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Appendix D – Joint application to bilateral projects

Project Decentralized solar thermal energy based power and fresh water generation
Project CSP-Electricity-Water
Project 36 Months
Major Aim: The aim of the project is to design, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost concentrated solar energy
R&D based power and fresh water generation for isolated regions. The proposed solution is based on Fresnel
content, reflector integrated foil based solar collector, packed-bed thermal energy storage system, organic Rankine
target cycle (ORC) power system, and thermal energy driven desalination system. The findings and results of the
and project will enable cost of electricity and fresh water generation of 100 €/MWh e and 1 €/m3 (at Jodhpur,
reasons India) from the small-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) cogeneration plant.
for co- The objectives of the project are:
opera- - Selection of system parameters to achieve optimum combination of efficiency and cost (at DTU)
tion - Design and demonstration of the effective receiver for the foil based CSP system and thermal energy driven
(Maxi- humidification-dehumidification (H-DH) unit (at IITB in coordination with Heliac and Alfa Laval, Denmark)
mum 3 - Design of an optimized packed-bed energy storage (at DTU in coordination with Heliac, Denmark)
pages) - Design of cost-effective ORC power system (at DTU in coordination with Assure Solutions, India)
- Design, engineering, procurement, construction, and testing of prototype (at IITB)
- Full understanding of the system impact of low-cost CSP-Electricity-Water and business potential analysis
The project covers most of the value chain, from applied research through construction and demonstration
of a prototype to a full understanding of the system impact. TRL is increased from TRL 3 to TRL 7 and SRL is
increased from SRL 2 to SRL 8.
Unmet Need: Isolated regions, like islands and very remote areas, depend on oil and related products
importation from mainland because of unavailability of electricity grids. In such regions, either there is no
electricity supply or the electricity is generated using diesel generator (DG) sets. In case of high cost DG sets
based supply, the government provides significant economic subsidy to make electricity affordable to the
people. The UN expects that 14% of the world’s population will encounter water scarcity by 2025. In India,
about 40 Million households are in short of stable or with no electricity supply; moreover, it is estimated
that by 2020 India will become a water-stressed nation due to population growth. In isolated regions, the
distributed small- to medium-scale solar thermal energy based power and fresh water generation system
will be a reliable, environmental friendly, and economically competitive with alternative off-grid technolo-
gies, like, solar photovoltaic (PV) with battery storage for power and fresh water generations (using reverse
osmosis (RO)) or DG set based systems. It may be noted that the large battery system is very expensive
despite large volume production already in place and it has yet to prove that it will ever become cheap as
well as durable enough to become profitable for use as storage in the power grid.
State-of-the-art: Currently used CSP technologies (parabolic trough collector, linear Fresnel reflector, solar
power tower, etc.) use heavy and very expensive glass mirrors and receivers, making it difficult for CSP
plants to compete with plants based on fossil fuels. Based on a novel micro-structured polymer foil, Heliac,
Denmark, has demonstrated cost-effectiveness of the Fresnel reflector integrated foil based CSP for district
heating solution through the project “Folie-baseret Solvarme”. Currently, full-scale implementation is being
demonstrated through a 2 MWth facility at Møn, Denmark. The foil based solar field can be used as a cost-
effective solar field, even in the small-scale plants in regions with less solar irradiance.
As for the storage technologies, the widely used two-tank molten salt storage technology is relatively expen-
sive, while latent heat thermal energy storage is still at the proof of concept stage because of low thermal
conductivity, resulting in slow charge and discharge processes. The proposed system will use an innovative
single tank packed-bed consisting of rocks as heat storage medium and heat storage charging and discharg-
ing using evaporation/condensation of heat transfer fluids. This type of cost-effective storage system is
currently being developed as a part of EUDP-funded project.
One of the most promising technologies for the exploitation of low temperature heat sources for power
production is ORC system. Up to today, the principal reasons why positive displacement machines like scroll
or screw expanders are considered as suitable solution for small-scale ORC applications are their low rota-

tional speed and their availability as mass-produced compressors, which can be converted and run reversed
as expander. This enables the use of standard components for bearings and generator but also comprises
the drawback of wear effects, additional oil lubrication installation and fixed volume ratios what cumulates
into losses and maintenance requirements. This compares with the high potential of the turbine technology
concerning its higher efficiency at design as well as part load conditions. But with decreasing power output
and hence turbine size, the rotational speed increases proportionally. It is proposed to design a low-cost,
hermetically sealed, radial-inflow turbo generator unit as well as heat exchangers (evaporator and conden-
ser) and the pump using an integrated design approach.
Desalination is an energy intensive process. Widely used membrane RO based desalination system uses
electricity and the amount of consumption depends on the influent character, i.e., brackish or seawater.
Moreover, the problem of low recovery ratio associated with the RO system needs to be addressed, espe-
cially for India as an agricultural country. In the demonstration plant, Alfa Laval will provide the thermally
driven desalination unit at free of cost. IITB will also design and fabricate H-DH unit, a cost-effective and
more environmental friendly solution for small-scale off-grid decentralized applications.
Relevance of the project: The project aim directly addresses the unmet needs of society and provides a
solution for medium-long term decentralized electricity and fresh water generation, which is not offered by
competing technologies. Compared with the state-of-the-art, the specific technologies applied in the project
are not very well-studied and the combined solution is not at all offered elsewhere. Many parts of the world,
especially in Asia and Africa, are with no or in short of stable electricity supply. Moreover, the UN expects
that 14% of the world’s population will encounter water scarcity by 2025. The project outcome meets the
most needed requirements of cost-effective clean electricity and fresh water for the remote locations. The
expected outcomes provide the highest added value for both potential customers and society in both short
and long term.
Work plan: The project comprises the following Work Packages:
WP1 – Project management and dissemination of results (Lead: DTU (Denmark side) and IITB (Indian side),
Start (month): 1, Duration (months): 36)
WP2 – System configuration (Lead: DTU, Start (month): 1, Duration (months): 6)
WP3 – Solar field (Lead: IITB, Start (month): 1, Duration (months): 30)
WP4 – Thermal energy storage system (Lead: DTU, Start (month): 1, Duration (months): 30)
WP5 – ORC power system (Lead: DTU, Start (month): 1, Duration (months): 30)
WP6 – Desalination system (Lead: IITB, Start (month): 1, Duration (months): 30)
WP7 – Prototype (Lead: IITB, Start (month): 7, Duration (months): 33)
WP8 – Energy system impact (Lead: DTU, Start (month): 7, Duration (months): 36)
WP9 – Business potential (Lead: Heliac, Start (month): 7, Duration (months): 36)
Risk management: The following main risks (with Probability (P) and Impact (I)) have been identified:
R1: A cost-efficient system configuration cannot be identified (P: Low, I: High)
Mitigation: Largely mitigated by detailed pre-project analysis as well as cost-effectiveness of the components
is already demonstrated or currently being demonstrated individually.
R2: Thermodynamic efficiencies of the solar field, ORC power system, and desalination system assumed in
system design specification cannot be reached (P: Low, I: Medium)
Mitigation: Efficiencies assumed in pre-project analysis are well within textbook ranges. Further mitigation
relies on the joint design expertise of the project partners.
R3: Stability and/or performance issues of the prototype thermal energy storage (P: Medium, I: Medium)
Mitigation: The proposed storage system is currently being developed as a part of EUDP-funded project and
is based on well-known concepts of physics and thermodynamics.
R4: Prototype components are not supplied on time or in quality (P: Medium, I: Medium)
Mitigation: Close monitoring of suppliers, on-site QA, suitable validation points during manufacturing.
R5: Prototype performance does not match predictions (P: Low, I: Medium to high)
Mitigation: From WP2 onwards continuous focus on all loss factors.
R6: No viable business opportunities exist for project partners (P: Low, I: High)
Mitigation: Continuous focus on cost, industrialization and complete range of business opportunities.
Legal, ethical or regulatory demands: We foresee no legal issues other than the need to apply to exist-
ing law and safety regulations. We foresee no ethical concerns as well as no regulatory obstacles on any of

the major markets globally.
Value creation - growth and employment: The key qualitative value creation of the project is to facili-
tate the green transformation globally that is the main element in the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement to
strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change. Owing to the Paris Agreement, India plans to
reduce its carbon emission intensity, i.e. the emission per unit of GDP, by 33-35% from what it was in 2005,
by 2030. The aim is to produce 40% of the total electricity from sources other than fossil fuels. The UN ex-
pects that 14% of the world’s population will encounter water scarcity by 2025. Only in India, about 40 Mil-
lion households are in short of stable or with no electricity supply; moreover, it is estimated that by 2020
India will become a water-stressed nation due to population growth. In this project, we will develop tech-
nologies, which enable cost-effective decentralized clean electricity and fresh water generation, basic re-
quirements of human beings, for remote areas. We, through the design and building of the demonstration
plant, will establish cooperation among Danish and Indian technology suppliers and companies that can
construct the plants on-site, paving the way for future large-scale installation in India and elsewhere. Signifi-
cant and permanent job creation is expected from manufacturing supply, installation, operation and
maintenance of CSP based electricity and fresh water generation systems, mainly after project completion.
Project outcome recipients: The direct beneficiaries of the project outcome will be the project partners
and their suppliers. Heliac will benefit from demonstration of foil based CSP technology for cogeneration.
The effective new receiver design will lead to better performance of their collector.
Assure Solutions will benefit from demonstration of ORC unit. Working experience with the DTU will provide
them improvement in the design of ORC power system as well as opportunity for business outside India.
Alfa Laval will benefit from system demonstration as well as key finding of the project. They can commercial-
ize the humidification-dehumidification based small-scale desalination system globally.
GreenEra will experience working with the multinational companies and researchers.
The academic partners will all benefit from engagement in this future technology, providing the scientific
basis for a new field of business. Benefits will include the creation of new insights and competences, the
ability to attract high-performance researchers, visibility as reliable knowledge suppliers on the industrial
scene, and publication opportunities.
At the most aggregated level, society is probably the largest beneficiary, acquiring through clean and afford-
able electricity and fresh water, which will be the key to development and climate change mitigation.
Implementation: The implementation of the project results will be in the form of supply and use of CSP
based electricity and water systems. Market introduction will commence on a preliminary basis when the
prototype performance has been verified. The full blown go-to-market strategy will be developed. The initial
marketing channels will be through the renewable energy press, conferences, exhibitions, etc., and also by
word-of-mouth as soon as the successful operation of the prototype becomes known to key stakeholders.
Heliac will be the main player on the supply side of the cost-effective foil based solar collector. For the stor-
age solution, Alfa Laval has the relevant knowhow for the input/output heat exchanger systems, DTU has the
relevant knowhow of different types of heat transfer fluids as well as modeling tools, and Heliac has the
basic IP on the concept, as well as the experience in project management to make the different competenc-
es meet and adapt to each other. Assure Solutions will be the main supplier of the ORC unit. GreenEra will
fabricate the H-D unit for small-scale and for medium-large scale Alfa Laval will supply the MED system. In
India, the integration of different components will be done by GreenEra; however, other EPC contractor can
be workout for business outside India.
The goal of the project will be to create a commercial offering that is not dependent on political support or
subsidies. It is expected that the social acceptance of the proposed solution will be easy.
Intellectual Property Rights: The basic concept of the solar thermal energy based electricity and fresh
water generation is not new and cannot be protected. However, for a range of specific technical fields in the
project the creation and protection of new IPR may represent significant value in the future commercial
positioning of Heliac, Alfa Laval, Assure solutions, and its partners. Currently, a patent application describing
the method for producing the concentrating foil at low rates and in large quantities has been filed by Dana-
pak and Inmold (sister company to Heliac, which Heliac was spun out from as a result of the invention) and
exclusively licensed to Heliac against shares in the company. A patent application protecting specific proper-
ties of the receiver is filed by Alfa Laval and Heliac in collaboration. A patent application describing the
method for storage has been filed by Heliac. New IPR developed during the project will belong to the invent-

ing party.
The following specific technical fields provide opportunities for the creation and protection of new IPR:
- Various aspects of the overall modularity of the CSP based electricity and fresh water generation
- Various aspects of the optimized turbo-expander design
- Various aspects of thermal energy powered humidification and dehumidification unit
- Implementation features relating to the engineering, transportation, installation and commissioning of the
proposed system

Project partners funded by Denmark

Title of organisation: Technical University of Denmark
Partner 1 Address: Nils KoppelsAllé, Building 403, Room 030, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby
Zip code: 2800
Country Denmark
Contact person: Dr. Fredrik Haglind
Title: Associate Professor
Mail: frh@mek.dtu.dk
Partner budget in $

Title of organisation: Heliac

Partner 2 Address: Savsvinget 4D, DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark
Zip code: 2970
Country Denmark
Contact person: Mr. Henrik Pranov
Title: CEO
Mail: hjp@heliac.dk
Partner budget in $

Title of organisation: Alfa Laval Copenhagen A/S

Partner 3 Address: Maskinvej 3, 2860 Søborg
Zip code: 2860
Country Denmark
Contact person: Mr. Mats Nilsson
Title: Head of R&D
Mail: matsr.nilsson@alfalaval.com
Partner budget in $

Project partners funded by others (To be filled by IITB)

Title of organisation: Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay)
Partner 1 Address: IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Zip code: 400076
Country India
Contact person: Prof. Anish Modi
Title: Assistant Professor
Mail: anishmodi@iitb.ac.in
Partner budget in $

Title of organisation: Assure Solutions

Partner 2 Address: Flat No: 405, A Wing, Pavani Park, Kharabwadi, Pune, Maharashtra
Zip code: 410501
Country India

Contact person: Mr. Kailas Nimbalkar
Title: Proprietor
Mail: power@assure-solutions.com, sales@assure-solutions.com
Partner budget in $

Title of organisation: Greenera Energy India Private Limited

Partner 3 Address: No.32 KV Nagar, Opp to CheranMaa Nagar, Vilankurchi Main Road,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Zip code: 641035
Country India
Contact person: Mr. ValliappanVK
Title: Managing Director
Mail: valliappan.vk@greenerainidia.com
Partner budget in $