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Well Performance

Introduction
What is Well Performance?

It is the ability of a
well to produce
desired fluids
Factors Responsible for Well
Performance?
The overall health of a well depends on:
• Geological Aspects
• Drilling Aspects
• Cementing
• Log interpretation
• Mechanical aspects of casing & tubing
• Drive mechanism
Factors Responsible for Well Performance……..

• Geological Aspects
– Dip
– Faults
– Oil-water contact
– Gas-oil contact
– Porosity, permeability, fluid saturation, pay
thickness, pressure etc.
Factors Responsible for Well Performance……..

• Drilling Aspects
– Mud loss
– Stuck string
– High and / or low pressure formations
– Drilling fluid – weight, composition etc
Factors Responsible for Well Performance……..

• Cementing
– Composition
– Bonding properties
– Success of cementation job
– Cement rise behind casing
Factors Responsible for Well Performance……..

• Log interpretation
– HC bearing formations
– Estimation of thickness
– Preciseness of perforation
– Porosity and water saturation determination
Factors Responsible for Well Performance……..

• Mechanical aspects of casing & tubing


– Collapse (important in tectonic zones)
– Corrosion
– Leakage (fluid produced)
– Damage (repeated milling etc.)
– Stuck up (Fishing etc.)
Factors Responsible for Well Performance……..

• Drive mechanisms
– Solution gas drive
– Water drive
– Gas cap expansion drive
– Compaction drive
– Combination drive
Factors Responsible for Well Performance……..

• Reservoir properties
– Porosity
– Fluid saturation
– Permeability
• Absolute
• Relative
– Mobility & mobility ratio
– Solution gas oil ratio
Methods of
Well Performance

IOGPT
Productivity Index

• Productivity index is the ratio of flow rate to draw


down. It is indicative of well’s production
potential. Denoted by ‘J’
Qo 7.08 kh
J 
( Pr  Pwf )  o Bo ln re / rw   0.75  s 
Where h = res thickness
Q = total quantity of fluid, re, rw = drainage, well radius, ft
Pr = reservoir pressure
μo = viscosity, cp
Pwf = Flowing BHP
k = permeability, md Bo = oil FVF
Well’s Potential Indicator

• kh = 0-100 md-ft not a very


Pwf = Pr

good well
Pwf

• kh = 100-1000 md-ft good


well
Pwf = 0

Q Qmax
• kh = 1000-5000 md-ft
excellent well
Inflow Performance
It is basically a straight line or curve drawn
in the two dimensional plane, where X axis is
q ( Flow Rate ) and Y axis is Pwf ( Flowing
Bottomhole Pressure ).

PI = J = -dq / dP
Pwf

q
Inflow Performance
IPR-When Pr > Bubble Point Pressure :

CONSTANT J
Pr
Pb VOGEL
BEHAVIOR

Pwf
PRESS .
qmax
0
0 q
RATE.
Combination Constant PI and Vogel Behaviour Case.
Inflow Performance
Change Of PI With Cumm. Recovery ( % of Oil
In Place ) With Time :
Np/N = 0.1%
CUMM. REC.,
2% % OF
4% ORIGINAL OIL
IN PLACE
6%
8%
10 %
BOTTOM-HOLE
PRESSURE Kg/cm2 12 %
14 %
PRODUCING RATE , m3/d
Computer Calculated Inflow Performance Relationships For A Solution
Gas Drive Reservoir
Tubing Intake Curves

Pr

Pwf
Operating Point

IPR

QL max
Ql

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Tubing Intake Curves

Pr

Pwf Operating Points

IPR

QL max
Ql
Apparent gain

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Tubing Intake Curves

Pr

Pwf Operating Point

present IPR

QL max
Ql Additional gain from stim.

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PI & IPR

• PI attempts to represent the inflow performance


relation of a well as a straight line

• IPR usually declines at greater draw downs. It


represents PI tests at several production rates in
order to provide a better representation of the true
inflow performance relation of the well
Inflow Performance
VOGEL’S WORK ON IPR :
2
q Pwf  Pwf 
 1  0.2  0.8 
qmax Pr  Pr 
Skin
The skin represents a pressure drop which most
commonly arises due to formation damage around the
wellbore, caused by drilling mud or cementing or
other factors.
OR Pe
Dimensionless factor Pressure
expressing the reduction in drop
the formation permeability due to
Pressure radial
compared to the original Pwf drop due
inflow
permeability to skin
Measurement of Skin
K   Rs 
s    1   ln  rs
 K s   Rw 
141.2qB
h

ps  s Ks rw K

kh re
Δps = pressure drop across skin
B = formation volume factor
μ = viscosity, cp
s = skin factor
k = permeability, md
h = height, ft
q = flow rate, STB/D 33
Skin : Effect on Production
Production

- 0 +
Skin effect
Flow Efficiency
(Wellbore Damage Indicators)

Is defined as the ratio of the well’s actual productivity


index to its productivity index if there were no skin
J actual Pr  Pwf  ps
FE  
J ideal Pr  Pwf
Damage Ratio: Inverse of Flow Efficiency
1 J ideal Pr  Pwf
 
FE J actual Pr  Pwf  ps

J actual ps
Damage factor = 1- FE = 1 
J ideal Pr  Pwf
IPR modified by Standing
Well Performance Test Methods
• Periodic Production Tests

• Productivity or Deliverability Tests

• Transient Pressure Tests


Well Performance Test
Methods….
Productivity or Deliverability Tests
• Productivity Index
• Inflow Performance
• Flow after Flow
• Isochronal
Well Performance Test
Methods….
Transient Pressure tests
• Pressure buildup
• Pressure draw down
• Multiple rate
• Injection buildup or fall-off
• Multiple well interference
• Drill stem tests
Well
Performance
Test
Methods…..
Example data for
Constant –Rate Pressure Buildup Well
Test

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Nodal Analysis or Systems Analysis
Approach
• To view the total producing system as a group of
components
• Each component of a well system contributes
towards the performance of a well.
• To get an improved performance each component
is to be analyzed.
• The analysis is done by combining the pressure
versus rate behavior of the well components.
Nodal Analysis………….
Pressure
drops at
various
components

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Nodal Analysis……….
• Location
of nodes
in a well
system

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Nodal Analysis…………..
Each node has one inflow and one outflow
• Flow rate through the component can be
determined once the system meets these
requirements
 Flow into the node equals flow out of the node
 Only one pressure exists at a node
Nodal Analysis…………..
Inflow to the node:
Pr  P(upstream components)  Pnode

Out flow from the node:

Psep  P (downstream components)  Pnode


Where Pr = static reservoir pressure
ΔP = pressure drop
Psep = seperator pressure
Pnode = node pressure
Nodal Analysis…………..
Nodal Analysis…………..
Nodal Analysis…………..
Nodal Analysis…………..
Reference Material
• Production Operations Vol 1 & 2 by Thomas O Allen and Alan
P Roberts
• Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering by L P Dake
• Technology of Artificial Lift Methods by Kernit E Brown
• Advances in Well Test Analysis by R C Earlougher
• Development in Petroleum Science (Hydrocarbon Exploration
& Production) by Frank Jahn, Mark Cook & Mark Graham
• Hydrocarbon Reservoir & Well Performance by T E W Nind
• Principles of Oil Well Production by T E W Nind
• Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering by Brian F Towler

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