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FORMULA SHEET ON

APPLIED MECHANICS & DESIGN


ENGINEERING MECHANICS LAMI’S THEOREM

PARALLELOGRAM LAW OF FORCES P


Q

b O a

Q R

R
q a
O P
P Q R
=
sin a = sin b sin g
The resultant force is given by,
PROJECTILES
R= P 2 + Q 2 + 2PQ cos q
Important equations used in projectiles are listed below.
Direction of the resultant force can be determined as below: 1. The time of flight t of a projectile on a horizontal plane is
Q sin q given by
tan a = P + Q cos q
2 u sin a
t=
where a is the angle between the resultant force of force P. g
TRIANGLE LAW OF FORCES 2. Horizontal range (R) of a projectile is given by

u 2 sin 2a
R=
g
® ®
R Q Maximum range is at
® ® ®
R = P+Q 2a =90°
Þ a =45°
®
P
u2
Rmax =
POLYGON LAW OF FORCES g

® ® ® ® ®
R = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 ANGULAR VELOCITY
D
dq
P4
P3
w=
dt
E
C 2p N
w= rad/s
60
R
P2

ANGULAR ACCELERATION
A P1 B
dw
a=
dt
2
RELATIONSHI P BETWEEN CIR CULAR AND and
LINEAR MOTION frequency of the oscillation
When a body moves in a circular path from point A to B as shown
1 1
in Figure. n= = g/L .
B t P 2p
S
Closely Coiled Helical Spring
q
O r A

S = rq A A
x
dS d (r q) dq
= =r B B
dt dt dt
dq m
v=r = rw Periodic Time tP = 2p
dt K
dv d (r w ) dw if d is the deflection of the spring is given by
= =r = ra
dt dt dt mg m
d= Þ = d/g
a = ra K K
These are two components of acceleration tangential and normal Þ t P = 2p d / g
acceleration
at = r a 1 1
Frequency of the oscillation n = = g / d Hz.
t P 2p
v 2 (r w)2
an = = = r w2
r r If the mass of the spring m1 is also taken into consideration then
The total acceleration a t0t is the vector sum of the two
components. 1 K
n=
2p m + m1 / 3
a tot = a 2t + a n2
COMPOUND PENDULUM
a tot = (r a ) + (r w )
2 2 2

Angle between the total acceleration and radius is


æa ö O
f = tan -1 ç t ÷ q h
è an ø

SIMPLE PENDULUM
G

O q

A w = mg
q L

The periodic time of a compound pendulum is given by


m
B K G2 + h 2
A
C
t P = 2p
gh
and the frequency of oscillation
For a simple pendulum
1 1 gh
Periodic time tP = 2p
L h = t = 2p
P K 2G + h2
g
3
Where KG = Radius of gyration about an axis value of e lies between 0 and 1
through the centre of gravity G and 0 £ e£1
perpendicular to the plane of motion. e = 0 for perfectly inelastic bodies
and h = Distance of centre of gravity G from e = 1 for perfectly elastic bodies
the point of suspension O.
TORSIONAL PENDULUM STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
STRESS TENSOR
f Elongation of a bar Subjected to axial load P

l A B C Pl
l d=
AE
q
r
P
Elongation of a tapered bar subjected to axial load P

Body 4 PL
d1 P d2 d=
p d1d 2 E
The periodic time is given by
2p K l gL2
tP = Elongation of a prismatic bar under its self weight =
r g 2E
g = self weight per unit volume
and frequency of oscillation
1 r
n = t = 2p K g/l L
P
where d
r = Distance of each wire from the axis of body gL2
K = radius of gyration Elongation of a conical bar under its self weight =
6E
l = length of each wire
STRA IN
INELASTIC BODIES Consider a rod of length Lo subjected to load P
The losts of Kinetic energy (EL) during impact of inelastic bodies
is given by
m1 × m 2 P P
ELoss = (u1 - u 2 )2
2 (m1 + m 2 )
where Lo
m1 = mass of the first body
Lf
m2 = mass of the second body
u1 and u2 are the velocities of the first and second bodies
respectively. DL L f - L o
In case both bodies are elastic bodies the Energy Loss during the elong = e x = =
Lo Lo
impact is given by
m1 × m 2 D d -( d o - d f )
ELoss = (u1 - u 2 )2 (1 - e2 ) elateral = e y = e z = =
2 (m1 + m 2 ) d do
where e = Coefficient of Restitution. dV
Coefficient of Restitution is the ratio of relative velocities of the eV = = ex + e y + ez
bodies after impact and before the impact. V
Relationship Between Elastic Constants
v 2 - v1
e = E = 2G(1 + m)
u1 - u 2
E = 3K(1 – 2m)
4

9KG Euler’s Formulae


E=
3K+G Assumptions
E 1 ® The self weight of column is neglected.
G= ´ ® Crushing effect is neglected.
2 1+ m
® Flexural rigidity is uniform.
E 1 ® Load applied is truly axial.
K= ´
3 1 - 2m ® Length is very large compared to cross-section.
Value of any EC ³ 0 \ Pe µ f [E, Imin, end conditions, L2]
Note : mcork = 0 p 2 E Imin
E (Young’s Modulus) \ Pe = .
G (Modulus of Rigity/Shear Modulus) L 2e
K (Bulk Modulus) Pe : Euler’s buckling load.
m (Poisson’s Ratio) Imin : min [Ixx and Iyy].
Young’s Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity Le : effective length of column.
s µ elong L : actual length of column.
s = E = young’s modulus elong Le = a L
E ­ Þ elong ¯ Þ d l ¯
length fixity coefficient
\ A material having higher E value is chosen
EMS = 200 GPa 1
n=
ECI = 100 GPa a2
200 (end fixity coefficient)
EAl = GPa
3
\ (dl)MS < (dl)CI < (d)Al End
Conditions ® Both Ends Both Ends Fixed and Fixed and
Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity
¯ Values of Hinged Fixed Hinged Free
a and h (BH) (BF) (F & H) (FF)
t = Gg
1 1
a 1 2
1 2 2
\ for a given t, G µ .
g h=
1
1 4 2
1
a 2 4
Bulk Modulus (K)
If remaining all other parameters are same,
Normal stress s (Pe)BF > (Pe)FH > (Pe)BH > (Pe)FF
K= =
ev ev
Slenderness Ratio
Poisson’s Ratio
Le Imin
– lateral strain S= where K =
m= K A
longitudinal strain se : buckling stress
p2E
se =
Beams of Uniform Strength s2
To make beam a beam of uniform strength:— \ S ­ Þ Pe ¯ Þ buckling tendency is increased
(i) depth is varied. \ (S)SC < (SMC) < (SLC)
SC : Short Column
x MC : Medium Column
dx = d LC : Long Column
L
For steels, if
\ depth should be varied parabolically. S £ 30 Þ short column
(ii) width ‘b’ is varied S > 100 Þ long column
30 < S £ 100 Þ medium column
éxù
\ bx = b ê ú
ëLû
\ width should be varied linearly.
5
STRAIN ENERGY METHODS cot f – cot q = c/b
where c = Distance between the pivots of the front axles
1 P2 L s 2 s e AL
Strain energy of bar = Pd = = ´ AL = . b = Wheel base
2 2AE 2E 2 f and q are angle through which the axis of the outer wheel and
® Strain energy of solid circular shaft subjected to torsion inner whel turns respectively.
T
t= , DAVIS STEERING GEAR MECHANISM
Zp
tan a = c/2b
where where c = Distance between the pivots of the front axles
T : twisting moment. b = Wheel base
Zp : polar section modulus for circular × section. a = Angle of inclination of the links to the vertical
æ pö HOOK’S JOINT
Zp = ç ÷ d3 .
è 16 ø
N Driving 1 - cos 2 q sin2 a
1 1 T 2 L t2 =
\ SE = Tq = = ( AL) . N Driven cos a
2 2 GJ 4G
® Strain energy of hollow circular × section shaft. where NDriving = Speed of the driving shaft in r.p.m.
d : Inner diameter. NDriven = Speed of the driven shaft in r.p.m.
D : Outer diameter. q= Angle through which the arms of the cross turn
a= Angle of intersection of two shafts
d
K=
D
K = 0 for solid
K<1 F R AC T I ON A L T O R QU E I N P I V O T A N D
COLLAR BEARING
p 3
Zp = D (1 – K4) (i) Frictional torque transmitted in a flat bearing is given by
16
2
T= ´ m WR while considering uniform pressure
t2 T 3
\ SE = (AL) (1 + K2), where t = .
And in case of uniform wear
4G Zp
1
T= ´ m WR
STRAIN ENERGY DUE TO BENDING 2
where m = Coefficient of friction
b
( M xx )2 dx W = Load transmitted to the bearing
U= ò 2EI xx R = Radius of the shaft
a
(ii) Frictional torque transmitted in a Conical Pivot bearing is
U : strain energy given by
Mxx : moment at section x-x
2
T= ´ m WR cosec a
3
while considering uniform pressure
THEORY OF MACHINES And in case of uniform wear
1
GRUBLER’S CRITERION T= ´ m WR cosec a
2
In a mechanism total no. of degrees of freedom is given by
F = 3(n – 1) – 2j where
where n is no. of links and a = semi angle of the cone
j = no. of joints (simple hinges) (iii) Frictional torque transmitted in a trapezoidal or truncated
most of the mechanism are constrained so F = 1 which produces conical pivot bearing is given by
1 = 3(n – 1) – 2j é r 3 - r 32 ù
2
Þ 2j – 3n + 4 = 0 this is called Grubler’s criterion. If T= ´ m W ê 12 2ú
cosec a
there are higher pairs also no. of degrees of freedom is given by
3 ëê r 1 - r 2 ûú
F = 3(n – 1) – 2j – h while considering uniform pressure.
where h = no. of higher pairs. And in case of uniform wear
ACKERMAN STEERING GEAR MECHANISM 1
T= ´ m W (r1 + r2 ) cosec a = mWR cosec a
Equation for the correct steering is 2
6
where r1 and r2 are the external and internal radii of the
D 1
conical bearing respectively m= =
T Pd
r1 + r2
R= is the mean radius of the bearing. Þ m ´ Pd = 1
2 Arc of recess:
(iv) Frictional torque transmitted in a flat collar bearing is given
by Length of arc of contact
Contact Ratio =
Circular Pitch
2 ér3 - r3 ù
T= ´ m W ê 12 22 ú Contact ratio is the number pairs of teeth in contact.
3 êë r 1 - r 2 úû
Length of Arc of contact:
while considering uniform pressure
Length of path of contact
And in case of uniform wear Length of Arc of contact =
cos f
1
T= ´ m W (r1 + r2 ) where f is pressure angle
2
BELT DRIVE
Gear Trains
Centrifugal Tension
1. Simple gear train:
Tc = mV2
where m = Mass per unit length of the belt Speed of the driving wheel
V = Linear velocity of the belt Velocity ratio =
Speed of the driven wheel
Velocity Ratio
The velocity ratio of speeds of driver and driven pulleys is given no. of teeth on the driven wheel
=
by no. of teeth on the driving wheel
w2 N2 d1 + t æ S ö
1-
w1 N1 d 2 + t çè 100 ÷ø
= = N1 N N N T T T T
= 1´ 2 ´ 3 = 2´ 3´ 4 = 4
where d1, d2 = diameters of driver and driven pulleys N4 N 2 N 3 N 4 T1 T2 T3 T1
w1, w2 = angular velocities of driver and driven pulleys
N1, N2 = rotational speeds of driver and driven pulleys N 4 T1
Train value = =
expressed in revoluations per minute (r.p.m.) N1 T4
S = S1 + S2 + 0.01S1S2 is percentage of total
2. Compound gear train:
effective slip
S1 = Percentage slip between driver and the belt N1 N1 N3 N5 T2 ´ T4 ´ T6
S2 = Percentage slip between belt and the follower Velocity ratio = = ´ ´ =
N6 N2 N 4 N 6 T1 ´ T3 ´ T5
(driven pulleys)
3. Reverted gear train: If D1, D2, D3, D4 be the pitch circle
diameters of the respective gears and corresponding speeds
are N1, N2,N3, N4 then
GEARS AND GEAR DRIVE
D1 + D2 D3 + D 4
Dedendum circle: =
2 2
Root circle diameter = Pitch circle diameter ´ cos f
where f is the pressure angle. Þ D1 + D2 = D3 + D4
Circular pitch: N1 T2 ´ T4
Velocity ratio = =
pD N 4 T1 ´ T3
Pc =
T 4. Epicyclic gear train:
where D = Pitch circle diameter N T
Velocity Ratio B = 1 + A
T = Number of teeth on the wheel. NC TB
Diametral pitch:
FLY WHEEL
T p Coefficient of fluctution of energy:
Diameter pitch Pd = =
D Pc DEmax = Emax – Emin
Þ Pc ´ Pd = p

Module:
7

DE max FTmin = - 2 (1 – C) mw2 r


Cenergy =
Wper cycle Swaying Couple:
where a
DEmax = maximum fluctuation of energy Swaying couple = (1 – C) mw2 r ´ (cos q + sin q)
2
Cenergy = coefficient of fluctuation of energy
where a = distance between the central line of two cylinders
Coefficient of fluctuation of speed:
Swaying couple is maximum or minimum when
Dwmax = wmax – wmin
q = 45° or 225°
Dwmax Value of minimum and maximum swaying couple
Cs =
wmean
a
= ± (1 – C) mw2 r
2
POWER OF GOVERNOR
Power =Mean effort ´ Lift of sleeve Hammer Blow:
P = B w2 × b
Types of Governors
(1) Simple governor-Watt type: Height of the governor is given
by VIBRATIONS
895
h = 2 metres Mass Moment of Inertia about z-axis and passing through
N centre of mass
where N = speed of the arm and ball about the spindle axis.
Rod
(2) Porter governor:
If hp is the height of porter governor (when length of arms Ml2 M l2
IM = Iyy =
and links are equal). 12 3
and hw is height of watt’s governor then l : length of rod
hp m + M M : mass of rod
= Circular disc
hw m
where m = mass of the ball MR 2
M = mass of the sleeve IM =
2
(3) Hartnell governor: M : mass of disc
y R : radius of disc
lsleeve = Xcompression = (r 2 – r 1)
x Sphere (Hollow)
where r1 = Minimum radius of rotation
2
r2 = Maximum radius of rotation IM = MR2
x = Lenth of ball arm of lever 3
y = Length of sleeve arm of lever M : mass of hollow sphere
Stiffness of the spring is given by R : radius of hollow sphere
S - S1 Sphere (Solid)
S= 2
h 2
where S1 = Spring force at minimum radius of rotation IM = 5 MR2
S2 = Spring force at maximum radius of rotation
M : mass of solid sphere
R : radius of sphere
BALANCING OF RECIPROCATING MASSES
Inertia force due to reciprocating parts is given by
Ring

æ cos 2q ö MR 2
FI =FR = m × w2 × r ç cos q + IM =
è n ÷ø 2
where q = angle made by the crank. M : mass of ring
Tractive Force: R : radius of ring
FT = (1 – C) mw2 × r (cos q – sin q) Solid Cylinder
where m = mass of the reciprocating parts MR 2
w = angular velocity of crank IM =
2
r = radius of crank M : mass of solid cylinder
C = fraction of balanced reciprocating mass R : radius of cylinder
FTmax or FTmin occurs when q = 135° or 315° Linear Springs
FTmax = 2 (1 – C) mw2 r F = kx
where F : force applied
8
x : deflection Transverse Vibrations in Beams
k : spring constant / stiffness
mgL3 ìCantilever subjected to concentrated ü
D= í ý
For a linear spring, 3 EI îload at free end. þ
1
Potential Energy = kx2
2
Linear Torsion Spring
t (q) = Kt q
DESIGN
t : moment Bearing stress or crushing stress:
q : angular deformation of spring P
PE (Potential Energy) of a torsion spring is sb or sc =
d ×t×n
1
PE = Kt q2 where d
= diameter of the rivet
2
t
= thickness of the plate
Combination of Springs
d× t
= projected area of the rivet
(i) Springs in Series n
= no. of rivets per pitch length in bearing or
1 1 1 crushing.
= +
k eq k1 k 2 Bearing Pressure:
k1 k 2 P P
Þ k eq = Pb = =
k1 + k 2 A ld

keq where P is load along the radius of the journal


w= l = length of journal in contact
m d = diameter of the journal
For ‘n’ number of springs in series
l × d = projected area is contact
having stiffness k1, k2, ... kn
1 1 1 1
= + ... Stress concentration factor:
k eq k1 k 2 k n s
(ii) SPRINGS IN PARALLEL Kt = max
s0
keq = k1 + k2, w = k eq /m where Kt = stress concentration factor
smax = maximum stress at the discontinuity
For ‘n’ number of springs in parallel having stiffness k1, k2, ... kn
s0 = nominal stress at the same point
keq = k1 + k2 + k3 ... + kn
Notch sensitivity:
ENERGY METHOD Increase in actul stress
1 1 K -1 over nominal value
E= mV 2 + sx 2 q= f =
2 2 K t - 1 Increase in theoretical stress
dE over nominal value
= 0
dt Theories of Failure under the Static Load
1 dv 1 dx Maximum principal or normal stress theory (Rankin’s Theory):
Þ m (2V) + ks (2n) = 0
2 dt 2 dt Failure occurs when
smax = slimiting
k
Þ &&
x+x=0 Maximum shear stress theory (Guest’s theory):
m
tmax = tyield at that point
VIBRATIONS IN BEAMS Maximum principal strain theory (Saint Venant’s theory):
Longitudinal Vibrations in Beams emax = elimiting or yield at that point.
· Longitudinal vibrations mean along the axis of the rod. where e = Strain
Consider a rod the end of which contains a mass ‘m’. Maximum strain energy theory (Haigh’s theory):
E : Young modulus of rod
A : Cross-section area of rod S.E. S.E.yield
=
L : Length of rod V V
k EA where S.E. = Strain energy
w= where k =
m L V = Volume
9
Maximum distortion energy theory (Hencky and Von Mises given by
theory):
16 T
t=
Shear Stress Energy Shear Strain Energy at Yield Point p (d c )3
=
V V where T = applied torque
where V = Volume dc = minor diameter
Factor of Safety Compression or crushing stress on threads: The value of
crushing stress on threads is given by
Maximum strength of the material 4P
F.S. = sc =
Design or working stress of the material p éd - (d c )2 ù n
2
ë û
Yield point strength where d = major diameter
F.S.ductile materials= For static loading dc = minor diameter
Working or design stress
n = number of threads employed during engage-
ment
Ultimate strength
F.S.brittle materials = For static loading Design of Keys
Design or working stress
Condition :
Endurance limit w sc
F.S.fatigue loading = =
Design or working stress t 2t
where w= width of the key
Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress t= thickness of the key
Table sc = permissible crushing stress
Method Name Mathematical Relation t= permissible shearing stress

Torsional load:
2
1 æs ö s 16T
Gerber Method = ç m ÷ ´ F.S. + v t= N/m2 for solid shaft
F.S. è s u ø se p d3
valid for ductile where d = shaft diameter in m
material T = torsional moment in N-m
Bending load:
1 s s
Goodman Method = m + v 32 M
F.S. s u se sb = for solid shaft
p d3
sy where sb = bending stress
1 s
Soderberg Method = m + and for a hollow shaft
F.S. s y se
32 M
sb =
2 2 é æ d ö4 ù
æ sy ö æ sm ö
Elliptic Method çç F.S. ´ ÷÷ + çç F.S. ´ ÷ =1 p do 1 - ç i ÷ ú
3 ê

se s ÷ ê è do ø ú
è ø è y ø ë û

s max + s min
where sm = mean stress = Lewis Equation
2
su = ultimate stress My
Maximum value of bending stress = sw =
se = endurable limit for reverse loading stress I
where M is maximum bending moment (i.e. at BC)
s max - s min M = Ft ´ h
sv = variable stress =
2
M
sy = yield point stress Ft =
h
F.S. = Factor of safety
Barth Formula:
Torsional shear stress caused by the frictional resistance of the sw = so ´ Cv
where Cv = velocity factor
threads during its tightening: Value of torsional shear stress is
10

4.5 A = prejected area of the bearing


Cv = for carefully cut gears operating at t b = bearing surface temperature
4.5 + v
velocities upto 12.5 m/s ta = ambient temerature
3 Bearing Characteristic Number
= for ordinary cut gears operating at
3+ v ZN
The factor is known as bearing characteristic number and it
velocities upto 12.5 m/s P
Static Tooth Load is a dimensionless number.
where Z = Absolute viscosity of the lubricant in kg/m-s
FS = se b Pc y = se b p my N = Speed of journal in r.p.m.
where se = Flexural endurance limit P = Bearing pressure on the projected bearing
For safety against breakage FS > FD area in N/mm2
Diametral clearance ratio:
W
C1 P= , W = Load on the journal
Diametral clearance ratio = l ×d
d
Dynamic load rating:
Eccentricity ratio (Attitude):
3
e æCö
Î= Rating Life L = ç ÷
C2 èPø
Sommerfield number: where P = load
2 C = dynamic basic load rating
æ ZN ö æ d ö 1/3
Sommerfield number = ç ÷ç ÷ Þ
æ1ö
è P ø è C1 ø P= Cç ÷
èLø
where N = Journal speed in r.p.m., Z = lubricant viscosity,
If N is r.p.m. the Life in hours is given by
P = bearing pressure normally we take its value as 14.3 ´ 106
3
Critical pressure in journal bearing: æCö 10 6
L= ç ÷ ´ hours
ZN
2
æ d ö æ l ö è P ø 60 N
2
6 ç ÷ ç ÷ N/ mm
P= 1/3
4.75 ´ 10 è C1 ø è l + d ø é 106 ù
or P = C´ê ú
where N = Journal speed in r.p.m. êë 60 NL úû
Z = Absolute viscosity of the lubricant Cone clutch:
Coefficient of friction:
2 é r 3 - r 32 ù
33 é ZN ù é d ù Tcone = m W ê 12 ú cosec a
m= 8 ê úê ú+K ëê r 1 - r 2 úû
3 2
10 ë P û ë C1 û
where a = semi-angle of frictional surfaces with the
where K is a factor for end leakages
clutch axis.
l Centrifugal clutch:
for 0.75 < < 2.8, K = 0.002
d T = m (C – S) ri ´ n
Short and long bearings: where C = Spring force acting on shoe = m r w2
l m = mass of shoe
If < 1 then bearing is said to be short
d r = distance of centre of gravity of shoe from
l centre
= 1 bearing is called square bearing
d w = angular velocity of rotating pulley in rad/s
l ri = inside radius of pulley rim
> 1 then bearing is said to be long S = Inward force due to spring-m (w12) r
d
Heat generation and rejection in bearing: 3
w1 = w
Qgen = mWV N-m/s 4
where W = load on the bearing n = number of shoes
V = rubbing velocity in m/s 9 7
C – S = m r w2 – m r w2 = m r w2
Heat rejection is given by 16 16
Qrejection = Kh A (tb – ta) J/S
where Kh = heat dissipation coefficient in W/m2/C Single Block or Shoe Brake : Braking torque is given by
Tb = m Rn r
mPl r
Þ Tb =
a
11

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