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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA

Instituto Nacional de Investigación


y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

COMUNICACIONES MÓVILES

Msc. Henry A. Vasquez


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Arquitectura de comunicaciones. Fundamentos


de Telefonía Móvil. Evolución, Conceptos de
celda, clúster, sectorización, interferencias

Msc. Henry A. Vasquez


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Radio Interface Evolution: From 2G to 4G


4G
3.5G •  2 Mbps
3G
for Macro Cells
2.5G UMTS •  100 Mbps
2G for Indoor
• EUDCH
GSM  4 Mbps

• WCDMA: • HSDPA • MIMO


 2 Mbps  10 Mbps  ? Mbps
Phase 2+ 5 MHz band • UMTS850/1700 • WLAN
• HSCSD: < 57.6 (115) kbps • IMT-2000 • TD-SCDMA Integration
Phase 2 • GPRS: < 171.2 kbit/s  2 Mbps  54 Mbps
Phase 1 • EDGE: < 473.6 kbit/s 1.6 MHz band 20 MHz band
Data:
Data: 200 kHz band • UMTS1800/1900
0.3 - 9.6 kbps
0.3 - 9.6 kbps • GSM-R; GSM850/700; ‘99 R5
R4 R6 R7
200 kHz band • GSM1900
• GSM450/480

• GSM900/1800 ‘96 ‘97 ‘98 ‘99


Annual Release
2015?
1990/91 1994 97 98 99 1999/2000 01 02 04 06 year
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
In the beginning: archaic mobile communications
• Optical transmission
(smoke/light signals,...)
Electronic
• Acoustic transmission ,...)
(drums, alpine horns communications:
“fixed networks”
• Morse code
1st telegraph line: 1843
Washington - Baltimore
• Telephony
P. Reis (1861)
A.G.Bell(1876)
Philadelphia
World Fair:

Wireless transmission
1873 Maxwell‘s theory: electromagnetic wave
1887 H. Hertz: Exp. proof
1897 Marconi: 1st wireless transmission
1901 1st trans-Atlantic signaling
1903 Dt. Telefunken GmbH: AEG, Siemens&Halske
1906 1st speech and audio transmission
1909 1st radio program
1917: 1st mobile data transfer: radio transmitter - moving train
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

First mobile communications services


Car telephone service
Single cell systems: since 1946 (St. Louis, USA)
• No handover, small service area
• Poor service and speech quality
• Manual switching
• Cumbersome, bulky, expensive equipment
• Used up until the 1980’s
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Mobile communications: History


Quantum leap in mobile communications:
Single cell systems cellular systems

Radius
r

Reusability distance
Cellular systems: 1st generation
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Principle of cellular
Instituto Nacional networks
de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
2
 Frequency
2 7 3
Re-Use
7 3 1
1 6 4
6 4 5 2
5 2 7
7 3 1
Cluster 1 6
6 4 5
5
Frequency Year of
Country System range [MHz] introduction
Introduction of USA AMPS 800 1979
Japan NTT-MTS 800 1979
1st Generation Scandinavia NMT 450, 900 1981 - 86
(1G) Great Britain TACS 900 1985
Germany C450 450 1985
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Roaming & Handover

BS
MS

BS

Cellular networks
 growth in mobile communications > 50%/year
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Limitations of 1st mobile comms. generation

 Capacity
 Quality
 Incompatibility

European mobile comms.


market at start of 1990’s
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Mobile communications: History

PDC
GSM D-AMPS

IRIDIUM IS-95 CDMA


The digital revolution:
2nd generation mobile communications (2G)
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Advantages of digital data transmission


• Network capacity  Speech compression
• Service offer  Signaling
• Costs  Production, operation, maintenance
• Miniaturization  Microelectronics
• Transmission quality  Regenerability
• Security  Easy to encrypt
Encryption
sequence

Input Output
ENCRYPTION
data data
MODULE
(plain text) (encoded text)
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

S/N
signal
quality

Quality of digital & analog signal transmission r


Distance from transmitter
analog signal
digital signal
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Overview: Pagingsystems
Instituto Nacional
Paging de Investigación
systems e.g. ERMES
Mobil comm.y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
systems
Cordless Telephone CT Cordless Telephone
Differences: e.g. CT1, 1+ e.g. DECT,
PACS , PHS

• Target groups
• Price Wireless
• Service Cordless Local Loop
telephone cell
• Extent of coverage WLL
• Mobility
• ...
Private Mobile Radio Private Mobile Radio
PMR e.g. TETRA

Cellular systems Cellular systems


e.g. C450, NMT, AMPS e.g. GSM, D-AMPS, IS-95

MSS MSS
e.g. INMARSAT e.g. IRIDIUM, ICO,
Globalstar

1G (analog) 2G (digital)
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
2G: Cellular systems
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones PDC:
GSM: Personal Digital Cellular
since 1993/94
Global System for
Mobile Communication Japan only
since 1992 800 & 1500 MHz
approx. 43 m. users
Global:
approx. 140 countries
900, 1800 &
1900 MHz
Users: approx. 200 m.

D-AMPS:
Digital AMPS IS-95:
since 1991/92 Interim Standard-95
mainly USA, Canada since 1995
800 & 1900 MHz global, mainly
Users:approx. 15 m. America & S. Korea
+ 60 m. AMPS 800 & 1900 MHz,
1700 MHz (Korea)
Date: 09/99 Users: approx. 35 m.
UNIVERSIDAD Evolution
The GSM Standard: NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
CEPT reserves y Capacitación
CEPT de Telecomunicaciones
Comparison of Permanent
2 x 25 MHz for founds GSM: technical expert
European “Groupe implementation team meetings
mobile comms. Special Mobile“ concepts
1978 1982 1984-86 1986

GSM renamed as:


Specification of Ratification of
ETSI Global System
transmission technologies GSM Standard

Fig. 13 (TM2201EU02AL_01 Mobile Communications: History, 27)


founded for Mobile
GSM MoU founded (Phase 1)
Communication
1987 1988 1989 1990

TheRecommendations
Series Topic Series Topic
00 Preamble 07.xx Terminal Adaptors for MS
01.xx General 08.xx BS-MSC Interface
02.xx Service Aspects 09.xx Network Interworking
03.xx Network Aspects 10.xx Service Interworking
04.xx MS/BS Interface & Protocols 11.xx Equipment &
05.xx Physical Layer of the Radio Path Type Approval Specifications
06.xx Speech Coding 12.xx Operation & Maintenance
AdaptationsUNIVERSIDAD
of the NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
GSM StandardInstituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Frequency band Usable Deployment area


[MHz] HF channels
GSM900 890 - 915 / 935 - 960 124 Globally except for
E-GSM 880 - 915 / 925 - 960 174 USA

GSM1800 1710 - 1785 / 1805 - 1880374 Globally except for


USA
GSM1900 1850 - 1910 / 1930 - 1990Jointly with other USA
standards
GSM-R 876 - 880 / 921 - 925 19 Railways

Annual Release `98: Feasibility Study GSM 450


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
GSM: Implementation in an
Instituto Nacional evolutionary concept
de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Original concept:
• Closed standard
• Lifetime until standardization
Successive standard (3rd Generation)

Services Downward-compatible

Phase 2+
Phase 2 Phase 2
Phase 1 Phase 1 Phase 1

1991 1995 1997 Year


Speech connections FR, Wide range of supple- Annual Releases
standard services mentary services
data: max. 9.6 kbit/s comparable to ISDN •New supp. services
Decision to demand • IN applications
• New data services
downward compatibility
(high data rates)
MilestonesUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
in GSM history
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación
Conclusion of GSM1800 (DCS); de Telecomunicaciones
Start of First non--
GSM900
Start “friendly user“ commercial European networks;
Standard operation operation 1 m. subscribers
(Phase 1)
1990 1991 1992 1993

Breakthrough: 10 years MoU:


GSM1900 (PCS); GSM Phase 2+: 109 countries,
GSM as
GSM Phase 2; Annual Rel. `96 239 networks
quasi
Frequencies: GSM-R 44 m. subscribers
global standard
1995 1996 1997

Rel `97; Rel `98;


Rel `99;
Dual-band devices; Triple-band devices;
GPRS networks;
GSM-R networks; Satellite roaming;
Multi-band/mode devices
100 m. subscribers 200 m. subscribers

1998 1999 2000


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
IS-95 Nacional
Instituto CDMAdeStandard
Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
based on CDMA principle

• 1989 Qualcomm demo system


• 1990 Test operation (N.Y.)
• 1993 TIA: IS-95 Standard (800-MHz band)
• 1994 Dual-mode IS-95/AMPS
• 1995 ANSI standard (1900-MHz band)

Extent of IS-95 CDMA networks


• 1995 Hong Kong
• 1996 Korea (2), Peru (1), USA (6) IS-95 CDMA frequencies:
• 1997 Canada, other networks in Korea, USA 800-MHz band
• 1998 72 networks in operation / test op. / setup 1900-MHz band
approx. 15 m. subscribers 1700-MHz band (Korea)
• 1999 35 m. users (mainly USA, Canada, S. Korea)

IS-95  GSM
Comparison is difficult;
minor advantages/disadvantages
between the 2G systems
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Mobile Satellite
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
Systemsy Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
10,000
MSS - 20,000 km

MEO
(Medium -
Earth Orbital)
700
Erde - 1500 km
GEO
(GEOstationary LEO
Orbital) (Low Earth
Orbital)
Service of (in):
Versorgung von / bei:
--sparsely populated,
unwegsame, geringinaccessible areas
approx.
.
bevölkerte Gebiete
--areas with poor
schlechter infrastructure
Infrastruktur 36,000 km
--at sea
Hochsee
--catastrophe areas
Katastrophengebiete
--areas with
Ausfall no other
anderer supply
Versorgung
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
MSS Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
applications Speech,
data
DATA Voice
(Fax, e-mail, GPS 2

Internet,
multimedia) Data
packets

1st Generation 2nd Generation LES1


Fixed network Gateway
MARISAT Iridium,Globalstar SAN: Satellite
INMARSAT ICO, ORBCOMM Cellular networks Access note
Teledesic , Skybridge 2
• GEO satellites Global 1
Land
• State operators • MEO, LEO satellites Positioning Earth
• Analog transmission • Private operators System
• Digital transmission Station
• Maritime satellite
systems • All areas and regions Start (planned):
(aeronautical
, (including north/south poles ORBCOMM 4/95 - 99
land-mobile) • Many channels - mass market Iridium 11/98
• Few channels • “International “ prices Globalstar
Roaming 10/99
• High prices • “Handhelds “ ICO (1Q2000)
• Terminals Skybridge, Teledesic : (2002/03)
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Why Handover? - 1G:


• When a mobile is moving,
sometimes that will be away from
the serving cell and toward
another cell.
With Handover
• Eventually the new cell will offer
better coverage to the user.
• Without handover, the new cell
becomes an interferer

Without Handover
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

CONCEPTO CELULAR
• Ideado por Douglas H. Ring en 1947. (Bell Labs)
• División de la zona de cobertura en pequeñas células
(tamaño variable en función de la demanda de trafico y
disposición de la geografía).
• La células pueden utilizar las mismas frecuencias pero a
distancias lo suficiente para evitar interferencias (2G) o la
misma frecuencia en las celdas pero utilizando distintos
códigos (3G, 4G…).
• El tráfico atendido es proporcional a la superficie de la zona
(zonas pequeñas y trafico pequeño se atienden con menos
recursos)
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Concepto Celular
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SISTEMAS PRECELULARES
 Gran zona de cobertura :
potencias elevadas
 Reinicio de llamadas al cambiar
de célula
 Limitación en el número de
usuarios activos.

Caracteristicas:
– Baja capacidad
– Elevada Prob. de bloqueo
– Pobre eficiencia espectral N: Número de canales
BT: Banda total del sistema
BR: Banda de un canal
S: Superficie
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

CLUSTER
• Llamado también Agrupación Celular
• Grupo de celdas que utilizan n canales diferentes.
• Cada clúster tiene un conjunto de n canales.

• Cuando menor es el tamaño del clúster, será menor el


numero de frecuencias que requerirá ya que las celdas
reciben menos trafico
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SISTEMAS CELULARES

 Sistemas basados en la reutilización de frecuencias en celdas


suficientemente alejadas para no interferirse
 Cobertura dividida en células (baja potencia)
 Hexágonos (permiten teselación con área similar al círculo)
– Tamaño de la célula depende del tráfico
– Estaciones base interconectadas
– Agrupacion de células en clusters
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

EFICIENCIA DE SISTEMAS CELULARES


 En un cluster se utilizan todos los radiocanales.
 Usuarios de distintos clusters usan simultáneamente el mismo radiocanal
(aumenta eficiencia )
 La estructura se diseña para reducir la interferencia cocanal.

NC número de celdas en la superficie S


K es el factor de reuso (num. células por cluster)

La eficiencia se incrementa respecto al caso no celular:


Cuanto mayor sea Nc (más celdas y más pequeñas)
Cuanto menor sea K (clusters más pequeños)
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

INTERFERENCIAS Y DISTANCIA DE REUSO

La distancia de reuso
adecuada vendrá dada
por la relación señal a
interferente necesaria.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

INTERFERENCIAS Y DISTANCIA DE REUSO


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

INTERFERENCIAS Y DISTANCIA DE REUSO


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

INTERFERENCIAS Y DISTANCIA DE REUSO


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

INTERFERENCIAS Y DISTANCIA DE REUSO


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SECTORIZACIÓN
Mediante el empleo de antenas direccionales es posible subdividir una celda en
sectores y reducir la interferencia, incrementando la eficiencia (el cluster puede ser
más pequeño)
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

GEOMETRIA DE LAS REDES CELULARES

• Se estudian coberturas de tipo poligonal que


recubran el plano sin solape. Suponiendo que
se coloca la estación base en el baricentro del
polígono y que el radio de cobertura R es la
distancia del baricentro a un vértice, las
superficies de los polígonos son:
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

GEOMETRIA DE LAS REDES CELULARES

• Triángulo S  3 3R 2 / 4
• Cuadrado S  2R 2
• Hexágono S  3 3R 2 / 2

Para un radio de cobertura fijo R, el hexágono proporciona mayor superficie de células, por
lo que la utilizando hexágonos será mínimo el número de células necesario para
la cobertura de un área determinada
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

GEOMETRIA DE LAS REDES CELULARES

Superficie de la célula :
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Diseño de la Red Radio Celular


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Coverage Area CA in Dimensioning


– After cell radius has been determined, Coverage Area CA can be
calculated
– When calculating Coverage Area, traditional hexagonal model is taken
into account

R
R

Omni- or
6-sectored Site Bi-sector Tri-sector
CA = 2.6 R2 CA = 1.73 R2 CA = 1.95 R2
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Coverage Area – Hexagons vs. Cells


• Three hexagons • Three cells
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

División celular ("cell-splitting")


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

TIPOS DE CÉLULAS
 MACRO-CÉLULAS
 MICRO-CÉLULAS
 PICO-CÉLULAS

 CELULA MULTICAPA
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Clasificación de las celdas


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

TIPOS DE ENTORNOS
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Cell characteristics resume


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Type and applications for cells

Source : Small Cell Forum


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Mobile broadband can be seen like this …
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

… or like this view


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Radio Access Network(RAN) Architecture


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Radio Access Network(RAN) - Architecture

3GPP - Access Networks from GSM to LTE


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Radio Access Network(RAN) – 2G,3G Architecture


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Radio Access Network(RAN) : 2G, 3G

Um

Uu
BSC Abis BTS

RNC Iub nodeB


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Radio Access Network(RAN) – 4G Architecture


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Radio Access Network(RAN) : 4G

LTE-Uu interface
• Air interface of LTE
• Based on OFDMA in DL and SC-FDMA in UL
• FDD and TDD duplex methods
• Scalable bandwidth 1.4MHz to currently 20
MHz
X2 interface
Ue • Inter eNB interface
• X2AP: special signalling protocol
• Functionalities:
– In inter- eNB HO to facilitate handover and
provide data forwarding.
– In RRM to provide e.g. load information to
neighbouring eNBs to facilitate interference
management
– Logical interface: It does not need direct site-
to-site connection
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Core Network (CN) - Architecture


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Core Network (CN) – 2G, 3G


TS 23.002
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Core Network (CN) – 4G Evolved Packet Core


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Core Network (CN) – 4G Evolved Packet Core


S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces and Protocols
S1 interface is divided into two parts:

S1-MME interface
• Control interface between eNB and MME
• S1AP:S1 Application Protocol
• MME and UE will exchange non-access
stratum signaling via eNB through this
interface (i.e. authentication, tracking area
updates)

S1-U interface
• User plane interface between eNB and
serving gateway
• Pure user data interface (U=User plane)
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

WIRELESS NETWORK OF THE WIRELESS NETWORK OF THE


PRESENT FUTURE
. Insufficient Spectrum . Balanced Portfolio of Licensed and Unlicensed
. Capacity Constrained Spectrum
. Competitive Alternative to Wireline for Some . Significantly Greater Capacity
. Competitive Alternative to Wireline for Many

Macro Cells Will


Continue to Provide
Coverage

Wi-Fi Adds Capacity


but Only in Subset of
Coverage Area

Small Cells at Higher


Frequencies for
Capacity

NETWORK DESIGN:
NETWORK DESIGN: • Smaller cells on average
• Larger cells on average • Many small cells
• Some small cells • Many advanced radio methods (smart antennas, etc.)
• Some advanced radio methods • Wi-Fi and cellular work together in integrated network
• Wi-Fi and cellular mostly operate independently • Selective sharing of spectrum with government
• Limited sharing of spectrum with government • Frequencies: current cellular bands and higher
• Frequencies: current cellular (600 MHz to 2.5 GHz) frequencies, including mmWave
• Total spectrum used: approximately 1GHz • Total spectrum used: many GHz
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Radio Access Network(RAN) Architecture


Access Technologies - Interworking
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Operations and Business Support Systems


Operating Support Systems (OSS) assemble services and assure network
performance. They help operators plan, build and optimize their network.

When you want to make a call, send or receive a file, watch a video, chat, or use an
app, the OSS makes sure the network can handle your request, no matter where
you are.

Software (occasionally hardware) applications that support back-office activities


which operate a telco’s network, provision and maintain customer services.
OSS is traditionally used by network planners, service designers, operations,
architects, support, and engineering teams in the service provider. Increasingly
product managers and senior staff under the CTO or COO may also use or rely on
OSS to some extent.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Operations and Business Support Systems

Business Support Systems (BSS) enable operators to manage accounts and


payments, customer support, and service modification.

When you buy a new service for your devices, top up your pre-paid account, pay
your bills, buy and activate a new device, check your data consumption, or raise a
question to customer care you are using the BSS.

Software applications that support customer-facing activities. Billing, order


management, customer relationship management, call centre automation, are all
BSS applications.

BSS may also encompass the customer-facing veneer of OSS application such as
trouble-ticketing and service assurance – these are back-office activities but initiated
directly by contact with the customer.

This basic relationship between OSS and BSS, where OSS is passed service orders
and supplies service assurance information to the BSS layer is often referred to as
‘Orders Down, Faults Up’.
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Operations and Business Support Systems


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INTERFERENCIAS EN FDD
En FDD las transmisiones UL y DL de todas las bases se efectúa simultáneamente.
Se tienen interferencias cruzadas móvil-base.

Interferencia UL: Proviene de móviles conectados a otras bases que estén


transmitiendo a la misma frecuencia (co-canal).
Generada por el móvil y medida en la base.

Interferencia DL: Proviene de otras bases que estén transmitiendo a la misma


frecuencia (co-canal)
Generada por la base y medida en el móvil
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INTERFERENCIAS EN TDD
En TDD, si las estructuras de trama de las bases son distintas se pueden tener en
ciertos instantes interferencias móvil a móvil y base a base.
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The Multipath Environment


The transmission of the signal from
source to destination is carried over
multiple paths. The main reason for
this is the existence of the buildings,
vehicles, and other obstacles which
can reflect and scatter the
transmitted signal. The received
signal is a summation of all these
signals from different paths. It is
apparent that any receiver will be
subject to multiple, time-shifted
copies of the same signal.
Each of these paths experiences a different Doppler shift and degree of attenuation.
The frequency response is the representation in the frequency domain of the
superposition of all these paths. With the multipath scenario, where the transmitted
signals take place over different paths, the signals received from each path will add
up at the receiver input.
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Características de la propagación de las señales


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Desvanecimiento “Fading”
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Fast Fading

A consequence of the multipath reception


is that different paths can combine
constructively or destructively, which will
lead to rapid changes in the received
signal levels over time, termed fast
fading.

If each multipath component is


independent of the others, the Probability Density Function (PDF) of the envelope of
multipath components follows a Rayleigh distribution, and the rapid fluctuation in
received signal level is termed Rayleigh fading. These short-term fluctuations of the
Rayleigh fading envelope are superimposed on the long-term distance-related path
loss, as defined by the preceding outdoor coverage model.
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Fast Fading
Just as fast fading generates time-
varying changes in the received
envelope, the same process can
generate frequency-selective fades. This
phenomenon creates nulls in the
frequency response of the channel.
Figure illustrates a 15 dB null in the
middle of the transmitted signal
bandwidth, which may impact signal
reception.

Conversely, if the path lengths of the multipath components only vary slowly, as is
normally the case with services delivered to a pedestrian user, flat fading can be
experienced.

This results in extended periods of time where destructive interference can produce
particularly poor propagation conditions. Unless mitigation techniques are
employed, the user of IP services may face extended periods where service is
substantially degraded.
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Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Frequency Selective Fading

The power of the received signal will vary, as it is dependent upon the relationship
between the phases of each received component; whether the result is constructive or
destructive addition of the phase values.
The fluctuation of received signal power is called ‘fading’. If the power is varying
randomly, with a Rayleigh distribution, then it is called ‘Rayleigh fading’. The fading
caused by multipath propagation is known as ‘frequency-selective fading’.

A Simple Multipath Environment


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Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Frequency Selective Fading

As all received components will have travelled different path lengths, it is found that
the demodulated data consists of multiple copies of the same data, shifted in time in
respect of each other. This is known as delay spread, which creates Inter Symbol
Interference (ISI).

The Delay Spread Response in a Simple Delay Spread – Narrowband or Wideband


Environment
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Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Frequency Selective Fading

Flat Faded Channel

Multipath Induced Frequency Selective Fading


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Shadowing
Hills, buildings and other
obstacles between antennas
cause shadowing (also called log
normal fading). Instead of BTS
reflecting the signal, these
obstacles attenuate the signal.

Shadowing is generally a problem in the uplink direction, because a Base


Transceiver Station transmits information at a much higher power compared to that
from the mobile station. The solution adopted to overcome this problem is known as
adaptive power control. Based on quality and strength of the received signal, the
base station informs the mobile station to increase or decrease the power as
required. This information is sent in the Slow Associated Control Channel
(SACCH).
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MODULO II

Área de localización, routing área, paging.


Hand Over, movilidad. ITU recomendaciones y
ecosistema

Msc. Henry A. Vasquez


UNIVERSIDAD
Service NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación Codes
yArea
Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Hierarchy International
of GSM/UMTS
Service Areas MCC: Mobile Country Code
e.g.: Aus 505, D 262, Lux 270
/ Codes National CC: Country Code
e.g.: F 33, D 49, Lux 352

MNC: Mobile Network Code


Numbering, e.g.: D1 01, D2 02, Eplus 03
Addressing & Identification:
PLMN 1 Operator
NDC: National Destination Code
TS 23.003 e.g.: D1 171, D2 172, Eplus 177

MSC / SGSN „Switch“ MSC / GSN Identities


(CS-/PS-Domain) GSN Addresses

Location Area LA LAC: Location Area Code


(CS-Domain) LA1 LA2 LAI: Location Area Identity
MCC: Mobile Country Code
CC: Country Code
MNC: Mobile Network Code
Routing Area RA RA1 RAC: Routing Area Code
NDC: National Destination Code RA2
NCC: Network Colour Code (PS-Domain) LAI: Routing Area Identity
LAC: Location Area Code
LAI: Location Area Identity
CI: Cell Identity
CI: Cell Identity
CGI: Cell Global Identity Cell CGI: Cell Global Identity
PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network
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Identification of Location Areas LAI: CN CS Domain-Id
3 digits 2-3 digits 2 bytes LA2
LA1
LAI
Location Area MCC MNC LAC
Identity Mobile Mobile Location LA3 LA4
Country Code Network Code Area Code

RA RA MSC Area
LA 5
RA 2 RA
1 RA 4
3 RA RA RAI: CN PS Domain-Id
6 7
SGSN area 1 byte

RAI
Routing Area RAC
Identity LAI Routing
Area Code

2 bytes

CGI
Cell Global CI
Identity
LAI Cell Identity
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User / UE Identities 15 digits

IMSI unique
International Mobile MSIN Subscriber
Subscriber Identity MCC MNC Mobile Subscriber Id. No. Identity
3 digits 2 digits 10 digits

max. 15 digits

MSISDN
Mobile Subscriber SN “Telephone
ISDN Number CC NDC Subscriber No. Number”
1-3 digits 2/3 digits flexible

IMEI TAC FAC SNR


International Type Approval Code Final Assembly Code Serial Number
Spare
Mobile station 1 digit
6 digits 2 digits 6 digits
Equipment Identity
ME  IMEI Check at
Identity initial access
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Identities & Traffic Management
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GSM BSS CS Domain
PSTN
BTS T MSC /
B R VLR GMSC
A IWF/ ISDN
S U TC
BTS C

CSE EIR HLR AuC


UTRAN
Node B R X.25
(n x BTS)
UE N
Node B C SGSN GGSN IP
(n x BTS)

PS Billing
R Domain CGF
System
Node B
(n x BTS) N SMS-GMSC
C SMS-IWMSC
SM-SC
Traffic Management
RNC: UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
RNC
RRC States & InstitutoRRC Connection
Nacional de Investigación
Location Information y Capacitación (stores UEs Cell/URA)
de Telecomunicaciones
Prerequisite for
exchange of
User Data / Signaling TS 25.331

RRC Connected
UE • UE position known in UTRAN
• Signaling connection exists
Cell_DCH
• DCH allocated Cell_PCH
• UE’s cell known
• “Standby” (DRX)
RRC Idle • UE’s cell known
• no UE infos in UTRAN, • UE to be paged
only in CN
• no signaling possible Cell_FACH
• common channels used URA_PCH
Establish / Release
• UE’s cell known • “Standby” (DRX)
RRC Connection
• only URA known
• UE to be paged

RA LA
URA RA URA
URA UTRAN
URA Registration Area DCH: Dedicated Channel
URA FACH: Forward Access Channel
• set of cells
URA • operator PCH: Paging Channel
URA URA defined RRC: Radio Resource Control
• for RRC
“Standby”
UMTS Mobility
UNIVERSIDAD Management
NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
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Iu(CS) MSC/VLR
IMSI Attach / LUP (UE Service State; LAI) D
HLR
RNC (VLR/SGSN
address)
GPRS Attach / RUP
Iu(PS)
SGSN Gr
(UE Service State; RAI)

Detached:
CS & PS • CS: UE not reachable; no LUPs
Service States • PS: UE not reachable, no RUPs

Detach

Idle:
Attach /
• CS: UE reachable for Paging; LUPs: LAI in VLR
Detach
• PS: UE reachable for Paging; RUPs: RAI in SGSN
Signalling Connection
Establish / Release

Connected:
• CS: UE - CN signalling connection; no LUPs
• PS: UE - CN signalling connection; RUPs TS 23.060,
23.121
Session UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
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Iu(PS) SGSN Gn GGSN Gi


RNC (RNC & GGSN
(SGSN address)
ISP
address)
Activate PDP Context Activate PDP Context

Routing-context: UE - GGSN

Packet Data Protocol


PDP States Inactive State
• PDP context not activated
• no Routing-context UE - GGSN
• no data transmission possible
Activate Deactivate PDP
PDP Context Context /
(GMM) PS-Detach
Active State
• Routing context UE - GGSN
• Data transmission possible !
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RRC States – Explain for LTE


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Mobility
As the user terminals are not fixed to certain positions, the network must keep`track on
where the mobile is located. The system must at least be capable of knowing the
geographical area in which the subscriber is located. As in GSM networks, UMTS has a
cellular architecture that allows the network to identify the subscriber.

The Home Location Register (HLR) is the central database


that stores information on the subscriber, such as the IMSI
and MSISDN. The HLR also stores information on which
serving MSC and SGSN the subscriber can be found.
Also in the HLR we store information on the
subscriber's service profile. In other words,
we have a record of the different services
(teleservices, supplementary and packet
services) that the subscriber can/cannot use.
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Mobility : UTRAN registration areas

UTRAN Registration Area (URA).


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Mobility: Location updating


As the network maintains three layers of information on the subscriber's location
(LA, RA and URA), there are multiple procedures used to track the subscriber's
movements. In practice, there are three basic types of location update procedures:

• Location registration (power on / cell attach)


• Movement between area
• Periodic update

These are explained in more detail in the forthcoming pages. In a GSM network
the BSC took no responsibility for mobility management; instead the mobile would
contact the core networks directly to inform about a change in location.

In UMTS, the situation is different as the RNC not only keeps information on which
subscribers are in which URA, but is also responsible for the location updating to
the core network.
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Mobility: Paging the subscriber
From the HLR, the network is able to determine at the very least in which location area/routing area the
subscriber is located. The network (e.g. MSC) will contact the MSC/SGSN serving that area and request
contact to the mobile. The VLR/SGSN will then send a paging message, which contains the ID of the
subscriber on a dedicated channel in the air interface. A mobile in idle mode is always listening to this
channel.
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Mobility: Roaming in another network


When a subscriber is in a foreign network, the procedures are the same.
When the subscriber registers in the visiting network, it will in turn contact
the home network (remember that part of the IMSI code specifies the home
network). If the two operators have a roaming agreement and the
subscriber is valid, the subscriber information is copied into the serving
VLR of the MSC and the information on the subscriber is stored in the
HLR.

Every VLR in the world has a unique address. As a subscriber moves


from one network to another, the location updating proceeds as normal.
The HLR is always informed of the unique VLR, in which the subscriber
was last seen.
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Mobility: Roaming in another network


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Mobility: Management Procedures


There are several different mobility management procedures, some of which have
been mentioned in this module. The following is a short list of UMTS specified
procedures. In the following chapter we will look at some of the procedures in their
context of the session management layer:

• Location registration (CS and PS)


• Location update (CS)
• IMSI attach/detach (CS)
• Routing area update (PS)
• Cell attach/detach (PS)
• Location info retrieval (CS and PS)
• Paging (CS)
• Paging (PS)
• Authentication procedure (CS/PS)
• Ciphering procedure (CS/PS)
• UE identity checking (CS/PS)
• UE hardware (IMEI) checking (CS/PS)
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Mobility : LTE
EPS mobility management comprises functions and procedures that maintain the
connectivity between UE and EPS as the UE moves between the coverage areas
of different base stations or access networks. As far as possible, seamless mobility
is provided so that the mobility is transparent to UEs and the applications they use.
For applications that require it, the mobility is “lossless”. In other words, the packet
loss probability is very low.

Mobility Scenarios
• LTE Intra-RAT mobility comprises:
– Intra-eNB mobility (handover between cells within a certain eNB)
– Inter-eNB mobility (handover between adjacent eNBs).

• Inter-RAT mobility comprises:


– mobility between LTE and other 3GPP RATs (GERAN or UTRAN)
– mobility between LTE and non-3GPP RATs (such as WLAN, WiMAX or 3GPP2
access network (HRPD))
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TS 23.401 version 11.5.0
Mobility: LTE Areas and Identities
A number of identities have been brought forward into LTE from 2G/3G networks. A
few, however, are newly defined for LTE.

TS 23.003 ‘Numbering, Addressing and


Identification’
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Mobility: LTE Areas and Identities TS 23.401 version 11.5.0
TAs (Tracking Areas)
The TA is a defined group of radio cells (much like the location areas or routing areas of earlier
networks), which may overlap.

The size of the TA depends on the expected number of idle-mode UEs in any particular area.
The dimensioning goal would be to reduce the amount of TAU signalling seen in any area and
to balance this against the amount of paging load required. Generally speaking, larger TAs will
reduce the amount of update signalling, but may increase the required paging load across the
TA. The actual size of the TA will therefore be a matter of system optimisation.
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Mobility: Network Identifiers in LTE
The PLMN ID (Public Land Mobile Network Identity) identifies the network itself and is composed
of the MCC (Mobile Country Code) and MNC (Mobile Network Code). The MCC identifies the
country in which the PLMN is located while the MNC identifies the PLMN in that country. The
eNB-ID identifies a particular eNB within a network. A Global eNB ID identifies an eNB globally,
and comprises MCC, MNC and eNB-ID.

These comprise the TAI (Tracking Area Identity) and the ECGI (E-UTRAN Cell Global Identifier).

TAI is used to identify a particular tracking area within the E-UTRAN. It is constructed from the
MCC, MNC and TAC (Tracking Area Code). The TAC is a fixed-length code of 2 octets that
identifies a tracking area within a PLMN. .

The ECGI is globally unique and comprises the PLMN-Id and the 28-bit ECI (E-UTRAN Cell
Identity).
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Mobility: UE/Subscriber Identifiers
The following identifiers are associated with the UE and the USIM and uniquely identify either the
subscriber or the equipment.

• IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)


• IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity)
• TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity)
− M-TMSI (MME Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity)
− S-TMSI (SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity)
• GUTI (Globally Unique Temporary Identifier) TS 23.003
The subscriber will also have their own unique telephone number, the MSISDN (Mobile
Subscriber ISDN Number).

The IMEI comprises the 8-digit TAC (Type Allocation Code), the 6-digit SNR (Serial Number), and
a one-digit CD (Check Digit) or SD (Spare Digit).

The IMSI, stored on the USIM (Universal Subscriber Identity Module), is unique and is allocated
to each mobile subscriber in the system. It comprises the MCC, the MNC and the MSIN (Mobile
Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN), which identifies the subscriber within a PLMN. For
user-security purposes, a TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) may be allocated to
subscribers roaming onto the network.
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Mobility: UE/Subscriber Identifiers
A TMSI only has local significance (in LTE, within an MME and the area controlled by an MME).
The structure and coding of it is not defined, but can be chosen by agreement between operator
and manufacturer. The TMSI consists of 4 octets. The TMSI is only ever allocated only in
ciphered form, and is stored on the USIM.

The M-TMSI, which is new for LTE, identifies a user between the UE and the MME. The
relationship between M-TMSI and IMSI is known only in the UE and in the MME. It is 32 bits in
length.
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Mobility: UE/Subscriber Identifiers
The GUTI provides an unambiguous identification of the UE without revealing its or
the user’s IMSI in the EPS. It also uniquely identifies the MME that allocated the
GUTI, and the network where that MME resides. It can be used by the network and
the UE to establish the UE's identity during signalling between them in the EPS.
The GUTI comprises two components: the M-TMSI and the GUMMEI (Globally
Unique MME Identity), i.e. the identity of the MME that allocated the GUTI.

The S-TMSI is a shortened version of the GUTI, and is used to enable more
efficient radio signalling procedures including service request and paging. The
mobile is paged with the S-TMSI. It comprises the MMEC (MME Code) and the M-
TMSI.
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Mobility: MME Identifiers
A number of identifiers are associated with the MME. These are:

• MMEC (MME Code)


• MMEGI (MME Group Identifier)
• MMEI (MME Identity)
• GUMMEI (Globally Unique MMEID)

The MMEC uniquely identifies the MME within all the pool areas. As well as being
unique within pool areas, the MMEC must be unique within overlapping pools. This
code is 8 bits in length.

The MMEGI is allocated to group of MMEs and is 16 bits in length.

The MMEI uniquely identifies the MME within a network, and comprises the MMEID
and the MMEC.
The GUMMEI comprises the PLMN ID (i.e. MCC and MNC) and the MMEI, thereby
uniquely identifying an MME throughout all networks.
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Mobility: EPS Bearer Identity


An EPS bearer identity is allocated by the MME, and uniquely identifies an EPS
bearer for one UE accessing via the E-UTRAN.

There is a one-to-one mapping between the EPS radio bearer and EPS bearer and
their respective identities. This mapping is made by the E-UTRAN.
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Mobility : LTE Mobility Scenarios
EPS mobility management comprises functions and procedures that maintain the
connectivity between UE and EPS as the UE moves between the coverage areas
of different base stations or access networks. As far as possible, seamless mobility
is provided so that the mobility is transparent to UEs and the applications they use.
For applications that require it, the mobility is “lossless”. In other words, the packet
loss probability is very low.

Mobility Scenarios
• LTE Intra-RAT mobility comprises:
– Intra-eNB mobility (handover between cells within a certain eNB)
– Inter-eNB mobility (handover between adjacent eNBs).

• Inter-RAT mobility comprises:


– mobility between LTE and other 3GPP RATs (GERAN or UTRAN)
– mobility between LTE and non-3GPP RATs (such as WLAN, WiMAX or 3GPP2
access network (HRPD))
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Mobility Scenarios
Identities for
GERAN/UMTS

Mobility scenarios for LTE/EPC


Identities for LTE
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Interworking with 2G/3G Access
The EPC is not backwards-compatible with 2G/3G network architecture, but it does support
interworking with existing 2G/3G packet core nodes. This interoperability is provided by the S3
and S4 interfaces.

The role of S3 is to support user and bearer information exchange between the SGSN and
the MME, as the terminal is moving from one access type to the other. User context,
negotiated QoS and bearer information is exchanged between the nodes so that the new
serving MME or SGSN receives the necessary information about the session. The S3
interface is based on the Gn interface designed for 2G/3G packet core architecture to support
mobility between SGSN nodes, and as such is based on GTP.

The S4 interface is associated with the session user plane and supports packet data transfer
between the SGSN and the SGW, which acts as a mobility anchor point within the EPC
architecture. S4 is based on the Gn interface, defined between the 2G/3G Packet Core SGSN
and GGSN nodes, and is also based on GTP.

Interworking can exist between the EPS and 3GPP 2G and/or 3G SGSNs that provide only
Gn and Gp interfaces but no S3, S4 or S5/S8 interfaces. These Gn/Gp SGSNs provide no
functionality that is introduced specifically for the EPS or for interoperation with the E-UTRAN.
Interoperation scenarios for operating E-UTRAN with a PLMN maintaining Gn/Gp SGSNs are
supported only with a GTP-based S5/S8.
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Interworking with 2G/3G Access

S4 interface is associated with the


session user plane and supports packet
data transfer between the SGSN and the
SGW

S3 is to support user and bearer information


exchange between the SGSN and the MME
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Trusted andyUntrusted
Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Non-3GPP Accesses
Access mechanisms are provided for both trusted and untrusted non-3GPP accesses, i.e.
accesses from networks that use access technologies that are not specified by 3GPP. These
include WiMAX, CDMA2000, Wi-Fi, and fixed-line access networks. Which access networks
are ‘trusted’ and which are not is HPLMN (Home PLMN) operator specific.

Trusted accesses can connect directly to the EPC. In the case of untrusted accesses,
interworking via an ePDG (evolved Packet Data Gateway) is required. The main functions of
an ePDG are security-based, for example providing IPsec (IP security) tunnelling between
the UE and the EPC over the untrusted access.

In roaming scenario, the HPLMN’s HSS/AAA (Authentication, Authorisation and Accounting)


server makes the final decision regarding whether a non-3GPP IP access network is trusted
or untrusted. The AAA Server may take the policy and capability of the VPLMN (Visited
HPLMN) into account, which will be determined from the AAA Proxy or the roaming
agreement.

For multiple PDNs, the same trust relationship shall apply to all the PDNs the UE connects to
from a particular non-3GPP access network, i.e. it shall not be possible to access one PDN
using the non-3GPP access network as trusted, while access to another PDN using the
same non-3GPP access network as untrusted.

The following figure shows the architecture that applies to trusted and untrusted non-3GPP
accesses.
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Trusted and Untrusted Non-3GPP Accesses

HPLMN (3GPP networks)

No-3GPP networks, e.g.


WiMax
WLAN
PSTN
CDMA2000
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Interworking and Mobility Management
The EPS supports the following mobility management mechanisms:
• Network-based mobility management mechanism based on PMIP (Proxy Mobile
IP) or GTP.
• Host-based mobility management mechanism (such as MIP (Mobile IP)) over S2
reference points.

• IETF-based network-based mobility management mechanism (i.e. PMIP) over


S5/S8 reference points

Roaming Subscribers
Traffic for roaming subscribers may be either home routed or use local breakout.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Home-Routed Traffic

This scenario may occur when a user is roaming in another country or when a
national roaming agreement has been set up between operators, effectively allowing
them to share networks and reduce the investment required to provide national
coverage. Service logic is provided by the home network.

The local MME and S-GW enable the visited network to build and send charging
tickets to the subscriber’s home operator, corresponding to the amount of data
transferred and the Quality of Service allocated.

The MME is connected to the HSS of the subscriber’s home network via the S6a
interface (Diameter), enabling it to retrieve the user-specific security credentials
required during authentication and ciphering.

The session path goes through the home PDN-GW over the S8 (GTP) interface, so
as to apply policy and charging rules in the home network corresponding to the
user-subscription parameters.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación
Roaming (Home-Routed Traffic) de Telecomunicaciones

HPLMN (3GPP networks)

VPLMN

No-3GPP networks
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
Local y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Breakout

The home routed architecture may be inefficient if the home PDN-GW and the
visiting S-GW are too far apart. In such cases, the EPC supports local breakout of
traffic, the term ‘local breakout’ meaning that for a user moving within and across
one operator-defined network region (e.g. administrative domain), routing is
optimised such that user-plane traffic does not need to leave the current region. This
can apply whether a roaming subscriber is accessing the EPC via a 3GPP or a non-
3GPP access network.

Local breakout enables the routing of traffic via the visited PDN-GW, for example if a
user requires public Internet access; in this case, routing the traffic to the home
network would not add any value to the end-user. Routing traffic through the local
gateway avoids a complete round-trip of user data through the home network packet
gateways.

Local breakout is applicable for user-to-user traffic as well as for 3GPP-operator


provided services (including Internet access), and can be used in both roaming and
non-roaming scenarios.
Authorisation of local breakout is by the HPLMN. If local breakout is not authorised,
the user plane traffic shall be handled in the home routed mode.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Roaming (Local Breakout)

HPLMN (3GPP networks)

VPLMN

No-3GPP networks
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Migration to LTE VoIP
The CS fallback and SMS over SGs in EPS function is realized by using the SGs
interface mechanism between the MSC Server and the MME.

The SGs interface functionality is based on the mechanisms specified for the Gs
interface, TS 23.060

TS 23.272

EPS architecture for CS fallback and SMS over SGs


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Migration to LTE VoIP
When voice calls are initiated or received, the handset is directed by the network to
the CS network to complete both mobile terminated and mobile originated voice
calls. The functionality to fallback from LTE to CS domain is referred to as CS
Fallback (CSFB).

TS 23.272

EPS architecture for CS fallback and SMS over SGs


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Migration to LTE VoIP

TS 23.272

Attach Request

The LTE handset sends the Attach Request together with specific “CS
Fallback Indicator” to the MME which starts the Location Update procedure
towards MSC/VLR via SGs interface.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Migration to LTE VoIP

TS 23.272

Location Update Request

MME starts the Location Update procedure towards MSC/VLR via SGs interface.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Migration to LTE VoIP
TS 23.272
Location Update Request

A mobile terminal using LTE cannot use 3G at the same time. This implies that
the MME which contains the LTE location registration area (Tracking area (TA)), is
unable to identify which MSC/VLR it should send the mobility management
messages to from the TA alone. To solve this problem, the mapping of Tas and 3G
Location Areas (LA) within MME has benn adopted.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Migration to LTE VoIP
TS 23.272
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Migration to LTE VoIP

TS 23.272

Mobile Originating Call


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Migration to LTE VoIP
TS 23.272

Mobile Terminating Call


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Migration to LTE VoIP

TS 23.272

Location Update Request

MME starts the Location Update procedure towards MSC/VLR via SGs interface.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Data interruption time
If a user is in an active PS data session (e.g., streaming media) when a voice call
is initiated, the inter-RAT transition and routing area update will interrupt the data
transfer. The interruption time will depend on the mobility mechanism.

Using handover-based CSFB, the data


stream interruption time of 0.3 seconds is
unlikely to be noticeable. The user
experience impact of the much higher 5
second data stream interruption in the
redirection-based Release 9 SI Tunneling
and Release 8 Skip SIBs methods may be
mitigated in practice by the fact that user
attention will already be diverted to
initiating an outgoing call or receiving an
incoming call.

SIB: System Information Block

All units in seconds


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Mobility Anchors
During mobility, the U-
plane data path continuity
to the PDN is maintained
using mobility anchors.
These are network element
instances which are
permanent members of the
U-plane path and located
such that the path from the
anchor to the PDN does
not change.

Mobility anchor point


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Mobility Anchors

Mobility scenarios and anchor points


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

LTE, 2.5G and 3G Mobility Modes


UTRAN E-UTRAN GERAN

Connection
establishment

Connection
release
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Ecosystems
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Ecosystems
There is no single definition of what constitutes ‘the’
ecosystem, but the most significant participants include:

• Tier One network operators


• Equipment manufacturers
• Chip manufacturers
• Device manufacturers
• Standards bodies and regulators
• Content and service providers
• Software developers (many of whom are individuals)
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Ecosystems: ngConnect LTE Ecosystem View


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Ecosystems: Verizon Wireless LTE Ecosystem View


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Ecosystems: The ng Connect Vision for Next-


Generation Services
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

MODULO II
Señalización Nº7 (SS7) en sistemas móviles:
canal, circuito, ruta, terminal telefónico.
Funciones de la señalización. Señalización
sección por sección y extremo a extremo.
Secuencia forzada y no forzada. Señalización
canal por canal y señalización por canal
común. Sistemas de señalización

Msc. Henry A. Vasquez


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 Signalling in the old days

%#!&?:^*
(%&¤#”/=
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Signalling operations
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Standard messages
Soon after the invention of telephony, lady operators were replaced by mechanical
exchanges. And nowadays, so-called digital exchanges are in use. The following
simplified example demonstrates the basic steps of a call set-up:

1. Subscriber A wants to make a phone call. He lifts the receiver. An electro-magnetic signal is sent to
exchange 1, to which the wireline phone is connected. The electro-magnetic signal indicates to
exchange 1, that the subscriber requires a service.
2. The exchange generates a dial tone, with which it indicates its availability to subscriber A.
3. Subscriber A is dialing the telephone number of subscriber B. The number is forwarded to exchange
4. Exchange 1 is performing a number analysis. Based on the number analysis, the exchange can
decide, how to serve subscriber A. If the subscriber is requesting a service, which he is not allowed to
use, the service is not made available. For instance, if the subscriber has not paid the telephone bill,
the operator can restrict the offered services to emergency services.
Based on the number analysis, the exchange can decide whether it can serve the call locally, or
whether the call has to be established via other exchanges. This is the case in our example. Based on
routing tables set by the operator, exchange 1 is reserving transmission resources to exchange 2.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Standard messages
5. Then exchange 1 is transmitting a signalling message to exchange 2. The message holds
among other things the dial number and information about the resources, which have be
reserved on exchange 1’s side.
6. Also exchange 2 is performing a number analysis. In our example, the called
subscriber’s telephone is connected to exchange 2. Exchange 2 seizes the trunk, and thus a
bearer between exchange 1 and 2 is established.
7. Exchange 2 is now transmitting a set-up message to telephone B.
8. Telephone B confirms the service request.
9. Then, it starts to ring.
10. It also sends an alert message to exchange B, which tells the exchange, that the
telephone is calling the called subscriber.
11.Exchange 2 is then informing exchange 1 about the successful link establishment.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Standard messages

12. Exchange 2 is generating a ringing tone. Subscriber A hears the ringing tone, which
informs him that a connection was established to subscriber B’s telephone, and that
telephone B is ringing.
13. Subscriber B picks up his telephone. Telephone B sends a corresponding signalling
message to exchange 2.
14. Exchange 2 terminates the tone generation. It then informs exchange 1 about the on-
going call.
15. Now, a speech call can take place between telephone A and B.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 Architecture
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - Access Links (A-Links)


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - B-Links and D-Links


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - C-Links E-Links F-Links


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - SS7 Protocol Stack


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - ISUP Messages


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
MS SS7 Example : Signalling in GSM
MSC HLR
BTS BSC
CM CM
MAP

MM MM

RR BSSAPP BSSAP TUP


NUP
RR TCAP ISUS

RR‘ BTSM BTSM SCCP SCCP

LAPDm LAPDm LAPD LAPD


MTP‘ MTP‘
Um Abis A external
TDMA TDMA ex-
L1 L1
FDMA FDMA change

CM Connection Management BTSM Base Transceiver Station Management


MM Mobility Management BSSAP BSS Application Part
RR Radio Resource Management SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part
LAPDm Link Protocol MTP Message Transfer Part

The LAP-D message structure is similar to SS7, but it does not support networking capabilities,
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - SMS Architecture


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
SIGTRAN
SS7 - SIGTRAN Protocol

TCAP

SCCP

MTP3
ISDN

M3UA M2UA M2PA SUA IUA

SCTP

IP
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - SIGTRAN Protocol Stack vs. SS7 Protocol Stack


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - SCTP Association


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - SCTP Functional Diagram


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - Signaling Gateway with M2PA


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - M2PA Transport


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - Signaling Gateway with M3UA


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - M3UA IP/TDM Interworking


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - Decoupling of Application/Control Plane and Signaling Plane


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - Signaling Gateway with SUA


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7
SS7- protocols
SS7 in Corein
Network
different network elements
MSC
PSTN TUP
MAP exchange NUP
BSSAP TUP ISUP
TCAP NUP
ISUP
SCCP
SCCP

MTP MTP

MAP
BSC HLR
BSSAP TCAP

SCCP SCCP

MTP MTP
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

SS7 - Signaling Gateway with SUA


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

MODULO II

Modos de Duplexación Radio: FDD, TDD,


Tendencias de las tecnologías de acceso.
Técnicas de Acceso: TDMA, FDMA, CDMA,
WDMA, OFDMA, NOMA (5G).

Msc. Henry A. Vasquez


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Multiple Access Technologies


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Multiple Access Technologies


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Multiple Access Technologies


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Multiple Access Technologies – GERAN (2G)


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Multiple Access Technologies - GSM

TSL 7
TSL 6
Time Slot 0
0

TSL 5
TSL 1
TSL 4 TSL 3 TSL 2

BTS
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Contenido de la Ráfaga del Interfaz Um


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Tipos de RafagaRadio Interface (Layer 1) en el Interfaz UM


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Frames (Layer1) del Interfaz Um


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Estructura en el tiempo Radio Interface (Layer 1) en el Interfaz UM


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Combinación de Canales Multiframe Interfaz UM


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Combinación de Canales Multiframe Interfaz UM (cont.)


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Radio Interface (Layer 1) en el Interfaz UM


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Canales Lógicos sobre el RFC del Interfaz


UM
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Canales Lógicos sobre el RFC del Interfaz


UM
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Canales y Codec para Voz - AMR


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Dimensioning cells - GSM


( calls per hour )  ( average conversation time)
x Erlangs 
3600 Seconds
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Multiple Access Technologies – UTRAN (3G)


UTRA Basics
Power
P Code Division
time t
Multiple Access

3
2
1
frequency f
CDMA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA user 1
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
CDMA:
user 2
Principle • ySpread
Capacitación
SpectrumdeTechnology
Telecomunicaciones user 1 & 2
• every user with unique Code
• high bit rate Code: Spreading / De-Spreading
Power P

frequency f

frequency f

Unspread Spread Radio Transmission = after


Signals Signals  spread signals De-Spreading
CDMA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional
• Stability de Investigación
narrow-band interference
Advantages y Capacitación
• Stabilityde Telecomunicaciones
in severe environment
( Multipath Advantage, Soft HoV)
• simple frequency planning (Re-Use: 1)
• efficient radio resource usage
• lower transmission power ( Power Control)

Frequency & radio network planning


TDMA CDMA
(e.g. GSM with Reuse 1/7) (UMTS; Reuse: 1)

3/7 1/1
2/7 4/7 1/1 1/1
1/7 1/1
7/7 5/7 1/1 1/1
6/7 1/1
Re-Use 2/7
Distance
CDMA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
Types y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
time t

Time DS-CDMA
Direct Hopping  IS-95
Sequence (TH-CDMA)  Globalstar
(DS-CDMA)  UMTS
Frequency FH-CDMA
Hopping  Bluetooth
(FH-CDMA)

frequency f
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
DS-CDMA: +1
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
Transmission / Spreading
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Code -1
Reception
1
Chip

Air
Interface

Binary Binary
Data De- Data
Wideband De-
Spreading Modulation Modulation
RB Spreading R
B

time-
RC fT RC synchronisation
!!!
Code Carrier Carrier Code
Generator Generator Generator Generator

RB: Bit Rate


RC: Chip Rate
fT: Carrier frequency
Spreading /UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
De-Spreading
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
1 Symbol
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Binary Data 1 0 1 0

Bipolar +1 SF = Rc / RS
Data
-1
=B/W
x
Spreading
+1
Code
-1
= Bit / Symbol 
Spreaded +1 modulation principle
Data e.g.:
-1 GMSK: 1 / 1 (Bit/Symbol)
x BPSK: 1 / 1
Spreading +1
QPSK: 2 / 1
Code 8PSK: 3 / 1
-1
= B = bandwidth, spreaded
Bipolar +1 W = bandwidth, un-spreaded
RS: Symbol Rate [symb/s]
Data RB: Bit Rate [bit/s]
-1 RC: Chip Rate [chip/s]
SF = Spreading Factor
Binary Data 1 0 1 0 GMSK: Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
BPSK: Binary Phase Shift Keying
QPSK: Quadrature PSK
1 Chip 8PSK: Eight PSK
Spreading / UNIVERSIDAD
Data User 1
NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
1 0 1 Data User 2 0 0 1
Instituto
De-Spreading Bipolar Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación
+1 de Telecomunicaciones
Bipolar +1
Data 1 Data 2
-1 -1
Example: x x
SF = 2; +1 Code 2
+1
Code 1
2 user -1 -1
= =
Code 1 Spread +1 Spread +1
= ( 1 / -1) Data 1 -1 Data 2 -1
Code 2
= ( 1 / 1) Receiver:  Spreaded Data; hier:  = 0 -2 -2 0 2 0
 Signals +2  Signals +2
(Receiver) 0 (Receiver) 0
x -2 x -2
Code 1 +1 Code 2 +1
-1 -1
= =
De-Spread +2 De-Spread +2
Data 1 0 Data 2 0
-2 -2
after +2 after +2
Integration Integration
-2 -2
 User Data 1 1 0 1  User Data 2 0 0 1
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
IS-95 parameter:
FDD / CDMA
Example CDMA: B = 1,25 MHz
IS-95 (2G) Rc = 1,2288 Mchip/s
SF = 64
Modulation: QPSK / BPSK (DL / UL)
Power Control: 800 cycles/s

time t
Duplex distance:
Power P

45 / 80 MHz at
800/1900 MHz
64 PN-Codes range (USA)

1.25 MHz frequency f


UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Zone 4: Global
Zone 3: Suburban
MSS
Zone 2: Urban
Zone 1:
Indoor
Macro-cell Micro-cell Pico-cell

FDD TDD

UTRA:
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

UTRA Conception (ETSI)


Principle Supported by Remarks

Phase 1: Ericsson, Nokia,


UTRA studies - NEC, Panasonic, pure CDMA
(1996 - 06/97) concept
W-CDMA Fujitsu, FDD; 4.096 Mchip/s;
Mitsubishi 4,4 - 5,2 MHz

Selection of - Sony, Telia,


5 concepts: concept
OFDMA Lucent, Bosch TDMA/FDMA
-

- Philips, Nokia,
concept
W-TDMA France Telecom TDMA
Phase 2:
Evaluation
UMTS-Alliance:
(06 - 12/97) TDMA & CDMA
- TD- Siemens, Bosch,
Alcatel, T-Mobil, FDD/TDD
concept CDMA Motorola, Nortel, 2.267 Mchip/s; 1,6 MHz;
Italtel TS / Frame wie GSM
Selection of
 & - Concept
(01/98) - Vodaphone, option for
ODMA
concept Swiss Telecom  and 
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

UTRA conception
& harmonisation
W-CDMA TD/CDMA
cdma2000
-concept -concept

TD/CDMA
Phase 3:
TDD
harmonisation
(01 - 06/98)
ETSI-ARIB UTRA UTRA
harmonisation FDD TDD
(05/98)
4,096 Mchip/s 5 MHz
Submission to ITU
(06/98)

UTRA UTRA MC-CDMA


harmonisation FDD TDD (FDD)
UTRA - cdma 2000
(05 - 07/99) 5 MHz 3,6864 Mchip/s
3,84 Mchip/s IMT-2000
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
UTRA conception
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
& harmonisation time t
time t
FDD TDD 15
Power P

Mode
Mode
Frame
2

Power P
1
TS

frequency f frequency f

FDD & TDD harmonised in: FDD & TDD differences:


• bandwidth: 5 MHz
FDD TDD
• chiprate: 3,84 Mchip/s • pure WCDMA • WCDMA & TDMA
• modulation: QPSK (continuous transmission) (Bursts: 15 TS / Frame)
• Re-Use = 1 • SF = 4 - 256 (DL - 512) • SF = 1 - 16
• pulse form • Handover: Soft • Handover: Hard
• time structure
• Spreading Codes (OVSF)
UTRA L1 General Description:
OVSF: Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Codes
3G TS25.201
time t
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Data Rate 15
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
Data rate variation:
Variation y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
• SF = 1 - 16
• TS - combining
2
Power P

1 TDD Asymmetric
UL/DL allocation !!
flexible
(min. 2 TS for DL/U
Switching Point
Example:UL DL

frequency f

time t

FDD SF =
Rc [chip/s] /
RS[symb/s]
Power P

Data rate variation:


• SF = 4 - 256 (DL: 512)

frequency f
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BTS
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Channelisation Code separates


UL different applications
BTS of 1 UE (max. 6; SF variable)

UTRA different BTS:


Codes Scrambling Codes
Channelisation Code
separates DL different UE

different UE:
Spreading Code =
Scrambling Codes
Channelisation Code
(RNC allocated)
x Scrambling Code
Channelization Code:
(TS 25.201) BTS separates physical channels
• DL: channels of the same BTS
• UL: channels of the same UE
Spreading & Modulation: Scrambling Code:
TS 25.201 (UTRA Overview)
separates sources
TS 25.213 (FDD),
TS 25.223 (TDD) • DL: separates different BTS
• UL: separates different UE in 1 cell
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Scrambling Codes:
UTRA • FDD:
Instituto / UE „Goldde
Nacional
for BTS Codes“;
Investigación
10 ms period (1 frame = 38400 chip)
Codes •yTDD:
Capacitación
for BTS / UEde
16Telecomunicaciones
Chip long,
pre-defined sequences

SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 256
CC256,0
CC256,1
CC4,0 = (1,1,1,1)
CC256,2
CC2,0 = (1,1)

CC1,0 = (1)
CC4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) •
••• • •••
CC4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) •

CC2,1 = (1,-1)
CC256,254
CC4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) CC256,255

Channelization Codes (CCn,m) = OVSF Codes

CCn,m generation:
CC1 = (1) CC2 = 1 1 CCn = CCn/2 CCn/2 OVSF =
from columns in CCn 1 -1 CCn/2 -CCn/2 Orthogonal Variable
Spreading Factor
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time Instituto Nacional de Investigación
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structure
• shortest information unit in CDMA
Chip 1/3.840.000 s  260.4 ns

Time Slot 2560 chips • TDD: TS contains 1 Burst


TS • FDD: cyclic repetition of
control information (e.g. TPC)
2/3 ms

Frame f TS#0 ••• TS#i ••• TS#14 • TDD: TDMA frame


• FDD: shortest transmission duratio
• TDD & FDD: shortest pattern
10 ms  data rate adaptation

• TDD & FDD: Counting period for


Superframe f#1 ••• f#i ••• f#72
 Def. Physical channels
 Handover to GSM
(GSM TCH Multiframe = 120 ms)
720 ms
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UTRA
Key Parameters

• bandwidth B = 5 MHz
• chiprate Rc = 3,84 Mchip/s
• SF = Rc / RS = 1 - 16 (TDD)
4 - 256/512 (FDD)
Spreading Code =
Channelisation Code x Scrambling Code
• 1 TS = 2/3 ms = 2560 chip
• 1 frame = 10 ms
• 1 Superframe = 72 frames
• TDD: bursty structure (TS)
• FDD: continuous transmission ( 10 ms)
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UTRA Basics

GSM IS-95

Downward compatible/ Downward compatible/


Handover possible Handover possible

UTRA UTRA MC-CDMA


FDD TDD (FDD)

harmonisation
(chipsets possible for UTRA TDD, FDD & MC-CDMA mode)

IMT-2000
MC-CDMA / UTRA / TD-SCDMA Comparison
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MC-CDMA / UTRA
Carrier y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones
Guard Band 1,25 MHz 1,25 MHz 1,25 MHz
625 kHz 625 kHz DL
Rc = n Carrier
1,2288 Mchip/s n = 1, 2, 3,
6, 9, 12

Rc = UL
Rc = 3,6864 Mchip/s n-fold
Rc = 2,4576 Mchip/s
1,2288 Mchip/s chip rate

1 2 3 4 5 MHz

DS-CDMA: UTRA TDD & FDD


Carrier
UL
&
Rc = DL
3,84 Mchip/s
1 2 3 4 5 MHz
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UMTS R`4
TD-SCDMA Option
LCR-TDD
Carrier Bandwidth 1.6 MHz Mode

Chip Rate 1.28 Mchps

Spreading Factors 1, 2, 4, 8, 16

10 ms
Radio Frame Length (divided into 2 sub-frames)
(each sub-frame 5 ms)

Timeslots 675 s

Variable Data Rates supported

R`4
Modulation TS 25.223 QPSK & 8PSK
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


OFDM Basics
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


OFDM Signal
Transmits hundreds or even thousands of separately modulated radio signals using
orthogonal subcarriers spread across a wideband channel
Total transmission bandwidth
15 kHz in LTE: fixed
Orthogonality:
The peak (centre frequency)
of one subcarrier …

…intercepts the ‘nulls’ of the


neighbouring subcarriers

The basic idea for the OFDM Signal is to transmits hundreds or even
thousands of separately modulated radio signals using orthogonal subcarriers
spread across a wideband channel
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)

The OFDM Signal


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Instituto Nacional de Investigación
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


Challenges for the Air Interface Design

The usage of the pulse leads to other challenges to be solved:

1. ISI = Intersymbol Interference


Due to multipath propagation

2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference


Due to the fact that FDM = frequency division multiplexing will be used

3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference


Losing orthogonality between subcarriers because of effects like e.g. Doppler
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


1. Multi-Path Propagation and Inter-Symbol Interference
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


Multi-Path Propagation and the Guard Period
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


Propagation Delay Exceeding the Guard Period

Obviously when
the delay spread of
the multi-path
environment is
greater than the
guard period
duration (Tg), then
we encounter inter-
symbol
interference (ISI)
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


Cyclic Prefix
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multi-Carrier
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference
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Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference
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Instituto Nacional de Investigación
y Capacitación de Telecomunicaciones

Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)

Challenges for the Air Interface Design

The usage of the pulse leads to other challenges to be solved:

1. ISI = Intersymbol InterferenceDue to multipath propagation →solution: use


cyclic prefix

2. 2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference Due to the fact that FDM = frequency
division multiplexing will be used →solution: orthogonal subcarriers

3. 3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference Losing orthogonality between subcarriers


because of effects like e.g. Doppler→solution: use reference signals
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


SC-FDMA
Peak-to-Average Power Ratio in OFDM
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Multiple Access Technologies – EUTRAN (4G)


SC-FDMA in UL
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LTE Timing And Fram e Structures

Frame Structure Type 1 (FS 1) - FDD

The basic unit of time in LTE is Ts. This is defined as 1/(15000*2408) = 32.56 nS,
where 15000 is the bandwidth of the subcarrier and 2048 is the maximum number
of FF Ts supported. Every element of time is some multiple of this value.
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
Instituto Nacional de Investigación
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LTE Timing And Fram e Structures

In LTE the slot of 500 μs is subdivided in the (useful part of the) symbol
(ligth blue) and CPs as follows:

For the extended CP slot structure the overall 500 μs is kept but the
number of symbols is reduced in order to extent the cyclic prefix
durations:
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
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The Resource Block
Mapping of channels takes place in the time and
frequency domains in LTE. The primary element that
supports the mapping process is the Resource Block
(RB). The RB has a fixed size and is common to all
channel bandwidths/FFT sizes.

In the time domain the RB is one slot (7 x 66.67 μS


symbols). In the frequency domain there are 12 x 15 KHz
subcarriers. One symbol and one subcarrier is known as
a resource element.
15 KHz
RB occupies 12 x 15 KHz = 180 KHz of bandwidth. In a
5 MHz radio channel there will be 300 RB occupying 4.5
MHz of spectrum. The number of FF Ts required to
process this is 512, assuming subcarrier size of 15 KH z,
512 x 15 KH z = 7.68 MHz. 7.68 MHz if the space
occupied by 512 FF T points and is not the transmitted
bandwidth.
7.68 MHz is also the sampling frequency required to
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OFDMA®
OFDMA® stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access

•It is a registered trademark by Runcom Ltd.

•The basic idea is to assign subcarriers to users based on their


bit rate services. With this approach it is quite easy to handle
high and low bit rate users simultaneously in a single system.

•But still it is difficult to run highly variable traffic efficiently.

•The solution to this problem is to assign to a single users so


called resource blocksor scheduling blocks.

•Such block is simply a set of some subcarriers over some time.

•A single user can then use one or more Resource blocks.


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Source: 3GPP TS 36.211


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Mapping of Downlink Channels to the Resource Block


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( 62 + 5 + 5 subcarriers ) x 15 Khz = 1.08 Mhz


5 subcarriers

62 central subcarriers

5 subcarriers

Mapping of Downlink Channels to the Resource Block


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Physical
Channels and
Modulation
Schemes
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Frame duration : 10ms created from slots and subframes


Subframe duration (TTI) : 1 ms (composed of 2 x 0.5 ms slots)
Subcarrier spacing : Fixed to 15kHz (7.5 kHz defined for MBMS)
Sampling Rate : Varies with the bandwidth but always factor or multiple of 3.84 to ensure compatibility
with WCDMA by using common clocking

1.4MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz

Frame Duration 1010ms


ms

Subcarrier Spacing 15 kHz

Sampling Rate (MHz) 1.92 3.84 7.68 15.36 23.04 30.72

Data Subcarriers 72 180 300 600 900 1200

Symbols/slot Normal CP=7, extended CP=6


3GPP TS 36.104 CP length Normal CP=4.69/5.12 μsec, extended CP= 16.67μsec
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Data Rate Calculation : Example


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Rate de datos máximo según el 3GPP


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Procedimiento genérico para determinar el throughput esperado en L1 (3GPP TS 36.213)


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Máximo Rate de datos en Layer 1


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OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes


1.Variable Bandwidth (BW) : Bandwidth options: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz
2. Subcarrier Spacing (Δf = 15 KHz)
TheSymbol time isTsymbol= 1/Δf = 66,7μs
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3. The number of Subcarriers Nc  Ncx Δf = BW


In LTE not all the available channel bandwidth (e.g. 20 MHz) will be used. For the
transmission bandwidth typically 10% guard band is considered (to avoid the out
band emissions).
If BW = 20MHz  Transmission BW = 20MHz –2MHz = 18 MHz
 the number of subcarriers
Nc = 18MHz/15KHz = 1200 subcarriers

Source:
3GPP TS 36.104 version 11.4.0 Release 11
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→Δf as small as possibile so that the symbol time Tsymbol is as large as


possibile.
This is beneficial to solve Intersymbol Interference in time domain
→A too small subcarrier spacing it is increasing the ICI = Intercarrier Interference
due to Doppler effect
4. Fast Fourier Transform Size – Nfft
 The FFT/ IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) it is used for the generation of
the subcarriers.
 Input for the FFT/ IFFT are the modulation symbols.
 FFT/ IFFT could be seen as a kind of operation acting on a Nfft discrete points
of the input signal
 Therefore the terminology is naming the FFT/ IFFT sampling.
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4. Fast Fourier Transform Size – Nfft


 Nfft size:
The number of samples Nfft on which FFT/ IFFT is applied should be big
enough to
satisfy the sampling theorem (giving the minimum number of samples)
From this: Nfft > Nc number of the input subcarriers.
 FFT/IFFT operation requires that input length must be a power of 2. This is
because
Example:in this way the operation is much faster than ordinary DFT (Discrete
Fourier Transform).
For a bandwidth BW = 20 MHz there are 1200 subcarriers -> the length of the IFFT
input is a signal with 1200 symbols
1200 is not a power of 2 so that the IFFT operation requires zero padding-> Next
power of 2 is 2048
The rest of input: 2048 - 1200 = 848 will padded with zeros
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5. Sampling rate fs
This parameter indicates what is the sampling frequency:
→fs = Nfft x Δf
Example: for a bandwidth BW = 5 MHz (with 10% guard band)
The number of subcarriers Nc = 4.5 MHz/ 15 KHz = 300
300 is not a power of 2 → next power of 2 is 512 → Nfft = 512
Fs = 512 x 15 KHz = 7,68 MHz → fs = 2 x 3,84 MHz which is the chip rate
in UMTS!
The sampling rate is a multiple of the chip rate from UMTS/HSPA. This was
acomplished because the subcarriers spacing is 15 KHz. This means UMTS
and LTE have the same clock timing!
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6. Physical Resource Block or Resource Block (PRB or RB)


12 subcarriers in frequency domain x 1 slot period in time domain.

Capacity allocation is based on Resource


Blocks

Resource Element ( RE):


 1 subcarrier x 1 symbol period.
 Theoretical minimum capacity allocation
unit.
 1 RE is the equivalent of 1 modulation
symbol on a subccarrier, Example: 2 bits
for QPSK, 4 Bist for 16 QAM and 6 bits for
64QAM
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA
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Data Rate Calculation


1.Maximum channel data rate
The maximum channel data rate is calculated taking into account the total number
of the available resource blocks in 1 TTI = 1ms

Max Data Rate = Number of Resource Blocks x 12 subcarriersx (14 symbols/


1ms)
= Number of Resouce Blocks x (168 symbols/1ms)
2. Impact of the Channel Bandwith: 5, 10, 20 MHz
For BW = 5MHz -> there are 25 Resource Blocks
-> Max DataRate = 25 x (168 symbols/1ms) = 4,2 * Msymbols/s
BW = 10MHz -> 50 ResourceBlocks -> Max DataRate = 8,2 Msymbols/s

BW = 20MHz -> 100 ResourceBlocks -> Max DataRate =16,4 Msymbols/s


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Data Rate Calculation


3. Impact of the Modulation: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
For: QPSK –2bits/symbol; 16QAM –4bits/symbol and 64QAM –6 bits/symbol

QPSK: Max DataRate = 16,4 Msymbols/s * 2bits/symbol= 32,8 Mbits/s (bandwith of


20 MHz)

16QAM: Max DataRate = 16,4 Msymbols/s * 4 bits/symbols= 65,6 Mbits/s

64QAM: Max DataRate = 16,4 Msymbols/s * 6 bits/symbols= 98,4 Mbits/s


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Data Rate Calculation


4. Impact of the Channel Coding

The effective coding rate is dependent on the Modulation and Coding Scheme selected b
scheduler in the eNodeB. In practice several coding rates can be obtained. Here it is cons
1/2 and 3/4:
1/2 coding rate: Max Datarate = 98,4 Mbits/s * 0,5 = 49,2 Mbits/s
3/4 coding rate: Max Datarate = 98,4 Mbits/s * 0,75 = 73,8 Mbits/s
5. Impact of MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output

If spatial diversity it is used (2x2 MIMO) then the data rate will be doubled since the
data is sent in parallel in 2 different streams using 2 different antennas 2x2 MIMO:

Max Data Rate = 73,8 Mbit/s * 2 = 147,6 Mbits/s


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