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# GENERAL MATHEMATICS - A.Y.

2014/2015
(code 30062, CLEAM - CLES - CLEF - BIEM - BIEF)
DETAILED SYLLABUS

First part

## Structures (§ 1, 2.1-3, 3.3, 4.1, 5.1-5, 7.5, 12.1)

Sets, operations with sets, number sets. The set R of real numbers, its geometric representation.
Operations, order. Intervals. The real extended line. Absolute value, distance. Neighbourhoods,
left/right neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods of  /  . The set R n of real vectors with n
components, its geometric representation for n  2,3 . Linear operations, linear combinations, inner
product of vectors, order. Norm, distance, neighbourhoods. Interior, exterior, boundary, isolated,
accumulation points. Open, closed, bounded, compact sets. Convex linear combinations, segments,
convex sets.

## Functions (§ 6.1, 6.3-6, 12.2, 13.1, 13.3-4)

The concept of function. Domain, codomain, range; image, inverse image. Injective, surjective,
bijective function. Composite function, inverse function. Operations with real-valued functions.
Real functions of one real variable. Natural domain, graph. Examples of elementary functions.
Bounded functions. Monotonic functions, strictly monotonic functions. Maxima/minima: global and
local, strict and weak. Concave/convex functions, strictly concave/convex functions; their
maximum/minimum properties.
Real functions of n real variables. Real functions of two real variables: natural domain, graph, level
curves. Bounded functions. Maxima/minima: global and local, strict and weak. Concave/convex
functions, strictly concave/convex functions; their maximum/minimum properties.

Sequences (§ 7)
Sequences of real numbers. Recursively defined sequences. Limits of sequences. Limits from
above, limits from below. Convergent, divergent, irregular sequences. Theorem of uniqueness of
the limit (*), theorem on the permanence of sign, regularity theorem for monotonic sequences.
Limits of elementary sequences. Operations with limits, indeterminate forms. Comparison criterion.
The number e. Calculation of limits. Comparisons among infinities and among infinitesimals. The
symbols ~ and o. Extension to sequences of real vectors.

Number series (§ 8)
The concept of series. The sequence of partial sums. Behaviour of a series; convergent, divergent,
irregular series. Behaviour of the geometric series (*). Elementary properties of series. Necessary
condition for convergence. Series with non-negative terms: regularity theorem, comparison
criterion, asymptotic comparison criterion, behaviour of the generalised harmonic series. Series
with terms of indefinite sign: simple convergence and absolute convergence.

## Limits of functions and continuity (§ 9, 10, 13.2)

Limits of functions of one real variable (from the left, from the right, bilateral; from above, from
below). Vertical and horizontal asymptotes. Theorem of uniqueness of the limit, theorem on the
permanence of sign. Comparison criterion. Calculation of limits. Change of variable. Notable limits.
The symbols ~ and o. Continuity for functions of one real variable. Points of discontinuity.
Continuity of elementary functions. Properties of continuous functions: zero-value theorem
(Bolzano’s theorem), Weierstrass’s theorem, intermediate-value theorem (Darboux’s theorem).
Limits of functions of n real variables. Continuity for functions of n real variables. Weierstrass’s
theorem.
Second part

## One-variable differential calculus (§ 14, 16.1-2, 16.4-5, 17.1-3, 18.1, 19.2-3)

Difference quotient, derivative at a point; geometric meaning, equation of the tangent line. Left-
hand and right-hand derivative at a point; corners. The derivative function. Relationship between
the existence of the derivative and continuity (*). Derivatives of elementary functions. Rules on
derivatives. Higher derivatives. Differentiability, differential. Relationship between the existence of
the derivative and differentiability.
Stationary points. Necessary condition for points of local maximum/minimum: Fermat’s theorem
(*). Rolle’s theorem (*). Lagrange’s mean value theorem (*). Monotonicity/strict monotonicity test
on an interval. First sufficient condition for points of local maximum/minimum. Taylor’s formula
and Maclaurin’s formula of order n, with Peano’s remainder. Second sufficient condition for points
of local maximum/minimum. Determination of the points of global maximum/minimum.
Concavity/strict concavity test on an interval. Maximum/minimum condition for concave/convex
functions. Graph sketching.

## Linear algebra (§ 3, 11)

Linear spaces, subspaces. Linear independence, linear dependence. Subspace spanned by a set of
vectors, spanning set. Basis, dimension. Matrices. Linear operations with matrices. Row-column
product; main properties. Linear functions (linear functionals, linear operators). Representation
theorem for linear operators (*), representation matrix. Image space, kernel; theorem on rank and
nullity.
Square matrices: determinant; main properties, first Laplace’s theorem. Square matrices: inverse
matrix; existence, uniqueness, explicit writing in terms of the adjoint matrix. Rank of a matrix:
definition as the maximum number of linearly independent rows or columns, its calculation as the
maximum order of non-null minors, Kronecker’s algorithm.
Linear systems; matrix writing. Existence of solutions: Rouché-Capelli’s theorem, distinction of the
determinate/indeterminate cases. Structure of solutions: homogenous systems, non-homogenous
systems. Computation of solutions: Cramer’s theorem, Cramer’s rule, extension to all linear
systems.

## N-variable differential calculus (§ 15.1-3, 16.1, 20.1-4)

Partial derivatives, gradient vector. Differentiability, differential. Relationship between the
existence of partial derivatives, differentiability and continuity.
Stationary points. Unconstrained optimization problems. Necessary condition for points of
unconstrained local maximum/minimum; Fermat’s theorem. Maximum/minimum condition for
concave/convex functions. Constrained optimization problems with one equality constraint.
Lagrangean function, Lagrange multiplier. Necessary condition for points of constrained local
maximum/minimum.

Note
A proof is required for all topics marked with (*).

Topics are listed according to the presentation order of the adopted textbook:
Erio Castagnoli, Massimo Marinacci, Elena Vigna, Principles of Mathematics and Economics,
EGEA (2013).