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FACULTY OF EDUCATION

DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION

Assignment No 1

Name GALALETSANG DANIEL

Programme BACHELOR OF EDUCATION IN PRIMARY EDUCATION

Module title & Code LITERATURE CL 221

Module Tutor/Lecturer

Due Date SEPTEMBER 2018

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SECTION A
Selecting a reading books can be an intimidating task. School teachers may be inundated with
claims from producers of commercial programs, all of whom claim to be able to fulfill the
mandates and/or the related Reading First program. To further complicate things, reading is a
complex task dependent on many different elements student diversity, student ability level, and
prior knowledge that requires programs to be adept at addressing a spectrum of issues
(O’Cummings & Gerver, n.d.).

1. Rhyme, rhythm and repetation


2. Phonemic awareness
3.syllabication
4. Good amount of graphics and pictres

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2. Literature is the foundation of life. It places an emphasis on many topics from human
tragedies to tales of the ever-popular search for love. While it is physically written in words,
these words come alive in the imagination of the mind, and its ability to comprehend the
complexity or simplicity of the text. Literature enables people to see through the lenses of
others, and sometimes even inanimate objects; therefore, it becomes a looking glass into the
world as others view it. It is a journey that is inscribed in pages, and powered by the imagination
of the reader and listener. Ultimately, literature has provided a gateway to teach the reader and
student/children about life experiences from even the saddest stories to the most joyful ones
that will touch their hearts. From a very young age, many are exposed to literature in the most
stripped-down form: picture books and simple texts that are mainly for the sole purpose of
teaching the alphabet etc. Although these are not nearly as complex as an 800-page sci-fi novel,
it is the first step that many take towards the literary world. Progressively, as people grow older,
they explore other genres of books, ones that propel them towards curiosity of the subject, and
the overall book. Reading and being given the keys to the literature world prepares individuals
from an early age to discover the true importance of literature: being able to comprehend and
understand situations from many perspectives. Physically speaking, it is impossible to be
someone else. It is impossible to switch bodies with another human being, and it is impossible
to completely understand the complexity of their world. Literature, as an alternative, is the
closest thing the world has to being able to understand another person whole-heartedly. For
stance, a novel about a treacherous war, written in the perspective of a soldier, allows the reader
to envision their memories, their pain, and their emotions without actually being that person.
Consequently, literature can act as a time machine, enabling individuals to go into a specific
time period of the story, into the mind and soul of the protagonist.

Literature adds to reality, it does not simply describe it. It enriches the necessary competencies
that daily life requires and provides; and in this respect, it irrigates the deserts that our lives
have already become. This wise saying is perhaps the most appropriate description of the
importance of literature in our lives and especially to children. Literature reminds us of stories,
epics, sacred scriptures and classical works of the ancient and modern times. Literature is
defined as the body of written works of a language, period or culture, produced by scholars and
researchers, specialized in a given field. According to Manali Oak (2009), Literature not only
describes reality but also adds to it. Literature is not merely a depiction of reality; it is rather a
value-addition. Literary works are portrayals of the thinking patterns and social norms
prevalent in society. They are a depiction of the different facets of common man's life. Classical

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literary works serve as a food for thought and a tonic for imagination and creativity. Exposing
an individual to good literary works, is equivalent to providing him/her with the finest of
educational opportunities. On the other hand, the lack of exposure to classic literary works is
equal to depriving an individual from an opportunity to grow as an individual. Literature is
necessary for children because they should start learning how to read and write at a young age.
Literature is important because it can give us information, education, entertainment, insights
and knowledge. It also helps the children find solutions to the problems. Literature not only
improves reading fluency through the expansion of vocabulary, but also increases children’s'
reading comprehension skills. Comprehension skills not only include retelling main events, but
also include the ability to identify the author's choice or words, central themes, character
development, symbolism.

For decades, research has concluded that children's books not only provide great pleasure to
readers, but they can also play a significant role in children's social, literacy and academic
success. Children’s literature however does not just stop at children’s books but also includes;
plays, short stories and poems, anything that utilises the written word. Firstly, the sheer
enjoyment of reading, instils a sense of love for literature. Children’s literature engages the
child, and creates a pattern, a ritual whereby children continue to read, and thereby learn and
grow from all its other benefits. Social development is one of these other benefits. literature is
a part of our culture. It not only reflects our cultural norms, values and beliefs but it can also
help shape them. Think for a moment about the stories in your life, whether they have been
read or told. The children's stories you read over and over again. The stories of characters you
once related to and even emulated. These are the stories we as humans learn valuable lessons
from stories engage our sense of self as we explore a world full of dilemmas, choices and
journeys. Stories help us to construct our own meaning about life as we watch how other
characters react in certain situations. Using children's literature to teach conflict resolution is
one clear example how literature develops social development. By reading literature students
can relate to at a personal level and begin to analyse any conflict present, so that they can
develop the skills to resolve it productively in their own lives. Literacy success is another
benefit of children’s literature; as the more time children spend reading literature, the better
their reading and writing abilities become. Significant increases have also been specifically
found in young children's comprehension and vocabulary skills (Cohen: 1968), phonological
production (Irwin: 1960), complexity of sentence structure (Cazden: 1965), and concept of
story structure (Applebee: 1978) all as a result of being read to from an early age. Hearing

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stories read aloud can assist children in grasping the differences among literary forms and
functions, teaching them to anticipate story patterns and endings, and helping to develop
quicker and more fluent reading. (Hoewisch: 2000)

Lastly children’s literature benefits in the development of children’s academic success.


Literature allows children to engage with the content being taught, for example the famous
picture book ‘Bilby Moon’ by Margret Spurling, allows Stage 1 teachers to confidently
introduce and teach the complex topic of phases of the moon to their class, as they have a
resource that provides both a simple description of the process textually, but also visually as
the prominent illustrations aid in the child’s academic development of the concept. Of course,
in enabling children to learn through reading, children’s literature also aids in teachers, teaching
lessons. As Philip Pullman says “We don't need lists of rights and wrongs, tables of do's and
don'ts: we need books, time, and silence’s shalt not' is soon forgotten, but 'Once upon a time'
lasts forever.” (personal communication, August 10, 2008)

With the ability to see the world with a pair of fresh eyes, it triggers the reader to reflect upon
their own lives. Reading a material that is relatable to the reader may teach them morals and
encourage them to practice good judgement. This can be proven through public school systems,
where the books that are emphasized the most tend to have a moral-teaching purpose behind
the story. An example would be William Shakespeare’s stories, where each one is meant to be
reflective of human nature – both the good and bad. Consequently, this can promote better
judgement of situations, so the reader does not find themselves in the same circumstances as
perhaps those in the fiction world. Henceforth, literature is proven to not only be reflective of
life, but it can also be used as a guide for the reader to follow and practice good judgement
from. The world today is ever-changing. Never before has life been so chaotic and challenging
for all. Life before literature was practical and predictable, but in present day, literature has
expanded into countless libraries and into the minds of many as the gateway for comprehension
and curiosity of the human mind and the world around them. Literature is of great importance
and is studied upon as it provides the ability to connect human relationships, and define what
is right and what is wrong. Therefore, words are alive more than ever before.

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SECTION B

1a. Motivation is the most important factor in any learning environment. If the child is not
motivated he or she will have that kind of behaviour in the class. First and foremost, students
must be highly motivated to read. Motivation will be the driving force that makes students stick
with it even when they are having trouble understanding the book they are reading or
information being presented during training. Indeed, any problem with reading can be
overcome if the student's motivation is high enough. But just as important, the teacher must
also be highly motivated to teach. They must have a burning desire to relate information during
training in a way student can understand. When students are having problems, the teacher must
be motivated enough to spend the extra time it takes to ensure that the student eventually
understands presented material. This can be very challenging since students' aptitude levels
vary. Our course curriculums inspire motivation on both counts. The colourful and illustrative
slide show, the tutorial nature of the manual, the pertinent practice exercises, and the highly
structured key concepts approach will capture and hold your students' attention, and make it
easy for them to stay motivated. For the same reasons, teachers should find our courses almost
fun to teach - and it is easy to stay motivated with tasks you enjoy.

1b. The big challenge for teachers is not simply getting students to read, it's getting them to
enjoy it too. It's one thing for students to trudge through set texts in a lesson, but will they open
another book when they get home at the end of the day? becoming a lifetime reader is based
on developing a deep love of reading. But if a pupil doesn't see people reading at home, it may
be harder to instil the idea of reading for pleasure. So, what can teachers do to encourage it?
Here are some of the best ideas, initiatives and projects that teachers have developed to
motivate children and help them develop a love for reading. Reading competitions come in
many shapes and sizes, with the aim of spicing up literature and giving children an incentive
to open a book. While reading challenges can give a sense of purpose, escaping the challenges
of school is a crucial part of encouraging reading for pleasure. Children will not find reading
pleasurable if there is too much pressure on them, so a relaxed atmosphere and a positive ethos
around reading is really important. "Having a print-rich environment is important, the
surroundings should encourage reading in all its forms and support their choices of reading
material. I don't simply mean putting up a poster which tries to promote reading because it is
cool, I think they are totally ineffective. Instead, students and teachers could share the name of

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the book that they are reading at the moment, and offer a sentence about it. It is a great way to
share recommendations. Drop Everything and Read (DEAR) should be used in classrooms
across the country, and allows children to forget their normal tasks and drift away with a good
book. The teacher must have a set time in the classroom where children read to themselves or
another and they can choose from a wide variety of books. It is important that DEAR does not
become a task. Having 10 minutes of reading at the beginning of every lesson does not always
work because it can become too ingrained. But the idea with DEAR is that it goes across
different subjects – not just English. Encouraging children to read for pleasure is about more
than getting them to pick up a book; it's equally important for children to appreciate a good
story. I think it is important to make sure you read to them as much as they read for themselves
or other people, making it a more supportive environment. Spending once a half term saying,
'Right, I'm going to read to you this lesson', I think really encourages them to appreciate it. The
older years in particular have not been read to at home for so long that they absolutely love it.
It is crucial to bear in mind what the student wants to read, having this control should not be
undervalued, and I think they should be allowed to venture from one type of book to another.
Introduce students to a wide variety of texts, mediums and genres, they may surprise
themselves once they have faced preconceived ideas about what they consider enjoyable and
embrace a diversity in what they read. Comics, ebooks, short stories, online articles and
magazines should not be ignored.

1c. Children become good readers one book at a time. But how do you help a child choose the
right books? I do not have to be an expert in reading levels to guide a child to books that
entertain, enlighten, and challenge (without overwhelming). I may be accustomed to choosing
books for the children in class. But selecting a book is a useful skill that a child can and should
learn. Choosing a book independently teaches a child that we seek books for different reasons.
With some simple strategies, you can help a child to be a savvy book selector. Encourage a
child to spend time browsing a selection of books at a library or in class. If this is overwhelming
try organizing the books you already have at home and letting your children browse through
them. You can separate them by fiction (made-up stories) and nonfiction (factual). Or you can
put them in different bins by ability level or type (picture books, chapter books, and so on).
Talk about the type of book in each container. Give the child authority over choosing books to
read. Say “yes” as often as you can. A book that the child wants to read is the one you want to
take home. Do not worry if a book seems short, too easy, or has pictures. Graphic novels

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(stories told in comic book frames) are a great way to hook a reluctant reader. And looking at
pictures is a perfectly acceptable way to read a book.

The fear factor, when choosing a book for any reader, but especially children, it is important
to know as a teacher your reader’s sensitivity. It is very important to know what in a book
frightens or causes anxiety in your child, if anything. One day at work I met a parent whose
child was a high reader and, despite the fact that he had seen the Harry Potter movies, he was
not allowed to read the books just yet because his mother knew that he had a very vivid
imagination and would be much more troubled by the written word than the movie. I had
another parent tell me that her son refused to read a book because the cover showed one boy
pushing another. These reasons make sense and it is important to listen to your children when
they express a pointed opinion about a book. With fantasy being such a popular genre, as well
as the generally high level of societally acceptable violence in the media television, movies,
electronic games - most children are not troubled by much that they read. If you do think your
child may be sensitive to the content of a book, here is a pretty good rule of thumb for
determining an appropriate read. Books written in the fantasy/sci-fi genre, as well as the
mystery genre, tend to have suspense as a major plot point. To put it bluntly, this means a
specific villain who is trying to harm the protagonist. If you consider a fantasy (by nature of
the fact that elements of the plot could never happen despite the fact that there is no magic in
the story). Outside of the fantasy genre, children's books based in reality, whether historical or
set in present day, will not necessarily have a clear-cut villain out to get the protagonist and
therefore the level of suspense will be minimal if at all. Reality based books most often center
on plot points like an annoying little brother, a mean teacher or peer or maybe a divorce or
death. These aspects will also be clearly indicated in the blurb on the back of the book.

The maturity Factor: Another thing to consider with advanced readers is the maturity and the
comprehension level of the child. A seven-year-old reading at a 5th grade level may be able to
read Anne of Green Gables or The Golden Compass and enjoy the story but miss out on the
emotional nuances, relationships between the characters and beauty of the writing. In other
words, a 7-year-old is probably just reading for the plot, which isn't a bad thing, but Anne of
Green Gables and The Golden Compass are such wonderfully written books, I wouldn't want
my child missing out on any of that layered complexities just because they can handle the
vocabulary. A good rule of thumb is to try to determine the age/grade of the main character.
This can usually be done by reading the back or skimming a few pages. Try to keep your

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advanced reader from reading a book about a character who is more than 2 grade levels older
than your child, especially if your reader is a girl, which leads me to...

The Age Factor: On the whole, this is predominately an issue for advanced young readers who
are girls because, at a certain age, social interactions become a major plot point in reality based
fiction, whether it is mean girls, crushes on boys, sassy language or other things you may not
wish to expose your seven year old to and things that a high reading seven year old boy will,
in many cases, have absolutely no interest in. A good rule of thumb for an advanced young
reader who is a girl is to stay away of reality-based fiction for a couple of years unless you plan
to pre-read the books or read my reviews.

The Animal Factor: Animals in books can be a tricky proposition, but the cover art should
help you sort things out fairly well. Most books with animals as main characters that are set in
the real world involve some kind of sadness, mistreatment and occasionally the death of an
animal.

2. The biggest challenge for any teacher is capturing each student’s attention, and conveying
ideas effectively enough to create a lasting impression. As a teacher, to tackle this challenge
effectively, you should implement innovative ideas that make the classroom experience much
more lovable for your students. Below are methods or innovative ideas that will help you
reinvent your teaching methods and make your classes more interesting.

a. Creative Teaching:

Take the help of tools to stimulate creativity. Include playful games or forms of visual exercises
that will excite young minds and capture their interest. This is a time-tested method to identify
every young student’s creative abilities and encourage creative contributions. Bring aspects of
creativity into all your subjects, be it mathematics, science, or history. Think of ways to develop
their creative ideas. Encourage different ideas, give them freedom to explore

Teaching creatively and to develop creativity brings many benefits to both the teacher and the
learner. The creative teacher will challenge, engage and motivate their pupils, placing learning
within contexts that have relevance for the children that they teach. The creative learner will
be developing intellectual and academic skills that will last a lifetime. Being creative involves
both generating new ideas and synthesising a variety of other peoples’ ideas into a new
understanding. It involves reflection and evaluation as part of the process so that a creative
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learner is constantly asking themselves questions as to the best way to proceed. Creativity
involves finding patterns, researching, hypothesising and generalising. As well as being
investigative and enquiring, a creative person will be reaching conclusions and be able to argue
‘I think this because . . .’ Much is made at the present time of comparing our educational
‘performance’ with that of other countries. It is interesting that in countries hailed for their
superior achievements, factors include being able ‘to generalise and creatively use information
based on their own investigations and modelling of complex problem A creative learner will
also be developing social and emotional skills. The need for persistence, determination and an
understanding of delayed gratification is necessary for creative approaches and teachers will
need to help children to develop these skills as they foster and enhance other skills necessary
to working creatively. Although creativity can be a solitary way of working it is often at its
most effective when working with others. Learning to work well in a group situation, listening,
debating, working in a community of enquiry and being able to disagree, agree and move
others’ ideas forward in a constructive way are all integral skills to working creatively.
Creativity can also involve expressing personally held views and opinions or sharing ideas in
expressive media. As such, it involves a measure of self-confidence and the ability to be a risk
taker. There is a strong argument that creative teaching is actually effective teaching. Amongst
the ‘noticeable characteristics’ of outstanding student teachers are: taking risks when trying to
make teaching interesting, are able to deal with the unexpected, showing innovative and
creative thinking, have the ability to reflect critically and rigorously on their own practice to
inform their professional development, and to take and evaluate appropriate actions creatively
and to encourage pupils to learn creatively and to develop their own creativity is also to become
a highly effective teacher. Anna Craft also argues that ‘in a constructivist frame, learning and
creativity are close, if not identical’ (Craft 2005: 61) and that teaching for creativity is learner
empowerment. The 2010 Ofsted report ‘Learning: Creative Approaches That Raise Standards’
(Ofsted 2010) focused on schools that used creative approaches to teaching and learning and
their effectiveness in raising standards of education. They were clear that effective creative
teaching and learning were rigorous and well organised: ‘Careful planning had ensured that the
prescribed curriculum content for each subject was covered within a broad and flexible
framework and key skills were developed. These examples were accompanied by better than
average achievement and standards or a marked upward trend (Ofsted 2010: 5). Ofsted reported
that for ‘schools in this survey with a wide ability range, a focus on creative learning was driven
by the need to break down barriers to learning and improve achievement.

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b. Audio, Video Tools and Presentations

Incorporate audio-visual materials to supplement textbooks during your sessions. These can be
models, filmstrips, movies, pictures, info graphics or other mind mapping and brain mapping
tools. Such tools will help their imagination thrive and grow. These methods will not only
develop their ability to listen, but will also help them understand the concepts better. For
example, you can get some oral history materials, conduct live online discussions or playback
recordings of public lectures. If you are tech-savvy, there are also a number of smart apps for
pre-schoolers that you can utilize to create awesome slideshows or presentations. The more
interested and engaged students are, and the more interactive each learning session is, the more
students will enjoy, learn from and retain information from the lesson. Video provides a means
of interactive instruction and is a very flexible medium. Having the ability to stop, start and
rewind is absolutely invaluable. It provides the option to stop each video and challenge students
to predict the outcome of a demonstration, and elaborate on, or debate a point of historical
reference. You also have the option to rewind a section of the video to review a segment to
ensure that children understand a key concept. You can ensure to add further interactivity by
copying activities, conducting discussions or repeating demonstrations and experiments in your
classroom. Video should be used as a facet of instruction along with other resource material
available to you for teaching a particular topic. Teachers should prepare for the use of a video
in the classroom in the same way they do with other teaching aids or resources. Specific
learning objectives should be determined in advanced, instructional sequences should be
developed and reinforcement activities planned.

However, using the most appropriate online educational video service provider is extremely
important so each teacher has the confidence in advance of the quality of the content and
instruction provided. Using the right online educational video service should help teachers or
parents to minimize lesson preparation time by enabling them to easily identify and select the
right video for the lesson, and draw upon the other resources provided by that service to
enhance the learning outcomes, and the quality and benefits of each lesson. If students and
teachers are to receive the maximum benefits from the use of video in education, the video
should be supported by a selection of other tools and resources that enable each topic to be
fully investigated and explored. The use of online video should be supported by the use of an
interactive word glossary, dictionary, thesaurus and an online encyclopaedia. Access to lesson
plans specially written to be used in conjunction with the video help not only to minimize

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lesson preparation time, but also help provide valuable additional learning activities and
projects that further enhance the use of the video as an educational aid. And then of course
there is the most important issue of subtitles, or what is otherwise referred to as closed captions.
Professionally subtitled video enables each child to effectively study the material in the video,
and improve their Reading and Literacy skills simultaneously. At the same time, by including
the option for the student to read the presentation, as well as either watching or listening to it
ensures that video will cater for the greatest range of preferred learning styles. However, at the
current time the issue, and value of subtitling has been largely ignored because of the significant
additional cost of providing it, and only one online video service makes this subtitling widely
available on video that has been developed specifically for teaching curriculum topics.
Presentation is the heart of training. The better the teacher prepares and delivers the
presentation, the easier it will be for students to learn. Presentation can consist of many things,
including the teacher's orations, demonstrations, simulations, overhead and projector slides,
videos, and anything else that helps to convey an idea. This is the strongest point of our
curriculums. You will find it very easy to get your ideas across with but a small amount of
preparation time before delivering each lesson. While you still have to talk, the slide show and
teachers’ notes will make sure you know what to say - and they'll help you keep on track.
Practice with reinforcement acts as the gauge to judge the success of training. Well-designed
practice exercises should be realistic, forcing the student to do things in the same way they
must when training is completed. Reinforcement must come as the result of the students'
practice. If the student demonstrates a firm understanding of the presented information,
reinforcement should praise the success. On the other hand, if practice exposes a student's lack
of understanding, reinforcement should come in the form of repeated presentations, review,
and more practice, ensuring that the student eventually catches on. This course curriculum
includes a comprehensive set of practice exercises, as well as a final test, to confirm
understanding each step of the way. Please be mindful that some students may need reasonable
adjustments due to a disability, providing the learning outcomes can be maintained. Consider
the environment that the student is presenting in, particularly for students with hearing
impairments, visual impairments, speech and language difficulties or social phobias. An
example of a reasonable adjustment would be to allow a student to present to a smaller group
or solely to the tutor(s) involved. The principal advantage of any presentation is that you can
interact with your students. If you are presenting information in a document, on the other hand,
you have to make certain assumptions about your students. This means that you present your
topics and arguments in such a way that meets the preconceived image you have of the students.
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If your assumptions are incorrect, then the information that you send out may not have the
effect you want it to. The second advantage is that when presenting you are able to observe the
reactions of the students based on their body language and can thus revise certain elements of
your delivery on the spot. For example: If you notice a lot of blank looks when you are
presenting a certain point then you can address this by going into more detail or providing
context so that everyone understands what you are saying.

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REFERENCE

1. Arnold, N. (2003). Diving with dolphins. London: Scholastic Children’s Books.


2. Cornelius, Lindsay L. and Leslie Rupert Herrenkohl. “Power in the Classroom: How
the Classroom Environment Shapes Students' Relationships with Each Other and with
Concepts.” Cognition and Instruction, Vol. 22, No. 4, Investigating Participant
Structures in the Context of Science Instruction (2004), pp. 467-498. Accessed
November 6, 2013.
3. Costain, M. (2006). All stars 8. Fitzroy, Victoria: Black dog books.
4. Cunxin, L. (2007). The peasant prince. Camberwell, Vic: Penguin Group.
5. Deary, T. (2007). Horrible histories groovy greeks. London: Scholastic Children’s
Books.
6. Gardner, S. (2001). One dead seagull. Sydney: Pan Macmillan Australia Pty Limited.
7. Grubaugh, Steve and Richard Houston. “Establishing a Classroom Environment That
Promotes Interaction and Improved Student Behavior.” The Clearing House, Vol. 63,
No. 8 (Apr., 1990), pp. 375-378. Accessed November 6, 2013
8. Hurlock, E.B. 1978. Child Development. 6th Ed. Tokyo: Mc Graw Hill.
9. Hoewisch, A. (2000). Children's literature in teacher- preparation programs: an invited
contribution. Retrieved August 22nd 2008 from
10. Steve Springer (2006). The Creative Teacher: An Encyclopaedia of Ideas to Energize
Your Curriculum (McGraw-Hill Teacher Resources)

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