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USDA Lighting Requirements

At a client’s request, USDA regulations have been reviewed for lighting level specifications that would be
applicable to inspection processes in a wet batch processing area. FDA, CFR and industry sources were
also reviewed.

Conclusions that were reached are these:


1- In general, the USDA most often specifies only that the lighting level should be of “good quality
and sufficient intensity” for the task being performed. The guiding document generally referred to
is 9 CFR 416.2(c).
2- Where a specific light intensity is given, 30-50fc is the most common minimum that is mentioned
by the USDA or FDA.
3- Intensities in excess of 100fc are only mentioned in the area of poultry inspection.
4- Industry experts give guidance in the 50-100fc range for inspection procedures, with one expert
suggesting 110-130fc.
5- By targeting 100fc intensity in the wet batch process area, the client should be safely above any
applicable USDA requirement and in conformance with the suggestions from most industry
experts.

The paragraphs below are excerpts from the guidance that was located:

 9 CFR 416
TITLE 9--ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS
CHAPTER III--FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
PART 416_SANITATION
Sec. 416.2 Establishment grounds and facilities.
(c) Light. Lighting of good quality and sufficient intensity to ensure that sanitary conditions are
maintained and that product is not adulterated must be provided in areas where food is processed,
handled, stored, or examined; where equipment and utensils are cleaned; and in hand-washing
areas, dressing and locker rooms, and toilets.

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 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE
WASHINGTON, DC
FSIS DIRECTIVE
5000.1
Revision 1, 5/21/03

Verifying an Establishment’s Food Safety System


I. PURPOSE
This directive issues FSIS Handbook 5000.1, Verifying an Establishment’s Food Safety System. This
handbook provides comprehensive direction to FSIS field personnel on how they are to protect the
public health by properly verifying an establishment’s compliance with the pathogen reduction,
sanitation, and HACCP regulations.

PART IV -- Lighting
A. What is the regulation related to lighting?
Section 416.2 (c) states: Lighting of good quality and sufficient intensity to ensure that sanitary
conditions are maintained and that product is not adulterated must be provided in areas where food is
processed, handled, stored, or examined; where equipment and utensils are cleaned; and in hand-
washing areas, dressing and locker rooms, and toilets.
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B. How are CSIs to go about verifying this regulation?


When verifying compliance with 9 CFR 416.2(c), the CSI should assess the lighting in the facility in
one or more areas. While in these areas verifying these requirements, the CSI needs to seek
answers to questions like the following:
1. Are the intensity and quality of lighting adequate for the establishment to determine that the
products being processed, handled, stored, or examined are unadulterated, and that sanitary
conditions are maintained?
2. Are the intensity and quality of lighting adequate for the establishment to determine that equipment
and utensils are appropriately cleaned?
3. Are the intensity and quality of lighting adequate in the hand-washing areas, dressing and locker
rooms, and toilets for the establishment to determine that sanitary conditions are maintained?

C. Example of decision making in judging whether there is compliance with this provision.
Since this section of the regulation does not set specific amounts of lighting required, the CSI cannot
go to an area of the establishment with a light meter and make a compliance determination. When the
CSI is verifying this requirement performing the 06D01 procedure, he or she will have to use good
judgment and a sound decision making process to determine compliance. The CSI may observe an
area of the establishment that appears to have inadequate lighting. He or she must assess the
condition in that area to determine whether the lighting is adequate for the establishment to ensure
that sanitary conditions are maintained, and that product is not adulterated. If this is the case, there is
compliance with this provision. If the lighting is not adequate to ensure that sanitary conditions are
maintained and that product is not adulterated, there is noncompliance with this provision. For
example, if the lighting is not adequate to enable establishment employees to determine whether a
substance on product is fecal material, the lighting is inadequate, and there is noncompliance.

CSIs will document any noncompliance in a manner that accords with Chapter IV of this document.

PART II -- Documentation of SPS Noncompliance

A. What are the general procedures for documenting the SPS verification activities?
The CSI performs ISP procedure 06D01 to verify compliance with the SPS regulations.
Noncompliance is the failure of an establishment to meet one or more regulatory requirements. Every
time the CSI finds that the establishment is not meeting the SPS requirements, he or she should
document the noncompliance on an NR. If the noncompliance is failure by the establishment to
comply with the SPS, the Food Safety block is checked on the NR.

There are four trend indicators associated with procedure 06D01. Those trend indicators are lighting,
structural, outside premises, and product based. Only one of these trend indicators can be used for
each NR issued. If more than one trend indicator applies, the CSI should use the most appropriate
one to describe the noncompliance. If the determination has been made that there is regulatory
noncompliance, the CSI should include the regulation citation in Block 6 of the NR.

B. When is the lighting trend indicator used?


The lighting trend indicator is used when there is noncompliance with lighting requirements. If
inadequate light causes the quality or intensity of lighting to be inadequate to determine whether the
products are being processed, handled, stored, or examined under sanitary conditions, and thus
whether the product is not adulterated, the lighting trend indicator should be marked on the NR (see
Chapter I, Part IV).

NOTE: The CSI should realize that there might be less than perfect situations that do not constitute
noncompliance. If one light is inoperable, but its absence does not cause the intensity or quality of the
lighting to be inadequate to determine whether the products are being processed, handled, stored, or
examined under sanitary conditions, and thus whether the product is not adulterated, there is no
noncompliance.
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 [Federal Register: October 20, 1999 (Volume 64, Number 202)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Page 56400-56418]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr20oc99-3]

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Food Safety and Inspection Service
9 CFR Parts 303, 304, 307, 308, 312, 314, 327, 331, 350, 381, and 416
[Docket No. 96-037F]
Sanitation Requirements for Official Meat and Poultry Establishments
AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA.

ACTION: Final rule.

SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is revising its regulatory requirements
concerning sanitation in official meat and poultry establishments. Specifically, FSIS is consolidating
the sanitation regulations into a single part applicable to both official meat and poultry establishments,
eliminating unnecessary differences between the sanitation requirements for meat and poultry
processing, and converting many of the highly prescriptive sanitation requirements to performance
standards.

EFFECTIVE DATES: January 25, 2000.

Light: Proposed Sec. 416.2(c)

Comment: A few commenters opposed the proposed performance standard that establishments
provide ``Lighting of good quality and sufficient intensity to ensure that sanitary conditions are
maintained and that product is not adulterated * * *'' These commenters maintained that by allowing
establishments to determine whether light quality and intensity is sufficient, FSIS, in fact, would be
allowing establishments to provide lighting that is not sufficient to ensure sanitation. One commenter
doubted that establishments would follow the recommendations for lighting contained in the Food
Code, as suggested by FSIS. Another commenter recommended that FSIS maintain the existing 30-
foot candle requirement for light intensity at poultry working surfaces and extend the same
requirement to meat establishments.

Response: FSIS disagrees. FSIS does not believe it is necessary to prescribe specific light
intensities to ensure sanitation in meat and poultry processing areas because establishments must
determine what light intensities are appropriate to ensure sanitation in different operational contexts.
Importantly, however, as with all of the sanitation performance standards, FSIS will continue to verify
through inspection that the lighting meets the performance standard.

The previous requirements for lighting in poultry establishments in Sec. 381.52 prescribed specific
light intensities for different areas of the establishment. For example, FSIS required that all rooms in
which poultry was killed, eviscerated, or otherwise processed have 30-foot candles of light intensity
on all working surfaces. The comparable regulations for red meat establishments in Sec. 308.3(b) did
not contain such specific requirements, but required only that meat establishments have ``abundant
light, of good quality and well distributed.'' However, the intent of these requirements was the same
for both meat and poultry establishments: there must be enough light of adequate quality to monitor
sanitary conditions and processing operations and to examine product for evidence of adulteration.
New Sec. 416.2(c) establishes this intent as a single performance standard applicable to both meat
and poultry establishments, which is wholly consistent with the purpose of the current regulations.

It also is important to note that FSIS is not rescinding the specific light intensity requirements for
inspection program employee and reprocessing stations set out in Secs. 307.2 and 381.36. FSIS has
determined that these specific requirements are still necessary to ensure appropriate conditions for
effective inspection.
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 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/frpubs/sanitationguide.htm#416.2(c)
Sanitation Performance Standards Compliance Guide

§ 416.2(c) Light.
Lighting of good quality and sufficient intensity to ensure that sanitary conditions are maintained and
that product is not adulterated must be provided in areas where food is processed, handled, stored,
or examined; where equipment and utensils are cleaned; and in hand-washing areas, dressing and
locker rooms, and toilets.

Comments
Establishments should keep in mind that their lighting should be sufficient not only to allow their own
employees to maintain sanitation and prevent product adulteration, but also to allow FSIS inspection
personnel to verify that conditions are sanitary and product is not adulterated. This does not mean,
however, that lighting sufficiency is to be determined subjectively, by the inspector. Establishments
must determine which intensities and qualities of light are appropriate in different processing
environments. FSIS will direct its inspection personnel to make judgments accordingly.
Establishments also should keep in mind the specific lighting intensity requirements for inspector and
reprocessing stations, in § 307.2 and 381.36 of the regulations, are still in effect.

Food Code (FDA)


6-303.11 Intensity.
The light intensity shall be:
(A) At least 110 lux (10 foot candles) at a distance of 75 cm (30 inches) above the floor, in walk-in
refrigeration units and dry food storage areas and in other areas and rooms during periods of
cleaning;
(B) At least 220 lux (20 foot candles):
(1) At a surface where food is provided for consumer self-service such as buffets and salad bars or
where fresh produce or packaged foods are sold or offered for consumption;
(2) Inside equipment such as reach-in and under-counter refrigerators;
(3) At a distance of 75 cm (30 inches) above the floor in areas used for hand washing, ware washing,
and equipment and utensil storage, and in toilet rooms; and
(C) At least 540 lux (50 foot candles) at a surface where a food employee is working with food or
working with utensils or equipment such as knives, slicers, grinders, or saws where employee safety
is a factor.

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 Food Safety and Inspection Service
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Washington, D.C. 20250-3700
Pathogen Reduction/HACCP & HACCP Implementation
September 20, 2000
Section 416.2(c) - Lighting
During an in-plant visit, the front line supervisor should correlate with inspection personnel to
determine whether or not the lighting is sufficient to examine product, and to monitor and maintain
sanitary conditions. Do inspection personnel in poultry establishments understand that FSIS no
longer has a specific requirement (e.g., 30-foot candles) for light intensity? Do inspection personnel
understand that the requirements for lighting related to inspection and reprocessing stations remain in
effect?

§ 416.2(c) Light.
Lighting of good quality and sufficient intensity to ensure that sanitary conditions are maintained and
that product is not adulterated must be provided in areas where food is processed, handled, stored,
or examined; where equipment and utensils are cleaned; and in hand-washing areas, dressing and
locker rooms, and toilets.
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Comments
Establishments should keep in mind that their lighting should be sufficient not only to allow
their own employees to maintain sanitation and prevent product adulteration, but also to allow
FSIS inspection personnel to verify that conditions are sanitary and product is not
adulterated. This does not mean, however, that lighting sufficiency is to be determined
subjectively, by the inspector. Establishments must determine which intensities and qualities
of light are appropriate in different processing environments. FSIS will direct its inspection
personnel to make judgments accordingly.

Establishments also should keep in mind the specific lighting intensity requirements for
inspector and reprocessing stations, in § 307.2 and 381.36 of the regulations, are still in
effect.

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 Food Code - 2001
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Public Health Service
Food and Drug Administration
Washington, DC 20204

Functionality
6-202.11 Light Bulbs, Protective Shielding.
(A) Except as specified in (B) of this section, light bulbs shall be shielded, coated, or otherwise shatter
resistant in areas where there is exposed FOOD; clean EQUIPMENT, UTENSILS, and LINENS; or
unwrapped SINGLE-SERVICE and SINGLE-USE ARTICLES.
(B) Shielded, coated, or otherwise shatter-resistant bulbs need not be used in areas used only for
storing FOOD in unopened packages, if:
(1) The integrity of the packages cannot be affected by broken glass falling onto them; and
(2) The packages are capable of being cleaned of debris from broken bulbs before the
packages are opened.
(C) An infrared or other heat lamp shall be protected against breakage by a shield surrounding and
extending beyond the bulb so that only the face of the bulb is exposed.

Lighting
6-303.11 Intensity.
The light intensity shall be:
(A) At least 110 lux (10 foot candles) at a distance of 75 cm (30 inches) above the floor, in walk-in
refrigeration units and dry FOOD storage areas and in other areas and rooms during periods of
cleaning;
(B) At least 220 lux (20 foot candles):
(1) At a surface where FOOD is provided for CONSUMER self-service such as buffets and
salad bars or where fresh produce or PACKAGED FOODS are sold or offered for
consumption;
(2) Inside EQUIPMENT such as reach-in and under -counter refrigerators;
(3) At a distance of 75 cm (30 inches) above the floor in areas used for hand washing,
WAREWASHING, and EQUIPMENT and utensil storage, and in toilet rooms; and
(C) At least 540 lux (50 foot candles) at a surface where a FOOD EMPLOYEE is working with FOOD
or working with UTENSILS or EQUIPMENT such as knives, slicers, grinders, or saws where
employee safety is a factor.

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 USDA, FSIS
CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (cGMP’s)
21 CFR § 110
Title 21 -- Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Regulations
Subpart B—Buildings and Facilities.
§ 110.20 Plant and Grounds.
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(5) Provide adequate lighting in hand-washing areas, dressing and locker rooms, and toilet rooms
and in all areas where food is examined, processed, or stored and where equipment or utensils are
cleaned; and provide safety-type light bulbs, fixtures, skylights, or other glass suspended over
exposed food in any step of preparation or otherwise protect against food contamination in case of
glass breakage.

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 7 CFR 58
Code of Federal Regulations
Title 7, Volume 3
Revised as of January 1, 2008
TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE
CHAPTER I--AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE \1\ (STANDARDS, INSPECTIONS,
MARKETING PRACTICES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)
PART 58_GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS
AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS\1
Subpart B_General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading
Service\1\
Sec. 58.126 Buildings.
(d) Lighting and ventilation. (1) Light shall be ample, natural or artificial, or both, of good quality and
well distributed. All rooms in which dairy products are manufactured or packaged or where utensils
are washed shall have at least 30 foot-candles of light intensity on all working surfaces. Rooms where
dairy products are graded or examined for condition and quality shall have at least 50 foot-candles of
light intensity on the working surface. Restrooms and locker rooms should have at least 30 foot-
candles of light intensity. In all other rooms there shall be provided at least 5 foot-candles of light
intensity when measured at a distance of 30 inches from the floor. Where contamination of product by
broken glass is possible, light bulbs and fluorescent tubes shall be protected against breakage.

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 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION
FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE
SANITATION INSPECTION HANDBOOK, CHAPTER 3, PLANT FACILITY 3/28/97
3.2 PLANTS
b. Plant Construction. Plant buildings and structures should be designed and constructed to facilitate
maintenance and sanitary operations.
(4) Lighting. Effective cleanup procedures, sanitary processing and handling of products, as
well as sanitary practices in all areas of the plant are difficult unless adequate lighting is
available. Such lighting must be provided to all areas where food or food ingredients are
processed, examined, or stored; where equipment and utensils are washed; and to hand-
washing areas, dressing and locker rooms, and toilet rooms. The overall intensity of artificial
illumination in workrooms should not be less than 20-foot candles when measured at the
work surface area. The illumination should not be less than 50-foot candles when measured
at the work surface areas at all places where product or container inspections or
examinations are made by the inspector.

Since broken glass is a serious contaminant, light bulbs, fixtures, skylights, or other glass
suspended over food in any stage of preparation should be of the safety type or otherwise
protected to prevent food contamination in case of breakage.

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 9 CFR 381
TITLE 9--ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS
CHAPTER III--FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
PART 381_POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS
Subpart G_Facilities for Inspection; Overtime and Holiday Service; Billing Establishments
Sec. 381.36 Facilities required.
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(c) Facilities for the Streamlined Inspection System (SIS). The following requirements for lines
operating under SIS are in addition to the normal requirements to obtain a grant of inspection. The
requirements for SIS in Sec. 381.76(b) also apply.
(1) The following provisions shall apply to every inspection station:
(vii) A minimum of 200-footcandles of shadow-free lighting with a minimum color rendering
index value of 85 where the birds are inspected to facilitate inspection.

(2) The following provisions shall apply only to pre-chill and post-chill re-inspection
stations:
(iv) A minimum of 200-footcandles of shadow-free lighting with a minimum color rendering
index of 85 on the table surface shall be provided.

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 University of Missouri Extension
G1403, Reviewed October 1993
Poultry Farm and Processing Plant Lighting
Joseph M. Zulovich, Department of Agricultural Engineering
Table 1
Recommended illumination levels for poultry farm and industry tasks
Fowl processing plant
Government inspecting and grading
100 foot- candles

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 University of Florida, IFAS Extension
Sanitary Design and Construction of Food Processing and Handling Facilities
2
Ronald H. Schmidt and Daniel J. Erickson

Interior Lighting
Adequate lighting is important for all operations conducted in a food facility. This is especially true in
cleaning and sanitizing and related operations. Recommended lighting levels vary between
regulatory officials and other sources. A general suggested range of lighting recommendations
has been presented in Table 1.

Table 1.
Light Intensity
Area
(Foot Candles)
Raw material receiving 20 - 30
Ingredient warehouse 20 - 30
Bulk ingredient storage 30 - 40
Processing departments 55 - 65
Product inspection 110 - 130
Packaging 70 - 80
Finished product warehouse 20 - 30
Maintenance areas 70 - 80
Administrative offices 60 - 90
Cafeteria 40 - 50
Locker rooms/restrooms 30 - 50
Light fixtures should be of the type approved for food facilities, and should be equipped with break
resistant lenses or shatterproof shielding. The fixtures should be designed to be moisture resistant
and cleanable.