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The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and

publication to grammar, usage, and documentation and has been lovingly called the “editor’sbible.” The
material in this resource focuses primarily on one of the two CMOS documentation styles: the Notes-
Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. The other
documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and
is preferred in the social sciences.

In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) for more information, students may
also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and
Dissertations (8th ed.). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation
style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student

Notes and Bibliography (NB) in Chicago style

The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for
referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography
pages. It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most
commonly used in the discipline of history.
The proper use of the NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the
intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others. Most importantly, properly
using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material.

Introduction to Notes
In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source,
whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on
which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the
entire document.
In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for
that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is
If a work includes a bibliography, which is typically preferred, then it is not necessary to provide full
publication details in notes. However, if a bibliography is not included with a work, the first note for each
source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of
publication. If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note need
only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page
number(s). However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation
be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter.
In contrast to earlier editions of CMOS, if you cite the same source two or more times consecutively,
CMOS recommends using shortened citations. In a work with a bibliography, the first reference should use a
shortened citation which includes the author’s name, the source title, and the page number(s), and
consecutive references to the same work may omit the source title and simply include the author and page
number. Although discouraged by CMOS, if you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single
source two or more times consecutively, it is also possible to utilize the word “Ibid.,” an abbreviated form of
the Latin ibidem, which means “in the same place,” as the corresponding note. If you use the same source
but a different page number, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new
page number(s).
In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate full-sized number,
followed by a period and then a space.
Introduction to Bibliographies
In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work.
This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It
should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were
not cited but provide further reading.
Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources
(books, articles, websites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is
listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used.
Though useful, a bibliography is not required in works that provide full bibliographic information in
the notes.

Common Elements
All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and
publication information.

Author Names
The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last
name and first name with a comma; for example, John Smith becomes Smith, John. If an author is not listed
first, this principle applies to compilers, translators, etc.

Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in
quotation marks.

Publication Information
The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.
How to Cite a Book in Print in MLA
The basic information of a book includes author(s), the title of the book, and the publication

Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published. Print.

James, Henry. The Ambassadors. Rockville: Serenity, 2009. Print.

Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1942. Print.

How to Cite a Book Online in MLA

Include the same information as a regular book. Add as much as the original publication information
as possible. After citing the original publication information, add the electronic publication information.
This includes the title of the internet site, the editor of the site (if given), the date of electronic publication (if
given), and the sponsoring institution or organization. Also, be sure to include the date accessed and the

Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published. Website Title. Web. Day Month Year Accessed.

James, Henry. The Ambassadors. Rockville: Serenity, 2009. Google books. Web. 16 Mar. 2010.

Bodnar, Kipp, and Jeffrey L. Cohen. The B2B Social Media Book. Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Dec.

How to Cite a Book from a Database in MLA

Make sure to:

Provide advanced information for the book if it is available.
Leave out the URL unless the source cannot be located without it.
Type in the date the book was electronically published if it is available.

Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published. Database Name. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.

Morem, Susan. 101 Tips for Graduates. New York: Ferguson, 2005. Infobase Publishing eBooks. Web. 16
Mar. 2010. http://www.infobasepublishing.com

Bloom, Harold, ed. Twentieth-Century British Poets. New York: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2011. Infobase
Publishing eBooks. Web. 21 Dec. 2012

What is IEEE Style?

The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional organization supporting many
branches of engineering, computer science, and information technology. In addition to publishing journals,
magazines, and conference proceedings, IEEE also makes many standards for a wide variety of industries.

IEEE citation style includes in-text citations, numbered in square brackets, which refer to the full citation
listed in the reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list is organized numerically, not
alphabetically. For examples, see the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.

The Basics:

In-text Citing It is not necessary to mention an author's name, pages used, or date of publication in the in-
text citation. Instead, refer to the source with a number in a square bracket, e.g. [1], that will then correspond
to the full citation in your reference list.

Place bracketed citations within the line of text, before any punctuation, with a space before the first bracket.

Number your sources as you cite them in the paper. Once you have referred to a source and given it a
number, continue to use that number as you cite that source throughout the paper.

When citing multiple sources at once, the preferred method is to list each number separately, in its own
brackets, using a comma or dash bteween numbers, as such: [1], [3], [5] or [1] - [5].

The below examples are from Murdoch University's IEEE Style LibGuide.

Examples of in-text citations:

"...end of the line for my research [13]."

"This theory was first put forward in 1987 [1]."

"Scholtz [2] has argued that..."

"Several recent studies [3], [4], [15], [16] have suggested that...."

"For example, see [7]."

Creating a Reference List The Reference List appears at the end of your paper and provides the full
citations for all the references you have used. List all references numerically in the order they've been cited
within the paper, and include the bracketed number at the beginning of each reference.

Title your list as References either centered or aligned left at the top of the page.

Create a hanging indent for each reference with the bracketed numbers flush with the left side of the page.
The hanging indent highlights the numerical sequence of your references.

The author's name is listed as first initial, last name. Example: Adel Al Muhairy would be cited as A. Al
Muhairy (NOT Al Muhairy, Adel).

The title of an article is listed in quotation marks.

The title of a journal or book is listed in italics.

What is Turabian Style?

Based on Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations,
Turabian citation style presents two basic documentation systems, notes-bibliography style (or simply
bibliography style) and author-date style (previously called parenthetical citations–reference list style).
These styles are essentially the same as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style with slight
modifications for the needs of student writers.

Notes/Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic
information in footnotes or endnotes and, usually, a bibliography.

Material Note Bibliographic Entry

Books in print 1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference.
Difference(Chicago: University of Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Chicago Press, 1999), 65.
An article in a 8. John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of
print journal Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639. Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.
An article in 33. Campbell Brown. "Consequentialize Brown, Campbell. "Consequentialize
an electronic This," Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 749-71.
journal 751, accessed February 8, 2017, Accessed February 8, 2017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.
A website 11. Evanston Public Library Board of Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees.
Trustees, “Evanston Public Library “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan,
Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston
Outreach,” Evanston Public Public Library. Accessed June 1, 2005.
Library, accessed June 1, 2005, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-
http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan- 00.html.

Author-date style has long been used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources
are briefly cited in parentheses in the text by author’s last name and date of publication. The parenthetical
citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Material Parenthetical Citation Reference List

Books in print (Doniger 1999, 65) Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the
Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago
An article in a (Smith 1998, 639) Smith, John Maynard. 1998. "The Origin of
print journal Altruism." Nature 393: 639–40.
An article in (Kiser 2011, 340) Kiser, Lisa J. 2011. "Silencing the Lambs:
an electronic Economics, Ethics, and Animal Life in
journal Medieval Franciscan Hagiography." Modern
Philology108, no. 3 (February): 323-42.
Accessed February 8, 2017.
A website (Evanston Public Library Board of Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees.
Trustees 2005) 2005. “Evanston Public Library Strategic
Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach.”
Evanston Public Library. Accessed June 1,
2005. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-

AMA (American Medical Association) Reference Citation Format

This tip sheet contains most frequently requested information. For complete style manual online see:
AMA Manual of Style Online or the print American Medical Association Manual of Style 10th Edition on
Reserve in the Health Sciences Library, Call # WZ 345 A511 2007.

 Cited works are numbered in order of initial appearance in the text, and appear in the Reference List
in numerical order.
 Use arabic superscript numerals outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons.
 Authors’ names are inverted, and use only initials for first and middle names. No periods between
 In article titles only the first word and proper nouns and abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized
are capitalized.
 Use accepted Index Medicus abbreviations of journal names (see the List of Journals Indexed in
Index Medicus).
 For journals use issue numbers in parentheses after the volume number. If there is no issue number
specify month before the year.

In-Text Examples:

Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk of foot ulcers.1-3

Several interventions have been successful at increasing compliance.11,14-16
The data of Smith et al18 is further evidence of this effect.
As reported previously,1,3-6
The results were as follows4:

Reference List Examples:

Journal article (1-6 authors):

1. Hu P, Reuben DB. Effects of managed care on the length of time that elderly patients spend with
physicians during ambulatory visits. Med Care. 2002;40(7):606-613.

Journal article with more than six authors:

2.Geller AC, Venna S, Prout M, et al. Should the skin cancer examination be taught in medical school? Arch
Dermatol. 2002;138(9):1201-1203.

Journal article with no named author or group name:

3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Licensure of a meningococcal conjugate vaccine
(Menveo) and guidance for use--Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010.
MMWRMorb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(9):273.
Electronic Journal article:
If you have a doi (preferred):
4.Gage BF, Fihn SD, White RH. Management and dosing of warfarin therapy. The American Journal of
Medicine. 2000;109(6):481-488. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00545-3.

If you do not have a doi:

5.Aggleton JP. Understanding anterograde amnesia: disconnections and hidden lesions. Q J Exp Psychol.
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pbh&AN=34168185&site=ehost-live Accessed
March 18, 2010.

Entire Book:
6.McKenzie BC. Medicine and the Internet: Introducing Online Resources and Terminology. 2nd ed. New
York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1997.

Book Chapter:

7.GuytonJL, Crockarell JR. Fractures of acetabulum and pelvis. In: Canale ST, ed.Campbell's Operative
Orthopaedics. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, Inc; 2003:2939-2984.

Electronic Book:
8. Rudolph CD, Rudolph AM. Rudolph's Pediatrics. 21st ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies;
et=7&SessionId=A3F279FQVVFXFSXQ . Accessed August 22, 2007.

Internet Document:
9. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2003.
http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2003PWSecured.pdf. Accessed March 3, 2003
Vancouver style


Vancouver is a numbered referencing style commonly used in medicine and science, and consists of:

 citations to someone else's work in the text, indicated by the use of a number
 a sequentially numbered reference list at the end of the document providing full details of the
corresponding in-text reference

It follows rules established by the International committee of Medical Journal Editors, now maintained by
the U.S. National Library of Medicine. It is also known as Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted
to Biomedical Journals.

This guide is modeled on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd
edition). You may wish to consult this source directly for additional information or examples.

Printing this guide: Please note printing directly from pages in this guide may alter the citation formatting
display. A printable document is available below. Note that this document is adapted from this online guide
and does not contain all information and examples. Please use it in conjunction with the online guide which
is more regularly updated.

Reference list: General notes

Please check with your faculty for any specific referencing or formatting requirements
 References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. The
reference list appears at the end of the paper.
 Begin your reference list on a new page and title it 'References.'
 The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text. (However,
do not include unpublished items such as correspondence).
 Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).
 Abbreviate journal titles in the style used in the NLM Catalog
 Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source
when you cite it.
 Be consistent with your referencing style across the document.

Example of a reference list


 O'Campo P, Dunn JR, editors. Rethinking social epidemiology: towards a science of change.
Dordrecht: Springer; 2012. 348 p.
 Schiraldi GR. Post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth
[Internet]. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000 [cited 2006 Nov 6]. 446 p. Available from:
http://books.mcgraw-hill.com/getbook.php?isbn=0071393722&template=#toc DOI:
 Halpen-Felsher BL, Morrell HE. Preventing and reducing tobacco use. In: Berlan ED, Bravender T,
editors. Adolescent medicine today: a guide to caring for the adolescent patient [Internet]. Singapore:
World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2012 [cited 2012 Nov 3]. Chapter 18. Available from:
 Stockhausen L, Turale S. An explorative study of Australian nursing scholars and contemporary
scholarship. J NursScholarsh [Internet]. 2011 Mar [cited 2013 Feb 19];43(1):89-96. Available from:
 Kanneganti P, Harris JD, Brophy RH, Carey JL, Lattermann C, Flanigan DC. The effect of smoking
on ligament and cartilage surgery in the knee: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med [Internet]. 2012
Dec [cited 2013 Feb 19];40(12):2872-8. Available from: http://ajs.sagepub.com/content/40/12/2872
DOI: 10.1177/0363546512458223
 Subbarao M. Tough cases in carotid stenting [DVD]. Woodbury (CT): Cine-Med, Inc.; 2003. 1
DVD: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.
 Stem cells in the brain [television broadcast]. Catalyst. Sydney: ABC; 2009 Jun 25.

Referencing Appendices

Referencing your own appendices in your own text

 Your appendix does not need to be referenced. It is enough to signpost it the body of your work: for
example (See Appendix A).
 If you created your own appendix, and you've cited references, then number the references within the
appendix consecutively in sequence with your written text and include them in your reference list.

Referencing appendices not written by you

 If the appendix was not written by you then place the numbered citation, in sequence with the rest of
the text, at the end of the appendix and include the full reference in your reference list.