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Duty Valves are in the 20% and 40% a variable speed pumping system. Which open position. It seems to me that energy piping system is the best to use in a vari-
savings may increase by letting VFD do able speed pumping system - reverse or
the flow regulating. direct return piping?

“Variable flow” systems are those Most designers use the direct
that control coil operation using return to avoid the cost of the
two-way valves. A “variable extra pipe. If you chose to do it
Primary Variable speed” system uses an AFD to adjust that way, you will have to insure that the
Speed Flow pump speed to load, and they usually system is balanced so that the last coils

In a constant volume chilled have two-way valves. If your pump can will get acceptable flow. Reverse return
water system, with two way con- meet the load with those Triple Duty piping can ease the balance problem a lit-
trol valves in the chilled water Valves throttling, they are telling you tle, assuming that the coils are all within
cooling coils, can I use a bypass line that the pump is oversized. Check with a 25% of each other in terms of pressure
between supply and return piping with a B&G Representative about trimming the drop. Be careful to install the pressure
control valve to maintain constant flow impellers so that you can open up the differential sensors properly.
through the chiller? If so, what should be Triple Duty Valves. The system will
the pressure settings of the control valve work better, and at lower cost, that way.
and the percentage of flow through the Pressure Regulator

bypass line? I have a closed-loop chilled
Steam Pressure

The quick answer is “yes”, you water hydronic system. The

probably could add a by-pass line When my condensate return operating temperature is 42 ºF
with modulating control to main- pumps shut down from a pump with a system water temperature rise of
tain flow across the chiller. This is the set cycle there is a very loud “clunk- 14 ºF (max temperature of 56 ºF).
up used in Primary Variable Speed/Flow ing” noise in the overhead piping. It
I am trying to size an expansion tank for
applications. But there are a lot of cau- almost sounds like someone inside the
this system using the Bell & Gossett
tions to consider before attempting to wall hitting the pipe with a hammer or
ESP-PLUS® selection software, but it
retrofit this system, among them the sys- metal pipe. The piping is 20 yrs. old but
will not let me select a unit for these sys-
tem volume, rate of change, pump and the receiver and pumps are only about
tem conditions. Can I conclude that an
chiller selections and probably the most four years old. Is this water hammer?
expansion tank is not needed? If not, why

important - the control complexity and If the condensate goes down- not? Does the loop need an expansion
operator ability. stream of the elevated section of tank to act as a pressure regulator?
pipe and it flows into a vented

Before blessing a system like that, we Your chilled water system defi-
would want to know more of the details tank, the noise is probably caused by a
nitely needs a compression tank,
concerning the chillers and the total sys- type of water hammer as follows: when
but not for the same reason that a
tem. Depending on the system staging, the pump is on, the elevated section of
hot water system needs one. Normal
the common pipe may have to be sized pipe is full of warm water at some posi-
“design” temperature changes in your
either for the largest chiller flow or possi- tive pressure. When the pump stops,
system will not change the specific vol-
bly multiple chiller flows. The water drains out of the elevated section
ume very much, but if the system is idle
modulating control would be reacting to into the open tank at a lower level. This
during a very hot period, you could get
differential pressure sensors across each reduces the pressure on the water in the
enough net expansion to cause damage,
chiller and would require an algorithm higher sections of pipe causing some of it
or at least open the system relief valve.
type controller. to “flash”, or form steam bubbles. The
The compression tank guards against that
collapse of these bubbles as they con-
Because of these issues you may want to problem. ESP-PLUS® selection software
dense causes the noise. Fix this by
consider primary/secondary pumping, is based on hot water systems. For your
installing a vacuum breaker at the top of
proven over the years as the most simple application, use the highest likely ambi-
the piping, or a minimum pressure valve
and efficient way to control a variable ent temperature, and a temperature drop
at the tank to keep the pipe full when the
volume, two-way control valve system. of 1 degree to size the tank.
pump stops.

To view more FAQ’s, go to

Variable Flow System Pressure Sensor, click

In a variable flow system (one on “Knowledge Base”, and

I am designing the HVAC sys- then enter a key word in the
using variable frequency drive) tem for a 300 bed hospital. search box.
should the Triple Duty® Valves Chiller capacity is 5,000 tons.
be in the 100% open position? I have an The chilled water hydraulic system is of
installation that used VFDs but the Triple the primary chilled water loop type using