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Question: Are there specific stages Not explored: CL & Question: How do CL skills develop and
Question: Are there specific stages
Not explored: CL &
Question: How do CL skills
develop and advance?
In -service teachers’ attitudes changed
of development?
aboriginal students.
Not explored: Differences
as they explored the meaning and
between young students VS
potentiality of literacy education.
Recognised the sexualisation and
older students’ abilities.
degradation of women in popular rap
Not explored:
videos as well as that there are many
Came to understand how authors
perspectives on this issue – situated
construct texts to position readers &
knowledge .
Enabled perspective taking
that they do not have to accept the
Introducing CL to in -
service teachers (Lee
& Runyan 2011).
Students’ VS
teachers’ c ritical
interpretation of
Question: Are teachers’
negative beliefs about CL
legitimate issues?
ideologies presented in texts .
Not explored: How students’ CL
skills change with age/
Year 4 students
(DeNicolo &
Franquiz 2006;
Green &
Cochrane 2003).
African American
females (age 17-19)
(Richardson 2007).
11 th & 12 th grade white
students’ perspective taking
(Haertling, Beach & Parks
Political aspect of CL troubles teachers;
view children as innocent, naive and in
Question: Does CL effect
academic achievement?
need of protection; & fear that a CL
Question: What level of thinking
(Blooms taxonomy) do normal
literacy lessons VS lessons that
promote CL encourage?
curriculum will have negative impacts on
to deal
students (Comber 2001).
with CL texts controversial
don’t have issues
Children can recognise
Concerns about parents disapproval of certain books
Middle school
how they are
and topics, protecting the innocence of students, and
High school
positioned by texts
the negatively influence that certain texts may have on
students beliefs and behavours (Schmidt, Armstrong &
Access to educational
discourse (Sharp 2012).
Need to include critical literacy within
the general capability “Literacy”
(ACARA 2011).
A young way to students
and can understand
matters of equity (Hall
Everett 2007).
Were able to jointly
Age groups
question and discuss how
Infants/early years
texts are produced to
manipulate readers.
Improve s academic outcomes
Teacher hesitations
Removes educational
disadvantage (Janks 2001;
2004; Sharp 2012).
Students who did not have access
to the dominant language or
discourse performed worse
academically (Janks 2004).
Question: To what
extent can young
children critically
analyse texts?
3-5 year olds
(Vasquez 2007)
Identify and clarify
To aid in developing informed
critical citizens (ACARA 2011).
(Boutte 2002).
Critical Literacy (CL)
Need access to
To acquire cultural/linguistic
capital (Janks 2001; 2004).
Question: Does the
‘Access Paradox’
explain trends in
school drop - outs?
To engage young children
in CL (Boutte 2002).
“Access Paradox”
explains disadvantage
(Janks 2004) .
CL discourse
Picture books
Not explored: CL and the
internet, TV, photographs
Recognise ideologies embedded in
texts (Comber 2001; Boutte 2002).
or multimodal texts.
Question: What is the
most effective way to
teach students how
to critically analyse
multimodal texts ?
Multimodal texts/
Multiliteracies (Siu -
Runyan 2007)
Literature Types
Classroom Practice
Question: Can CL positively
affect how students
interact with people from
diverse backgrounds?
Every day texts
(Vasquez 2007)
Produces the understanding
that other, discourses and
ideologies are legitimate and
teaches how to work within
diverse systems (Luke &
Carpenter 2003) .
Student-run literacy circles
Critical Features Guide
Student- vs.
around texts (DeNicolo &
Main area of research identified
teacher - led
Students should be encouraged
to critically analyse political
p hotographs (Janks 2012).
Illustrative texts
Franquiz 2006)
Snack package
(Vasquez 2007)
Enables students to negotiate the meaning
embedded in texts and share perspectives
on racial discrimination.
(dark purple)
(Richardson 2007)
Different pockets of research
identified (blue )
Causes students to question
discriminatory events
(DeNicolo & Franquiz 2006).
Texts selected based on
Authentic convocations driven by
students (McCloskey 2012) .
Sub-pockets of research
identified, if present (pink)
Not explored: At what age
can/should students be
encouraged to critically
analyse political photographs?
students’ interest
Conversations forces students to
shift perspective.
increased likelihood of
engaging in CL practices .
Produces tension
between beliefs
and those in text
(Haertling, et al.
Reading doesn’t =
understanding à recreated
characters in their own
image (Dressel 2005).
text challenge
when Events in – “Critical
Need for explicit teaching
(Sharp 2012).
CL occurs understanding
Question: Which
type of CL approach
has greater
encounters” (Appleman 2000).
Often rejected text
Asking/answering seven
preconceived questions, linguistic
analysis, text clustering/comparing,
visual analysis and joint construction
activities (Green & Cochran 2003).
events which
Haertling, et al.
conflicted with their
Don’t need to look at
(2007) e xplains
Key research findings outlined
(aqua) – NOTE: each of these is
a conclusion derived from a
formal research STUDY (not
just something someone wrote
in an article). As such, each of
these should have a reference
to a PRIMARY source.
controversial issues.
Dressel’s (2005)
Only subtle
transformations in
students ’ understandings
Deconstruction and
reconstruction of text through
textual analysis activities
(Vasquez 2007).
Pre- test <10% adopted critical
stance, post -test 75% did.
Existing gaps in the literature
Strategies = identify characters who
are disadvantaged due to their
membership to a non -dominant
cultural group; teacher's role as co-
learner; opportunities to interact
with people from diverse
Links drawn between consistent
and contradictory findings
Scaffolding activities allowed
Question: How does CL
change the nature of literacy
in primary classrooms ?
Further research is required to see
the effects of student preferred texts
as curricu lum materials in
encouraging CL.
students of all levels engage in CL .
Can Metacognitive
thinking influence how
students critically evaluate
Although not strictly necessary,
general conclusions based on
synthesis of the literature are
also identified (green )
Teacher as co-learner