest draw back with this circuit is floating load mean neither side grounded.
One way to getaway with this is to float the whole circuit., so that we can ground
one side of load.

Like in Figure 10

The circuit in the box is the previous current source, with its power supplies. R1
and R2 form a voltage divider. This circuit is good to generate current into a
source that is returned to ground. But the problem is that control input(input
voltage) is now floating.

So now we can not program the out put current with an input voltage referenced
to ground.

## An Op amp can be used to construct a current source as in fig 1. The

transistor can either be bi polar or field effect transistor. The
important point is that voltage at the top of R1 is controlled by
the Op amp out put voltage and current into the transistor base
is negligible in comparision to the output current. The circuit
could more properly be called current sinks, since out put
current is directed inside.

## Lets analyse the operation of the circuit. Vn must be +ve or else we

woul need transistor to pull current into emitter . npn can not do
this , pnp can do this.

## We assume vn > 0, the op amp is ideal. We can say that a virtual

short at the op amp inputs, we can say that vp=vn=v1(please
note that circuit works for only v1>0).
To make sure circuit is functioning properly , vary V1 and then see
what happens.

## if v1 increases a little , the differential input voltage of the op amp ,

vp –vn, will increase. We can say that differential input
increases by an amount \$. The op amp output voltage will
increase by \$a(where a is the gain of the op.)

the increase in op amp output voltage will in turn increase the vbe
of the transistor. Therefore current through transistor will
increase.

Since the ideal op amp input current is zero, we can say that
vn=vr1=ier1.

## Feed back reduces the magnitude of \$ and is negative. With an ideal

op amp, a goes to infinity and \$ will be driven to 0.(virtual
shorts).

We know that vn=v1, using ohm law we can say that plus op amp
input current is zero.

## Above relation show interesting thing and that is that transistor Ic

and VBE does not effect in out put current.

This independence occur because feed back forces the op amp out
put voltage, transistor vbe is whatever required to set vn equal
to v1. Must remember that this circuit only works for +ve v1.

## With an Op-amp and external transistor it is possible to make a simple high

quality current source for a load returned to ground.

Fig 11

In this circuit feed back forces a voltage vcc-vin across R, giving an emitter (an
out put current) IE=(vcc-vin)R. there are no vbe offsets, or their variations with
temperature.
Op amp will stabilizes the emitter current , where load sees the collector current.
Same circuit using FET transistor

In Fig 2

The analyses of the FET is same except that value of alpha is 1 for
MOSFET at low frequencies. The difference between two circuit:

## In bipolar transistor, voltage at the R1 is controlled by the op amp

out put whether or not collector of transistor is connected to
anything, since there is pn junction between base to emitter ,
current through R1 can be supplied by the om amp directly.

## In FET, there must be load connection, so that current can be

supplied to R1, otherwise gat voltage does not control the
voltage across R1, and negative feed back is gone.
Voltage regulators

## A voltage regulator is a circuit that ideally provides a constant voltage

independent of changes in the load, the temperature, the unregulated supply
from which it is driven.

An op amp can be used to perform part of the function of the voltage regulator,
as in fig 1.

This circuit is called series regulator, since regulator appears in series with the
unregulated supply Vcc and the load.

The transistor present is called pass transistor, since the load current pass
through it.

For a series regulator, the unregulated supply voltage must be larger than the
desired output.

## This circuit is an example of a non inverting amplifier .

The idea is that voltage reference provides an output voltage that is stable with
respect to changes in the unregulated supply,

It is fine to design a stable reference, if it does not need to provide much out put
current.

The pass transistor can be eliminated all together if the op amp can provide
sufficient current on its own. Anyway transistor is sometimes on separate silicon
because it dissipates most of the power in the circuit and there can be
significant problems with thermal feed back to the op amp internal circuit.
Frequency Dependant Op Amp Circuits

Circuits that are designed to have frequency dependent transfer functions are
called filters.

Filters that have op amps are called active filters because they include active
components , rather than passive RLC filters..

Unlike passive filters, active filters have power gain and low out put impedence.

## The integrator and first order low pass filter

Consider the op am circuit in fig 1. From the circuit we can say that it has a
negative feed back for all frequencies except DC(no frequency). Please note that
at DC , the impedence of the feed back capacitor does to infinity, and the feed
back is nonexistent.

We can say that negative feed back and ideal op amp will combine to produce a
virtual ground at the inverting input.

So we can say:

I1=Vs/R1

## And because input current to op amp is zero we can say that

I1 = If.

Note that voltage across the capacitor is proportional to the integral of the
current into it.

## If assume that capacitor is initially uncharged, the output voltage is proportional

to the integral of the source voltage:

## Vo(t)=-1/R1C1 integral from 0 to1 vs(taw)d(taw)

Now lets see what happen at DC, real op amp have some non zero offset voltage
that can be modelled as a voltage source in series with one of it input. In fig 2 we
have added this small source in series with non inverting input of an op amp .

## Now lets see the effect:

I1(t)= vs(t)-Voff/R1

## Vo(t)=voff(1+t/R1Cf)-1/R1Cf integral from 0 to t (vs(taw)d(taw).

Above shows that if the signal source set to zero, the output voltage will ramp
towards infinity just because of this finite DC offset voltage.

This shows that capacitors impedance goes to infinity at DC, so the DC gain of an
amplifier will be infinity. With an real amplifier, the gain of the circuit will not go
to infinity, but output will be limited by other mechanism.

To correct this problem, we either need a switch in parallal with the feed back
capacitor that will enable to periodically reset the voltage across to zero. In fig 3
show the integrator that has a finite DC gain.
Input current

The input terminals sink or source. A small current called input bias current Ib ,
which is defined as half of sum of the input current with the inputs tied
together(the two input currents are approximately equal and are simply the
base current or gate current of input transistor).

As a rough estimate, BJT input op amp have bias current in the tens of nano
amps. FET have inputs current in the tens of picoamps.

The importance of input bias current is that it causes a voltage drop across the
resistors of feed back network, bias network.

In general, transistor op-amps intended for high speed operation have higher
bias currents.

## Input offset current

In put offset current is the difference in input currents between the two inputs.

Unlike input bias current, the offset current Ios, is a result of manufacturing
variations.

## The significance is that even when it is driven by identical source impedances.

The op-amp will see unequal voltage drop and hence difference between its
inputs.

Input Impedance
Input impedance refers to the differential input resistance ( impedance looking
intone input, with the other input grounded).

Zin in practice raised to very high values and usually is not as important as input
bias current.

## Common-mode input range

The inputs to an op-amp must stay within a certain voltage range, typically a less
then full supply voltage, for proper operation.

If the inputs go beyond this range, the gain of the op-amp may change
drastically, even reversing sign.

For a 411 operating from +-15 volt supplies, the guaranteed common-mode
input range is +-11 volts.

However, manufacturer claims that 411 will operate with the common-mode
inputs all the way to that positive supply.
There are op-amps available with common-mode input ranges down to the
negative supply.

## Differential Input Range

Some bipolar op-amps allow only a limited voltage between the inputs,
sometimes as small as +-0.5 volt.

## Output Impedance; output swing versus load resistance

Out put impedance Ro means the op-amp’s intrinsic output impedance with out
feed back. For 411 it is about 40 ohms.

Feed back lowers the output into insignificance, so what usually matters more is
the maximum output current.

load resistance.

## Voltage gain and phase shift

Typically the voltage gain Avo at dc is 100,000 to 1,000,000, dropping to unity
gain a frequency (called fT)of 1Mhz to 10 Mhz.

frequency.

## Input offset voltage

Op amp do not have perfectly balance input stages, if you connect two input
together for zero input signal , the output will saturate at either vcc or vee.

The difference in input voltages necessary to bring the output to zero is called
the input offset voltage vos.

Slew rate
The op-amp capacitance and small drive current act together to limit the rate at
ahich output can change.

## this limiting speed is called slew rate .

Effect of op-amp limitation on the circuit behaviour

## Open loop gain

Because of finite open-loop gain, the voltage gain of the amplifier with feed
back(closed loop gain) will begin dropping at a frequency where open-loop gain
approaches R2/R1. As in figure 1:

This means that open-loop gain is down to 100 at 50Khz, that mean amplifier will
show noticeable falloff of gain of frequencies approaching 50 Khz.

Slew Rate

In fig 1. Because of limited slew rate, the maximum undistorted sine-wave output
swing, drops above a certain frequency.

The slew rate limitation of om-amp can usually be exploited to filter sharp noise
from signal.

Output current

Because of limited output current , am op-amp output swing is reduces for small
load resistances.

Offset voltage

## Because of input offset voltages, a zero input produces an output of

vout=GdcVos.

For an inverting amplifier with voltage gain of 100 built with 411, the out put
could be as large as +-0.2 v, when the input is grounded.

Solution:if we do not need dc gain then use capacitor to drop the gain to unity.

## Input bias current

Even with a perfectly trimmed op-amp(vos=0), out inverting amplifier circuit will
produce non zero output volts when its input terminal is connected to ground.
This is because of finite input bias current , IB, produces a voltage drop across
the resistors , which is then amplified by the circuit voltage gain.
In this circuit the inverting input sees a driving impedance of R1||R2, so that bias
current produces a voltage Vin=Ib(R1||R2), which is then amplified by the gain at
dc, -R2/R1.

With FET input op-amp the effect is negligible, but the substantial input current
of bipolar op-amps can cause real issue.

Ex. take a inverting amplifier with R1 = 10 K and R2 = 1M, Zin 10k. if we choose
low noise bi polar LM833, the output for grounded input could be
100*1000nA*9.9k or 0.99 volt.

## There are solution to this problems:

Differential Mode and Common Mode Signal

## A signal that is specified, generated, or measured as the difference in potential

between some node and ground is called a single ended or ground reference
signal. Some time even possible to express two single ended signals as a
differential signal. In fig 1(two single ended voltage sources VS1 and VS2). These
two sources are connected to two nodes called VA and VB in fig 2:

## From Fig 2 we can say that:

VA = VCM+VDM/2
Grounding , Differential-Mode signals and Interference
Rejection

## In normal circuit analyses, we assume that all connections to ground represent a

single node. In practice such a universal ground node does not exist, because all
connections are made with real conductors that have non zero resistance and
inductance.

For example: we are design control system for Air conditioning and Heating.

Such system use many sensors to measure air flow and temperature, these
sensors are often located at a considerable distance from control electronics.

## Consider just one of these sensors, and assume we want to connect it to

receiving amplifier in the control electronics:

Fig 1:

Fig 1 shows the connections of the sensors to the receiving amplifier. The wires
connecting the sensors to the amplifier are modelled by ideal conductor in
series with resistance , RW1 and RW2.

The sensor is modelled as a voltage source vs and its associated resistance Rs.

Node vg1 is the local ground at the sensor and node vg2 is the local ground at
the receive.

The amplifier is assume to have input resistance to local ground equal to Ri.

The local grounds are connected together by the wires of the distributed ground
system having resistance RG.

Because there may be current flow in the ground connection, we have no reason
to believe that two gound will have same potential.

In truth current from other electrical equipment flowing into the local ground
nodes can create differences in the ground potential that are quite large and also
time varying.

For the purpose of analysing the difference between grounds is denoted by VGD.

Analysing fig 1( we assume that we know VGD , we can treat this as voltage
source. Therefore Rw2 does not enter into the equation:

Vi =(Vs+VGS) Ri/Ri+Rs+Rw1.

From above we can say that Vi is not equal to Vs. it can be seen that signal is
attenuated going from Vs to Vi, but if Ri >> (RS+RW1), the loss can be
neglected.
A far more significant problem is that the unknow signal VGD, which has been
added to the desired signal VS. we can say that VGD represent the interference.

One way to solve this to use single point grounding scheme, which can be done
by disconnecting the sensor from its local ground at point “x”.

Vi=Vs Ri/Ri+Rs+RW1+RW2.

Above does not show an interference components because of VGD. Single point
grounding is often a good technique to avoid problem caused by differential
ground, but this has to be used with caution:

Single point grounding is fine at low frequencies for low level signal, but it can
cause problem at high frequencies. The impedance of the a wire increases
rapidly with increasing frequency because of inductance and skin effect of the
wire.

Another solution to the problem is to use differential amplifier for the receiver as
in fig 2:

In order to calculate the input voltage of the receiving amplifier, we will calculate
seperatly calculate the voltage at each of its input nodes, Vp and Vn.

To express these as single ended voltages, they will be calculated with respect to
the local ground at the receiving amplifier, using super position

Vp = vgd+vs(Rid+Rw2)/(Rid+Rw2+Rw1+Rs)

Vn= vgd+vs(Rw2/Rid+Rw2+Rw1+Rs)

## Vid = vp-vn = vn(Rid/Rid+Rw2+Rw1+Rs) eq 1

From above equation we saw that same interference signal Vgd, appears at the
both inputs of diff. amplifier, hence it is a common model signal. The differential
mode input signal given by eq1 is only the function of vs, means common mode
signal will be rejected by the op amp and will not appear at the output.

Conclusion: now we can see the use of differential amplifier. The input voltage of
a single ended amplifier is defined with respect to its own local ground.

## If the corresponding source voltage is generated with respect to a different

ground then difference in ground potentials will be added to the signal. On the
other hand, a differential amplifier, responds to the difference between two of
its inputs, so it own local ground does have to be in same loop as the desired
signal.

We can also see that diff. amplifier can be used to convert signal reference to
one ground into the same signal referenced to another ground.

Interference signals
1, If there are other signal wires close enough so that capacitance between those
lines and the sensors leads is significant, the signal can couple capacitively.

2, if the sensors leads are part of loop, changing magnetic magnetic field like
those around power lines can induce voltages in the loop, and

3, The sensors leads can act as antenna and pick up electro magnetic fields

In case 2 the interference produces a current in the input loop and will generate
a differential input, therefore, differential input amplifier will not help.

## In case 3, interference can be a combination of differential and common mode

components. The common mode can be rejected by diff. amplifier.

Diff. amp will also help the interference that couples into the circuit.

Interfernce capacitively coupling into the circuit as in fig 3. This figure does not
show the resistance of the sensors leads Rw1 and Rw2, since they are
comparatively small compared to Rs and Rid.

Interfering signals are represented as current source (i1 and i2) connected to
signal wires.

The local ground at the receiver is denoted by the symbol for chassis ground.

Once again, we calculate the voltages at vp and vn wit respect to the chasis
ground. We treat the ground differences vgd as it is voltage source.

## Using superposition, we find the components at vp due to i1 is(treat vgd as a

voltage source, therefore set it to zero).

Vp(due to i2)= 0

## Vid = vp –vn = vs(Rid/Rid+Rs) + i1(Rs||Rid)

We see from above that although the ground differences has been rejected , the
interference can result in differential mode signal at the input of the receiving
amplifier.
Solution to this problem fact that interference to both wires are almost same ,
assuming that two wires are physically located close to each other, which is
standard practice., we can say i1=i2.

The circuit can also be balanced by disconnecting the signal source from its local
ground connection, as with single point grounding scheme.

The two leads used in differential amplifier are often twisted together(called
twisted pair).

Twisting the wire together reduces the area of the loop that is formed.
decreasing the magnitude of the magnetically induced voltage.

Each twisted can be seen as small area loop. But voltage induced in adjacent
ywists have opposite signs, so they cancel each other out