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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... viii
ABSTRAK .............................................................................................................. ix
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................. x
TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................... xii
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................ xv
LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................. xvi
LIST OF APPENDICES ....................................................................................... xviii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ...................................................................... 1


1.1 Background of the Study ............................................. 1
1.2 Theoretical Basis ........................................................... 20
1.2.1 Intercultural Communicative Competence ................... 20
1.2.2 Affective Filter Hypothesis ........................................... 27
1.2.3 Social Cognitive Theory ............................................... 28
1.2.4 Theory of Anxiety ......................................................... 31
1.3 Statement of Research Problem .................................... 32
1.4 Theoretical Framework ................................................. 33
1.5 Research Hypotheses of the Study ............................... 36
1.6 Significance of the Study ............................................. 37
1.7 Delimitation of the Study ............................................. 39
1.8 Operational Definition of Key Terms .......................... 40
CHAPTER II RESEARCH METHOD .............................................................. 43
2.1 Research Design .......................................................... 43
2.2 Population and Sample ................................................. 47
2.3 Research Instrument ..................................................... 48
2.3.1 Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) . . . 51
2.3.2 General Self-Efficacy Scale .......................................... 53
2.3.3 Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) .......................... 54
2.3.4 Reading Comprehension Test ....................................... 58

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2.4 Try-out of Instruments .................................................. 60
2.4.1 Result of the Try-out ..................................................... 62
2.4.1.1 Item Validity .................................................................. 63
2.4.1.2 Realibility of the Test Results........................................ 63
2.4.2 Test Revision ................................................................. 64
2.5 Data Collection.............................................................. 65
2.6 Data Analysis................................................................. 67
CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION ...... 74
3.1 Data Descriptions .......................................................... 74
3.1.1 Descriptive Statistics...................................................... 74
3.1.1.1 Result of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale
(FLRAS) ....................................................................... 75
3.1.1.2 Result of General Self-Efficacy Scale .......................... 76
3.1.1.3 Result of Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) .......... 78
3.1.1.4 Result of Reading Comprehension Test ........................ 83
3.1.2 Assumptions Test of Path Analysis Requirement ......... 84
3.1.2.1 Test of Normality .......................................................... 85
3.1.2.2 Test of Linearity............................................................. 85
3.1.2.3 Test of Heteroscedasticity ............................................. 86
3.1.2.4 Test of Multicollinearity................................................ 86
3.1.2.5 Test of Autocorrelation ................................................. 87
3.2 Research Findings ......................................................... 87
3.2.1 Correlations among Reading Anxiety, Self-Efficacy,
Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Comprehension ... 88
3.2.2 Correlation between Reading Anxiety and
Self-Efficacy ................................................................. 89
3.2.3 Correlations among Reading Anxiety, Self-Efficacy,
and Reading Strategy Use ............................................. 90
3.3 Hypothesis Testing ........................................................ 91
3.4 Research Results ........................................................... 93

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3.4.1 Pattern of Relationships among Reading Anxiety,
Self-Efficacy, Reading Strategy Use, and Reading
Comprehension Indonesian EFL College Students ...... 93
3.4.2 Discussion ..................................................................... 102
CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ................................... 110
4.1 Conclusions ................................................................... 110
4.2 Limitations of the Study................................................ 113
4.3 Suggestions.................................................................... 114
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 116
APPENDICES ...................................................................................................... 124
CURRICULUM VITAE ....................................................................................... 150

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Page
2.1 Matrix of Variables ...................................................................................... 44
2.2 Instruments .................................................................................................. 51
2.3 Interpretation of FLRAS Score ................................................................... 53
2.4 Categorization of Self-Efficacy Level ......................................................... 54
2.5 Summary of Realibility of Test Results ....................................................... 64
3.1 Descriptive Statistics of FLRAS Result ...................................................... 75
3.2 Score Classification of Reading Anxiety Level ........................................... 75
3.3 Descriptive Statistics of General Self-Efficacy Result ................................ 76
3.4 Score Classification of Self-Efficacy Level ................................................ 77
3.5 Descriptive Statistics of Survey of Reading Strategies Use Result ............. 78
3.6 Score Classification of Survey of Reading Strategies Use .......................... 80
3.7 Descriptive Statistics of Reading Comprehension Test Result .................... 83
3.8 Score Classification of Reading Comprehension Level .............................. 83
3.9 Test of Normality ......................................................................................... 85
3.10 Test of Linearity ........................................................................................... 86
3.11 Output of Inner Model Measurement .......................................................... 91
3.12 Hypotheses Testing Result ........................................................................... 92
3.13 Cross-Loadings of the Third Data Reduction (Re-estimation) .................... 94
3.14 Output of Outer Model Measurement ......................................................... 95
3.15 Discriminant Validity (Squared Correlations < AVE) ................................. 95
3.16 Output of Inner Model Measurement .......................................................... 96
3.17 Additional Findings of Model Measurement Output .................................. 102

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LIST OF FIGURES
Page
1.1 Gertsen’s Dimensions of Intercultural Competence .................................... 23
1.2 Social Cognitive Theory of Bandura ........................................................... 29
1.3 Proposed Pattern of Relationship among Reading Anxiety,
Self-Efficacy, Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Comprehension
of Indonesian EFL College Students ........................................................... 33
1.4 First Layer of the Proposed Pattern ............................................................. 35
1.5 Second Layer of the Proposed Pattern ......................................................... 35
1.6 Third Layer of the Proposed Pattern ........................................................... 36
2.1 Proposed Pattern of Relationships among Reading Anxiety (RA),
Self-Efficacy (SE), Reading Strategy Use (RSU), and Reading
Comprehension (RC) of Indonesian EFL College Students ........................ 45
3.1 Histogram of Score Classification of Reading Anxiety Level of
the Students ................................................................................................. 76
3.2 Histogram of Score Classification of Self-Efficacy Level of
the Students ................................................................................................. 78
3.3 Histogram of Result of the Students’ Global Strategy Use ......................... 81
3.4 Histogram of Result of the Students’ Problem Solving Strategy Use ......... 81
3.5 Histogram of Result of the Students’ Supportive Strategy Use ................... 82
3.6 Histogram of Result of the Students’ Overall Strategy Use ........................ 82
3.7 Histogram of Result of the Students’ Reading Comprehension Test .......... 84
3.8 Correlations among Reading Anxiety, Self-Efficacy,
Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Comprehension .................................. 88
3.9 Correlation between Reading Anxiety and Self-Efficacy............................. 90
3.10 Correlations among Reading Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and
Reading Strategy Use .................................................................................. 91
3.11 Interpretation of “Proposed Pattern of Relationships among
Reading Anxiety (RA), Self-Efficacy (SE), Reading Strategy
Use (RSU), and Reading Comprehension (RC) of Indonesian
EFL College Students” with the Data Analysis Result ................................ 99
3.12 Standardized Path Estimate of Relationships among Reading Anxiety
(RA), Self-Efficacy (SE), Reading StrategyUse (RSU), and Reading
Comprehension (RC) of Indonesian EFL College Students ........................ 100

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Page
1a Blueprint of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) ............. 124
1b Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) ................................. 124
2a Blueprint of General Self-Efficacy Scale .................................................... 125
2b General Self-Efficacy Scale ......................................................................... 126
3a Blueprint of Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) .................................... 126
3b Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) ......................................................... 128
4a Reading Comprehension Test ...................................................................... 130
4b Answer Key of Reading Comprehension Test ............................................. 135
5a Item Analysis of FLRAS ............................................................................. 136
5b Item Analysis of General Self-Efficacy Scale ............................................. 137
5c Item Analysis of Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) ............................. 138
5d Item Analysis of Reading Comprehension Test ........................................... 139
6a Descriptive Statistics of FLRAS ................................................................. 141
6b Descriptive Statistics of General Self-Efficacy Scale ................................. 141
6c Descriptive Statistics of Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) ................. 142
6d Descriptive Statistics of Reading Comprehension Test ............................... 142
7a Test of Normality Analysis .......................................................................... 143
7b Test of Linearity Analysis ............................................................................ 144
8a Cross-Loadings Output of Data Collected .................................................. 145
8b The First (1st) Data Reduction ..................................................................... 147
8c The Second (2nd) Data Reduction ................................................................ 148
8d The Third (3rd) Data Reduction & Bootstrapping ........................................ 149
9 Additional Analysis ..................................................................................... 155

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