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Advanced Technical Topics

December 1998

Prepared by:

Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd.


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The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by Safe
Engineering Services & Technologies ltd. Safe Engineering Services & Technologies ltd assumes no responsibility for any
errors that may appear in this document.

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 Safe Engineering Services & Technologies ltd. 1999


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Table of Contents
Page

SICL Technical Information..........................................................................................1

SICL ................................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................ 2
SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................................................... 2
BACKGROUND............................................................................................................................................................ 3
STARTING .................................................................................................................................................................... 3
PROGRAM........................................................................................................................................................... 3
INPUT ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3
OUTPUT ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4
PROGRAM........................................................................................................................................................... 4
PROGRAM........................................................................................................................................................... 4
SYNTAX......................................................................................................................................................................... 5
SPECIFICATION ......................................................................................................................................................... 7
STANDARD................................................................................................................................................................... 8
FACILITY ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8
HELPFUL............................................................................................................................................................. 9
CONFIGURATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 9
AUXILIARY ................................................................................................................................................................ 10
RECOVERY ................................................................................................................................................................ 10
BLOCKS ...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
LOGICALS......................................................................................................................................................... 11

RESAP...........................................................................................................................13
RESAP ................................................................................................................................................13
SOIL .................................................................................................................................................................... 13
TYPES................................................................................................................................................................. 13
METHODS ......................................................................................................................................................... 14
INPUT-DATA .................................................................................................................................................... 15
COMPUTATIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 16

MALT............................................................................................................................17
MALT .................................................................................................................................................17
FEATURES ........................................................................................................................................................ 18
INPUT ................................................................................................................................................................. 21
OUTPUT ............................................................................................................................................................. 21
APPLICATIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 22
PROBLEM-DESCRIPTION............................................................................................................................ 23
SOIL .................................................................................................................................................................... 23
FAULT-CURRENTS ........................................................................................................................................ 24
GROUNDING-GRID ........................................................................................................................................ 25
COMPUTATION............................................................................................................................................... 25
SAFETY.............................................................................................................................................................. 26
INPUT-DESCRIPTION.................................................................................................................................... 26
ACCELERATION............................................................................................................................................. 28
IRREGULAR ..................................................................................................................................................... 28

MALZ............................................................................................................................31

iii
Table of Contents (Cont'd)
Page
MALZ.................................................................................................................................................31
GROUND ............................................................................................................................................................32
NETWORKS ......................................................................................................................................................32
ANALYSIS..........................................................................................................................................................33
GROUND- ...........................................................................................................................................................34
POTENTIAL- .....................................................................................................................................................35
EARTH-...............................................................................................................................................................36
COORDINATES ................................................................................................................................................36
CHARACTERISTICS.......................................................................................................................................37
OTHER-DATA...................................................................................................................................................38
COMPUTATIONS.............................................................................................................................................38

SPLITS..........................................................................................................................39
SPLITS ...............................................................................................................................................39
CAPABILITIES .................................................................................................................................................39
DEFINITIONS ...................................................................................................................................................40
SENSITIVITY ....................................................................................................................................................41
SAFETY ..............................................................................................................................................................41
INFORMATION ................................................................................................................................................41

TRALIN ........................................................................................................................43
TRALIN .............................................................................................................................................43
PROGRAM .........................................................................................................................................................43
CONDUCTORS .................................................................................................................................................44
SYSTEM-MODULE ..........................................................................................................................................44
INDUCTION-MODULE ...................................................................................................................................45
GRADIENT-MODULE.....................................................................................................................................45

HIFREQ ........................................................................................................................47
HIFREQ .............................................................................................................................................47
APPLICATIONS................................................................................................................................................47
COORDINATES ................................................................................................................................................48
INFORMATION-REQUIRED.........................................................................................................................48
SOIL-TYPE ........................................................................................................................................................49
CONDUCTOR-GEOMETRY ..........................................................................................................................49
ENERGIZATION ..............................................................................................................................................49
TYPES-OF-CONDUCTORS ............................................................................................................................51
COMPUTATIONS.............................................................................................................................................51
RESTART-INSTRUCTIONS...........................................................................................................................52
DIFFERENCES-WITH-MALZ .......................................................................................................................52
COMMON-PROBLEMS ..................................................................................................................................52

FCDIST .........................................................................................................................53
FCDIST ..............................................................................................................................................53
REPRESENTATION.........................................................................................................................................53
CONDUCTOR-DATA.......................................................................................................................................54
CURRENT-SOURCE-DATA ...........................................................................................................................55

iv
Table of Contents (Cont'd)
Page
FFTSES .........................................................................................................................57
FFTSES...............................................................................................................................................57
SPECIAL-FEATURES ..................................................................................................................................... 58
FREQUENCY .................................................................................................................................................... 58
MAIN-STEPS..................................................................................................................................................... 59
ADVANCED-FEATURES................................................................................................................................ 60
INFORMATION................................................................................................................................................ 60

CSIRPS Technical Information ...................................................................................61


SIRPS .................................................................................................................................................................. 61

v
General Technical Information for SICL Page 1

SICL (General Information for SICL)


SICL
The following text is a user's guide to the SICL software package. It gives a detailed description of all aspects of the package,
including a full breakdown of the commands and functions needed to successfully run SICL.

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* * ============================== * *
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For information on one or more of the following titles, type in the corresponding topic commands in lowercase characters
after the HELP,ASKME command.
For example type: HELP,ASKME
and then specify: intro*
This will yield any topics whose names begin with the letters "intro". Note that the asterisk {*} is a wildcard character. It can
replace one or more characters, thereby facilitating the entry of long topic names.

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Page 2 General Technical Information for SICL

===========================================================================
TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPIC NAME
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
INTRODUCTION { introduction }
============
a. Summary { summary }
b. Assumed Background of User { background }
c. Starting a SICL Session { starting }
PROGRAM ENVIRONMENT { program envi }
===================
a. Input Units { input }
b. Output Units { output }
PROGRAM STRUCTURE { program stru }
=================
a. The Syntax of SICL { syntax }
b. Specification Commands { specification }
c. Standard Commands { standard }
d. HELP Facility { facility }
HELPFUL HINTS { helpful hint }
=============
a. Selecting the Right SICL Configuration { configuration }
b. Using Specialized Auxiliary Files { auxiliary }
c. Recovery from Abnormal Termination { recovery }
d. Usings Blocks of Data Prepared in Advance { blocks }
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> MORE INFORMATION <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
The logical unit table lists the unit numbers and files to and from which
SICL makes READS and WRITES. It is available by specifying the text topic
{logicals}.
Background information on the engineering applications modules can be obtained
by specifying the following text topics {LOGICALS}.
TITLE TOPIC NAME
=====================================================================
RESAP {resap}
MALT {malt}
MALZ {malz}
SPLITS {splits}
TRALIN {tralin}
HIFREQ {hifreq}
FCDIST {fcdist}
FFTSES {fftses}

INTRODUCTION-SUMMARY (General Information for SICL)


SUMMARY
The SICL Software Package (SES Input Command Language) is a user-friendly and context-sensitive data input processor
for the CDEGS software package.

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General Technical Information for SICL Page 3

It combines the ease of hierarchical menus with the flexibility of powerful interactive commands. At the same time, SICL
provides extensive on-line documentation and context-sensitive HELP and MENU information. Another feature of SICL
resides in its ability to accept input data from several input files as defined by the user at any time during the session. Finally,
the user may at any time add data to correct or modify most items defined in the programs.
It is recommended that the user read the SICL User's Manual at least once through before running SICL. This will allow the
user to use SICL's help facility in the most efficient way possible. This help facility is quite complete and makes finding
information extremely rapid.

INTRODUCTION-BACKGROUND (General Information for SICL)


ASSUMED BACKGROUND OF USER
It is assumed in these help texts that the user is reasonably familiar with the computer system on which SICL is to be run.
In particular:
1) The user should know the procedure for executing the program.
2) The user should know how to edit and copy files.

INTRODUCTION-STARTING (General Information for SICL)


STARTING A SICL SESSION
Starting a SICL session for the first time requires two simple steps:
1- Run CDEGS and choose Program SICL
2- Issue the HELP command
Following these steps, the user will be able to determine further steps based on the extensive on-line context-sensitive
information provided by SICL. This learning process will be significantly enhanced and accelerated using the MENU facility
(see the MENU help item) which displays the structure of the commands and their relationships to one another.

PROGRAM ENVIRONMENT-INPUT (General Information for SICL)


INPUT UNITS
The input units of SICL correspond to the files or devices (sources) from which input data provided by the user is fetched.
SICL accepts data from the following sources.
USER : The user's input (i.e., when typing in responses or commands) is taken by default from the terminal.
AUXILIARY : When the user issues an OPEN-FILE,filename command during an interactive session, SICL will seek the
file whose name is {filename.INP}, and open it. This then becomes the current auxiliary input file. Each
time the user enters a READ command, SICL ceases to fetch data from the terminal and starts fetching
responses to subsequent questions from the current auxiliary input file. This persists until SICL encounters
an ENDREAD in the auxiliary input file; then the original terminal keyboard is once again expected to
supply input. The OPEN-FILE command can be used more than once to read from as many auxiliary input
files as desired, during a SICL session. If no file name is specified in the OPEN-FILE command (or if the
file is inaccessible or has an invalid name), then the default name SICLINP is assumed. Note that while all
auxiliary input filenames that are to be accessed with the OPEN-FILE command must have the suffix
{.INP}, they are specified without the suffix in the OPEN-FILE command.
PROMPT : When the user asks for interactive plotting using the DRAW command, SICL displays a graphics page on
the screen and awaits the user's prompt (signal) to erase the screen and display the next graphics page. The
prompt (a <RETURN> or <ENTER> keystroke) is assumed to originate from Device 31.

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SETUP : A flag setup file, associated with Device 88, contains various software flags which customize SICL for
optimum performance in a given computer system environment. This file is not normally altered by the
user.

PROGRAM ENVIRONMENT-OUTPUT (General Information for SICL)


OUTPUT UNITS
The output units of SICL correspond to the files or devices (destinations) to which information useful to the user is sent.
SICL routes data to the following destinations.
INTERACTIVE : All questions and error messages are sent to Device 6, which is
assigned to the screen. Data read from the current auxiliary input file
during a READ is also sent here, as are the questions associated with
this data. If the DRAW command is used to create plots, they are sent
by default to the screen.
SESSION RECORD : SICL keeps a record of all data entered by the user or obtained with the
READ command. This file is named SICLSAV_jobid.SAV
(SC_jobid.P08 on the PC). The usefulness of this file becomes evident
when the user wishes to examine part or all of a past input session.
Copying this file to the corresponding auxiliary input file allows the
user to READ all the data entered in the earlier session.
STRUCTURED SICL INPUT DATA FILE : When an ENDPROGRAM command is issued (or any other indication
that input data for a given applications program such as RESAP or
MALT is complete), SICL produces a structured file containing all the
commands associated with the applications program whose data has
been specified. All errors, ambiguities and standard commands are
omitted from this file, named SICLSTRUCT_jobid.INP
(SC_jobid.STR on the PC). Because of its clear, structured format, this
file is easy to read and also results in faster processing when used as an
auxiliary input file by SICL.
SICL OUTPUT FILES : The SICL program produces structured data files which can be read by
programs RESAP, MALT, MALZ, SPLITS, TRALIN HIFREQ,
FCDIST, and FFTSES. SICL sends these data files to respectively
under the default file names which have the extension .DAT (.F05 on
the PC). These are referred to as the SICL output data files.

PROGRAM STRUCTURE (General Information for SICL)


PROGRAM STRUCTURE
SICL consists of three major systems: the HELP facility, the system of Standard (or utility) commands, and the system of
Specification (or engineering specification) commands.
The Standard commands along with the Specification commands constitute the SICL Command Language, which is used to
communicate with the SICL program. The Specification commands are occasionally referred to as "nonstandard"
"commands" or simply "commands" when no confusion is possible.
Each system is invoked using commands (English-like words and composites) consisting of a string of ASCII characters.
Before proceeding with the description of the three SICL systems, it is important that the syntactic rules and conventions
governing the SICL command language be well understood.

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PROGRAM STRUCTURE-SYNTAX (General Information for SICL)


THE SYNTAX OF SICL
Each data line expected by SICL may have one of the following two formats:

1- Answer
2- Command#ppppp,qualifier 1,...,qualifier n,variable 1,...variable m
where the items listed in each data line are defined in the following paragraphs.
1.1 ANSWER FORMAT
"Answer" is the string of characters typed by a user in response to a question asked by SICL. If the expected response is a
YES or NO, then "YES", "yes", "YE", "ye", "Y", "y", "bbb.....b" (where b is a blank) or <RETURN> are interpreted as YES.
Anything else is interpreted as NO. If the expected response is to be a choice from several items proposed by SICL, then
"Answer" should match one of the items; otherwise, SICL will ask the question again.
1.2 COMMAND FORMAT
"Command#ppppp" and "qualifier i" are strings of characters, while "variable i" can be a string of characters, an integer or a
real value. Such an entry can be made whenever the SICL prompt is presented by the program:
SICL>>-{?}->
"Command#ppppp" can be broken down as follows: "Command" is either a Specification command or a Standard command,
"#" is the number symbol, and "ppppp" is an integer between 1 and 30 000. The "#ppppp" part of the command is optional
and can be used only with specification commands, when IMPLICIT-REPLACE is turned on. If it is specified, then it
becomes the "command number" of the command when IMPLICIT-REPLACE is turned on. If it is not specified, then the
program automatically assigns a "command number" of its own. These command numbers can be examined by entering the
SHOW-MODULE command. They are to be found in the second column from the left of the display. The use for these
command numbers is explained in the IMPLICIT-REPLACE help item.
There may be zero, one or several qualifiers and/or variables associated with the command. When omitted, they cause the
program to select default values in most cases; otherwise, the user is invited to reenter the data. Note that even if a command
has one or more qualifiers associated with it, no qualifiers need be specified if the default one is desired.
Commas, blanks, hyphens, underline characters, and semicolons play a special role in SICL syntax. The comma is the default
data delimiter: it is inserted between data fields so that the program knows where one begins and ends, instead of requiring
the precise positioning of data in fixed fields on a line. All blanks are ignored, unless they are found within a data entity, in
which case they are synonymous with hyphens and underline characters. For example, the command "RESOLVE-
AMBIGUI" may also be entered as "RESOLVE AMBIGUI" or "RESOLVE_AMBIGUI". This makes it possible to enter
comments or labels on any line.
The commands and qualifiers consist of a minimum of Nmin and a maximum of Nmax characters respectively,
where:
Nmin : is the minimum number of characters which should match a valid command before any specified command
is accepted by SICL. The default value of Nmin is 1 and is set at the beginning of a SICL session. The user,
however, can change this value at any time using the Standard command "ACCEPT" described in the
{standard} help item.
Nmax : is the maximum number of characters which are used to define the valid commands recognized by SICL.
The default value of Nmax is 12. This is also the maximum possible value of Nmax in this version of SICL.
1.3 SIGNIFICANT PORTION OF COMMANDS AND QUALIFIERS
The values of Nmin and Nmax at the beginning of a SICL session are the default values (Nmin=1 and Nmax=12). In this
case, SICL accepts commands and qualifiers consisting of from 1 to 12 characters and compares them to the valid ones. If a
unique match is found, the command is accepted. If several interpretations are possible (ambiguous command), then SICL
asks the user to resolve the ambiguity. For example, suppose that the desired valid command is "CONDUCTOR" and that the
specified command is "CON". SICL may find that the command is ambiguous because other commands such as

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"CONNECTION" and "CONDUCTIVITY" are valid as well. If the specified command had been "CONZ" then it would have
been declared invalid (no commands correspond to CONZ...). The user however, may require that a minimum of 4 characters
be specified before the command or qualifier is declared valid, by using the Standard command "ACCEPT" (see the
ACCEPT help item). For example, if Nmin = 4, even "CON" would be declared invalid because now the minimum number
of characters which must be specified is 4.
Finally, SICL will compare each character of the specified command or qualifier up to a maximum of Nmax. In the default
set-up (where Nmax=12), all characters specified by the user will be examined. For example "CON" and CONDUC" will be
accepted as valid while "CONDUCTUR" will not. If this is inconvenient, then the user has the choice of restricting the
character comparison to Nmin by using the Specification command "MATCH" described in the MATCH help item.
Assuming the default case of Nmin=4, this action will cause SICL to declare "CONDXYZ" a valid entry. Note however, that
in this case, "CONDUCTOR" and "CONDUCTIVITY" become indistinguishable and the only way SICL will be able to
select the desired command is by one of the following means:
1- Ask the user
2- Resolve the ambiguity by comparing the number and type of the items associated with the command (this
action will be taken only if the user has authorized it (see the help item for the the Standard command
"RESOLVE-AMBI").
3- Determine the most "logical" or "probable" path which should be retained based on the user's preceding
commands.
For example, when the user specifies the command "CONDUCTOR" for the first time using a reduced string such as "CON",
a selection may have to be made among various possible interpretations as determined by SICL. However, the user can
specify further "CONDUCTOR" commands using a one character string "C". This is because command "CONDUCTOR" is
the most likely next entry.
1.4 HIERARCHY OF COMMANDS
SICL recognizes Standard and Specification commands. Specification commands are structured in a hierarchy of five layers.
The top or first layer of commands consists of the program names. Entry to and exit from the programs are accomplished as
explained in topic {specification}. This topic also explains the hierarchical rules which apply to the Standard and
Specification commands (including their synonyms) within and outside a program. As a general rule however, one must
remember that a synonym is hierarchically inferior to a command of its type (Standard or Specification types). Therefore, an
ambiguity between a command and a synonym (of another command) will always result in the selection of the command.

The five layers (or levels) of Specification commands are as follows:


Highest I. Program command (Main Command)
hierarchy
layer II. Module commands (Access commands)
or level
| III. Option commands (Key commands)
| IV. Group commands (Block commands)
Lowest
level V. Data commands

There is only one Program command per program. The MENU,ALL command shows the commands and their structure for
each engineering module supported by the SICL software package. Two commands at adjacent layers are said to be
connected (or linked) if, in principle, it is necessary to specify the higher-layer command before reaching the lower-layer one.
The term "in principle" is used because in practice, the user may allow jumps over layers (bypass) using the "BYPASS".
Specification command described in topic {standard}. This operation however will succeed only if the bypassed commands
(or levels) do not require items (qualifiers and/or values if any) which cannot be defaulted.
If two commands are connected, the upper-level command is called "ascendant" while the lower one is the "descendant". All
other commands which are at the same level as the descendant and which are connected to the same ascendant are said to be

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General Technical Information for SICL Page 7

"equipotent" (equivalent, having equal capacities). Two lexically identical commands which have different ascendants are
different commands as far as SICL is concerned.
When a command is specified, SICL examines its descendants (if any) to determine if one or several matches exist. If so, the
search stops. If not, the search continues among the descendants of the descendants, and so on, until at least one match is
found. If none is found after the lowest command levels have been examined, SICL searches the equipotent commands and if
still none is found, the rest of the program commands are scanned, followed (if necessary) by a search among the synonyms
of the program commands, if any.
More information is also provided under the following topic names: {helpful hint} and {program stru}. Topic {standard}
describes many of the Standard commands which have an influence on the syntactical and hierarchical interpretations of
SICL. Topic {helpful hint} makes several recommendations concerning a suitable use of such commands.

PROGRAM STRUCTURE-SPECIFICATION (General Information for SICL)


SPECIFICATION COMMANDS
Specification commands lie at the heart of the SICL program. They process all data to be written into the SICL output files
which are used as structured input files for the applications programs.
The Specification commands which create structured input files for Programs RESAP, MALT, MALZ, SPLITS, TRALIN,
HIFREQ, FCDIST and FFTSES (described in related texts) are grouped into eight categories, each category corresponding to
one program. However, many of these commands are similar or identical from one program to another.
In order to create a SICL output file, simply enter all your data using the Specification commands available for the program
concerned.
As already explained, Specification commands are structured in a hierarchy of five layers. The top or first layer of commands
consists of the program names. As soon as one of these is specified, all subsequent lower-level (Specification) commands
issued are assumed by SICL to belong to that program. This is how SICL resolves ambiguities between identical commands
belonging to different programs. If the lower-level command specified belongs to another program, but not to the program
whose SICL output file is being created, then SICL asks the user if migration to the other program is desired; migration
occurs if desired. Note that as soon as migration out of a program occurs, the corresponding SICL output file is closed and
saved. If the program is reentered, then this file is deleted and then opened. Note also that if SICL is in a program and its
name is then specified by the user, SICL will exit and then reenter that program, thus deleting the output file (but not the
session record or save file).
The same principles holds true for all levels except that the user may specify a command as many times as necessary.
Depending upon the command, this will have a "cumulative" or a "substitutive" effect. Cumulative means that new data
associated with that command is added to the existing set. Substitutive means that the current data (which may be the default
data) associated with that command is replaced by the newly specified data. As soon as any Specification command is issued
and SICL has located it, it becomes the current command. When the next Specification command is entered, SICL scans all
subcommands of the current one for a match. If the match is found, then the command is executed. If more than one match is
found, then the user is asked to resolve the ambiguity. If no match is found, then SICL looks elsewhere. If the match is found
in another program, the user is asked to confirm the match. Note that some of this flexibility to hop from one Specification
command to another disappears when the NOBYPASS Standard command is entered (see topic {standard}).
Specification commands and their synonyms may be abbreviated, just as Standard commands may.
If SICL is within a program, then the following holds:
i) All matches with Standard commands and their synonyms are ignored if one or more matches with Specification
commands or their synonyms are found.
ii) If the abbreviation matches a Specification command, then all matches with Specification command synonyms are
ignored.
iii) As far as rules i) and ii) permit, all other matches are detected by SICL. If one match is detected, SICL executes the
command; if more than one match are detected, SICL asks the user to resolve the ambiguity.
If SICL is not within a program, then:

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a) If the abbreviation matches a Standard command or one of its synonyms, then SICL will not find the desired
Specification command.
b) Same as ii) above if a) does not hold.
c) Same as iii) above if a) does not hold.
The hierarchy of Specification commands can be invoked for different programs with the MENU, ALL command.

PROGRAM STRUCTURE-STANDARD (General Information for SICL)


STANDARD COMMANDS
Standard commands are those which govern the general operation of SICL. They may be issued at any time during the input
session, in response to the SICL command prompt.
SICL>>-{?}-->
The syntax of a Standard command is:
Keyword,Qualifier1,Qualifier2, ...,Qualifiern,value
where "keyword" is the actual name of the command, and the qualifiers (of which there may be none, one, or many) describe
which of the command's options are desired. Both the keyword and the qualifiers must be entered in uppercase if the
lowercase option is disabled with the LOWER-CASE, OFF command. Commas are used to separate qualifiers from the
keyword and from each other. If a command which has qualifiers is entered without qualifiers, then SICL makes a default
choice of its own. The specification of qualifiers is optional. In some cases, numerical values may be required to fully specify
a standard command.
Standard commands and their synonyms may be abbreviated, just as Specification commands may. If SICL is not within a
program, then the following holds:
i) All matches with Specification commands and their synonyms are ignored if one or more matches with Standard
commands or their synonyms are found.
ii) If the abbreviation matches a Standard command, then all matches with Standard command synonyms are ignored.
iii) As far as rules i) and ii) permit, all other matches are detected by SICL. If one match is detected, SICL executes the
command; if more than one match are detected, SICL asks the user to resolve the ambiguity.
If SICL is within a program, then:
a) If the abbreviation matches a Specification command or one of its synonyms, then SICL will not find the desired
Standard command.
b) Same as ii) above if a) does not hold.
c) Same as iii) above if a) does not hold.
A list of STANDARD commands can be obtained at any time by typing the command MENU,STANDARD. An explanation
of the STANDARD commands can be obtained by using the HELP facility, explained in topic {facility}.

PROGRAM STRUCTURE-FACILITY (General Information for SICL)


HELP FACILITY
The HELP facility is governed by two commands: HELP and MENU.
>>> HELP COMMAND <<<
The user may invoke the HELP facility at any time (unless SICL is asking the user a question). This HELP facility supplies
general information on programs RESAP, MALT, MALZ, SPLITS, TRALIN, HIFREQ, FCDIST, and FFTSES, as well as
descriptions of specific commands (their function, syntax, etc.), and texts or particular topics of interest.

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General Technical Information for SICL Page 9

Possibly the most important command a user can remember is the HELP, PROMPT command. As soon as this is entered,
SICL responds by asking the user for one or more desired help items. These can be command names (Standard or
Specification) and must be entered in uppercase except when the lowercase autorization flag is on (see topic {standard}) or if
the HELP command is invoked with the COMMANDS qualifier. In both cases lowercase characters are automatically
converted to uppercase, as explained hereafter. The help items can also be texts on particular topics (referred to in command
help texts as sources of additional information). These must be entered in lowercase except if the HELP command is invoked
with the TEXT qualifier, in which case the HELP items are automatically converted to lowercase characters as explained
hereafter. Up to four items may be entered. SICL then displays the desired information.
If SICL is within a program when the HELP, PROMPT command is issued, then SICL seeks a Specification command
within that program whose name matches a given item on the list. In fact, SICL first examines all subcommands of the
current command and returns a description of these (if found) and then stops. If none of these subcommands match the item,
then SICL examines all other commands in the program for a match. If some are found, then the descriptions are displayed
and the search stops. If no commands in the program match the item, then SICL attempts to make a match with the Standard
commands. If successful, the corresponding Standard commands are described. The search then ends whether or not
matching Standards commands are found.
If SICL is not within a program when the HELP,PROMPT command is issued, then all Standard and Specification
commands (in all eight programs) which match a given item are shown.
The user will notice a line at the bottom of the screen when HELP information is displayed, which states that the user can
STOP or CANCEL by entering the appropriate characters. If STOP is chosen, SICL interrupts its description of the present
item, and goes on the next one on the list (if there is one). If CANCEL is chosen, SICL interrupts its description of the
present item and omits its descriptions of the rest of the items on the list (if any).
HELP itself is a Standard command, one of whose qualifiers is PROMPT.
The user may specify more than one qualifier, but if two contradicting qualifiers are entered then the program will accept the
last one entered. This option is available in case the user makes an error in specifying the qualifier. If none are specified,
SICL will choose the default qualifier (*).
In specifying an item, the user may use an asterisk {*} to replace one or more characters of the command or text name. The
user is permitted to use more than one of these asterisks in the same item name.
>>> MENU COMMAND <<<
Next to HELP, the most important Standard command is MENU. MENU is important because it can show the user the
complete list of Standard commands, or the hierarchy (in whole or in part) of Specification commands belonging to a given
program. When a Specification command structure is displayed, the current command is indicated with special characters and
attributes if the video screen supports such features, and with two "#" characters placed before the command when the
display device does not support such features. Thus, the MENU command serves as a road-map of SICL.
Note that the MENU that is displayed will differ depending upon whether SICL is inside a program or not. If SICL is outside
the programs and the MENU command is entered, then a complete list of all Standard commands will be displayed, as well
as a list of presently available programs. If SICL is inside a program, then MENU results in a display of Specification
commands. The number of command levels shown depends upon the position of the current command in the command
hierarchy and upon the qualifier used with MENU.
NOTES :
1) If SICL is not inside any of the programs, then all qualifiers are ignored, and a menu of all the Standard commands
and program names is produced.
2) If two qualifiers contradict each other, then SICL uses the second of the two.
3) The wildcard character, {*}, cannot be used in specifying items for the MENU command.
4) If the MENU command is entered without qualifiers, then SICL defaults to the * qualifier.

HELPFUL HINTS-CONFIGURATION (General Information for SICL)


SELECTING THE RIGHT SICL CONFIGURATION

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Page 10 General Technical Information for SICL

The SICL software package behaves very much like a smart, capable, and obedient assistant which makes certain
assumptions about the user's requirements, based on past commands entered.
This is different from the SIDS interactive input processor which is constantly guiding the user through a dialogue where
questions (always originating from the program) are dependent upon the user's previous responses. SICL awaits user's
commands and instructions, interprets them in a most logical way based on the current as well as past contexts, without
interrupting the session with unnecessary messages or acknowledgments. Only when confirmation is needed or when errors,
warnings and ambiguities are detected, does SICL inform the user by displaying complete but concise diagnostic messages.
The other occasions when SICL displays information are when the HELP or MENU commands are entered. In these cases
the information may be quite brief or rather extensive, depending on the user's choice.
This discretion manifested by SICL may disorient the novice user who realizes that SICL acknowledges valid commands
simply by displaying the next command prompt. The remedy is to request the MENU from time to time to ascertain that the
current command is truly where it should be. However, this may not be sufficient if the user allows SICL a high degree of
freedom in its interpretations by setting it up in a loose configuration. Since SICL is extremely flexible thanks to its
numerous switches, it can be arranged in a rather large number of practical syntactical and operational configurations some of
which may be suitable only to experienced users or for special applications. It is therefore recommended that the user
experiment with some of the more liberal settings and understand the resulting behaviour before using them on a permanent
basis.
For example, allowing SICL to accept very short commands but not to report all valid matches may lead to confusion which
is avoided only by very frequently invoking the MENU command to verify that the desired command was retained. On the
other hand, requesting large values for the minimum number of characters in a command will slow the input session without
any significant decrease in the number of possible reported ambiguities.

HELPFUL HINTS-AUXILIARY (General Information for SICL)


USING SPECIALIZED AUXILIARY FILES
Since different SICL setups will probably be desired for different programs and studies, it is often a good idea to create one
auxiliary input file containing all the Standard commands necessary to establish each setup.
These files may be called SETMALT.INP, SETSPLITS.INP, etc., and can be opened and read with the OPEN-FILE,filename
followed by the READ command just as soon as the first SICL prompt appears on the screen at the beginning of an input
session.

HELPFUL HINTS-RECOVERY (General Information for SICL)


RECOVERY FOLLOWING ABNORMAL TERMINATION OF A SESSION
If, for any reason, your session is terminated before the SICL output files are processed and closed, it is still possible to
recreate them by replaying all or part of your terminated session.
This is accomplished simply by using the RECOVER,filename command or the OPEN-FILE,filename and READ commands
in sequence. You must however do the following before rerunning SICL or you will lose your save (or record file) which is
always stored in SICLSAV.SAV (the old copy is destroyed and replaced with a new one at the beginning of a session):
+ Copy SICLSAV.SAV into filename.INP, where filename is a name of your choice.
+ Edit filename.INP and insert an ENDREAD command just after the last command to be processed by SICL. You
don't need to do this if the last desired command is the last one in the file. You can insert ENDREAD commands
anywhere within the file except before a line which is the answer to a question asked by SICL. You can place as
many ENDREAD commands as you wish if you intend to use the READ command more than once. However, this
technique will not work with the RECOVER,filename command because it always rewinds the file before starting to
read it.
+ Once all saved data has been read from the auxiliary file, you can resume your data entry manually or you may open
another auxiliary file and READ the desired input data therefrom.

STRUCTURED HELP REFERENCE 2.0


General Technical Information for SICL Page 11

HELPFUL HINTS-BLOCKS (General Information for SICL)


USING BLOCKS OF DATA PREPARED IN ADVANCE
Most engineering design studies involve the repeated submission of problems which differ from each other simply by the
slight modification of existing data or addition of new data.
In such cases, it may be quite useful to recover the saved files from previous input sessions, delete all input data lines with
the exception of those lines which are large blocks of data of the same type (such as the phase conductor and skywire
characteristics of a transmission line or the buried conductors of a ground network), and separate them with ENDREAD
commands after placing them in the order they are expected. Then, once a SICL session has been started, it suffices to open
the file thus prepared and issue a READ command every time a block of data is needed.

LOGICALS (General Information for SICL)


LOGICALS :
The following table contains the input and output units (no DEBUG units):

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
| |Unit| Variable | | File
| | No.| Name | Description | Name
=======================================================================
| | 5 | INDIAL | Logical unit number of the file or| System
| I | | | (device) from which the main in- | Default
| N | | | put data is read (interactively). |
| P |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| U | 12 | INFILE | Logical unit number of auxiliary | SICLINP.INP
| T | | | input file. | or as defi-
| | | | | ned by user
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 16 | MVARFI | Logical unit number for debug | System
| | | | files. | Default
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| I | 18 | INHELP | Logical unit number of the HELP | SICLHLP.HLP
| N | | | file. |
| P |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| U | 19 | INLEC | Logical unit number of the file | PRGCOMMA.NDS
| T | | | containing the commands, their |
| | | | qualifiers, and their synonyms. |
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 31 | INTERG | Logical unit number used to enter | System
| | | | user prompt for the DRAW command. | Default
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 44 | INGENE | Logical unit number used | System
| | | | temporarily by the GENERATE | Default
| | | | command in SICL. | |
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 88 | IRDFLG | Logical unit number of the SICL | SICLFLG.FLG
| | | | flag setup file. |
=======================================================================

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Page 12 General Technical Information for SICL

|---------------------------------------------------------------------
| |Unit| Variable | | File
| | No.| Name | Description | Name
=======================================================================
| | 6 | IQUEST | Logical unit number of device | System
| O | | | to which questions and messages | default
| U | | | are sent during interactive input |
| T | | | sessions. |
| P |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| U | 71 | IOFRES | Logical unit number where the | FRESAP.DAT
| T | 72 | | processed input data for each | FMALT.DAT
| | 73 | | specified program is saved. | FMALZ.DAT
| | 74 | | | FSPLITS.DAT
| | 75 | | | FTRALIN.DAT
| | 76 | | These are the SICL output files. | FHIFREQ.DAT
| | 77 | | | FFCDIST.DAT
| | 78 | | | FFFTSES.DAT
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 8 | ISAVME | Logical unit number of session |
| | | | record file (also referred to as | SICLSAV.SAV
| | | | session save file). |
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 9 | IOKSAV | Logical unit number of the | SICLSTR.UCT
| | | | structured SICL file. |
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 10 | IOFTEM | Logical unit number of a temporary| System
| | | | direct access file. | default
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 11 | IRDFIL | Logical unit number of a temporary| System
| | | | file used by SICL. | default
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 30 | IPLOT | Logical unit number for the plot | SICLPLO.OUT
| | | | file. |
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 40 | IOMLIS | Logical unit numbers for debug | System
| | 41 | IOM | purposes (SES use only). | default
| |----|----------|-----------------------------------|-------------
| | 44 | INGENE | Logical unit number used | System
| | | | temporarily by the generate | default
| | | | command in SICL. | |
=======================================================================

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RESAP Technical Information for SICL Page 13

RESAP (RESAP Information for SICL)


RESAP
Program RESAP interprets measured apparent earth resistivity (or resistance) data to determine an equivalent earth structure
model which can be used to analyze grounding systems, conduct cathodic protection studies, examine electromagnetic
induction (EMI) problems and compute line parameters.
From the resistivity measurement data, obtained using arbitrarily spaced 4 electrode configuration methods (including
Wenner or Schlumberger methods), RESAP determines an equivalent layered or "exponential" earth. The earth layers may be
vertical or horizontal. The "exponential" earth is a soil whose resistivity varies exponentially with depth.
Several numerical techniques are available to obtain the best fit between measured results and those computed based on the
proposed equivalent earth model. The choice is made by the user. The program will automatically optimize the search
parameters based on the technique selected by the user.
For more information, specify the following topics.

{soil} or {earth} or {resistivity} : Earth Resistivity Description


{types} or {structures} or {models} : Types of Earth Structures
{optimization} : Error Minimization Options
{methods} or {measurements} : Earth Resistivity Measurement Methods
{input_data} or {input} or {data} : Input Data
{computations} or {algorithms} : Computation Algorithm

SOIL (RESAP Information for SICL)


EARTH RESISTIVITY DESCRIPTION
The purpose of the earth resistivity test related to power system design is to assist in the determination of an appropriate soil
model which can be used to predict the effect of the underlying soil characteristics on the performance of a grounding system
or a power delivery system.
Usually, the electrical characteristics of the earth are sufficiently uniform over horizontal distances to permit the assumption
that the soil beneath typical sites is uniform over horizontal dimensions. In such cases, vertical variations in resistivity can
often be described by one, two or more frequently, three or more distinct horizontal layers of earth.
Sometimes, however, earth resistivity variations over horizontal dimensions are significant and can therefore not be
neglected. In such instances, the horizontal variations in resistivity can often be modelled by two or more distinct vertical
layers of earth.

TYPES (RESAP Information for SICL)


TYPES OF EARTH STRUCTURE
The types of earth structures (models) which can be analyzed using RESAP include:

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Page 14 RESAP Technical Information for SICL

- 2 Layer Horizontal
- 2 Layer Vertical
- 3 Layer Vertical (not yet available)
- Multi-Layer Horizontal
- Multi-Layer Vertical (not yet available)
- Exponential Soil (resistivity varies exponentially with depth)

The "exponential" earth structure is comparable to an earth structure with horizontal layers. It is sometimes used as a model
for computing transmission line parameters.

METHODS (RESAP Information for SICL)


EARTH RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENT METHODS
The measurement configuration most widely used in the electric power industry is a four-electrode (probe) method developed
by F.Wenner.
As shown in Figure 1, four uniformly spaced electrodes are used, with the outer pair being used as current input probes and
the inner pair as potential references.
Using the Wenner geometry, the apparent measured resistivity is:
Rho=2(pi)aR
where

Rho = apparent soil resistivity, in ohm-meters.


pi = 3.1415926...
a = electrode spacing, in meters (a = Se1 = Si = Se2 in Figure 1).
R = ratio of measured voltage to test current, in ohms.

Considering electrode penetration depth to be small compared to electrode spacing, the preceding equation effectively
describes the variation in measured resistivity as a function of electrode separation a. Physically, the greater the electrode
spacing, the greater the volume of earth encompassed by the test current in its traverse from C1 to C2 and hence, the greater
depth of earth involved in the measurement.
It is important to note that the equation is valid for electrode spacings much larger than electrode length (or burial depth, if
spherical sources are used). Wenner has developed an equation which takes into account the depth of a point source, but is
not applicable to spikes which are commonly used as electrodes. RESAP will optionally use an exact equation which takes
the lengths of the probes into consideration.
An important variation of the equally-spaced four probe method, which is widely used in geophysical prospecting, is the
unequally-spaced symmetrical or Schlumberger arrangement. This method circumvents a shortcoming of the Wenner method
often encountered at large probe spacings whereby the magnitude of the potential between the potential probes becomes too
small to give reliable measurements. By moving the potential leads closer to the outer current electrodes, the potential value
is increased and the sensitivity limitations encountered using the Wenner method may be overcome. For large probe
spacings, the apparent resistivity according to the Schlumberger method is given by:
Rho=(pi)Rc(c+d)/d
where

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RESAP Technical Information for SICL Page 15

c = spacing between adjacent potential and current electrodes.


(inner and outer electrodes: c = Se1 = Se2 in Figure 1).
pi = 3.1415926...
d = spacing between potential electrodes (inner electrodes:
d = Si in Figure 1).
R = measured apparent resistance.
The preceding equation is not valid for short electrode spacings which are comparable to electrode lengths. RESAP will use
an exact equation if the lengths of the current and/or potential electrodes are specified. Note that the ratio d/(c+d) is often
referred to by geophysicists as the eccentricity of the symmetrical traverse configuration. This eccentricity is usually very
small in most geophysical resistivity soundings carried out based on the Schlumberger configuration.
In order to provide complete flexibility to the user, RESAP offers a General method which can interpret measurements made
with completely arbitrary electrode spacings: i.e., Se1. Si, and Se2 can all be unequal. This can be helpful if difficult field
conditions make it impractical to respect the symmetrical electrode positions required by the Wenner and Schlumberger
methods.

|-----------------|
| C1 P1 P2 C2 | Four Terminal
| o o o o | Test Set
|---|--|---|--|---|
| | | |
______| | | |____________
| _| |__ |
| | <- V- >| |
|< Se1 >| < Si >| < Se2 > |
====+=======+========+============
^ ^
^ POTENTIAL ^
| PROBES |
| |
|--- CURRENT PROBES ----|

FIGURE 1. Four-Probe Earth Resistivity Measurement Test Set

INPUT-DATA (RESAP Information for SICL)


INPUT DATA
The main input data required by RESAP consists of the electrode spacings and apparent earth resistance or resistivity values
obtained using the Wenner, Schlumberger, or the general 4-electrode configurations.
Optionally, the lengths of the current and potential electrodes may also be specified.
The main block of data consists of a sequence of n data lines (j=1,n) containing the following values:

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Page 16 RESAP Technical Information for SICL

Se1, R, Do, Di (Wenner Method)


Se1, R, Do, Di, Si (Schlumberger Method)
Se1, R, Do, Di, Si, Se2 (General Method)
Where
C1 P1 P2 C2
Se1 Si Se2
|<-------->|<--------->|<----------->|

Se1 : Spacing between a current (outer) electrode C1 and its adjacent potential (inner) electrode P1 (see figure).
R: Apparent soil resistance in ohms (i.e., V/I) or apparent soil resistivity in ohm-m corresponding to the
electrode spacings Se1, Si and Se2 (i.e., (2piV/I) (1/Se1+1/Se2-1(Se1+Si)-1/(Se2+Si)) with Se1, Si and Se2
specified in meters).
When the RESISTIVITY setting is specified for the MEASUREMENTS module, the measured data should
be entered as apparent resistivities. When the APPARENT-RESistance setting or no setting is specified, the
apparent resistance values should be entered.
Do : Is the average length of current (outer) electrodes (meters or feet). If this field is blank or zero, then the
program assumes a negligible length and will use appropriate formulas (depending on the length of the
potential electrodes) to compute the apparent resistivity. Otherwise, it will compute the apparent resistivity
based on a more accurate formulation for handling cylindrical spikes.
Di : Is the average length. of potential (inner) electrodes (meters or feet). If this field is blank or zero, then the
program assumes a negligible length of the current electrodes) to compute the apparent resistivity.
Otherwise, it will compute the apparent resistivity based on a more accurate formulation for handling
cylindrical spikes.
Si : Spacing between two potential (inner) electrodes (see figure).
Se2 : Spacing between the remaining (outer) electrode C2 and its adjacent potential (inner) electrode (see figure).

COMPUTATIONS (RESAP Information for SICL)


COMPUTATION ALGORITHM
The main computations performed by RESAP are based on numerical techniques usually called 'Function Minimization'.
The problem is to determine the parameters of the presumed earth model which will minimize the sum of the squares of the
difference between the measured and computed apparent resistivities (Least-Square minimization algorithm).
RESAP can perform this minimization (designated in RESAP printout as optimization procedure) based on four different
techniques:
- Steepest-Descent Method - Conjugate Gradients Method
- Fletcher-Powel G-Conjugate Method - Simplex Method *
* NOTE: The Simplex method is not available in this version of RESAP.

STRUCTURED HELP REFERENCE 2.0


MALT Technical Information for SICL Page 17

MALT (MALT Information for SICL)


Computer program MALT is a powerful grounding analysis tool, which is useful whenever electrical conduction through
earth must be studied; typically, MALT is used to analyze and design ground networks for HVAC and HVDC power stations,
substations or transmission towers, or to perform cathodic protection studies. MALT can analyze complex ground networks
consisting of arbitrary arrangements of bare conductors buried in vertically, horizontally, or spherically layered soils.
Generally, MALT is suited to analyzing all practical problems where dc or ac power frequency currents are injected into the
earth by a ground network or multiple electrodes, so long as the longitudinal impedances of the ground conductors can be
neglected. In this situation, the locations of the current injection points within the ground network do not play a significant
role. At higher frequencies or increased ground network size, the longitudinal impedances of buried conductors cannot be
neglected; consequently, MALT results may become inaccurate. For such analysis, it is preferable to use the MALZ program.
INTRODUCTION
The application of modern computer-assisted design techniques to the solution of complex engineering problems can often
result in substantial cost savings (engineering and construction), as well as improved accuracy and reduced design time. This
is particularly true for grounding problems which cannot generally be solved accurately using conventional simplified and/or
empirical methods.
The high short circuit capacity of modern HVDC power systems together with the increasing compactness of substations
(SF6) are such that simplified methods are no longer tolerable in modern power system computations. Such methods may
cause one of the following two unacceptable situations:

- Unsafe and/or inefficient ground networks;


- Overdesigned ground networks.
While the first situation may endanger human life and/or destroy vital power equipment, the second situation leads to
unjustified additional labor and material costs which can amount to several hundreds of thousands of dollars in the case of
large ground electrodes.
The use of program MALT avoids inconsistent or erroneous designs and facilitates the development of optimum ground
networks at minimum cost with all the necessary confidence required by modern engineering practice.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT HISTORY
The MALT program is useful whenever electrical conduction through earth must be analyzed. Typically, MALT is used to
analyze and design ground networks for HVAC and HVDC power stations. Other electrical engineering problems can also be
accurately solved using MALT program as explained later.
The development of program MALT started in 1971 and was completed in 1973. Since then, it has been continuously revised
and updated. New features have been developed and input/output facilities improved. Use of the program is very
straightforward despite the mathematical complexity of the calculations made by the program.
Extensive research and engineering studies have demonstrated the extent of the analysis required to achieve a cost-effective
solution to practical grounding problems. Theoretical results have been continuously compared to experimental ones using
reduced scale models and real life ground networks. Excellent results are obtained with the MALZ program.
For more information refer to the following topics:

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Page 18 MALT Technical Information for SICL

{features} : Features of MALT


{input} : Input Data Used by MALT
{output} : Output Produced
{applications} : Typical Areas of Application

Computer program MALT is used primarily to analyze power system grounding networks. It is also used to investigate
various engineering problems where conduction of current in metallic conductors buried in the soil is the critical factor. In all
cases however, the preparation of the input data closely follows the basic steps described under the following titles:

{problem-description} : Problem Description


{soil} or {structure} : Soil Structure
{fault-currents} or {grid-currents} : Fault and Grid Currents
{grounding-grid} or {configuration} : Grounding Grid Configuration
{computation} or {results} : Computations and Results
{safety} : Safety Considerations
{input-description} : Description of Input Data
{acceleration} : Description of Computation Speed

FEATURES (MALT Information for SICL)


FEATURES
MALT exhibits a number of original features which give the program broad applicability across the industry, such as the
calculation of currents in and potentials around irregular grounding grids in layered soils.
MALT : Can be used to study the performance of a ground network embedded in a uniform or layered earth having
arbitrary resistivities and distances between the interfaces of the layers (see Figure 1). Soils with three
concentric hemispherical regions with different resistivities can also be modelled (not shown in figure).
MALT also supports a cylindrical soil model and allows for the modelling of arbitrarily shaped regions of
varying resistivities embedded in a uniform soil.

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MALT Technical Information for SICL Page 19

/ / // / / //// /
/ // / Soil / //// Soil /// // / \\ Soil
// / /// Surface / // / Surface / // / /\\\ Surface
/__________________ /____/______ /____/___/______
|| ^ ||| | ||| | || | |
|| | h1 p1 | | | | |
|__v_______________ | pl | pr | pl | p | pr
|== h2 p2 == | | | |
|---------
| etc.
a) Multiple Horizontal Layers b) Vertical Layers

Figure 1 Layered Soil Models


MALT: Is valid for any possible configuration of ground conductors (Figure 2). Irregular grids, unequally spaced
vertical, horizontal, or inclined conductors and combinations of these can readily be analyzed. There are no
limitations other than computer core memory capacity. The above features are well appreciated by design
engineers.

0-----,-----0---.
/| / /| \
/ / 0-----/-----/------0
/ / / y ^ /| / / /
/ /// / / 0 / 0------/
/ // / / x /\____/\ /| 0
------------- ---------> / \ \ /______/
|########### | / \ \/ /
|######### | 0------0-----0-----0
|######## | | | /|
|##### | | |
V z

Figure 2 Arbitrary Ground Network


MALT: Permits the analysis of ground network performance in the presence of one or more return electrodes, i.e., a
fault which is close to or in a substation, as illustrated in Figure 3 (the effect of such close return paths is to
considerably distort the earth potential profiles).

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Page 20 MALT Technical Information for SICL

Skywire
----------/\----------------/\----------------/\
---------/--\---_;---------/--\--------------/--\-. .-
| | _/ | | Phase wire | | \_. ._/
| |/ Fault | | | | # #
/ \ / \ / \ ====== Substation
|______| |______| ) |______| { }
______/||||||||\________/||||||||\______|_/||||||||\_{__}______________
_/ / | \__ __/ | | \
_/ / | ```------>------'' | |
/ | \ / | \
V V \_ _/ /
`--.___ ___.--' ^ ^
````-->--'''' |

Figure 3 Close Return Electrode


MALT: Allows the calculation of transferred currents and potentials via buried metallic structures or pipes (see
Figure 4). Transferred potentials are of concern to many engineers and their calculation is possible using
program MALT. MALT is capable of calculating the performance of ground networks even with the
simultaneous presence of close return and buried structures.

___________________
|
.--| SUBSTATION |--.
_/ | | \_
_/ _/-------------------\_ \_
\_ / / / | \ \ V
\_ | | | | | |
\_V V V V V V V
\ | | | | | | \ \
`*-------------------------------------- \/\ \/\ ------
/ Buried Pipe \ \
/

Figure 4 Transferred Potentials


MALT: Permits the determination of the exact position of the potential probe when measuring the ground resistance
of an installed ground network by the "Fall of Potential" method.
MALT: Can be used to analyze and design cathodic protection installations as depicted in Figure 5 below.

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MALT Technical Information for SICL Page 21

.______. Rectifier
----------|--|>--|---------
| - `------' +
Earth Surface |
_____________\__________|_________________________|___________
| .-<-.
Soil | / \##########
_____________________|____________./ ## ## ## Anode
(0) ).--<-- ## ## ##
(000) Protected Structure ) | |
(0)__________________________________)\ / |
|_ \_ `-<-' __| | Earth Currents
\__ `---------<-----' _/
`--------------------<-----'

Figure 5 Cathodic Protection Installation

INPUT (MALT Information for SICL)


INPUT
The input data task of MALT is straightforward. The data consists basically of:
- Soil: Type, resistivities and locations of layer interfaces.
- Electrode configuration: Physical location of the conductors which constitute the electrodes (i.e., the ground
network, and other directly energized or non-energized buried structures, if any).
- Profiles data: Pertinent data about the directions in which potential profiles are to be calculated.
- Codes and options: This data allows a flexible and efficient utilization of program MALT's capabilities for each
particular problem to be studied.
Data entry is simplified by the following optional features:
- Automatic subdivision of ground conductors.
- Automatic generation of points for resistance calculations.
- Automatic generation of points for potential profiles and Fall of Potential profiles.
- Energization of electrodes can be specified, for each electrode, in terms of either injected current or electrode GPR.

OUTPUT (MALT Information for SICL)


OUTPUT
Besides comprehensive and detailed error messages and diagnostics, program MALT gives extensive information about the
performance of a ground network.
The available output includes the following:
- Ground resistance, potential rise, and total injection current of the ground network including any buried structures.
- Current densities in the conductors of the ground network, the return electrode and the buried structures (Figure 6).

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Page 22 MALT Technical Information for SICL

C D
U E | _/\
R N | / \
R S | / \
E I | ^ / \
N T | / \ / \
T Y | / \ / \ _/\ --_
|----/-----\-----/-------------\-----/---\--/---\--/\-/-->AVERAGE
| / \ / \ / \/ \/ -
| / \_/ \_/
|_/

+------------------------------------------------------->
CONDUCTOR NUMBER
Figure 6 Current Densities in Conductors
- Soil potential values at any point on or below the earth's surface.
Potential profiles are calculated for any direction specified
in the data (Figure 7).
^ , , , ,
P | /,\/,\/,\/,\
O | ,/ \/ \/ \/ \\
T | ./ \\
E | ./ \\ Isolated Grid
N |./ \\
T |/ \ ` . __
I |--------------------\------- Remote Soil Potential
A | \ /-
L | \ / Grid and Return Electrode
| v
+----------------------------->
DISTANCE
Figure 7 Soil Potentials

- Exact location of potential probe to be used in


Fall-of-Potential field measurements to measure correct
ground resistance.
- Transferred potential values.
- Plots of ground network configuration and potential profiles
(plotter and printer plots)

APPLICATIONS (MALT Information for SICL)


TYPICAL AREAS OF APPLICATION
MALT application include the following:
- Optimum design of power substation ground networks; step and touch voltages; insulation coordination for
telecommunication circuits.

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MALT Technical Information for SICL Page 23

- Calculation of tower footing resistance and potential rise; touch and step voltages; lightning performance.
- Investigation of earth potential gradients caused by buried structures such as pipelines, metallic conduits, railways,
etc.
- Rate of corrosion of structures buried in soils subject to electric fields caused by dc or ac sources. Determination of
necessary cathodic protection.
- Design of HVDC electrodes for the earth return path of dc currents.

PROBLEM-DESCRIPTION (MALT Information for SICL)


DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM
As an example, let us assume that a substation ground network is being designed (Figure 8). Based on the substation area and
some initial calculations using simplified formulas, a preliminary layout of the ground network is sketched. Basically, this
grid consists of cylindrical conductors buried in the soil.
The next step would be to establish whether a remote fault (remote return electrode) or a close fault (close return electrode)
must be considered (typically a ground fault developing at an adjacent substation or transmission tower). This selection is
based on fault calculations which will determine the worst case with respect to the maximum fault current carried by the
substation grid (use computer programs SPLITS to determine the fault current distribution accurately). If the remote fault
case is selected, no close return electrode need be considered in the study.
Finally, the designer must investigate the possibility of buried metallic structures embedded close to the substation grid and
not connected to the substation grid (such as pipes and other metallic conduits). Assume again that there are no adjacent
buried structures.
The problem is to analyze the performance of this ground network (preliminary layout) when it injects a fault current Is into
the earth where it is buried (e.g. uniform soil or a soil model with horizontal or vertical or hemispherical layers).

0------------+------------+-----------0
Incoming | | | | Outgoing
Transmission | | | | Transmission
Lines |------------+------------+-----------| Lines
=============>| | | |==============>
| | |
|------------+------------+-----------0
| | | ^
| | |
0------------+------------0 <--- Ground
^ Rods
Fault occurring at
a remote location
<====== Grounding Grid

Figure 8 Preliminary Substation Grid Layout

SOIL (MALT Information for SICL)


SOIL STRUCTURE
It is necessary to have a good knowledge of the soil structure and its resistivity values. If the soil is not uniform, an
equivalent layered soil model should be determined.

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Often the resistivity of the top soil layer is not constant throughout the year and varies with time mainly because of the
climatic conditions (in northern countries the top soil freezes and thaws regularly, leading to large variations of the top soil
resistivity). In such instances, it is necessary to study the ground network for various top soil resistivity values, adequately
selected to reflect existing variations. Earth resistivity sometimes varies significantly over horizontal dimensions, and
therefore, cannot be ignored. In such instances, earth structures with vertical layers provide an excellent equivalent soil model
of the real situation.
Computer program RESAP can be used to determine the parameters of the equivalent layered earth.

FAULT-CURRENTS (MALT Information for SICL)


FAULT AND GROUND NETWORK CURRENTS
The fault current entering the soil via the ground network must be supplied to the program as input data. Alternatively,
MALT allows the grid potential to be specified. If both are unknown, MALT will still function with a nominal value.
It is important to note that the performance of a ground network is proportional to the fault current which enters the soil via
the ground network. Also, it is useless (and costly) to assume that the entire fault current is being injected into the soil by the
grid. This is seldom the case. In fact, a substantial amount of current returns to the source via the overhead ground wires (or
neutral wires), and does not enter the grid (see Figure 9).

where +------------------------------------+
| It: TOTAL FAULT CURRENT
|
| Is: GRID CURRENT
|
| Ig, Ig1 : GROUND WIRE CURRENTS
+------------------------------------+
Fault occurring at
a remote location Substation Ground Wire
<========= _/ _/ Phase Conductor
/ / /
--------#--------#--------#--------|---------#--------#---_/---#--------
________#________#________# ----> | ----> #________#__/_____#________
# # <--- # Ig | Ig1 # # # <----
# # It # | # # #
Soil # # # | | Is # # #
Surface # # # | V # # #
________#________#________#________|_________#________#________#________
||| # # # | # # # ||
# # # ____|___ # # # ========>
_/ ' ' ' \_ Generating
--<--'' / ^ \ ``--->-- Stations
/ | `--->---
--<--'
`- Grounding Grid

Figure 9 Fault Current in Ground Network


Computer program SPLITS can be used to determine the current distribution between the ground network and the overhead
ground wires or other neutral conductors.
It may be argued that in order to accurately determine the fault current (Is) which enters the grid, it is necessary to know the
grid resistance, a value which has not yet been calculated. Fortunately, it is not necessary to know the exact fault current prior
to running program MALT because:

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MALT Technical Information for SICL Page 25

1- The grid resistance is not a function of the fault current.


2- The grid potential rise and the soil potentials are exactly proportional to the fault current.
Consequently, once program MALT is run assuming a fault current Ia, the calculated grid resistance can be used to calculate
the exact fault current Is, and all the potential values obtained using MALT can be adjusted by a simple multiplication by the
proportionality factor Is/Ia.

GROUNDING-GRID (MALT Information for SICL)


GROUND NETWORK CONFIGURATION
The configuration of the ground network must be expressed using Cartesian coordinates once the ground network is selected
and the soil resistivities and fault current (or assumed fault current) have been decided upon. The cylindrical conductors are
described as vectors with respect to this coordinate system.
Any arbitrary coordinate system may be selected. However, it is necessary that the X-Y plane be the soil surface and the Z
axis be directed downward. For example, the grid shown in Figure 8 ({problem-description} topic) is shown again in Figure
10 with respect to the coordinate system selected. Note that the X and Y axes are parallel to the grid conductors. This,
although not mandatory, is often a very convenient choice.

^
/ y / / Earth Surface
/ / x // | x
-+-------------->---------------- -x--------------------------->
| | (Xp,Yp,Zp)
| ________________ | 9 / 13
| | | | | o ________5_______o
| 9 & 10 ^ 11 12 & 13 | 1| 2| 3| 4
| z | | |_____|___6_|_____
v | | | | |
Conductor Grid | |_____|___7_|_____o
| | | | 12
| o_____|___8_o
-y | 10 \ 11
v (Xs,Ys,Zs)
a) Cross-section giving side view b) Top view of grid
of conductor grid

Figure 10 Selection of a Coordinate System


In order to fully describe the ground network, it suffices to specify the coordinates of the origins (Xs, Ys, Zs) and the ends
(Xp, Yp, Zp) of all conductors (as shown in Figure 10) including the ground rods, in a manner similar to defining a vector.
Also, the radius of each conductor must be specified.

COMPUTATION (MALT Information for SICL)


COMPUTATION AND RESULTS REQUIRED
Once all the data has been specified, the program can start the computations. If the exact distribution of current entering the
soil via the conductors is required, it may be necessary to subdivide each conductor into a number of smaller segments*. This
procedure improves the accuracy of the current density calculation. This may be achieved either by subdividing the
conductors before inputing the data or, which is much simpler, by using the automatic subdivision option of the program (see
the SUBDIVISION help item).

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* Note: The grid current usually does not distribute uniformly over all the conductors. Much soil current exists at
the grid periphery and comparatively less exists at the center of the grid in most cases.
The resistance and the potential rise of the ground network (R and Vr) are usually important values in grounding design. For
example, the potential rise, which is the product of resistance and grid current, must not exceed 10 kV or preferably, 5 kV
(for the protection of communication equipment in the substation and to prevent dangerous transferred potentials which may
develop after the insulation breakdown of a communication insulating transformer).
Other values of interest are the touch and step voltages, particularly at the periphery of the grid and at mesh centers, during a
ground fault condition on the power system. In order to calculate these values, the user should specify points at which earth
potentials are to be computed, run MALT, and then run SIRPS to compute touch and/or step voltages.

SAFETY (MALT Information for SICL)


SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
For a detailed discussion of basic safety and grounding design concepts, refer to Chapters 2 and 3 of the MALT User's
Manual.

INPUT-DESCRIPTION (MALT Information for SICL)


GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE INPUT DATA
Program MALT makes ground network calculations for arbitrarily positioned main ground conductors, return electrodes, and
buried conductors. These three conductor groups make up separate structures in the input data file.
SINGLE ELECTRODE CASE
This is the case in which only one electrode (generally the Main ground network which is being designed or checked) is
injecting fault current into the soil. This current returns to a ground electrode (called here, Return) which is remote enough
from the Main ground network so that it has no influence on the Main ground network performance.
The data to be provided are:
a- Case description, consisting of:
- Magnitude of current flowing into Main ground network, or GPR of the network.
- Configuration of Main ground network.
b- Computer calculations required:
- Main ground network resistance, potential rise, and current distribution (always computed).
- Potential values at any points in the soil.
MULTIPLE ELECTRODE CASE
This is the situation in which the Main ground network is close to the Return electrode and/or is installed in a soil with
metallic structures (such as pipes, conductors, etc) buried adjacent to it, without being electrically connected to it. These close
electrodes will, of course, influence the performance of the Main ground network. For example, such a situation exists when
field test measurements are carried out to determine the resistance of the Main ground network using the Fall-of-Potential
method. This method often requires a close Return electrode. Therefore, by providing the necessary input data, the user may
obtain from the MALT output results, the exact location of the potential probe needed to accurately measure the resistance
using the Fall-of-Potential method. This method is described in the next paragraph.
The data to be provided are:
a- Case description, consisting of:
- Magnitude of current flowing into the Main and Return grounds or their GPR values.
- Configurations of the Main, Return, and/or Buried Metallic Structures.

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b- Computer calculations required:


- Exact potential probe position when using the Fall-of-Potential method for measuring Main ground
resistance.
- Potential rise and current distribution of Main, Return, and/or Buried electrodes (always computed).
- Potential values at any points in the soil.
- Ground resistance of the Main electrode (ignoring the effect of any Return and/or Buried electrodes).
The exact potential probe position is determined from the Fall-of-Potential measurement method results.
FALL-OF-POTENTIAL METHOD
Essentially, the method consists of measuring the voltage drop between the Main ground network and the potential probe
(along a given direction) when current is injected into the soil through the Main ground network and a Return electrode. If the
distance between the Main and Return electrodes is large enough and if the soil is uniform, the exact potential probe location
can be easily approximated. However, this is not always possible. MALT calculates an error function (mutual coupling) in
terms of the potential probe location. When this error function is zero (or close to zero), then the location corresponding to
this value of the error function is the exact potential probe location. If required, the error function (for each direction of
measurement) can be plotted. Note that, depending on whether the ground resistance is calculated or not, MALT calculates
the error function E, or the Fall of Potential curve F (E= R - F, where R is the computed grid resistance). When F (also called
apparent resistance) is calculated, the exact location of the potential probe corresponds to the probe location where F = R.
VERTICAL LAYERS
The specification of an earth structure model consisting of vertical layers requires the understanding of various definitions
and conventions used in program MALT. Some of the most important definitions and conventions are discussed hereafter.

y ^ Sl Sr
/ \||||||x Mr Earth Surface
/ Ml x||||||\
O / \||||||\ a. x
___/__________________\||||||\_________________>__________
| |//////
| pl |/ p //| pr
| |//////
z v |//////| Soil Cross Section
|//////
Sl Sr
Figure 11 Vertical Layers
Figure 11 shows an earth model consisting of three vertical layers with resistivities pl, p and pr respectively. The reference
layer resistivity is always the center layer resistivity p (for horizontally-layered soils, the reference resistivity is that of the top
layer). If the earth structure consists of two vertical layers only, then the reference layer resistivity is that of the left layer.
Examination of Figure 11 reveals that the interface plane between two adjacent vertical planes can be uniquely defined by the
angle "a" of the interface trace on the X-Y plane (earth surface) with respect to the positive direction of the X axis, and by the
X and Y coordinates of one point on the interface trace. For example, the interface plane separating the right and central
layers (Sr) is defined by the angle "a" and the coordinates of point Mr.
It is clear now that one needs to know how to distinguish the left layer from the right layer because firstly, one does not
necessarily have to orient the X axis from left to right (arbitrary choice of the coordinate system) and secondly, there are
ambiguous situations (such as interface planes parallel to the X axis) for which the distinction between the left and right
layers becomes blurred. To resolve such cases, MALT always assumes that the observation point Mo defined by the
coordinates x = infinity, y = 0, z = 0 is ALWAYS in the RIGHT layer. If Mo happens to be located exactly on the interface
plane, then the point Mo will be defined by x = infinity, y = E, z = 0 (E being a small positive number).
SPHERICALLY LAYERED SOIL MODELS

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A spherical soil model is composed of three soil regions delineated by two concentric hemispherical interfaces. Spherical soil
models are useful in modelling grounding systems located in finite soil heterogeneities. Typically, these soil structures are
artificial. For example, a spherical soil model can be used to represent a building foundation buried in a given volume of
backfill, and surrounded by native soil.

ACCELERATION (MALT Information for SICL)


ACCELERATION
The topic is about ACCELERATION, ACCURACY, REACH, JUMP, TERMS, USER-CONTROL, LARGE-DISTANCE
and computation time.
Usually, requesting increased accuracy in a computer program requires longer computation time. In MALT or MALZ, the
time that the program takes is largely a function of how many terms (or iterations) are used in the calculation of a series
expansion of the potential function.
The program (MALT or MALZ) uses the ACCURACY setting to determine when to stop the series evaluations. The
program uses sophisticated logic to decide on how many terms it needs to use. It avoids using too few terms because
calculations would be inaccurate. At the same time, it will try not to use too many terms because that would cause the
program to take too long to run.
However, the program's logic can be overridden by using the USER-CONTROL, TERMS, JUMP, LARGE-DISTANCE and
REACH settings. This will allow you to control how long the program takes to run and how much accuracy you will get in
your results. In most applications, these settings should not be altered by the user.

IRREGULAR (MALT Information for SICL)


EQUIVALENT CYLINDRICAL CONDUCTORS
Program MALT assumes that the ground electrode being analyzed consists of cylindrical conductors.
Theoretical considerations and model tests show, however, that noncylindrical conductors can be represented with a very
good approximation by equivalent cylindrical conductors.
It is possible to determine the equivalent cylindrical conductor of a non-cylindrical conductor rigorously. However, in
practice, one can use the concept of "equivalent contact area with soil" in order to obtain an approximate equivalent
cylindrical conductor which will give satisfactory agreement. Briefly stated, the equivalent cylindrical conductor has the
same surface area in contact with soil as the original conductor. Note however that in some cases (L, U or T shaped
conductors for example), this surface must be derated because the external surface of the ground conductor is not in contact
with soil in an "efficient" manner.
The above comments are illustrated in the figure below.

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DIAMETER OF EQUIVALENT
ORIGINAL CONDUCTOR ASSUMED SHAPE CYLINDRICAL CONDUCTOR
.______.
^ |//////
| |//////
l | |//////| - same - 2(l + w)/pi
| |//////
| |//////
v |______
<------>
w
^ ## ^ #
| ## | ###
l | ## l | ##### (l + w + SQRT(l*l + w*w))/pi
| ## | #######
v ######### v #########
<-------> <------->
w w
^ ## ## ^ #########
| ## ## | #########
l | ## ## l | ######### 2(l + w)/pi
| ## ## | #########
v ######### v #########
<-------> <------->
w w
^ ######### ^ #########
| # | #######
l | # l | ##### (w + SQRT(4*l*l + w*w))/pi
| # | ###
v # v #
<-------> <------->
w w

Equivalent Cylindrical Conductors

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MALZ Technical Information for SICL Page 31

MALZ (MALZ Information for SICL)


MALZ
MALZ is a powerful earth analysis tool which can accurately model large metallic ground networks in complex soil
structures. MALZ computes leakage currents, earth potentials, electric fields and magnetic fields associated with a buried
conductor system or a group of conductor systems, and can be applied to a large range of frequencies, i.e., from DC to 1
MHz. At the low end of the frequency spectrum, this makes MALZ useful for studying cathodic protection systems, in
addition to grounding application at power system frequencies. At the high end of the spectrum, MALZ is useful for
analyzing the response of grounding networks to lightning strikes.
Unlike other grounding analysis programs, which assume equipotential grids and therefore have limited accuracy when
applied to very large ground networks at power system frequencies or smaller networks at high frequencies, MALZ has been
developed precisely for such problems. MALZ accounts for the longitudinal impedances of conductors and determines the
potential drop from one part of a grounding system to another and transfer voltages to other buried structures. MALZ also
takes into consideration internal impedances and capacitances of overhead connections and the locations of their connection
points to the ground network. Furthermore, MALZ may be used to model coated ground conductors, each with different
coating characteristics (i.e., coating resistivity, thickness, etc.), if desired. Thus, buried pipes can be accurately represented.
MALZ has the capability to analyze the influence of buried metallic structures which are not in direct contact with the main
ground network. Hence, transferred potentials and diverted earth currents are easily determined. For example, the effects of
return electrodes can be modelled: these are ground networks where earth currents return to the system generating sources.
Interactions with nearby buried pipelines can also be determined.
Available soil structures include multilayered horizontally layered soils, vertically layered soils, and hemispherically layered
soils, to permit modelling of the various types of soils that are often encountered in practical problems.
MALZ can be used to analyze accurately several problems such as:
+ Large ground networks in low resistivity soils (reactance component is comparable to the resistance
component).
+ Large HVDC electrodes where the voltage drop along the ground conductors is significant.
+ Analysis of ground networks subject to high frequency currents (third,fifth and higher-order harmonics).
Also, when Fourier transforms are used, lightning or surge performance of ground networks can be
deduced from the frequency spectrum response.
+ Investigations related to the presence of pipelines (coated or not) or other similar metallic paths (rails,
fences, etc.).
+ Determination of the longitudinal (axial) and earth leakage (transversal) currents and potentials (with
respect to remote earth) at each location in the ground network (including return electrodes and metallic
structures). This permits the optimization of the number and location of the current injection nodes in order
to equalize the ground network potential and select a suitable ground conductor size. This may also be
particularly useful in critical cathodic protection studies.
+ Determination of the magnetic field radiated by buried current-carrying conductors (coated or not). These
values are useful to EMI and EMC studies. The magnetic field can be computed at any point above the
earth's surface.
For more information related to the above discussion, refer to the following topics:
{ground} or {conductors} : Perfect Ground Conductors
{networks} or {frequencies} : Large Ground Networks and High Frequencies
{analysis} : Computerized Analysis
The user must complete some preliminary work before entering the input data. This initial work is very similar to that
described in the MALT user's manual since most data are similar in both programs. The experienced MALT user will shortly

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Page 32 MALZ Technical Information for SICL

discover that MALZ requires additional data related to the ground conductor characteristics, current frequency and method of
current injection.
The following topics describe this information and related concepts:
{ground-network} : The Ground Network
{potential-rise} : The Potential Rise Concept
{earth-fault} or {fault-current} : Earth Fault Current
{coordinates} or {coordinate-system} : The MALZ Coordinate System
{characteristics} or {injection-leads} : Physical Characteristics and
Currents Injection Leads
{other-data} : Other Input Data
{computations} : MALZ Computations
{acceleration} : Description of Computation Speed

GROUND (MALZ Information for SICL)


PERFECT GROUND CONDUCTORS
The only information required to predict the ground network performance is the linear current density distribution function
per unit length i(x,y,z) which is dependent on the soil structure and geometry of the ground network.
If the longitudinal impedance of the ground conductors is zero (i.e., they are perfect conductors), then the number and
locations of the points of current injection will not play any role in the electrical behaviour of the system.
Although the actual current circulating in the conductors at a given location could be useful for selecting different sizes of
conductors depending on their locations, in practice, it is more economical (design and labor) to select one size for all
conductors. A suitable size is easily determined by dividing the total current by twice the number of injection nodes and
ensuring that the resulting current does not fuse the conductors. In most cases, however, mechanical performance
considerations and/or earth corrosion activity dictate larger conductor sizes than those dictated by fusing considerations.
Finally, if the conductors are assumed to be perfect conductors, there are no potential differences between two points in the
ground network. This implies that it is safe to ground equipment located within a substation through the neutral leads
terminating at that equipment, even if the neutral leads are connected to the ground network some distance away from the
locally grounded structure upon which the equipment is mounted.
The assumption of perfect ground conductors is certainly valid when the ground network has a small or moderate size. In
contrast to earth resistivity, which varies from several ohm-meters to thousands of ohm-meters, conductor metal resistivity
(even when steel conductors are used) is expressed in microohm-meters. Of course, this assumes dc or low frequency ac
currents (0 - 1000 Hz). This assumption is implicitly made in program MALT.
This assumption becomes unsatisfactory for very large ground networks at power system frequencies and for over relatively
small grids at very high frequencies: see the "networks" help topic for further details.

NETWORKS (MALZ Information for SICL)


LARGE GROUND NETWORKS AND HIGH FREQUENCIES
When the ground network size is very large or when the current injected in the ground network contains high frequencies
(harmonics or surge currents), it is inaccurate to neglect the longitudinal impedances of the ground conductors.
For example, the resistance to ground of a large ground network is usually a fraction of 1 ohm (except in very high resistivity
soils) and may be comparable to (if not less than) the overall reactance of the metallic paths of the ground network. The real
performance of such grounds may be drastically different from the one which is determined on the basis of perfect ground
conductors.

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MALZ Technical Information for SICL Page 33

Often, the voltage drop between two points of the ground network some distance apart may be of the same order of
magnitude as the average potential rise of the station (with respect to remote earth, which is at a zero potential). This voltage
drop will depend on a number of factors, such as ground network configuration, earth structure, current frequency, as well as
the number and locations of current injection nodes.
It is also quite possible that, above a certain frequency, the current does not reach the edge of the ground network, which
therefore appears smaller to the power system than it really is (from an electrical point of view). One particular example of
this phenomenon is clearly illustrated by a long ground conductor often used to build HVDC ground electrodes or
transmission line counterpoises (Fig. 1).

I |
v
|0
--/~/----------------------------------------------------------------\~\-->
V | | | | | | | V
V | | | | | V X
| V | | | V
| V | V
| V i(x)
|
|<------------------- Effective Length le ------------------>

Figure 1 Long Ground Electrodes


The current I entering the center of the ground conductor starts to flow axially in both directions, while simultaneously a
leakage current flows to earth along the conductor's length. Due to the finite impedance of the conductor, the fault current
will not reach its extremities unless the conductor length is below a certain length "le", called the effective length.
Similarly, all ground networks have an effective area "Se" which is equal to or less than the real geometrical area. This area
depends upon many parameters and is not easily determined through approximate methods.

ANALYSIS (MALZ Information for SICL)


COMPUTERIZED ANALYSIS
Computer program MALZ has been specifically designed to handle cases in which the physical characteristics of the
conductors and the fault current frequency cannot be neglected as they are in program MALT.
Not only are the problems such as those described in the {networks} topic accurately modelled, but other types of problems
can also be carried out thanks to additional capabilities not implemented in MALT. For example, ground conductors with
semi-conductive coatings (or partially coated & insulated) may exist. These coated conductors can be connected to or isolated
from the ground network.
This capability offered by MALZ makes possible the analysis of corrosion-sensitive grounds which require this form of
protection at selected locations. It also permits the electrical or corrosion engineer to evaluate the consequences of the
presence of power circuits in the vicinity of other buried facilities (such as pipelines), be they bare, isolated or protected
through semi-conductive jackets. Insulating flanges and open sections along buried structures are also easily modelled using
program MALZ.
MALZ can be used to determine the response of ground networks to transient currents such as lightning or surge currents.
The current surge is initially decomposed into its representative frequency components using program FFTSES. MALZ is
then run at each of these frequencies, and the frequency domain results are combined used by FFTSES to generate the
transient ground network response.

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Page 34 MALZ Technical Information for SICL

GROUND- NETWORK (MALZ Information for SICL)


THE GROUND NETWORK
The user describes the grounding system and other buried metallic structures (e.g., pipelines) which form the ground network
to be analyzed.
The user also identifies the conductors of the ground network which inject current into and/or collect current from the power
source busses. Finally, the user describes these busses and specifies their currents.
Metallic structures (coated or not) which are not connected to the ground network but which, based on engineering
judgement, may influence or be influenced by the ground network, should be included as part of the network. Note also that
the ground network is usually modeled as the site of a power system ground fault.
Assume, for instance, that the problem is illustrated in Figure 1.

Overhead Current Injection Leads


| ^ | | I3=Ie
| | I1 | v
| | Ref. | \\ | ^
=== Bus 1 ===== Bus 3 | \\ | | I2
| | | | | <---------| \\ Coated
| | | | | \\ Pipe ===== Bus.2
| |/-------|-|-*---/-------/ \\ |
| * /| | / / \\ |
|/-------/-|-*---/-------/ \\ /-*-/-*-/---/---/
* / | / / \\ /---/---/---/---/
/-------/---*---/-------/ \\ /---/---/---/---/
/ / / / \\ /---/---/---/---/
/-------/-------/-------/ \\
\\
Power System Ground \\

Figure 1 Ground Network


Assume further that a fault current Ie enters the ground network via three overhead leads (connected at three different
locations to the ground network) and exits the network at four other locations of the ground network. These locations are
called current injection nodes. For practical reasons, the injection nodes can be specified anywhere on the ground conductors
except at a ground conductor node, i.e., at the junction point of two conductors or at the extremities of a conductor. This rule,
however, is not truly a restriction since it is always possible to locate the injection node as close as desired to the conductor
node. Program MALZ places the injection node at the center of a conductor segment identified (by the user) as a "current
injection segment" (see Figure 2). The position and length of this segment should be suitably selected to locate the injection
node appropriately.

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MALZ Technical Information for SICL Page 35

| I
| v K
O === Bus K O
\ (4) | \ (5)
\ | \
(1) \ | \ (3)
O----------O----------O----#----O---------------O---------O
\ <---(2)---> / \
\ ^ / \
\ | / \
O Current Conductor O
Injection Node
Node
LEGEND: (j) conductor segment j
Figure 2 Current Injection Segment
Each injection node is the terminal point of a current lead originating from a "current source bus" common to all current leads
belonging to that particular bus. The total earth current at this bus k is Ik. The value of Ik is a complex number in Cartesian
form; the phase shift of each current is relative to that of the reference bus (highest numbered bus), which is typically set to 0
degrees.

POTENTIAL- RISE (MALZ Information for SICL)


THE POTENTIAL RISE CONCEPT
In Program MALT, all ground metallic paths are assumed to be perfect conductors. Therefore, all ground conductors are at
the same potential with respect to remote earth.
This potential is referred to as the ground potential rise (GPR) of the ground network and is expressed as:

GPR = Vr = R*Ie 1-1

where R is the resistance to ground of the ground conductor network, and Ie is the current injected into the soil by the ground
conductor network. This resistance R represents the resistance of the earth medium surrounding the ground network and is
essentially a function of the soil structure and geometry of the ground network.
The preceding "potential rise" concept cannot be used in MALZ, since by virtue of the longitudinal impedances of the ground
conductors, each point of the ground network is at a different potential. Hence, the potential rise cannot refer to the entire
ground network, but rather, refers to a specific location in the ground network. By convention, the potential rise (GPR) is
defined as the difference of voltage which exists between the power system reference current source bus (assuming that the
reference bus is the only current source bus of the system) and remote earth (assumed to be at zero potential). This general
definition is consistent with the implicit assumptions made in Program MALT. However, when voltage differences exist
between various points within the ground conductors, the general form of equation 1-1 becomes:

GPR = Vr = Z*Ie 1-2

where Z is now defined as the ground impedance of the ground network as seen from the reference current source bus. This
impedance consists of the resistance and reactance of the metallic ground conductor paths and the resistance of the soil
volume surrounding the ground network. At low frequencies and for ground networks which are moderate or small in size,
the resistance of the soil volume is significantly larger than the metallic path impedance. Therefore, this last value can be
neglected and the MALT program can be used advantageously to model the problem.

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Note that the ground network performance is proportional(*) to the currents flowing in the source busses. This is an
important observation which is very useful to solve the problem discussed in the {earth-fault} section.
* NOTE: It is assumed that there are no saturation and other nonlinear processes which are current-dependent.

EARTH- FAULT (MALZ Information for SICL)


EARTH FAULT CURRENT
When a ground fault occurs in a power system, the total fault current (It) can often flow back to the generating sources, both
directly through the earth medium and via other metallic paths. Some of these metallic paths may be isolated from earth, for
at least some distance away from the point of fault (see Figure 1).

Phase Wire
_______/|\__________/|\_____________/|\_____________/|\__________/|\_______
/ | I t
Il \ V Ir
< ---- / ---- > Ground Wire
_______/|\__________/|\_____________/|\_____________/|\__________/|\_______
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | Ie | | |
| | | | | V | | |
===== ===== /-----/-|---/-----/ ===== =====
/-----/--*--/-----/
/-----/-----/-----/
<----<-----<-----<----/ V V \---->----->----->---->

Figure 1 Overhead Ground Wires


Examples of such alternative paths are the overhead ground wires of a transmission line or the neutral conductors and sheaths
of a power cable. The portion of the fault current Ie which enters the ground network and is diverted into the earth depends
not only on the characteristics and configuration of the power network but also on the ground network impedance Z.
Consequently, it appears that since the analysis of the ground network (including the computation of Z) requires the
knowledge of Ie which in turn depends on Z, then the solution of the problem cannot be obtained without use of an iterative
process.
Fortunately, this cumbersome iterative process is seldom required because of the approximate proportionality which exists
between the potentials and earth current Ie. A current Ia is assumed arbitrarily to enter the ground network and the
performance of the ground network is determined for that base current Ia. Once Z is determined, its value is used (with the
help of Program SPLITS*) to compute the actual total fault current It and earth current Ie. Thereafter, the actual ground
network performance is adjusted by a simple multiplication by the proportionality factor Ie/Ia. The same rule applies if more
than one current source bus is present. However, all bus currents must be scaled up or down by the same factor. It is
important to note that if the internal voltage drop within the conductors is a significant part of the total system potential rise,
then the approximate rule of proportionality will become inaccurate. In such cases, it is advisable to run MALZ twice
(iterative process) to quantify the effects of different current magnitudes.
*NOTE: See the SPLITS User's Manual.

COORDINATES (MALZ Information for SICL)


THE MALZ COORDINATE SYSTEM
The configuration of the ground network must be described to the program using Cartesian coordinates. Each conductor of
the ground network is described as a vector with respect to the coordinate system. The vectors representing the conductors,

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MALZ Technical Information for SICL Page 37

which are assumed to be cylindrical, are defined by the coordinates of the conductors' extremities, i.e., origin (Xo, Yo, Zo)
and end (Xe, Ye, Ze) and by their radii.
The XY plane is located at the soil surface and the Z axis is directed downward. For example, a portion of a ground network
is shown in Figure 1 with respect to the MALZ coordinate system. When possible, X and Y axes parallel to the ground
conductors should be selected for the sake of simplicity.
In the MALT program, the preceding data suffices to fully describe the ground network. In the MALZ program, additional
data is necessary to define the conductor impedances, coatings and current injection leads: see the "characteristics" topic for
further details.

Y Z (Xo,Yo,Zo) (Xe,Ye,Ze)
| | |
-0-------------------------> X -0---|--------------|-----> X
| | V V
| ________________ | /----/-*--/----/
| | | | | | / / / /
| | /----/-*--/-*--/----/----/----*
| | / / / / /
| | /----/----/----/----/
| | / / / / /
v v /----/----/----/----/----*
Z Side View -Y Top View

Figure 1 Selecting a Coordinate System


Note: When the conductors are not cylindrical an equivalent cylindrical conductor should be devised. The "irregular" topic
belonging to Program MALT suggests some useful empirical formulas.

CHARACTERISTICS (MALZ Information for SICL)


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CURRENT INJECTION LEADS
The characteristics of the ground segments, i.e., series impedance and capacitance values, characteristics of the coating (if
any) and the type of segment must also be specified.
There are two types of segments. The current injection segments which are connected at their center to an overhead current
lead, and those which are not. Each segment is identified by an integer value k = 1, 2, ....., m, where k designates the current
source bus to which the segment is connected and m represents the total number of such source busses, with source bus m
being the reference bus. To indicate that no such connection exists for a given segment, the current injection lead type (see
below) is specified as a negative value.
In order to avoid repetition of data, the segment impedance values are grouped into n categories. Each category (1, 2, ....., n)
is defined by a single impedance value given on a per unit length basis (km or 1000 feet) or by other parameters such as the
material 's relative resistivity and permeability. When a conductor is specified, an integer value (1, 2, ....., n) is used to define
its series impedance and capacitance values. A similar categorization process is used to identify the type of coating existing
on the segment. The 0 code is used to identify the default (or standard) category type. The defaults for coating and conductor
characteristics are determined by the user.
Finally, the impedance and capacitance of the current injection leads (designated in MALZ as bus-to-conductor connections)
must be specified, since these connections may have significant length and are usually subject to noticeable voltage drops.
Specifying a negative injection lead category for a given segment indicates that the segment is not directly connected to any
current source bus.

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Note that the current leads are assumed to be perfectly insulated. Therefore, no conduction current flows from the surface of
the leads directly to earth. The function of these connections is to provide a direct path from the current source busses to the
buried ground network.
The series impedances and shunt capacitances of the current injection leads are also specified using the categorization
procedure.

OTHER-DATA (MALZ Information for SICL)


OTHER DATA
MALZ can model uniform or layered (horizontal, vertical, or spherical) earth structures. It is necessary to describe the soil
structure in which the ground network is installed, in order to complete the computer model. Computer Program RESAP can
be used to determine a suitable equivalent model for complex earth structures. A uniform soil is described simply by its
resistivity, in ohm-meters. A two-layer soil is described by the top and bottom layer resistivities and the thickness of the
upper layer. More complex soil structures are described by the resistivities and thicknesses of each soil layer.
The user must also specify the currents of the source busses or, if these values are not available, a set of values which are
proportional to the real values (see the "potential-rise" help item).
Finally, if the user wishes to determine the potentials which develop at various locations in the earth or at the earth's surface,
this can be done either by entering the desired observation points individually, or by requesting that the computations be
carried out at equally spaced points along certain directed lengths (profiles). The user can also request that the magnetic field
be computed at points above the earth's surface.

COMPUTATIONS (MALZ Information for SICL)


MALZ COMPUTATIONS
MALZ begins to scan the input data file in search of errors and inconsistencies in the data. Once the data is judged to be
sound, MALZ begins an important segmentation process which divides the long ground conductors specified by the user into
smaller segments defined by the conductor nodes of the ground network. Thereafter, and depending upon the user's choice,
smaller segments are generated for improved computation accuracy. However, prior to starting the computation of the ground
network performance, MALZ will scan the data once more to make sure that different conductors do not entirely or partially
occupy the same location in space as shown in Figure 1. This situation causes the program to halt.

Segment 1 Segment 1
______________________________ ______________________________
|_/___/___/___/___/___/___/__|__________ |_/___/___/___/___/___/___/__
|_\___\___\___\___\___\___\__| |_\___\___\___\___\___\___\__
Segment 2 Segment 2
Figure 1 Overlapping Conductors
When MALZ finishes the required input data transformation and preparation, it starts to compute the currents which circulate
in the current leads, in the ground conductor segments (current entering and exiting the segments) and the current which
penetrates the earth medium from each conductor segment. In addition, the potential at each conductor segment center (on the
metal surface and on the coating-earth interface, if applicable) and at each conductor segment extremity is also computed and
displayed in the printout. Finally, the potential rise of each current source bus is determined and printed.
These computation results are part of the normal printout generated by Program MALZ.
If the user has also requested earth potential and magnetic field calculations at selected observation points or along profiles,
the program computes the requested potential and magnetic field values and uses both Cartesian and polar representations to
print the results.

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SPLITS Technical Information for SICL Page 39

SPLITS (SPLITS Information for SICL)


GENERAL
SPLITS (an acronym for Simulation of Power Lines, Interconnections and Terminal Stations) is essentially an electrical
circuit analysis program capable of solving a variety of commonly encountered electrical problems through accurate
simulation of the electric network to be studied.
TECHNICAL ASPECTS
The SPLITS computer program is a powerful electrical circuit analysis program intended to study the performance of a
power system network, duly taking into account the presence of all neutral conductors, ground metallic networks and earth
media during nontransient conditions, i.e., normal conditions, imbalance conditions, fault conditions, etc. AC interference
studies (e.g., induced voltages in pipelines or communications cables) can also be undertaken with SPLITS. For more
information, specify the following topics:
{capabilities} : Capabilities
{definitions} or {conventions} : Definitions and Conventions
{sensitivity} : Sensitivity Analysis
{safety} : Electrical Safety Analysis
{information} : Additional Useful Information

CAPABILITIES (SPLITS Information for SICL)


CAPABILITIES
The following list of items describes some typical problems which can be successfully analyzed by SPLITS:\z
* Short Circuit Analysis.
Practically any type of fault can be simulated. The fault path may have a nonzero impedance if desired. Some typical
faults are:
- Single-phase-to-ground faults.
- Double and three phase (to ground or not) faults.
- Simultaneous faults (cross-country faults).
* Open-Circuit, Open-Line(s) Analyses.
* Network Unbalance Analyses.
* Electromagnetic Induction Analyses (EMI).
Induction from power networks to other installations such as pipelines and telecommunication lines.
* Performance of Grounding Systems.
* Transmission Line Protection and Relay Coordination.
* Effects of Shunt and Series Capacitors and Reactors.
* Sizing of Phase Conductors, Ground Wires, and Sheaths Against Fusing.
The flexibility provided by SPLITS makes it difficult to list all possible applications. Indeed, as the experience of users
continues to grow, new applications for the program are continually being discovered.
SPLITS is designed to solve a problem based on a minimum number of simplifying assumptions, i.e., the system is modelled
as is, even when all the variables which define the system differ from one span to the other.

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Typically:
* The source voltage driving each conductor can have any value. Therefore, unbalanced multiphase power systems
can be modelled.
* Phase conductors, neutral conductors, and ground wires are modelled the same way, except that the neutral
conductor (or ground wire) source voltage is typically zero and shunt impedances of the neutral conductor represent
the tower ground impedances. The shunt impedances of a phase wire represent (if desired) the distributed conductor
capacitances. When, at localized areas along the line, shunt capacitors or reactors are installed, these are also
modelled as shunt impedances.
* Each single shunt (or tower) impedance can be assigned a unique value different from all other shunt values.
* Open circuit conditions are modelled by insertion of high impedance values at the desired locations or by specifying
dummy sections.
* Mutual coupling between any pair of conductors can be specified and can vary from one span to the other.
* The so-called "bus to neutral" impedances at the Central (or Main) Station are generally used to represent the
equivalent impedances of a transformer. In the event of a phase to ground fault, this impedance is replaced by a
short or by the impedance of the arc or fault path. When a conductor is not connected to the substation neutral path,
a large impedance value must be specified.

DEFINITIONS (SPLITS Information for SICL)


DEFINITIONS AND CONVENTIONS
The following is a list of specific definitions and conventions used by SPLITS:
Central Station This is the location upon which this study focuses. It usually corresponds to a power substation or a major
industrial plant. However, it could also be a building, a house or a transmission tower. Electric lines and metallic
conductors (power lines or cables, distribution lines and/or communication lines and pipelines, etc.) connect the
central station to terminals. Often, the central station is the location of a power line fault.
Terminal and Busses
A terminal is the location where the electrical lines and other metallic conductors originating from the central station
busses (each line is associated with a specific bus at the central station) are interconnected to the rest of the network
(transmission system, distribution system, etc.). Each terminal is identified by a name. If several terminals exist,
then different names should be used.
Lines and Line Source Voltages
Program SPLITS assumes that there are the same number of lines between the central station and any terminal.
Moreover, SPLITS assumes that the lines are all connected to their associated busses (i.e., line 3 to bus 3). If a
particular line does not exist in reality between the fault location and a given terminal, it is necessary to inform the
program by means of the "DUMMY" descriptor.
Bus Connection Impedance
The impedance of the connection between a bus and the ground network at the central station is specified by
entering its resistive component followed by its reactive component. This impedance is also designated as bus-to-
neutral connection impedance.
If the bus is a ground wire bus, this bus connection impedance is typically zero. If the bus is a phase bus, the bus
connection impedance is the transformer winding impedance of the corresponding phase, unless this bus is faulted.
In such a case, the impedance to use is either zero or a value equal to the fault impedance. When no transformer
exists, then the bus connection impedance value to use is a very high impedance to simulate an open-circuit
condition.
Line Section

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A line section is a segment of line existing between two shunt impedances and is typically a power line span. Note
that the sections are numbered starting from 1 at the section adjacent to the central station. The last section is
adjacent to the terminal.
Mutual and Connection Impedances
Mutual and connection impedance values can be specified between any pair of lines belonging to the same section.
Differentiating Between Lines
SPLITS does not differentiate between an overhead ground wire, cable shield, pipe, phase wire, or any other type of
conductor. All these are considered to be "lines" connected to the associated bus. For example, a ground wire can be
described as a phase wire connected to a voltage source of 0 volts. In addition, the ground wire bus is connected
directly to the ground network. Similarly, a section of pipe close to the power system can be described as a ground
wire open at its terminals (using high impedance values).
Each line must be connected to a bus, which is assigned a name and a number. The bus number is used by SPLITS
to identify the bus. The bus name is optional but highly recommended, since SPLITS can recognize certain ground
or neutral conductor names when it compiles its summary table of how the fault current splits.

SENSITIVITY (SPLITS Information for SICL)


SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
Generally, the overhead network data is accurately known and is practically unaffected by the variations of earth
characteristics and climatic conditions.
The ground network, however, is significantly influenced by soil characteristics.
SPLITS offers the capability of analyzing the problem for a range of values of the parameters which are strongly dependent
on the soil characteristics. When this "scanning" option is requested, the program will automatically modify the value of
these parameters according to the user's specifications.

SAFETY (SPLITS Information for SICL)


ELECTRICAL SAFETY ANALYSIS
When the user is also concerned about the safety aspects of the central station ground network, SPLITS will conduct the
safety analysis based on the pertinent data and safety criteria provided by the user. It is highly recommended, however, that
the user use the more comprehensive and accurate safety calculations provided by the SIRPS graph and report generating
software in the MALT, MALZ and HIFREQ modules.

INFORMATION (SPLITS Information for SICL)


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
The following item describes how to model counterpoise conductors.
A continuous counterpoise associated with a power line with one or more overhead ground wires can be modelled in a
number of ways, such as:
- using one phase to represent the counterpoise and another for the overhead ground wires. The two phases should be
interconnected in every section and ground resistances (i.e., shunt impedances) specified on only one phase to
represent the ground resistance of each structure, accounting for the counterpoise ground resistance. A very large
value should be specified for the shunt impedance of the other phase.
- using a single phase to represent a combination of the counterpoise and the overhead ground wires. This can be done
by combining the self and mutual impedances of the counterpoise and the overhead ground wires using bundle

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Page 42 SPLITS Technical Information for SICL

reduction in the TRALIN program when calculating the line parameters. The shunt impedances are the ground
resistances of the structures, accounting for the counterpoise ground resistance.

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TRALIN Technical Information for SICL Page 43

TRALIN (TRALIN Information for SICL)


TRALIN
Program TRALIN analyzes power line cross sections to determine line parameters, capacitive and magnetic induction, as
well as local electrostatic potentials and gradients, for systems of buried and overhead transmission line conductors. TRALIN
can be used to analyze complex corridors containing transmission lines and pipelines just as easily as it can be used for
simple power line corridors.
Input data consist of the following:
- coordinates and physical characteristics of the transmission line conductors and their insulation. Overhead
as well as buried single core cables and pipe-enclosed cables can be modelled. A cable may consist of a
core, a concentric sheath and a concentric armour each separated from the other by insulating materials
with arbitrary characteristics.
- physical characteristics of the medium surrounding the conductors. This can be air and/or a multi-layered
soil: up to three horizontal layers are possible.
- line voltages and currents of the transmission line conductors and their frequencies. These are optional,
depending upon the desired output.
- coordinates and physical characteristics of nearby conductors that are not a part of the transmission line(s).
These need be specified only when induction effects upon them from the transmission lines are to be
calculated.
- specification of output data format.
- specification of calculations to be made; e.g. at which points to evaluate gradients, whether or not to carry
out these calculations, accuracy desired. Note that upon request, TRALIN will automatically generate the
coordinates of points on conductor surfaces, for gradient calculations.
Output data consists of the following:
- line parameters: Maxwell potential coefficients, shunt capacitances, series impedances, and admittances for
each conductor.
- electrostatic and electromagnetic induction by transmission lines on parallel conductors or pipes assumed to
be isolated from ground.
- electrostatic potentials and gradients at any location around the transmission lines, including the surface of
the conductors.
For more information, specify the following topics:
{program organization} : Structure of TRALIN Program
{conductors} : Conductor Data
{system module} : System Definition Module
{induction module} : Induction Calculation Module
{gradient module} : Gradient Calculation Module

PROGRAM ORGANIZATION (TRALIN Information for SICL)


ORGANIZATION
TRALIN is divided into the following key modules: OPTIONS, SYSTEM, PARAMETERS, GRADIENT, and SOIL-TYPE.
The OPTIONS module specifies various program parameters and output actions, and describes the format of the printout.

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In SYSTEM, the user specifies the coordinates and characteristics of all the conductors and their insulation. Two-dimensional
Cartesian coordinates are used to specify the locations of lone conductors, and the centers of conductor bundles. On the other
hand, polar coordinates are used to specify the positions of bundle members with respect to the bundle centers.
Characteristics to be specified are: size, conductivity, permittivity, permeability and composition (strands or solid-core).
It is important to understand that the SYSTEM subcommands comprise three methods of describing the conductors, but
ONLY ONE may be chosen for any given run. These three are: GROUP, SINGLE, and LINES. Note that if any underground
conductors or pipe-enclosed cable groups or any cables with concentric conductors are to be entered, then the GROUP mode
MUST be chosen.
The PARAMETER module has two parts: INDUCTION and BASE-VALUES. INDUCTION is used for calculating voltages
induced in conductors by either faulted lines or lines under normal operating conditions. INDUCTION informs the program
what inducing currents shall pass through the conductors, or with which potentials they are energized, and in which
conductor induced potentials are to be calculated.
BASE-VALUES is used to inform the program of the power frequencies to be used in the calculation of line parameters and
induced voltages. BASE-VALUES also specifies how accurately calculations are to be made. Note that command BESSEL is
used only when conductors are specified in GROUP mode. Otherwise, it is ignored if entered.
The GRADIENT section should be invoked if either electric potentials or electric fields are to be determined by TRALIN.
The voltage distribution is entered as are the points where potentials or fields are desired. Note that this module can be
invoked only if conductors are specified in LINES mode (i.e., on a per-circuit basis).
The SOIL-TYPE section describes the soil model to the program. The proper description of the earth is important if accurate
results are desired. Program RESAP can help formulate such a model.
For more information on the system, induction and gradient modules, request help on the "system module", "induction
module" and "gradient module" topics.

CONDUCTORS (TRALIN Information for SICL)


CONDUCTOR DATA
Electrical data representing often-used transmission line conductors is available from on-line database on most computer
platforms. This data can also be obtained from appropriate standard tables or from manufacturer catalogues. This data is not
always the same from one manufacturer or country to another.
Because of this, TRALIN accepts the electrical data under various forms and adapts them accordingly.

SYSTEM-MODULE (TRALIN Information for SICL)


SYSTEM DEFINITION MODULE
The System Definition Module is divided into three sections, each one devoted to a specific mode of data entry. The three
different modes are: conductor basis, circuit basis, and group basis.
While they differ with respect to data entry, the calculations they entail are quite similar. Based on the coordinates and
physical characteristics of the transmission line conductors, computations are made, in matrix form, of the Maxwell potential
coefficients, shunt capacitances, series impedances and series admittances on a conductor basis. These line parameters are
available both for the individual conductors and for the conductor bundles which make up the different phases of a
transmission line.
Thereafter, the program reduces the above matrices into equivalent ones (on a per-phase basis) using a reduction technique
which replaces a group of conductors belonging to the same phase type by one equivalent conductor.
Skin effects, earth structure and frequency (dc to MHz range) are taken into account. The influence of the earth is taken into
consideration using Carson's Theory for uniform soils or, if specified, the work of N. Nagakawa et al [5] on multilayer soils
(up to 3 layers). This latter allows permeabilities and permittivities different from those of free space, in addition to the layer
resistivities, to be specified.

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INDUCTION-MODULE (TRALIN Information for SICL)


INDUCTION CALCULATION MODULE
Electrostatic and electromagnetic induction calculations are available for any conductors described in the System Definition
Module. All conductors are assumed to be isolated from the ground, and any inducing voltages or currents may be specified
by the user. These induction calculations are quite independent from other computations performed by TRALIN.

GRADIENT-MODULE (TRALIN Information for SICL)


GRADIENT CALCULATION MODULE (GATRA)
When conductors are entered on a per-circuit basis, TRALIN can be used to calculate the electrostatic potentials and
gradients at all locations, including the surfaces of conductors, using an original and accurate method called the "Strip Charge
Simulation" method. In particular, the Gradient Calculation Module can be used to determine the maximum electric gradient
at the surface of a phase conductor. In this case, the coordinates of points on the surface of conductors are automatically
generated by TRALIN.

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HIFREQ Technical Information for SICL Page 47

HIFREQ (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


INTRODUCTION
The program HIFREQ computes the current distribution in networks of buried and overhead conductors and the electric,
magnetic and scalar potential fields generated by this current distribution. The computation frequency can vary from 0 Hz to
several tens of MHz. HIFREQ will also perform these calculations for conductors in an infinite medium.
The conductors are restricted to rectilinear, that is straight, segments which can be horizontal, vertical or slanted. They can be
insulated or not. The program can model voltage and current sources, as well as externally applied fields. The presence of
lumped impedances (resistors, capacitors and inductances) can be taken into account. The theory underlying the computations
allows for the soil (and air) to have arbitrary conductivity, permittivity and permeability.
After the currents in a network have been computed by HIFREQ (or defined by the user), the following electromagnetic
quantities can be obtained.
1. the electric field (three complex quantities: Ex, Ey, Ez).
2. the magnetic field (three complex quantities: Hx, Hy, Hz).
3. a scalar potential (one complex quantity: P).
4. a vector potential (three complex quantities: Ax, Ay, Az).
5. midpoint potential at the surface of each conductor.
At low frequencies, the electric field is essentially the gradient of the scalar potential, more precisely its negative. At higher
frequencies, this is no longer true. The difference between the electric field and the scalar potential gradient is given by the
vector potential.
For more details on selected topics, refer to:
{applications} For a list of applications of HIFREQ
{coordinates} For a description of the coordinate system used by the program
{information required} For a summary of the information needed to run the program
{soil-type} For information about the different soil types that can be used
{conductor geometry} For a guide to conductor segmentation
{types of conductors} For a list of the properties that can be assigned to the conductors
{energization} For a discussion of the various types of network energizations available in HIFREQ
{computations} For a description of the manner in which the desired computations are specified
{restart instructions} For instructions on how to use HIFREQ’s restart facility
{differences with MALZ} For a list of the differences between HIFREQ and MALZ conventions
{common problems} For a discussion of the most common problems encountered when using the software

APPLICATIONS (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


APPLICATIONS
HIFREQ is a very flexible program that can be used to model a wide variety of electromagnetic problems. Examples of
HIFREQ applications include:
- The grounding performance of metallic grids attached to overhead structures.
- The electric and magnetic fields around transmission lines and substations.

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- The induced currents and voltages in pipes and other buried objects caused by the presence of overhead conductors
(transmission line, etc.).
- Eddy currents in the soil caused by overhead structures or buried, energized conductors. (The Eddy currents are
proportional to the electric field).
- Fault current distribution on a portion of a transmission line, and the electromagnetic fields at the fault site.
HIFREQ’s computational engine is based on field theory. As such, it takes induction effects fully into account. This allows
the computation of the self-inductance of arbitrary circuits and of the mutual inductances between any two such circuits.
Capacitances can likewise be computed. In particular, this means that the following problems can be studied with HIFREQ:
- Currents and voltages induced on a secondary circuit caused by the presence of a large current on a primary circuit.
- Induced currents in an arbitrary, three-dimensional wire-frame structure (such as a metallic building frame) caused
by the presence of nearby electromagnetic field sources.
It is also possible to specify that lumped impedances (resistors, capacitors and inductances) be attached to the conductors.
This means that it is possible to perform ordinary circuit analysis with HIFREQ.
HIFREQ’s computations are valid up to several tens of MHz. In fact, HIFREQ can be used to do wire antenna calculations!
This high-frequency capability, coupled with Fourier analysis (such as that performed by SES’ own, powerful FFTSES
program), means that HIFREQ can be used to study time dependent phenomena, such as:
- Lightning performance of towers and grids.
- Behavior of transients caused by lightning or switching.
- Effects of higher harmonics on the electromagnetic fields (non-sinusoidal currents and voltages, pulse trains, etc...)

COORDINATES (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


COORDINATES
The HIFREQ program employs a left-handed Cartesian coordinate system with three coordinates (x, y, z). The numbers x
and y give the horizontal coordinates, and z provides the vertical coordinate. The positive z direction is downward. Physical
space is divided into two adjoining half-spaces separated by the interface z=0. A positive value of z indicates the depth of a
point beneath the interface, while a negative value together with its magnitude indicates the height of a point above the
interface.

INFORMATION-REQUIRED (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


INFORMATION REQUIRED
The following information is usually sufficient in order to run HIFREQ.
1. To help distinguish runs, a run-identification of up to 20 characters.
2. The soil resistivity in ohm-meters. The default value is 100 ohms-meters.
3. The conductor data. Here you will need to identify the coordinates of the origin and end-point of all conductors, the
radius of each, the number of segments into which it should be subdivided and the electromagnetic properties of the
metal and its coating.
4. The location and strength of the network energizations (currents, GPR or voltages).
5. The frequency or frequencies of interest.
6. The location of the observation points where the electromagnetic fields are to be computed.

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SOIL-TYPE (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


SOIL-TYPE
Two soil types are currently available in HIFREQ: the INFINITE soil, which is an infinite medium of constant resistivity,
relative permittivity and relative permeability, and the uniform soil consisting of an air layer and a soil layer, separated at z =
0. The electromagnetic properties of the air and the soil can both be specified. By default, HIFREQ runs in uniform soil-type
with a soil of resistivity 100 ohm-meters and a relative permittivity and permeability of 1.
The most important of the above-mentioned properties are the resistivity and permittivity of the soil. These values can be
measured directly (by collecting soil samples) or indirectly, by potential measurements (SES’ program RESAP can be used to
deduce the values from the measurement data).
Computations are usually carried out with a two layer soil-type. However, an infinite soil can sometimes be used profitably
when the effects of the presence of an air-soil interface are judged to be unimportant. This is usually the case when the
observation points are close to the energized conductors. With an infinite soil, the computations are much faster.

CONDUCTOR-GEOMETRY (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


CONDUCTOR GEOMETRY
A conductor is specified by giving the cartesian coordinates of its origin (Xo, Yo, Zo) and those of its end (Xe, Ye, Ze). Note
that positive Z is down in HIFREQ. The origin and the end of a conductor play a dissimilar role when a conductor is
energized (see {energization} topic), therefore, these must be determined carefully. The outer radius of the metal (Ro) and
the desired number of segments for the conductor must also be specified.
This last quantity is very important. It must be chosen so that the length of the segments satisfies two conditions:
1. The thin wire condition: the segment length must be at least 5 times longer than its radius.
2. The segment length must be such that the leakage current distribution over the segment can reasonably be
approximated by a constant value.
The second condition means that shorter segments should be used wherever the current is expected to vary rapidly in space,
such as close to energization points. In particular, at higher frequencies, the current tends to vary sinusoidally along the
conductors, with a wavelength (in meters) roughly equal to:
wavelength = 3.0E8/f in the air
wavelength = 3160 * sqrt(rho/f) in the soil
where f is the frequency in Hz and rho the resistivity of the soil in ohm-meters. For reliable results, the maximum length of a
segment should be about 1/6 of the wavelength.
The first condition can be relaxed by setting the Thin-Wire ratio to the desired number. Usually, the presence of a few shorter
conductors will not decrease the accuracy of the computations appreciably.
Note: HIFREQ automatically segments conductors that cross the air-soil interface so that all segments are either entirely in
the air or in the soil. Also, conductors are automatically segmented at the contact points with other conductors.

ENERGIZATION (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


ENERGIZATION
There are three main ENERGIZATION types in HIFREQ: LEAD, VOLTAGE and GPR. In order to explain their functions,
some definitions will be needed.
Pseudo-node and Proper-node
A node in HIFREQ is defined as one of a conductor segment's endpoints (origin or end). A Pseudo-node is a conductor
segment endpoint which is not in contact with another conductor segment, i.e., a point which terminates in the surrounding
medium, while a Proper-node is a conductor endpoint which is in contact with another conductor segment. In other words, a

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Pseudo-node is an isolated node at which there is only one conductor, while a Proper-node is a common node shared by two
or more conductors.
External and Internal Energizations
In general, it may well prove impossible to model the entire electrical network under consideration, because of its size.
However, complete modeling is rarely necessary: the local electromagnetic fields do not depend critically on the details of the
remote parts of the network. It is usually sufficient to represent the remote network as a source of currents and voltages for
the local network. This is referred to as “External Energization”. External Energization can be achieved by specifying the
currents flowing into (or out of) the local network (with LEAD energizations at pseudo-nodes) and the potentials at which the
various parts of the network are kept (with GPR energizations). It can also be achieved by specifying the Thevenin equivalent
of the remote system (a combination of VOLTAGE energization and an impedance).
It is also possible to have “Internal Energizations” in the local network. These are current sources (LEAD energization at
proper-nodes) and voltage generators (VOLTAGE energization). They behave exactly the same in circuit analysis.
Which approach is used for external energization depends on the problem under consideration. In many cases, this is only a
matter of taste, as different methods of energization can be used equivalently. However, in some cases, one method can be
greatly superior to the others. As an example, a lightning stroke is much more easily represented as a current source than in
any other way.
1. LEAD ENERGIZATION
The LEAD energization is used to specify the current to be injected into the network. It can be applied to both pseudo-nodes
and proper-nodes. With the LEAD energization, a current of ReI + j ImI is forced to flow into the origin of the energized
conductor towards its end. If the origin of the energized conductor is a proper-node, the LEAD energization acts as a current
source, familiar from circuit theory. The proper-node energization can be used, for instance, to model a loop with a specified
circulating current. If the origin of the energized segment is a pseudo-node, the current is assumed to be drawn from an
adjacent network which is not modeled.
2. GPR ENERGIZATION
The GPR energization forces the scalar potential to be ReV + j ImV on the energized conductor. At the same time, an
unknown current Ix determined by HIFREQ is allowed to flow into the origin of the energized conductor so that the right
value of the scalar potential ReV + j ImV is produced. As in the case of the LEAD energization, Ix is assumed to be drawn
from an adjacent network. It is important to note that presently the GPR energization can only be applied to a pseudo-node.
This restriction will be lifted in the future. The GPR energization can be used to model a voltage generator with one lead
connected to remote ground. It works well at relatively low frequencies (< 1 MHz).
3. VOLTAGE ENERGIZATION
The VOLTAGE energization inserts a zero-gap voltage generator in the middle of the energized conductor to establish a
voltage difference of ReV + j ImV across that point. Note that the program automatically segments the energized conductor
in the middle. Note also that no further segmentation of that conductor is allowed, i.e., a conductor subject to a VOLTAGE
energization must not cross the air-soil interface or any other conductors. Also, the desired number of segments for this
conductor must be 1.
The voltage difference is imposed so that the voltage close to the end of the conductor minus the voltage close to its origin is
given by the specified ReV + j ImV.
The VOLTAGE energization behaves precisely as a voltage generator in circuit theory.
To energize a conductor, its Lead-Type connection code must be set to 0 and its Energization-Type connection code must
be set to the value corresponding to the desired ENERGIZATION. Setting the Lead-Type connection code to -1 informs the
program that the corresponding conductor is not directly energized. Refer to the examples in Chapter 6 of the HIFREQ
User’s Manual for further details.
Note that the electromagnetic fields close to energization points can be somewhat inaccurate due to the idealized modeling of
the energizations. This is usually not a big concern for internal energizations but it can have a substantial effect for external
energizations. A rule of thumb is that whenever the distance between the observation point and the closest conductor is about
10 times smaller (or less) than the distance between the observation point and the closest external energization, the fields
should be very accurate. Also, the magnetic field is much less sensitive to this effect than the electric field and scalar
potential.

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In case of doubt, it is always possible to model a little bit more of the remote network (thereby pushing the external
energizations further away) to ascertain the extent of the effects of the external energizations on the fields.
Important Note:
The currents at all pseudo-nodes are physically forced to be zero, except when the pseudo-nodes are subjected to LEAD or
GPR ENERGIZATION. This leads to a very common mistake when in-air conductors are energized. For example if one end
of a long conductor is energized with a 100 Amps LEAD and its other end is a pseudo-node, the entire 100 Amps will be
forced to leak into the air, creating huge, unphysical, electric fields and potentials.
Unless a current of zero is specifically desired, all in-air pseudo-nodes should be subject to either a LEAD or a GPR
energization. Since these energizations can only be applied at the origin of the segments, one must make sure that in-air
pseudo-nodes are located at the origin of each such segment, by orienting these segments appropriately. Whether a LEAD or
a GPR energization should be used depends on the problem being modeled, as does the magnitude of the energization. See
the examples in Chapter 6 of the HIFREQ User’s Manual.

TYPES-OF-CONDUCTORS (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


TYPES OF CONDUCTORS
CONDUCTOR-TYPE is used to define the relative resistivity (with respect to annealed copper) and relative permeability of
the conductors and also the values of the optional resistance, capacitance and inductance attached to it. For hollow
conductors, the value of the inner radius must also be given.
To specify that a given conductor is of a certain conductor type, its Conductor-Type connection code must be set to the
value corresponding to the desired conductor type. A value of 0 for this connection code informs the program to use the
default conductor type, which is copper.
Conductors whose CONDUCTOR-TYPE has a nonzero value for the resistance, capacitance or inductance behave in the
same way as those subject to a VOLTAGE energization in the sense that these conductors are segmented in two and the
impedance is inserted in the middle. This is subject to the same restrictions as in the VOLTAGE case, namely the conductors
associated with an impedance must not be segmented. These impedances can be used in precisely the same way as in circuit
analysis. Conductor-Type 0 has no lumped impedances.
COATING-TYPE specifies the resistivity, relative permeability, relative permittivity and thickness of a coating material.
Conductors can be coated by setting their Coating-Type connection code to the value corresponding to the desired coating
type. A connection code of -1 indicates “perfect insulation”: a very large resistivity and a thickness of half the conductor
radius. A connection code of zero indicates a bare conductor. Positive values of the connection code refer to the user-defined
coating types.
Refer to the Example 2 in Chapter 6 of the HIFREQ User’s Manual for further details.

COMPUTATIONS (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


COMPUTATIONS
The following information can be specified in the COMPUTATIONS module:
a. You may wish to turn on or bypass the computation of the magnetic field, the scalar potential, the electric field, the
vector potential or the scalar potential gradient. By not requesting the computation of quantities you do not need,
you will speed up the computations. The GPR (midpoint potential at the surface of each conductor segment and its
coating) can likewise be requested or bypassed.
b. The observation points at which the requested electromagnetic fields are to be computed are specified with POINT,
PROFILE, and SURFACE. Note that PROFILE generates a sequence of points along a straight line by translating an
initial point a given number of times in a given direction. Similarly, SURFACE generates a set of points in a
rectangular or parallelogram-shaped region by translating a given number of times, the collection of observation
points defined in the last PROFILE. Note that positive Z coordinates are downwards in HIFREQ. Note further that
observation points located at Z=0 are considered to be in the soil for the purpose of electromagnetic field

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computations. If the field in the air and close to the ground is desired, the observation points should have a small,
negative, Z-coordinate.
c. One or several computation frequencies can be specified with FREQUENCY. The frequencies are specified
INDIVIDUALly or in a group, AUTOMATICally.

RESTART-INSTRUCTIONS (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


RESTART INSTRUCTIONS
The conductor data and the current distribution in a network of conductors for each excitation frequency is written to the a
special current save file. See the Getting Started & Input/Output Processing binder for information on file name
conventions.
You have the option of computing the current distribution once, and then reusing it to compute the associated
electromagnetic fields at locations which appear to be of interest. The subsequent HIFREQ runs must be carried out using
exactly the same network specifications, using the RECOVERED option for the current computation. Here, HIFREQ will
check that the input is consistent with the excitation conditions in the original input. An inconsistency here suggests that the
original input file may have changed since the information in the report file was created.

DIFFERENCES-WITH-MALZ (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


DIFFERENCES WITH MALZ
The main difference between the MALZ conventions and the HIFREQ conventions is that when more than one conductor are
energized with the same ENERGIZATION (they have the same Energization-Type connection code), MALZ will divide the
ENERGIZATION current between the associated conductors, while HIFREQ uses the current to specify the flow into or
along each conductor. The effect in HIFREQ is equivalent to specifying a separate ENERGIZATION for each conductor in
question, all with the same current strength.
Note also that HIFREQ does not support LEAD-TYPEs: they are not needed in HIFREQ since the above-ground conductors
can be modeled. The Lead-Type connection code in HIFREQ is simply a flag to indicate whether the conductor is directly
energized or not.

COMMON-PROBLEMS (HIFREQ Information for SICL)


COMMON PROBLEMS
Unacceptably Large Currents
In HIFREQ, as in the real world, very large currents are usually the result of a short-circuit. This may be caused, for instance,
by a VOLTAGE energization inserted in a closed metallic loop. Another possibility is that two different GPR energizations
are imposed at different points on the same metallic structures. This is often caused by an extra, unwanted conductor that
closes the loop or bring two distinct metallic structures, energized at different GPRs, into contact.
Unacceptably Large Voltages
This is invariably caused by the presence of a pseudo-node in the air that is not attached to either a LEAD or a GPR
energization. See the {energization} topic for a guide on how to avoid this situation.

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FCDIST Technical Information for SICL Page 53

FCDIST (FCDIST Information for SICL)


GENERAL
The FCDIST program calculates fault current distribution in multiple terminal transmission line and distribution line
networks. FCDIST uses a simple set of data concerning the network and has been implemented with ease of use as an
important design criterion.
FCDIST makes a computer model of the transmission line network incorporating a single faulted phase (which can be used to
represent one or any number of phases), and a single ground wire group (which can represent one or more ground or neutral
or static wires). The transmission line parameters are assumed to be the same in all the spans in any given arm of the
transmission line network. This model accounts for coupling between the phase wire and the ground (or neutral or static)
wire. Structure ground impedances are assumed to be equal for all structures in any arm of the network.
Fault current distribution is determined by the grounding of the various sections of the transmission line and associated
substations, and also the inductive coupling between the phase wires and the ground (or neutral or static) wire groups. The
model created by FCDIST, which accounts for inductive coupling, and assigns unique ground impedances to the central site
and terminal stations along the transmission line, and accounts for the grounding of all structures along the transmission line,
takes into consideration all the key elements necessary to calculate fault current distribution accurately. By using a single
phase and a single ground (or neutral or static) wire group, and constant parameters for all sections, the amount of necessary
input data is maintained at a relatively low and easily manageable level. Although this approach is not as flexible or as
powerful as the complete circuit model approach taken by SPLITS, it is much easier to gather and prepare the input data.
For more information, specify the following topics:
{representation} : Representation of an Electric Network in FCDIST
{conductor data} : Conductor Data Required by FCDIST
{current source data} : Currents Specified by the User

REPRESENTATION (FCDIST Information for SICL)


REPRESENTATION OF AN ELECTRIC NETWORK IN FCDIST
FCDIST can create circuit models to represent a transmission line network with an arbitrary number of arms.
The FCDIST circuit model of a transmission line network consists of three basic elements: i) a central site, ii) terminal
stations, and iii) transmission lines connecting the central site to the terminal stations. These elements, and the data required
by FCDIST to specify them, are explained in more detail below:
1) Central Site. This is a node which connects to all arms of the network. The user must specify the central site ground
impedance (i.e., shunt impedance). Typically this site represents a faulted substation or transmission line structure
and the shunt impedance is set equal to the ground impedance (resistance) of the faulted site. Only one central site
can exist in a given FCDIST run.
2) Terminal Stations. At least one, and possibly several, terminal stations may exist in each FCDIST model. The
terminal stations consist of a specified ground impedance representing the impedance of the terminating station
ground network, and a current source which energizes the transmission line. The data specified by the user is as
follows:
• Terminals: each arm of the transmission line ends in a terminal section. The user enters the terminal ground
impedance and, optionally, the terminal name.
• Sources: each arm of the network is energized by a current source whose current can be specified with a
user-defined magnitude and phase angle (i.e., as a complex number) relative to the current sources of the
other terminals. Each source is connected to the transmission line ground (or neutral or static) wire group
via a lead with an optional user-specified series impedance. This lead can also have a user-defined mutual
impedance with respect to the phase wire, as an option.

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3) Transmission Lines. The transmission line is modeled as a single faulted phase and a single ground (or neutral or
static) wire group. Each transmission line is made up of sections (i.e., spans) which are all of the same length. Each
span is terminated by a ground shunt connected to the ground (or neutral or static) wire group. This represents the
ground impedance of the transmission line towers connected to the ground (or neutral or static) wire group. Each
section of the ground wire group has a series impedance and mutual impedance with respect to the faulted phase.
Data entered by the user is given below:
• Faulted Phase: the location of the faulted phase is specified in terms of its cross-sectional location in the
right-of-way.
• Ground (or Neutral or Static) Wire Group: the FCDIST model also includes a single ground (or neutral
or static) wire group. It can be composed of several conductors regularly arranged on the perimeter of a
circle. Its location is specified in terms of the position of the group's center and the number of conductors,
and the position of the first conductor. The ground wire group has a series impedance and a mutual
impedance with respect to the faulted phase, which can be calculated by the program or specified by the
user. More details are provided in the "conductor-data" help topic.
• Section Shunt: each section (or span) of the transmission line has a ground shunt impedance located at its
extremity which is furthest away from the central site. The section shunt represents the ground impedance
of the transmission line structures. This ground shunt is a complex-valued quantity which is the same for all
structures in a given arm of the transmission line network.
• The user must also specify the span length and the number of spans in each transmission line arm.
Note that terminal, source, ground wire group, section and phase parameters must be specified separately for each
transmission line arm.
To fully describe the transmission line network, it is also necessary to specify the electrical characteristics (resistivity and
permeability) of the soil in which the network is located. A uniform soil model is used. The user must also specify the power
system frequency.

CONDUCTOR-DATA (FCDIST Information for SICL)


CONDUCTOR DATA
Conductor Location
All conductors should be in air. If any conductors are in soil, the program prints an error message and terminates. Use
TRALIN and SPLITS to model such systems.
Calculation of the Self and Mutual Impedances of the Ground Wire Group
For the ground wire group, the program accepts self and mutual impedances in one of two modes. The first is the impedance
mode: the equivalent self impedance and mutual impedance of the reduced ground wire group is specified directly by the
user. The second available mode is the characteristics mode. When this mode is selected, the program calculates the
equivalent self impedance and mutual impedance of the ground wire group after reduction, based on the physical
characteristics and configuration of the wires. The required input data is described in the following points.
Required network data:
• The span length. The span length is the same for all sections in a given arm of the transmission line network. When
the impedances are specified directly, the span length is not used.
Required data for the ground wire group:
• X coordinate of the center of the ground wire group.
• Y coordinate of the center of the ground wire group.
• Distance between the center of the ground wire group to the center of each ground wire.
• Starting angle of first conductor in the ground wire group.
• Number of conductors in the ground wire group.

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Note: all members of a ground wire group must be identical and arranged along the perimeter of a circle at regular
intervals (i.e., at the vertices of a regular polygon).
• Relative permeability of members of the ground wire group. Alternatively, this value can also be specified as the
geometric mean radius or the 60 hertz reactance at 1 foot spacing of the conductor (the option selected depends on
the setting of a flag specified by the user).
• Relative resistivity of members of the ground wire group. Alternatively, the user can specify this parameter in terms
of the conductor dc resistance or the conductor ac resistance (the option selected depends on the setting of a flag
specified by the user).
• External radius of members of the ground wire group
• Internal radius of the members of the ground wire group, in the case of hollow conductors (this is 0 for solid
conductors).
Required data for the faulted phase:
• For the faulted phase, the coordinates must be specified when the characteristics mode is specified (in order to
calculate the mutual impedance between the faulted phase and the ground wire group). When the impedances are
entered directly by the user, the coordinates of the faulted phase are not used.

CURRENT-SOURCE-DATA (FCDIST Information for SICL)


CURRENT SOURCE DATA
The user must specify the magnitude and phase angle of the power source current energizing each arm of the transmission
line network. Typically, this value represents the current in the faulted phase. If the currents in the non-faulted phases are not
negligible, the current flowing in the phase conductor is specified as the total vector sum of the three phase currents. This
improves the accuracy of the calculation of the currents in the central site and in each tower.
The program accepts source currents in cartesian or polar notation. By default, the program uses cartesian notation.

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FFTSES Technical Information for SICL Page 57

FFTSES (FFTSES Information for SICL)


OVERVIEW
FFTSES performs essentially two functions: a forward FFT operation and an inverse FFT operation.
Forward FFT
In the forward FFT operation, you can describe the input waveform (in the time domain) in one of two ways: you can invoke
one of several built-in functions or you can enter values of the waveform as a function of time, i.e., time samples. The built-in
functions are characteristic of lightning surges or transients associated with capacitor discharges. The user-specified time
samples allow you to describe any waveform.
As a result of the forward FFT operation, FFTSES generates plots of the waveform in the time and frequency domains and
lists the corresponding values in the printout. In addition, FFTSES provides a list of recommended frequencies which best
characterize the waveform's frequency spectrum. You can use this list to determine at which frequencies to energize, for
example, a grounding system with the MALZ or HIFREQ software. You can then use FFTSES to compute the inverse FFT
of the grounding system responses at all these frequencies, yielding the behaviour of the grounding system in the time
domain. This behaviour can be expressed in terms of touch voltages, magnetic fields, and a good number of other physical
quantities.
FFTSES reads and stores data in database files to spare you the trouble of moving data from one program output to the next
program’s input. For example, when FFTSES completes a forward FFT operation, it stores the frequency spectrum of the
waveform in a database file, which it can subsequently recognize and read during an inverse FFT operation, if you use the
same job id as in the forward FFT operation.
Running Other Software With FFTSES
After you have performed a forward FFT operation with FFTSES, the next step is to run a frequency-domain software
module such as MALZ or HIFREQ, running simulations at each of the frequencies recommended by FFTSES. It is important
that you use a unit energization with a zero phase angle with a zero phase angle for each simulation. For example, if the
waveform processed by the forward FFT represents an injection current into a grounding system, then you must specify a 1
ampere injection current with a zero phase angle in each simulation.
After you have run the frequency-domain software for all frequencies of interest, the next step is normally to run the SIRPS
plot and report generating software. With the EXPORT and PROCEED-EXTRACT functions, you can extract computation
results from the database files created by the frequency-domain software and export them to the FFTSES database files for
subsequent use in the inverse FFT operation. Considerable amounts of data can be transferred easily and rapidly in this way.
Inverse FFT
In the inverse FFT operation, FFTSES reads frequency domain data from the database files which have been filled by SIRPS,
modulates each frequency component in accordance with the frequency spectrum of the waveform originally processed by
the forward FFT operation (and stored in another database file, as described above), then performs the inverse FFT operation
of the resulting modulated waveform. Plots and printouts of the following are generated: the unmodulated system response
(i.e., frequency spectrum) read from the database files filled by SIRPS, its modulation by the frequency spectrum of the
energizing waveform originally processed by the forward FFT, and the time domain response corresponding to this
modulated spectrum.
To the extent that you have exported the different available physical quantities into the FFTSES database files using SIRPS,
these quantities are available for processing by the inverse FFTSES operation.
For more information, specify the following topics:
{special features} : Special Features of FFTSES
{frequency} : Frequency Domain Approach
{main steps} : Main Steps in a Transient Study
{advanced features} : Advanced Features in Automated Data Extraction

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{information} : Sources of Further Information

SPECIAL-FEATURES (FFTSES Information for SICL)


SPECIAL FEATURES
FFTSES is a Fast Fourier Transform software module designed to help CDEGS users perform frequency domain transient
analysis using software such as MALZ, HIFREQ and SPLITS. FFTSES can fetch the results computed by HIFREQ and
MALZ via SIRPS in an automated way, essentially eliminating the tedious manual data extraction involved in a typical
transient analysis.
Besides the standard fast Fourier transformation subroutines existing in many software libraries, the program FFTSES
contains numerous input diagnosis and automated data manipulation features to make it easy for users, including those with
limited hands-on experience with Fourier transformation techniques, to carry out a practical transient analysis.
The major unique features of FFTSES are as follows:
1- In the forward FFT operation, the “time domain transient shape analysis algorithms” will check the input data and
warn the user about any inappropriate values. The “frequency spectrum sample selection algorithm” will
automatically select a very small subset of “critical frequencies” out of the full spectrum in such a way that it will be
the most representative of the shapes of the spectral curves. By running the frequency domain software only at these
“critical frequencies” and interpolating the results for intermediate frequencies, one can retain the characteristic
shape of the input spectrum. This approach reduces the computation time of a transient analysis by a few orders of
magnitude compared to the conventional "full spectrum frequency analysis", in which the frequency domain
software is run at all the frequencies in the spectrum.
2- In the inverse FFT operation, FFTSES directly reads the database files created by SIRPS from HIFREQ or MALZ
computation results, significantly reducing the time and labor required to generate a time domain response from the
frequency domain computation results.
3- If the frequency domain system response contains “resonances” in its spectrum curves, the “resonance detection
algorithm” will advise the user to add additional frequency samples near the resonance locations so that the
resonance shape can be modeled precisely.
4- FFTSES can present the temporal evolution of an electromagnetic quantity along a profile (or on a segment) and its
spectrum in the following graphics formats:
- Conventional 2D plot.
- Contour plot.
- Color or greyscale spot plots.
- 3D parallel projection (wire frame) and solid surface plots.

FREQUENCY (FFTSES Information for SICL)


FREQUENCY DOMAIN APPROACH
In general, it is quite difficult to model the response of a conductor network to a transient excitation directly in the time
domain. One traditional and still most widely used approach is the so-called "frequency domain approach'', as we will discuss
in this section. Once the user understands the procedure involved in a typical transient analysis, any transient problems, be
they lightning surges or substation capacitor discharge transients, can be treated in the same way.
The key idea behind the "frequency domain approach" is to consider a time domain transient as the superposition of many
single-frequency (harmonic) waveforms. The spectrum of a time domain transient is obtained via a forward operation of a
Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The electromagnetic fields generated by each of these single frequency sources
(waveforms) can then be computed by a frequency domain software module (e.g., HIFREQ or MALZ). To obtain the
temporal distribution of the electromagnetic fields at a point in space or on a conductor segment, one can simply apply an

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FFTSES Technical Information for SICL Page 59

inverse FFT to all the single frequency results from the frequency domain software for this point (or segment), modulated by
the frequency spectrum of the input transient. This method for transient analysis is called the "frequency domain approach''.

MAIN-STEPS (FFTSES Information for SICL)


MAIN-STEPS IN A TRANSIENT STUDY
The major steps of a typical transient study using FFTSES are as follows:
1- Forward FFT Operation From the Time Domain Transient Surge to its Frequency Spectrum
After FFTSES reads in the time domain transient data (or generates the transient surge using its built-in transient
function generators), it will compute the frequency spectrum of this transient. Based on the shape of the spectral
curves, the "sample selection of frequency spectrum" algorithm in FFTSES will recommend a set of "critical
frequencies", as will be discussed next.
2- Sample Selection From Frequency Spectrum
In order to model precisely the sharp edge of a fast rising transient surge such as a lightning surge, the number of
samples for an FFT usually has to be fairly large. For a typical lightning transient, the frequency spectrum involves
hundreds or even thousands of frequency samplings. For more complicated cases (e.g., capacitive discharge), even
more samplings are required for a precise description of the transient. If the frequency domain software is to be run
for all the frequencies of the spectrum, computation time will become excessive even for a fairly simple system.
To reduce computation time, an algorithm has been developed to intelligently select a small subset of frequency
samples to represent the whole spectrum. Instead of computing the electromagnetic fields for all the frequencies in
the spectrum, one can use the electromagnetic fields computed at these "critical frequencies" to interpolate the
corresponding quantities for other intermediate frequencies. Extensive tests show that the error introduced by the
interpolation process is negligible and this "sample selection'' process leads to considerable savings of computation
time.
3- Frequency Domain Calculation
Once the subset of "critical frequencies" has been recommended by FFTSES, the next step is to compute the "system
responses" at these "critical frequencies" using a frequency domain software (HIFREQ or MALZ). That is, one uses
HIFREQ or MALZ to compute the electromagnetic quantities of interest, e.g., the electric fields along profiles at
each of the recommended "critical frequencies". Note that all the computations should be done with a unit amplitude
excitation (i.e., 1 ampere for current or 1 volt GPR, zero phase angle) applied at the same location as the transient
excitation itself. The computations at multiple "critical frequencies" can be done either in one single HIFREQ or
MALZ run or divided into multiple runs, whichever is most convenient.
4- Response of the Conductor Network to a Transient Excitation
After the system responses at all the "critical frequencies" have been computed by HIFREQ or MALZ, one can
extract these system responses and enter them into the input file of FFTSES to compute the time domain response of
the conductor network.
There are two ways to extract data from the output files of HIFREQ or MALZ:
- One way is to extract the system response for one point in space manually from the user-readable output
files of HIFREQ or MALZ. This operation must be done for all the frequencies computed in HIFREQ or
MALZ run(s). Each value must be entered into the input file of FFTSES with the command DATA-
POINTS . Finally, the inverse FFT operation will generate the time domain response for this point.
- The other way to extract data is to use SIRPS to read the machine-readable output files of HIFREQ or
MALZ connected to unit 21. As the user plots any electromagnetic quantity, the quantity being plotted can
be stored automatically in database files accessible directly from FFTSES.
5- Further Iteration for “Resonance” in Frequency Spectrum
After Step 4, one obtains the time domain response of a conductor system subjected to a transient excitation. The
user should watch for any “resonance” in the unmodulated spectrum curves, i.e., sharp rising peaks or valleys in

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Page 60 FFTSES Technical Information for SICL

these curves. If any resonance exists, the frequency domain software HIFREQ or MALZ should be run at some
additional frequencies near these resonance frequencies to provide a more precise modeling of the shapes of the
spectrum curves. Otherwise, the time domain response may be distorted due to a lack of accuracy in the spectrum
curve modeling near these resonance frequencies. In fact, FFTSES will issue a warning in the output file to signal
the presence of such resonance frequencies and suggest the additional frequencies to be run.

ADVANCED-FEATURES (FFTSES Information for SICL)


ADVANCED-FEATURES IN AUTOMATED DATA EXTRACTION
Further reduction of the amount of work involved in constructing FFTSES input database files can be achieved by taking
advantage of the following advanced features in SIRPS:
1- Group Data Extraction
When SIRPS is used to plot one component of the electromagnetic fields or any electromagnetic quantity related to
a segment, all the information in the same “group” will be extracted and stored in FFTSES input database files
automatically.
2- Appending Results From Multiple Runs
While constructing the FFTSES input database, one can break the list of frequencies to be run into subgroups,
making HIFREQ or MALZ runs with frequencies belonging to each subgroup and finally appending the results from
all the runs into a single FFTSES input database.
3- Combination of HIFREQ and MALZ to Speed Up Computations
To speed up computations, the hybrid results from HIFREQ and MALZ can be combined into a single database by
SIRPS.
More detailed information on the advanced features described above can be found in FFTSES User’s Manual.

INFORMATION (FFTSES Information for SICL)


MORE INFORMATION
More detailed information on how to use the FFTSES program can be found in the FFTSES User's Manual and in the help
items describing the SICL and CSIRPS commands pertaining to FFTSES.

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CSIRPS Technical Information Page 61

SIRPS (General Information for CSIRPS)


SIRPS
SIRPS (SES Interactive Report and Plot Software) provides a selective, flexible and accurate way to extract, summarize and
plot computation results from SES's engineering software.
SIRPS displays computation results graphically on a wide selection of popular video and hardcopy graphics devices. SIRPS
also presents report summaries of computation results performed by RESAP, MALT, MALZ, SPLITS, HIFREQ, and
FCDIST. You can run SIRPS at any time and as often as desired after these "parent" programs have been run in order to
create plots and reports from computations that have been stored by these programs in a database file. SIRPS is capable of
displaying various types of plots which are not accessible directly from the parent program's limited plotting facilities. All
programs (except TRALIN and FFTSES) presently generate databases compatible with SIRPS.
There are four input mode for SIRPS:

- DIALOGUE MODE (DSIRPS)


- COMMAND MODE (CSIRPS)
- MENU MODE (MSIRPS)
- WINDOWS TOOLBOX (GUI for CSIRPS)

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Index Page 62

A
ACCELERATION, SICL, MALT.............................................................................................................................................................. 28
ADVANCED-FEATURES, SICL, FFTSES............................................................................................................................................... 60
ANALYSIS, SICL, MALZ ........................................................................................................................................................................ 33
APPLICATIONS, SICL, HIFREQ............................................................................................................................................................. 47
APPLICATIONS, SICL, MALT ................................................................................................................................................................ 22

C
CAPABILITIES, SICL, SPLITS................................................................................................................................................................ 39
CHARACTERISTICS, SICL, MALZ ........................................................................................................................................................ 37
COMMON-PROBLEMS, SICL, HIFREQ ................................................................................................................................................. 52
COMPUTATION, SICL, MALT ............................................................................................................................................................... 25
COMPUTATIONS, SICL, HIFREQ .......................................................................................................................................................... 51
COMPUTATIONS, SICL, MALZ ............................................................................................................................................................. 38
COMPUTATIONS, SICL, RESAP ............................................................................................................................................................ 16
CONDUCTOR-DATA, SICL, FCDIST ..................................................................................................................................................... 54
CONDUCTOR-GEOMETRY, SICL, HIFREQ.......................................................................................................................................... 49
CONDUCTORS, SICL, TRALIN .............................................................................................................................................................. 44
COORDINATES, SICL, HIFREQ ............................................................................................................................................................. 48
COORDINATES, SICL, MALZ ................................................................................................................................................................ 36
CURRENT-SOURCE-DATA, SICL, FCDIST........................................................................................................................................... 55

D
DEFINITIONS, SICL, SPLITS.................................................................................................................................................................. 40
DIFFERENCES-WITH-MALZ, SICL, HIFREQ ....................................................................................................................................... 52

E
EARTH- FAULT, SICL, MALZ................................................................................................................................................................ 36
ENERGIZATION, SICL, HIFREQ............................................................................................................................................................ 49

F
FAULT-CURRENTS, SICL, MALT.......................................................................................................................................................... 24
FCDIST, SICL, FCDIST............................................................................................................................................................................ 53
FEATURES, SICL, MALT ........................................................................................................................................................................ 18
FFTSES, SICL, FFTSES............................................................................................................................................................................ 57
FREQUENCY, SICL, FFTSES.................................................................................................................................................................. 58

G
GRADIENT-MODULE, SICL, TRALIN................................................................................................................................................... 45
GROUND- NETWORK, SICL, MALZ ..................................................................................................................................................... 34
GROUND, SICL, MALZ........................................................................................................................................................................... 32
GROUNDING-GRID, SICL, MALT ......................................................................................................................................................... 25

H
HELPFUL HINTS, AUXILIARY, SICL, General Information .................................................................................................................. 10
HELPFUL HINTS, BLOCKS, SICL, General Information......................................................................................................................... 11
HELPFUL HINTS, CONFIGURATION, SICL, General Information .......................................................................................................... 9
HELPFUL HINTS, RECOVERY, SICL, General Information ................................................................................................................... 10
HIFREQ, SICL, HIFREQ .......................................................................................................................................................................... 47

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Index Page 63

I
INDUCTION-MODULE, SICL, TRALIN................................................................................................................................................. 45
INFORMATION, SICL, FFTSES.............................................................................................................................................................. 60
INFORMATION, SICL, SPLITS .............................................................................................................................................................. 41
INFORMATION-REQUIRED, SICL, HIFREQ ........................................................................................................................................ 48
INPUT, SICL, MALT................................................................................................................................................................................ 21
INPUT-DATA, SICL, RESAP................................................................................................................................................................... 15
INPUT-DESCRIPTION, SICL, MALT ..................................................................................................................................................... 26
INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND, SICL, General Information .............................................................................................................. 3
INTRODUCTION, STARTING, SICL, General Information ...................................................................................................................... 3
INTRODUCTION, SUMMARY, SICL, General Information...................................................................................................................... 2
IRREGULAR, SICL, MALT ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28

L
LOGICALS, SICL, General Information ................................................................................................................................................... 11

M
MAIN-STEPS, SICL, FFTSES.................................................................................................................................................................. 59
MALT, SICL, MALT ................................................................................................................................................................................ 17
MALZ, SICL, MALZ ................................................................................................................................................................................ 31
METHODS, SICL, RESAP ....................................................................................................................................................................... 14

N
NETWORKS, SICL, MALZ...................................................................................................................................................................... 32

O
OTHER-DATA, SICL, MALZ .................................................................................................................................................................. 38
OUTPUT, SICL, MALT............................................................................................................................................................................ 21

P
POTENTIAL- RISE, SICL, MALZ ........................................................................................................................................................... 35
PROBLEM-DESCRIPTION, SICL, MALT............................................................................................................................................... 23
PROGRAM ENVIRONMENT, INPUT, SICL, General Information........................................................................................................... 3
PROGRAM ENVIRONMENT, OUTPUT, SICL, General Information ....................................................................................................... 4
PROGRAM ORGANIZATION, SICL, TRALIN....................................................................................................................................... 43
PROGRAM STRUCTURE, FACILITY, SICL, General Information........................................................................................................... 8
PROGRAM STRUCTURE, SICL, General Information.............................................................................................................................. 4
PROGRAM STRUCTURE, SPECIFICATION, SICL, General Information................................................................................................ 7
PROGRAM STRUCTURE, STANDARD, SICL, General Information ....................................................................................................... 8
PROGRAM STRUCTURE, SYNTAX, SICL, General Information ............................................................................................................ 5

R
REPRESENTATION, SICL, FCDIST ....................................................................................................................................................... 53
RESAP, SICL, RESAP.............................................................................................................................................................................. 13
RESTART-INSTRUCTIONS, SICL, HIFREQ.......................................................................................................................................... 52

S
SAFETY, SICL, MALT ............................................................................................................................................................................ 26
SAFETY, SICL, SPLITS........................................................................................................................................................................... 41
SENSITIVITY, SICL, SPLITS.................................................................................................................................................................. 41
SICL, SICL, General Information ................................................................................................................................................................ 1
SIRPS, CSIRPS, General Information........................................................................................................................................................ 61

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Page 64 Index

SOIL, SICL, MALT................................................................................................................................................................................... 23


SOIL, SICL, RESAP.................................................................................................................................................................................. 13
SOIL-TYPE, SICL, HIFREQ..................................................................................................................................................................... 49
SPECIAL-FEATURES, SICL, FFTSES..................................................................................................................................................... 58
SPLITS, SICL, SPLITS ............................................................................................................................................................................. 39
SYSTEM-MODULE, SICL, TRALIN ....................................................................................................................................................... 44

T
TRALIN, SICL, TRALIN .......................................................................................................................................................................... 43
TYPES, SICL, RESAP .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13
TYPES-OF-CONDUCTORS, SICL, HIFREQ ........................................................................................................................................... 51

STRUCTURED HELP REFERENCE 2.0