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The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the

Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), its Board of Directors, or the governments they
represent. ADBI does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any

Climate change vulnerability assessment

and local and national infrastructure
and adaptation planning

Capacity Building in Green Infrastructure and

Housing for Poverty Reduction in the Pacific
Region Symposium, Nadi, 26 June 2018

Ian Hay
Consultant: Research, Policy and Planning
NAP Global Network
Our Activitiesoverview
Vulnerability assessment and
infrastructure planning aligned with
National Climate Change
Adaptation Plans (NAP)

» Overview of NAP GN and the
NAP process
» Integrated Vulnerability
Assessment (IVA) and
» Sustainable infrastructure
planning and the NAP process.
Our Network
The Activities
Established in 2014 Participation
» COP20 in Lima » Participants in ~70 countries
» Initial funding: Germany & US » More bilateral donors on board

Our Niche Strategic engagement

» Support to LEG
» Knowledge Partner of GCF
» Associate Member of NDC-P
Learning Coordination
Governance & management
Goal » Secretariat: IISD
Enhance national adaptation » Steering Committee
planning and action in » Management Team
developing countries
Aims & Activities
Our Activities

Targeted Topics Forum Country Support Hub Donor Meetings

Peer Exchange Program • Targeted Technical Support Surveys, profiles, training
• Expert Advice
• NAP Assemblies

Thought Leadership
• Spectrum of approaches to sector integration • NDC-NAP Linkages
• Vertical integration • Gender in the NAP Process
• Options for financing the NAP process & implementation • Conflict-sensitive NAP processes
Pacific Support Program
» KJIP review
» Development of KIVA database
» Gender review and recommendations
» IVA assessment of eight outer islands
» Development of TIVA database
Solomon Islands
» Development of SIIVA framework and
» Rapid IVA assessment in Malaita
» Embedded advisor to the Climate Change
Unit in the Ministry of Economy
Objectives of the
NAP process
 To reduce vulnerability

 To integrate climate change adaptation into

 new and existing development planning
 within all relevant sectors (horizontal)
 and levels (vertical).
UNFCCC, 5/CP.17 | NAP Technical Guidelines

 Can deliver on 4 of 8 climate change SDGs 13.1,

13.2 & 13.3
NAP Process

Our Activities
NAP GN themes
Horizontal (Sector) integration
Spectrum of approaches to integration in a NAP process

Vertical integration
Framework for creating strategic links between national and
sub-national adaptation planning, implementation, and M&E

Assessing and tracking gender-responsiveness in NAP

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E)

Supporting national M&E of adaptation to look at progress in
implementing adaptation policies, plans, or interventions, as well
as impacts that these may have (adaptation outcomes).

Financing NAP processes

Identifying, aligning, and strategically accessing different
sources of financing for different phases of the NAP process
What does ‘sector
integration’ mean?
Considering and accounting for climate change
risks and opportunities in development planning,
planning in key sectors, and planning across
levels of government
Doing things differently based on integration of
climate change adaptation considerations.
Development first approach:
o Align adaptation planning with national
development priorities  improve likelihood of
finance and implementation. (Climate resilient
o Ensure gender and social inclusion in
beneficiaries  who benefits.
General considerations for
sector integration
Identify vulnerable
• What sectors and development goals could be affected by
sectors and climate change, and how?
development goals

• Which sectors’ policies, plans and budgets need to consider

Identify entry points climate change?
• Do they already include climate change considerations?

• How can you build adaptation options into sector plans,

Modify policies, plans, strategies, and budgets to reduce vulnerabilities?
budgets • How can the NAP focal agency best support sectors to do this?

• Who is responsible for taking action on plans and policies?

Implement! • What resources and capacities are required?
A spectrum of approaches

Sectors had already begun

integrating adaptation Prepared an umbrella document to National Climate Change Action
considerations, but coordination provide national-level policy orientation, Plan outlines a long-term program
was missing: NAP focal agency took with inputs from different sectors and to address climate change. Climate
stock of ongoing adaptation efforts agencies. Sectors are expected to use this Change Commission coordinates
to identify gaps and priorities for document and the priority areas it involvement of stakeholders from
climate-proofing its national identifies to bolster adaptation relevant agencies, ministries, etc. to
development plan. considerations in their own policies and implement it.

Sector Driven • Adaptation simultaneously Nationally Driven
• Sectors have already taken steps to considered at overarching • NAP focal agency identifies
address adaptation national level and in sector- adaptation priorities
• Integration involves coordination of specific planning • Integration requires uptake
sectoral initiatives to define • Integration involves coordination within sector plans and policies,
coherent national adaptation of national and sectoral efforts with coordination and support
priorities to ensure cohesion in policy from the focal agency
What is vertical

In the context of the NAP process,

vertical integration is:

The process of creating intentional

and strategic linkages between
national and sub-national
adaptation planning,
implementation and monitoring &
evaluation (M&E)
Enabling factors
for vertical
Integrated Vulnerability
Assessment (IVA)

Identifying community-level infrastructure

resilience needs at a Pacific regional scale
Integrated Vulnerability Assessment (IVA)
Our Activities
» The IVA is a key approach to identify local
climate change and disaster vulnerabilities and
» The IVA recognizes that climate change and
non-climate change factors should be assessed in
a multi-sectoral vulnerabilities framework.
» Combines a general vulnerability framework with
the assets based sustainable livelihoods approach
» Kiribati, Tuvalu, Solomon Islands, Fiji
(…& Vanuatu?)
» Framework developed by USP PACE-SD.
Survey, method and resources by BSRP (EU),
IVA Framework
Sectors & livelihood asset domains that make up the IVA.
IVA Score-Card
Overall Methodology
• National sector expert
advisory groups
• Tablet-based participatory
• Transect walks and risk
• Geo-located photo
• Final quality assurance
• Web platform: database,
GIS, templates and tools,
policy databases and M&E
Sector expert
advisory groups
• Highly consultative, in depth
development of nationally
relevant instrument
• 9 sets of sector consultations
held in order to develop the
tools and vulnerability issues
• Institutional needs
assessment: harmonisation
with policy, research and
• Identifying needs for and use
of climate change data
Defining IVA vulnerability issues

■ Deforestation > Deforestation FOREST

to farming(C1)(e.g.
village farm)(e)
■ Deforestation > Deforestation due to farming (e.g. village farm)
■ Deforestation > Deforestation due to community wood extraction (e.g. fuel wood/housing)
Deforestation > Deforestation
that youdue to
as community wood extraction (e.g. fuel wood/housing)
■ the main problems
Deforestation > Deforestation see
due affecting
to clearingthelandhealth
(e.g.of your expansion/settlements)
village communities land based
resource> stocks
Deforestation due to(outside
& biodiversity clearing ofland
the(e.g. village
villages expansion/settlements)
■ Deforestation > Deforestation due to infrastructure development (e.g. roads) area).
■ Deforestation > Deforestation due to infrastructure development (e.g. roads)
■ Deforestation > Deforestation due to commercial logging
■ Deforestation > Deforestation due to farming commercial (e.g.logging
village farm)
■ Deforestation > Deforestation due to illegal logging
■ Deforestation > Deforestation due to communityillegal logging wood extraction (e.g. fuel wood/housing)
■ Resource extraction > Mining affecting forest health
■ Deforestation > Deforestation
Resource extraction due to clearing
> Mining affecting land (e.g. village expansion/settlements)
forest health
■ Resource extraction > Prospecting affecting forest health (e.g. exploration work)
■ Deforestation > Deforestation
Resource extraction > Prospectingdue affecting
to infrastructure development
forest health (e.g. roads)
(e.g. exploration work)
■ Resource extraction > Excavation affecting forest health (e.g. bulldozing of hillside)
■ Deforestation > Deforestation
Resource extraction > Excavation dueaffecting
to commercial logging(e.g. bulldozing of hillside)
forest health
■ Forest habitat degradation > Increase in invasive species affecting forest health (e.g. African
■ Deforestation
Forest habitat >degradation
Deforestation due to illegal
> Increase logging
in invasive species affecting forest health (e.g. African
tulip/mongoose/African snail)
■ Resource extraction > Mining
tulip/mongoose/African snail) affecting forest health
■ Forest habitat degradation > Decline in forest biodiversity (e.g. species reduction of flora &
■ Resource extraction
Forest habitat > Prospecting
degradation > Declineaffecting
in forest forest health (e.g.
biodiversity (e.g.exploration work) of flora &
species reduction
■ Resource extraction > Excavation affecting forest health (e.g. bulldozing of hillside)
■ Forest habitat degradation > Poaching of protected forest based flora & fauna
■ Forest habitat degradation > Increase
protected species
based floraforest health (e.g. African
& fauna
■ Erosion > Erosion affecting forest health (e.g. of forest land)
■ Erosion > Erosion affectingsnail)forest health (e.g. of forest land)
■ Pollution > Pollution affecting forest health (e.g. excessive rubbish dumping)
■ Forest habitat
Pollution degradation
> Pollution affecting> Decline in forest
forest health biodiversity
(e.g. excessive (e.g. species
rubbish reduction of flora &
■ Climatic impacts > Prolonged droughts affecting forest health recently
■ Climatic impacts > Prolonged droughts affecting forest health recently
■ Climatic impacts > Increased floods affecting forest health recently
■ Forest
> Increased > Poaching of protected
floods affecting forest based
forest health flora & fauna
■ Climatic impacts > Increased incidence of forest fires from heat spells affecting forest health
■ Erosion
Increased forest healthof(e.g.
incidence of forest
forest fires fromland)heat spells affecting forest health
■ Pollution > Pollution affecting forest health (e.g. excessive rubbish dumping)
■ Climatic impacts > Increased incidence of storms & strong wind affecting forest health
■ Climatic impacts > Prolonged droughts affecting
Increased incidence of stormsforest
& strong health
affecting forest health recently
■ Climatic impacts > Increased floods affecting
incidence forestaffecting
of cyclones health recently
forest health recently
■ Climatic impacts > Increased incidence of cyclones affecting forest health recently
■ Climatic impacts > Increased incidence of forest fires
landslides from heat
affecting spells
forest healthaffecting forest health
■ Climatic impacts > Increased incidence landslides affecting forest health recently
■ Climatic changes > Noticeable changes in severity/length of last dry season affecting forest
■ Climatic changes > Noticeable changes in severity/length of last dry season affecting forest
■ Climatic impacts > Increased incidence of storms & strong wind affecting forest health recently
■ Climatic impacts
changes >> Increased
changes of cyclones affecting
in severity/length forest
of last wet health
affecting forest
■ Climatic changes > Noticeable changes in severity/length of last wet season affecting forest
■ Climatic impacts > Increased incidence landslides affecting forest health recently
Tablet-based mobile data collection

• Higher accuracy
• Faster
• More diverse skill
• No data entry
• Streamlined data
Participatory Appraisal Focus groups, transect walks

• Whole of community
issue identification
• Sex and youth
• Pre-coded and in-
depth qualitative
responses .
• Rating and ranking
of issues.
• Transect walk to
‘ground truth’ issues
Validation and quality assurance

• Group validation
• Error checking
• Quality assurance
• Strong emphasis
in over
Sub-national capacity building

• Building relationships
with provincial offices
• Building capacity at a
regional level through
recruitment and
• Awareness raising of
local climate change
issues at a government,
NGO and local
community level. The
people who will be
involved in
IVA Databases 4 countries
IVA Databases 9 Sector specific databases
IVA Databases

Database Features
• Map based browsing and selecting on Google Maps
• Dropdown menus to filter by vulnerability score or
vulnerability issue.
• Photos of priority issues and at-a glance stats
• Downloadable full data set and PDF village/island
• Policy databases & implementation/M&E reporting
• GIS platform, before and after satellite imagery
Contextualised planning for
infrastructure & resilience

Local issues and priorities informing local

project options
IVA data
Our Activities
- All infrastructure vulnerability
issues by sector (pre-coded)

- 1, 2 (and 3) priority issues (pre-coded)

- Issue description: a) What is the issue,

b) when does it occur, c) where is most
affected, d) what are the impacts, e) who
is affected.

- What has been done in the past and

what was the outcome?

- What is the suggested adaptation

option and measure.
Findings - Security of place
Our Activities
transport road and sea access, access to schools and
hospitals and other social infrastructure, telecommunications,
and housing
• Sector with the highest across the board rated vulnerability
(2.2 compared to 2.5 overall, and 2.7 to energy security)
infrastructure has the lowest asset rating (2.0).
• Housing - by far the main priority issue, specifically
structural vulnerability to disasters: esp. cyclones.
 Main issues are: poor quality general, low skills or income to
pay for experienced builders, expensive materials, finance,
lack of awareness/ adherence to building codes, some
traditional methods not suitable,
 Main recommendations/successful initiatives are construction
training (i.e. self help), materials subsidies housing programs
• Other key issues (in order) were roads, drainage,
evacuation centres, and telecommunications.
Findings – Water security
Our Activities
Water sources, storage and distribution systems & water quality
• Sector with the second highest vulnerability (2.3 compared to 2.5
overall). Priority issues are:
• Protection of water sources: e.g. lack of physical protection of
groundwater sources and water storage.
• Climate vulnerable supply: no back up supply, no redundancy
for droughts, system vulnerable to damage.
• Inadequate capacity of water systems. Household or
communal facilities with insufficient capacity.
• Treatment/filtration. No or poor treatment or filtration system

But: National, sub-national and local situation is likely to be very

different to the bigger picture. Localised vulnerability assessment
shows the local need.
Applying findings:
Our Activities
Templates and tools

Multiple levels
» Strategic planning/NAP process
» Major project development, e.g. climate finance project.
» Individual project design
» National issue profile – identify
areas where issue is present
(sectoral integration)
» Provincial/regional profile –
identify aspects of sector that are
relevant at a sub-national level
sectoral integration / vertical
» Local issues scan – identify
local priorities and interactions
Major project scoping
and planning
» Guide to assess suitable tools for
project design

» Assess scaling potential, e.g.

GCF Readiness program

» Worked Logframe examples

» Climate fund indicator

alignments for project M&E.
Major project scoping
and planning
Project design and
site suitability
» Assessing combinations of » Responding to multiple issues
village/island level infrastructure through single intervention
suitability and risk factors
Conclusions on NAP integration:
Our Activities
Sector integration
- Multiple data sources to inform sector planning, sector planning
to inform NAP,

- Make sure ministerial/departmental strategic and operational

plans and budgets align with NAP. If not, align them at next

- What channels and entry points can your infrastructure

planning influence NAP processes - and vice versa? E.g.
 Background research, design innovation, regulatory reform,
management planning, Finance channels and modes,
Capacity building, training and education needs,
Identification of priority infrastructure types & major projects,
new stakeholders involved and priority beneficiaries
considered - gender equality and social inclusion
Questions and conclusions on NAP
Our Activities
integration: vertical integration

- Localised vulnerability assessments provide empower

communities to identify their own needs.
- Granular data enables multi-level assessment of needs
and implementation methods.
- How can infrastructure planning both be
decentralised and feed up into the NAP processes
- How does it benefit target groups: gender and social
- What are the priority projects local projects?
- What new institutions and resources are needed?
- What capacities are needed?
- What information needs to be shared and generated?
Twitter: @NAP_Network