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Jan Eren A. ChE ELNT

5ChE-C Nanotechnology Technical Paper

Determination of Antioxidant Activity of ‘Saba’ Starch-based food film
Incorporated with Ginger Oil by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

I. Introduction

Bioplastic films are plastic films derived from renewable sources.
They are commonly used in the food industry as packaging materials.
Food films are one of the commonly used bioplastics. Biofilms derived
from starch create an odorless, transparent, and tasteless film (Ezeoha &
Ezenwanne, 2013). With the development of biofilms, there exists a need
for active packaging wherein different bio-based food film can be
improved by incorporating different additives such as essential oils.

Ginger oil is known to have gingerols and shogaols which is
responsible for its antioxidant capability (Kikuzaki and Nakatani, 1993).
Incorporation of this essential oil could possibly create a food film with
antioxidant properties. Total antioxidant activity was found to be directly
proportional to total phenolic content with good linear correlation and
therefore can be an indicator of antioxidant properties (Piluzza and
Bullita, 2011). With this, food film incorporated with ginger oil can be
subjected to a UV-Visible spectroscopy to determine its total phenolic
content and therefore also determining its antioxidant activity.

UV-Visible spectrophotometer is an instrument which measures
the intensity of light passing through a sample and compares it to the
intensity of light before it passes through the sample. The ratio of the
intensities of light before and after passing through is called the
transmittance, and is usually expressed in percentage (Skoog, 2007)
Absorbance is based on the transmittance and can be determined by Eqn.

A=-log(%T/100%) Eqn. (1)

For the determination of antioxidant activity, the absorbance is be
compared to a standard curve curve of gallic acid solution to determine
the samples antixodant activity.

II. Instrumentation and Methodology

Figure 1. diagram of UV-Vis spectrophotometer

Fig 1 shows the schematic diagram of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer.
A beam of light from a visible and/or UV light source is separated into its
component wavelengths by diffraction grating. Each single wavelength
beam in turn is split into two equal intensity beams by a half-mirrored
device. One beam, the beam that will pass through the sample, passes
through the cuvette. The other beam, which is the reference, passes
through an identical cuvette containing only the solvent. The intensities
of these light beams are then measured by electronic detectors and then
compared. The intensity of the reference beam, which should have
suffered little or no light absorption, is defined as I0. The intensity of the
sample beam is defined as I. After some time, the spectrometer
automatically scans all the component wavelengths in the manner
described. The ultraviolet (UV) region scanned is normally from 200 to
400 nm, and the visible portion is from 400 to 800 nm.

Figure 2. Folin Ciocalteau gallic acid curve

Total phenolic contents of all film samples were determined using
Folin-Ciocalteu reagent as described by Singlaton and Rossi (1965).
Samples were inserted into different test tube and mixed thoroughly with
5 mL Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. After 5 mins, 4 mL of 7.5% sodium
carbonate (Na2CO3) was added and allowed to react for 2 hrs at room
temperature. The absorbance was measure at 765 nm. Samples were
measured in three replicates. Standard curve of gallic acid solution shown
in fig 2 was prepared using the similar procedure. Total phenolic content
was expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE) in mg/1000g sample.

III. Results and Discussion

Table 1. Total Phenolic Content (Gallic Acid Equivalent)

Ginger oil content (% v/v) Total Phenolics as Gallic Acid (GAE)

(mg GAE/ kg sample)

0.0 None detected

0.1 34.70

0.3 36.50

0.5 33.90

Table 1 shows the total phenolic content from the UV-Vis
spectrophotometer. All three samples incorporated with ginger oil
proved to contain phenolics, while there was no detection of phenolics in
the control sample (0% oil). Several studies (Shan et al., 2005; Wu et
al.,2006; Wong et al., 2006) reported that phenolic compounds in spices
and herbs significantly contributed to their antioxidant properties.
Generally, essential oils have been reported as the excellent source of
antioxidant (Wu et. al., 2006). In study by Piluzza and Bullita, the total
phenolic content was found to be directly proportional to total
antioxidant capacity with good linear correlations. It is suggested that
phenolic content could be used as an indicator of antioxidant properties.
Therefore, it appears that there is a presence of antioxidant activity in
the films incorporated with ginger oil.

IV. Conclusion

UV-Vis spectrophotometry has a wide range of applications, from
determining antioxidant activity to detection of impurities. It is preferred
because of its ability to give fast results and it is generally easy to use.
And not only is it a useful for the detection of certain compounds but it
also serves as a tool for the better understanding of the structures of
organic compounds. (Wu, 2017).

V. References

Ezeoha, S. L., & Ezenwanne, J. N. (2013). “Production of Biodegradable
Plastic Packaging Film from Cassava Starch”, IOSR Journal of
Engineering, 3(10), pp. 14-20.
Kikuzaki, H, & Nakatani, N. (1993). “Antioxidant effects of some ginger
constituents”, Food Science, 58, 1407-1410.
Piluzza, G and Bullita, S. Pharm. Biol., 2011, 49, 240–247.
Wu, M. (n.d.). What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages of An UV-Vis
Spectrophotometer? Retrieved from http://www.acttr.com/en/en-
UV-Visible Spectroscopy. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Skoog, Douglas A.; Holler, F. James; Crouch, Stanley R. (2007). Principles of
Instrumental Analysis (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson
Brooks/Cole. pp. 169–173.