Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 50

“A Feasibility Study on Establishing Material Testing Center Building in Calamba,

Laguna for determining the Quality of Materials”

A Project Feasibility Study

Presented to

The Faculty of College of Engineering

University of Perpetual Help System – DALTA

Calamba Campus

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

Caro, Queen Melbourne V.

Erespe, Maicha A.

Garcia, Mariel Mae M.

Civil Engineering| 1
Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction
Material testing center primarily involves testing new materials used to

build structures starting from the groundwork up to the finishing process and

new components being added to an existing structure. It determines the

physical and mechanical properties of a raw material. A center in which it

measures, examines, tests, calibrates or otherwise determine and evaluate the

characteristics or performance of a material. There are four type of testing

methods used in testing centers. Physical, Mechanical, and Chemical methods.

These test includes earthwork, shallow and deep foundations, destructive and

non-destructive concrete testing, wood construction observations, structural

masonry, structural steel, sprayed-on fireproofing, Exterior insulation and

Finish system, roofing evaluation and testing and asphalt pavement evaluation

and testing. Material Testing center purposed is to understand and determine

the fundamental properties of a material when subjected to working and

environmental loading and operating conditions. This allow us to understand

and quantify the material whether it is suitable to use in a particular

application design by engineers.


Civil Engineering| 2
A guideline is implemented for the accreditation of private testing

laboratories to certify its operation by DPWH.

 The Scope and Field of Application that prescribes the rules

and regulations regarding the accreditation of private testing

laboratories that can operate or manage the testing of materials

for and in behalf of the Department. This document set out the

criteria for the testing laboratory. Application for the

Certification of Accreditation (as amended by department order

no. 173, series of 2002) shall be accomplished on BRS form

no. 1, obtainable in BRS and a non-refundable fee. The

application shall be filed with BRS. Testing laboratories shall

make available data for the BRS director or his duly

representative that may be required in connection for the

application process of accreditation. After assessing the

laboratory and is satisfied, the BRS shall issue a Certificate of

Accreditation. The certificate is valid for two (2) year and is

renewable every other year.

 Organization of testing laboratory shall have organizational

structure, including quality system that enable it to maintain the

capability to perform satisfactory the technical functions for

which accreditation is granted and legally identifiable.

 Quality system of the laboratory shall operate an internal

quality assurance programmed appropriate to the type, range

and volume of work performed.

Civil Engineering| 3
 The Staffs shall have the necessary education, training,

technical knowledge and experience for their assigned

 The testing laboratory shall be furnished with or have access to

all items of equipment required for correct performance of the

tests and measurements for which it is accredited.

 The calibration of testing equipment and measuring tools that

is used in laboratory shall be calibrated before being put into

 The testing laboratory shall have adequate documented

instructions on the use and operation of all relevant equipment

for testing material, on the handling and preparation of test

items (where applicable), and on standard testing techniques,

where the absence of such instructions could jeopardize the

efficacy of the testing process.

 Environment of the laboratory must be in an area where it will

not invalidate the result of the test.

 The handling of items to be tested shall have a system for

identifying the samples or items to be tested.

 The testing laboratory shall maintain a record system that

complies in any regulations.

 All the test reports shall have designated numbers and

accountable to the laboratory doing the test, following the BRS

standard format.

Civil Engineering| 4
DTI label required for construction materials according to Philippines

National Standard (PNS) include name and address of manufacturer/ importer;

brand, trade name and recognized trade mark; review; and, country of

manufacturer. Under the Bureau of Product Standards (BPS) Product

Certification Scheme, the Philippines Standard license and the Import

Commodity Clearance (ICC) certificate must be acquired by the

manufacturers and importers/ distributors of such products, respectively,

before sale in the market. These marks are the assurance given to the customer

that a product have passed the quality standards and are safe to use.

Checklist for minimum requirement of testing laboratories



 Is the laboratory an entity that can be held legally responsible?

Civil Engineering| 5
Review of Requests, Tenders and Contracts:

 Has the laboratory established procedures for the review of requests,

tenders and contracts?

 Has the laboratory maintain records of review including any significant


 Are any requirements including the methods to be used are adequately


Subcontracting of Tests and Calibrations:

 When a laboratory subcontracts work is this work placed with a competent


 Does the laboratory show responsibility to the customer for the

subcontractor’s work?

 Does the laboratory maintain a register of all subcontractors that it uses for



 Does the laboratory have a policy and procedure for the resolution of

complaints received from customers or other parties?

Control of Nonconforming Testing Work:

 Does the laboratory have procedures for handling non-conforming work?

 Does the laboratory have method of identification of non-conforming

Civil Engineering| 6

Control of Records:

 Are all records legible?

 Are all records retained in such a way that they are readily retrievable in

facilities that provide a suitable environment to prevent damage or

deterioration and to prevent loss?

 Does the laboratory retain staff records, test data, calibration certificate

and other relevant documents for a defined period of time?


 Does the laboratory have qualified personnel for operation of specific

equipment, perform tests, evaluate result and sign test reports?

 Do the laboratory personnel involved in testing have at least college


 Does the laboratory maintain current job description for technical and

key support personnel?

 Does the laboratory assigned specific personnel to perform particular type

of sampling, test, issue report and operate equipment?

Accommodation and Environmental Conditions:

 Does the laboratory have appropriate facilities for the correct performance

of the test that are specified in the test method?

 Does the laboratory control environmental conditions to prevent any

Civil Engineering| 7
effect on the result?

 Is there effective separation between neighboring areas in which there are

incompatible activities?

 Are measures taken to ensure good housekeeping in the laboratory?

Test Methods

 Does the laboratory use appropriate methods and procedures for all tests

including sampling, sample handling and transport, Storage and

preparation of the test items?

 Does the laboratory have instructions on the operation of all relevant


 Does preference given to methods published in international, regional or

national standards?

 Are methods published in international, regional or national standards

preferably used?

Civil Engineering| 8
 Does the laboratory use in-house method? Is the in-house method



 Is the laboratory furnished with all items of sampling, measurement and

test equipment required for the correct performance of the tests and/or

calibrations (including sampling, preparation of test and/or calibration

items, processing and analysis of test and/or calibration data)?

 Is the equipment and software used for testing and sampling capable of

achieving the required accuracy and do they comply with the

specifications relevant to the tests concerned?

 Is the measuring equipment that can affect the test calibrated?

 Does the laboratory have procedures covering the following to ensure

proper functioning and in order to prevent contamination or deterioration?

• Safe handling?
• Transport?
• Storage?

• Use and planned maintenance of measuring equipment?

 Is there proof of calibration of the equipment?

Measurement Traceability:

Civil Engineering| 9
 Is measurement equipment traceable to the SI units?

 Does the laboratory have appropriate reference materials?


 Does the laboratory have a sampling plan and procedures for sampling

when it carries out sampling of substances, materials or products for

subsequent testing?

 Does the sampling process address factors to be controlled to ensure

validity of results?

 Are records relevant to sampling maintained?

Handling of Test and Calibration Items:

 Does the laboratory have procedures for the following regarding test

and/or calibration items, including all provisions necessary to protect the

integrity of the test item:

• Retention and/or disposal?

• Receipt?
• Handling?
• Protection?
• Storage?
• Transportation?

Civil Engineering| 10
 Is the sample identification retained throughout the life of the item in the


 Upon receipt of the test or calibration item, are abnormalities or departures

from normal or specified conditions, as described in the test or

calibration method, recorded?

 Does the laboratory have appropriate storage facilities for sample ?

 Are there record of the environment al condition of the storage?

Assuring the Quality of Test and Calibration Result:

 Does the laboratory have quality control procedures for monitoring

the validity of tests undertaken?

 Whenever possible does the laboratory participate in proficiency test?

Reporting the Results:

 Are the results of each test carried out by the laboratory reported

accurately, unambiguously and objectively, and in accordance with any

specific instructions in the test methods?

 Are the results reported, usually in a test report or calibration certificate?

 Does the report include at least the following information?

Civil Engineering| 11

Name and address of the laboratory

Unique identification of the test report

Name and address of the customer

Identification of the method used

Name of the authorizing person

Construction project with building permit to construct that passes

through material testing and geotechnical testing.

Table 1.1 Annual report for 2017 of Building Regulatory Service


Civil Engineering| 12
Existing Material Testing Center in Laguna


ASTEC (CALAMBA, Km. 54, Bo. Makiling,
1998 Active
LAGUNA) Calamba, Laguna
ASTEC (STA. ROSA, Yatco Cpd., Purok 1, Pulong
1998 Active
LAGUNA) Sta. Cruz, Sta. Rosa, Laguna
Table 1.2 List of Existing Material Testing Center in Laguna.

1.2 Background of the Study

Philippines is one of the top countries that have many resources of raw

materials for producing high quality materials in construction. Being one of the

world’s overgrowth population, this results into a massive usage of

construction materials to generate the increasing infrastructure programs in the

Civil Engineering| 13
country wherein non-residential building constructions still dominates the

sector. One of the cause for the rising of cost for building materials is the

overused that results into the depletion of raw materials such as wood, cement

and other. This depletion of raw materials and high cost product forces the

country to unabated importation of low quality construction materials which

compromises the specific quality required to a material.

Proliferation of imported sub-standard construction materials are

currently flooding into formal market even when the current administration is

embarking on a massive infrastructure program such as “build, build, build

program”. Most of the substandard construction material were imported by

traders from China and Vietnam.

The National Coalition of Filipino Consumers (NCFC) has warned the

public that low quality construction materials could prejudice infrastructure

projects of different sector. The Philippine Iron and Steel Institute, the umbrella

organization for the local steel industry in the Philippines, revealed that in

buildings that were damaged during the 2013 Cebu and Bohol

earthquakes, “sub-standard and uncertified steel bars” were used in

infrastructures which results into structural collapsing. These substandard

materials avoid the process of testing to avoid costly fees for material testing.

Policies have been implemented by the Department of Trade and Industry to

Civil Engineering| 14
ensure that architects and contractors uses only high-quality building materials

that passes in different accredited material testing center in the Philippines.

It is the intention of this feasibility study to establish a material testing

center that provides an efficient testing and quality control of construction

materials, calibration of equipment, industrial and geo-technical testing

services, and nondestructive testing of steel materials. The proposed project

aims to ensure that the customers product meets quality, health, environmental,

safety, and social standards virtually in the market to protect the lives of each


1.3 The Proposed Project

To establish a Material Testing Center of ISTRUKTURA, the main objective

of the company is to create a material testing center that protects and develop

the quality of construction industry in the Philippines. To assure the quality of

materials to test in material testing laboratory.

1.4 The Proposed Location

ISTRUKTURA Material Testing Center is a testing laboratory that will be located

at Brgy. 1 Calamba, Laguna near SM city Calamba and other establishments with 6061

sqm land area.

Name of the Company

Civil Engineering| 15
ISTRUKTURA Material Testing Center is a company that excellence in

service and providing quality control assurance with honesty, integrity and

trustworthiness to the clients.

Company Logo

Figure 1.1 Company Logo

The logo symbolizes the strength of each individuality to unite. The word

“ISTRUKTURA” represents to show that every high quality structures starts

from the smallest grain of material that creates a unity in each individual to

form a steadfast output.


ISTRUKTURA Material Testing Center aims to provide the highest

quality of service to ensure the quality of each materials that will preserve the

safety of the public. We use business to inspire and implement solutions to the

environmental crisis. We provide the highest quality service to our customers,

most trusted provider of these professional services by consistently exceeding

their anticipation and bringing the highest value to each relationship that is



Civil Engineering| 16
ISTRUKTURA Material Testing Center takes a relation approach to

help raise sustainable and economic growth of communities. Through our

professional skills and knowledge in architecture, engineering and

construction, we work tirelessly to ensure that our projects are successful for

all and strive to form relationships that stand the trial of time.



We want to transform the experience of digital identity for tens of millions of

people around the world. Anything short of that is failure.


We are passionate about what we do. We believe what we do matters.


As a ISTRUKTURA employee, we have the access to (almost) everything. We

hear the good news and the bad news.


As a team, we focus on results and collective success. We have zero tolerance

for internal politics


Civil Engineering| 17
We are passionate about excellence and doing our work right the first time.
Our reputation depends on our delivered value in the eyes of every customer
and community


We are tenacious in our integrity, honesty, and fairness.


Our firm belief in respect of human lives, relentless in keeping people safe
from harm, and we provide a healthy work environment.

1.5 Statement of the Problem

This study aims to establish a material testing center that will test the

quality, safety and performance of your products against relevant health,

safety and regulatory standards.

This proposal study aims to answer the following:
1. What are the benefits of this project?
2. Who benefits in this project
3. How feasible is this project?
4. How will be the project constructed?
5. How will the proposed project become profitable?
6. How will the proposed project compete in the market?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of the study focuses on establishing a material testing center

that is intended to eliminate the proliferation of substandard materials in the

market that results into poor infrastructures. A material testing center in areas

of Laguna that provides the highest quality of testing construction materials

and geo-technical testing services. This study aims to protect the consumers

from getting sub-standard materials from producers that endanger the lives of

Civil Engineering| 18
the people when earthquake and other calamities strike. And also providing the

quality test of materials to the construction company and material supplier to

ensure the quality of their materials that will be used and products that will be

set out in the market. This feasibility study will provide information for

material testing centers.

1.7 Scope and Limitation

1.7.1 Scope
The study will focus on the proposed project “ISTRUKTURA

Material Testing Center”. The study will include the cost-estimate to

construct and operate this proposed project.

This proposed project study will be subjected only for studying

and evaluating the material testing center building established at Laguna,

Philippines. There will be no further study of equipment, material and

standard test procedure in this project that has an essential role to operate

and implement this proposed project.

Objective of the Study

This proposed project is planned to attain the following objectives:

1.7.2 Marketing Aspect
 To determine the target market of the proposed project.
 To determine the needs and wants of the customer.
 To identify potential and future customers.

 To evaluate the possibility of failure in marketing this project

 To establish marketing strategy for the feasibility of this study.
1.7.3 Technical Aspect
 To show the development plan process of the proposed project.
 To demonstrate the structural analysis of the structures in this project.

Civil Engineering| 19
 To determine the materials, equipment set-ups and procedures needed

to build this structure.

1.7.4 Financial Aspect

To evaluate the required investment to process the proposed project.

To foresee the probable profit that the project can produced.

To evaluate the possible reason of the company bankruptcy

To determine the return on investment once the project starts to engage.
1.7.5 Management Aspect
 To give the satisfaction that meets the needs for both customer and
owner where in the two gained positive outcome to each other.
 To evaluate how the management deals with encountered problem on
the process.

1.7.6 Socio Economic Aspect

 To determine the influence of the proposed project specifically to
proliferation of substandard material in the market.

 To determine the number of affected communities to conform into this


 To evaluate the effects of this project with regards to the economic and
disaster response of this country.

1.8 Research Methodology

Both quantity and qualitative method was used in this research to

collect more feasible data in market research. The result data of this market

research is forecasted directly from the data gathered from interviews and

answered surveys from viable respondents.

The relevant gathered information of this project is taken from primary

research i.e. data information from surveys and secondary research from articles,

internet, books and other conducted/ related study.

Civil Engineering| 20
1.9 Research Activities
Two types of research method will be conducted. Primary research or

field research, gathering new data of information from conducting surveys

using questionnaires or interviews with groups of people in a focus group.

Secondary research or desk research, gathering old data that have been already

conducted or produced. It has been taken from researching internet,

newspapers and company reports.

Civil Engineering| 21
Review of related literature

Technical Requirements for Private Testing Laboratory



laboratories should have an organizational structure, including quality system

that is able to maintain the capability to perform satisfactory technical

functions. All laboratory shall operate an internal quality assurance

programmed appropriate to the type, range and volume of work performed.

Quality manual shall be recorded, maintained and updated by the responsible

member of the staff. All the staff shall have the necessary education, training,

technical knowledge and experience for their assigned functions. The testing

laboratories shall have access to all the items of equipment required for the

proper performance of the tests and measurements for which it is accredited.

Records shall be maintained of each major item of equipment.

These shall include:

 The name of item of equipment.

 The contractors name and type identification and serial number.

 Date received and date placed in service.

 Current location, where applicable.

Civil Engineering| 22
 Details of maintenance.

Measuring and Testing procedure used in the testing laboratory must be

calibrated properly before putting into service and thereafter according to an

established programmed. The environment in which the tests are undertaken

shall be in such that it will not invalidate the test result of the subject or

adversely affect the required accuracy of measurement. The testing premises

shall be protected as required from excessive conditions such as excessive

temperature, dust, moisture, steam vibration, electromagnetic disturbance,

interference, and shall be maintained accordingly. Testing laboratories shall

have sufficient spacious area to eliminate the risk of danger when performing

such procedures and to allow operators to make practical and precise

movements. There must be a system for identifying all the samples or items to

be tested or calibrated to be applied, either through documents or marking to

ensure that there is no confusion with regards to the identity of the samples or

test items and the results of the measurements made. The testing laboratory

shall maintain a record system to suit its particular circumstances and comply

with the any existing regulations. It shall retain on record all original

observations, calculations and derived data, calibration records and the final

test for report for an appropriate period. The records for each test must

contain all the necessary/ sufficient information to allowed satisfactory

repetition of the test. All test reports forms shall be in designated numbers and

Civil Engineering| 23
accountable to the laboratory doing the test, following the BRS standard


Material Testing Laboratories

ASTEC Materials Testing Corporation (Formerly Associated Services and

Testing Center-ASTEC) has become a brand name and sign of quality in the

materials and testing industry. Founded on June of 1998, ASTEC has built its

name based on integrity, know-how and unquestioned reputation. Across the

construction industry, the name stands for its expertise in the Geotechnical

Engineering and materials testing of pre-cast concrete elements, soils,

aggregates, steel and cement. Over 20,000 tons of materials have been tested

by ASTEC and is continuously increasing. The technical knowhow in the

procedures of the personnel is continuously improved through continuous in-

house training. The result is the highly qualified employees in the

organization. ASTEC is thus well prepared to meet the present demands of the

market and future as well. The construction industry has a very high quality

requirement that is why ASTEC strives to be a professional and experienced

business partner to its customers. ASTEC continues to strengthen its position

in the market and strives to reach this goal through a high degree of

Civil Engineering| 24
knowledge, integrity, unquestioned reputation and utmost services of quality

assured testing for life.


SIGMA TEST & RESEARCH CENTER, established in 2008 by technocrat

educationists who have over 30 years of experience in the area of education,

administration, manufacturing and marketing, with an objective to provide

excellence in testing services and to offer innovative and exceptional

analytical process. It is fully conscious of its role in quality control and quality

assessment and therefore has created facilities as per international standards

meeting requirements of ILAC, ASTM, ISO, USP, BP, Drug Control Authority

of India, BIS & NABL. Spread over 4000 sq. ft. posh commercial premises in

heart of Delhi (India). Scientifically designed and meticulously groomed

infrastructure facility of SIGMA TEST & RESEARCH CENTER has an

excellent team of expert & experienced governing board, innovative

management, dedicated & multi discipline professionals, aided by the most

sophisticated high accuracy measuring instruments & computerized data

management system.


Civil Engineering| 25
Intertek for more than 130 years, companies around the world have depended

on Intertek to help ensure the quality and safety of their products, processes

and systems.

Intertek go beyond testing, inspecting and certifying products; we are a Total

Quality Assurance provider to industries worldwide. Through our global

network of state-of-the-art facilities and industry-leading technical expertise,

we provide innovative and bespoke Assurance, Testing, Inspection and

Certification services to customers. We provide a systemic approach to

supporting our customers’ Quality Assurance efforts in each of the areas of

their operations including R&D, raw materials sourcing, components

suppliers, manufacturing, transportation, distribution and retail channels, and

consumer management.

Intertek is an industry leader with more than 43,000 employees in 1,000

locations in over 100 countries. We deliver Total Quality Assurance expertise

24 hours a day, 7 days a week with our industry-winning processes and

customer-centric culture. Whether your business is local or global, we can

help to ensure that your products meet quality, health, environmental, safety,

and social accountability standards for virtually any market around the world.

We hold extensive global accreditations, recognitions, and agreements, and

Civil Engineering| 26
our knowledge of and expertise in overcoming regulatory, market, and supply

chain hurdles is unrivalled.

Intertek can sharpen your competitive edge

• With reliable testing and certification for faster regulatory approval

• Through rapid, efficient entry to virtually any market in the world

• With Total Quality Assurance across your supply chain

• Through innovative leadership in meeting social accountability


• By reducing cost and minimizing health, safety, and security risks

• By becoming a TRUSTED BRAND


SGS is the world’s leading inspection, verification, testing and certification

company. We are recognized as the global benchmark for quality and integrity.

With more than 95,000 employees, we operate a network of more than 2,400

offices and laboratories around the world.

Our core services can be divided into four categories:

Civil Engineering| 27
• Inspection: our comprehensive range of world-leading inspection and

verification services, such as checking the condition and weight of traded

goods at transshipment, help you to control quantity and quality, and meet all

relevant regulatory requirements across different regions and markets

• Testing: our global network of testing facilities, staffed by

knowledgeable and experienced personnel, enable you to reduce risks, shorten

time to market and test the quality, safety and performance of your products

against relevant health, safety and regulatory standards

• Certification: we enable you to demonstrate that your products,

processes, systems or services are compliant with either national or

international standards and regulations or customer defined standards, through


• Verification: we ensure that products and services comply with global

standards and local regulations. Combining global coverage with local

knowledge, unrivalled experience and expertise in virtually every industry,

SGS covers the entire supply chain from raw materials to final consumption.

We are constantly looking beyond customers’ and society’s expectations in

order to deliver market leading services wherever they are needed. As the

leader in providing specialized business solutions that improve quality, safety

Civil Engineering| 28
and productivity and reduce risk, we help customers navigate an increasingly

regulated world. Our independent services add significant value to our

customers’ operations and ensure business sustainability.

As well as delivering services that promote sustainable development, our

values also show a commitment to corporate sustainability. For us,

sustainability is about managing a long-term profitable business while taking

into account all the positive and negative environmental, social and economic

effects we have on society.

We have been operating in the Philippines since 1949. Today, SGS

Philippines, Inc. is the country’s leading provider of certification, testing,

verification and inspection. With our headquarters in Makati, we have over

1,000 employees and a network of offices and laboratories located in Subic,

Mariveles, Navotas, Batangas, Albay, Nueva Vizcaya, Masbate, Leyte,

Surigao City, Davao City, and Cebu City.



Quality control of construction materials is extremely important in public


Civil Engineering| 29
JTCCM (Japan Testing Center for Construction Materials) provides testing

services for the steel and concrete used in reinforced concrete structures at the

Construction Materials Test Laboratory.

This kind of testing must be done a short distance from the construction site.

The Construction Materials Test Laboratory also conducts tests on concrete,

mortar, reinforcing bars, steel materials, asphalt, base course materials and

other materials used in construction and civil engineering, as well as concrete

core strength tests and carbonation tests used in seismic resistance diagnosis

of buildings and other structures.

JTCCM has several other testing branches in addition to the Construction

Materials Test Laboratory and the Nishinihon Test Laboratory. Four are

located in the Kanto District (Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba), one is

located in the Chugoku District (Yamaguchi), and one is in the Kyushu

District (Fukuoka).

The Construction Materials Test Laboratory is registered as an accredited

body under Japan National Laboratory Accreditation (JNLA), which is

governed under the JIS Law.

It has also developed and manages a Quality Management System complying

with JIS Q 17025 (ISO/IEC 17025).

Civil Engineering| 30

AMETEK Sensors, Test & Calibration supplies materials testing machines

and force measurement instruments that provide the highest level of

performance and capability for production testing, quality control, laboratory

testing, research and education. Chatillon and Lloyd Instruments are just some

of the world-renowned brands manufactured and supplied by AMETEK

Sensors, Test & Calibration.

Used to determine the physical and mechanical properties of raw materials

and components and ideal for product testing of finished goods such as

plastics, packaging, medical devices, electronic components, textiles, metals,

composites, paper and more, AMETEK Sensors, Test & Calibration

manufactures and supplies universal testing machines (UTM) and tensile

testers worldwide.

A comprehensive range of materials testing machines, force measurement

machines, digital force gauges, torque gauges, grips, fixtures, load cells and

accessories is backed up by an impressive customer support program that

includes technical support, field and factory service capabilities, calibration

and more.


Civil Engineering| 31
Building material testing

In the Research Paper entitled “A Road map to Building Material Testing and

Rating in Developing Countries” by Meredydd Evans, Mark Halverson, Linh Vu,

Sha Yu and Huong Nguyen, building materials plays a key role in setting the

quality standard of a building. Poorly performing or labeled materials results into

higher energy use and lack of market incentives to produce high efficiency

products. The testing, rating and labeling systems for energy performance of

building materials are fundamental building blocks of building energy efficiency

policies. The benefits of product testing, rating, and labeling can accrue at three


 Consumer – typically by helping consumers save cost

 Manufacturer – by providing a level playing field

 Nationally, where benefits are typically associated with reduced energy

usage or emissions

Material testing, rating and labeling also ensures that manufacturers have an

incentive to produce high performance materials because they can easily convey

superior performance to the market.

Civil Engineering| 32
Design phase Construction phase
Designer specifies a product that meets
the code. Building inspector reviews Construction company installs the

Table 1. Building material ratings and labels in the code compliance process

Once testing, rating and labeling are available, manufacturers have an

incentive to get their products rated in order to have a more competitive

position on the market. Designers and construction companies can also benefit

by easily being able to specify and use high-quality materials. The paper

describes how a country can develop a road map for improving its system for

testing, rating and labeling building materials for energy performance. While

this approach represents a best practice, not all countries take this approach

for all materials.

Testing, Rating and Labeling System Elements:

 Test standards

 Test laboratories

 Certification body

 Rating procedures

Civil Engineering| 33
 Labeling

While this approach represents a best practice, not all countries take this approach

for all materials. Many countries are just developing testing and rating programs.

Substandard Materials

According to the article of Melvin Gascon of Philippine Daily Inquirer dated June

01, 2018, the country’s building has been using substandard type of steel bars

over the last 12 years. The use of “quenchtempered” (QT) or “thermo-

mechanically treated” (TMT) reinforcement steel bars even when prohibited

against their use in high-rise building, have been flooded the which are

supposedly cheaper to produce, to replace the “micro-alloy” types traditionally

used in the country. In the study of Engineer Emilio Morales in 2010, the

National Structural Code of the Philippines clearly imposed the limitations of the

use QT and TMT steel bars since these materials could not be subjected to

bending, welding, threading or galvanizing. Manufacturers shifted to the use of

QT and TMT steel bars for it was much cheaper to produce and did not require

vanadium as additive.

Substandard rebars


Civil Engineering| 34
 undersized rebar is simply a thinner lighter, and therefore weaker rebar

than what is purchased.

 The Philippine National Standard for rebar allows for a +/6% variance in

the nominal weight of the rebar.

 Unscrupulous manufacturers will deliberate roll a rebar with -10% or more


 will not perform to the design specification and standard.

Uncertified imports or unmarked rebar

 Rebar is amandatory standardproduct as declared by the Bureau of Product

Standards because its quality has an impact on public safety.

 Imported rebar must go through a stringent process of securing an Import

Commodity Clearance (ICC) which includes certifying its bar mark.

 BPS (Bureau of Product Standards) is responsible for testing electrical

products based on the Philippines national standards for the purpose of

product certification. PS/ICCmarking on products covered is compulsory

prior to selling.

Fake rebar made from wire-rod

Civil Engineering| 35
 Rebar is made from billets, as stated in the Philippine National Standard.

 Unscrupulous manufacturers used cheaper wire rods and roll them to have

features similar to rebar. These are fake rebar.

 Wire-rods are used for making wire, and the steel grade has properties for

wire and not fit for the strength required by rebar.

 The minimum yield strength for the lowest grade of rebar is 230 megapascals

or 33,000 pounds per square inch of force (to permanently elongate the rebar).

 Wire-rod that are used to make fake rebar have a yield strength of 170

megapascals or lower, and thus will fail when used for load bearing structures.

According to the article of PTV News dated in September 26, 2017, NHA and

DPWH confirm use of substandard materials in Yolanda housing. The

principal contractor

of the Yolanda housing projects in Eastern Samar, JC Tayag, used 8millimeter

steel rods in thehouse construction in Balangiga instead of the required specificati

on of 10 millimeters.

The inspection team uncovered evidence that the contractor used undersized bars

of 12 millimeters, which is below the requirement of 16 millimeters. It is revealed

that only 23,414 of the projected 205,128 housing units under the government’s

resettlement program for Yolanda typhoon victims are being occupied. According

Civil Engineering| 36
to Benitez, only at 11.4 percent is the occupancy rate of the Yolanda Housing

Project, this is due to the substandard construction used in the project.

In the article of Maricar Cinco of Inquirer news dated in August 06, 2014,

Substandard construction supplies seized in Laguna. Worth P49 millions of

substandard construction material have been seized in Cabuyao City, Laguna.

Assorted construction materials were found inside the warehouse of South Luzon

Steel Industrial Corp. The Department of Trade and Industry in CALABARZON

confirms that the materials were substandard. Some reportedly sold to

supertyphoon Yolanda-hit areas in Cavite.

Chapter 2 Marketing Aspects

2.1 Introduction
Marketing is a concept that analyzes the needs of the customers,

studying the current trends, and creating decisions that will satisfy the needs of

customers that competes to the other competitors in the market. The application of

this philosophy intends to create a relationship between the customer and the

owner that satisfies the needs and wants for a long term process.

Civil Engineering| 37
This chapter will discuss the target market, advertisement, accessibility,

and specifications of the proposed project that will be adopted for strategic


2.1 Target Market

The target markets of this proposed project are construction companies,

contractors, construction material supplier that aims to avoid the substandard

materials circulating in the market through testing of the quality, safety and

performance of their materials against relevant health, safety and regulatory

standards. With an excellent proposed location near within on-going infrastructure

to serve the target market, it is centrally located and easy to reach from anywhere

in the City. The ISTRUKTURA Material Testing Center provides a quality test

that determines the capability of a material to be used in an infrastructure that can

reduce the damages created by earthquakes, seasonal floods and typhoons to the



NCR AREA Civil Engineering| 38
2.2 Marketing Strategy
The used of “Online advertising” and “Time efficient and Cost effective”

product are adopted to gain the irresistible content offer to capture leads. The

online advertising will be used to interact, share good press, and promote the

project that targets the social media users to spread the Excellency of the quality

of testing procedure of construction materials. The time efficient and cost

effectiveness targets the customers that aiming to see the output data result in

required time of testing and cost effectiveness provides the low-cost price of

product testing but meets the testing quality standard and procedure that satisfies

the wants of the customer, both these strategies aims to gained economic and

quality value for both customer and owner.

ISTRUKTURA Material Testing Center will be use the different following

method to position and market the product itself to all the potential customers.

1. Public relation
ISTRUKTURA Material Testing Center will invest on gaining

the Public relation. Reaching the public that is affected by disasters

such as earthquake. Opening seminars in each community about

substandard materials that is used in infrastructures. The company

aims to be the leader of boosting community against substandard

Civil Engineering| 39
materials that results into additional problem in disaster.

Articles will be released to reach every community.

2. Outreach
To outstretch our target market, joining different trade shows,

local communities’ events, construction exposition, disaster

preparedness events and in tv shows that attracts and gain

different construction companies.

3. Sponsorship
Sponsoring government organization, another company or non-

profit organization that requires the services of our company.

Conducting different seminars and conventions locally to trade

for publicity that generates positive brand awareness for only

the price of time.

4. Brochures & Tarpaulin
Brochure & Tarpaulin will be printed that contains vital

information that creates urgency will be highlighted to

captivate and pique the interest of the customers.

5. Website
The website will provide all the needed information and

communication by the customer. Ease of access and aesthetic

quality of the website will be strictly invested, for the purpose

of gaining curiosity and attraction to the customers.

2.3 Accessibility

The proposed project will be located at Brgy. 1 Calamba, Laguna which is 55

kilometers away from Metro Manila with approximately 1 hour and 10 minutes of

Civil Engineering| 40
travel time and 1.5 kilometers distance to Calamba City Hall with 6 minutes time

travel. The proposed project will be established near commercial establishments and

residential houses.

2.4 Specifications
All the material testing equipment, test and service offered are specified below


1. Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimen (minimum of 3 pcs.)
6000 Psi and above (minimum of 3 pcs.)
w/ Sulfur Capping
2.Flexural Strength of Concrete using third point loading (minimum of 3 pcs.)
3. Drilled Cores of Concrete, (initial of 9" thickness) min. of 3 core
3.1 for 2" diameter
3.2 for 3" diameter
3.3 for 4" diameter
3.4 for 6" diameter
In excess of 9" thickness additional payment of:
with rebar
without rebar
A. Thickness Determination
B. Strength Determination
B.1. Cutting and Capping of Core Sample
C. Mobilization/ Demobilization
C.1. within Calamba, Laguna area
C.2. outside Calamba, Laguna area
4. Rebound hammer test in Place per Spot (minimum of 10 spots)
A. Mobilization/ Demobilization
A.1. within Calamba, Laguna area
A.2. outside Calamba, Laguna area
5. Compressive Strength of 2"x 2" Cube Sample (minimum of 3pcs.)
6. Compressive Strength of 4"x 4" Cube Sample (minimum of 3pcs.)
7. Compressive Strength of 6"x 6" Cube Sample (minimum of 3pcs.)
8. Compression test of Concrete hollow Blocks (minimum of 3pcs.)

Civil Engineering| 41
w/ Sulfur Capping
S.1. Specific Gravity and absorption

1. Compressive Strength of hydraulic Cement
2. Finess, % Retained on No. 200 mesh
3. Normal Consistency
4. Times Setting by Vicat Needle
5. Density hydraulic Cement
6. Autoclave Expansion

1. magnesium Oxide
2. Loss in Ignition
3. Insoluble Residue
4. Sulfur Trioxide


1. Grading / Sieve Analysis
2. Plastic & Liquid Limit
3. California Bearing Ratio
4. Compaction (MDR)
5. Abrasion

6. Field Density Test (Minimum of 5 holes)

A. Mobilization/ Demobilization
A.1. within Calamba, Laguna area
A.2. outside Calamba, Laguna area


1. Grading / Sieve Analysis MC Determination
2. Material Finer than No. 200 Sieve
3. Specific Gravity & Absorption
4. Soundness (%) Loss
5. Unit Weight, Loose % Rodded
6. Abrasion
7. Clay Lumps & / Friable Particles
8. Fracture face


1. Grading / Sieve Analysis MC Determination
2. Fineness modulus of sand
2. Material Finer than No. 200 Sieve
3. Specific Gravity & Absorption

Civil Engineering| 42
4. Soundness (%) Loss
5. Unit Weight, Loose % Rodded
7. Organic Impurities
8. Mortar strength
9. Clay Lumps & / Friable Particles


1. Physical properties & Mechanical Properties (10 mm to 16 mm)
(20 mm to 25 mm)
(20 mm to 16 mm)
2. Chemical Test of RSB / Plain Bar (Phosphorous content)
3. Physical Test of Plain Bar
4. Compression of Reflectorized Pavement Stud
1. Stranded Wire (Tension Test)
2. Gabion & Mattress
A. Dimension Test
B. Tension Test
C. Zinc coating test

3. Guard Rail
A. Dimension Test
B. Tension Test
C. Zinc coating test

4. Cyclone Wire
A. Tensile Strength
B. Zinc coating test
5. Galvanized Iron Pipe
A. Tensile Strength
B. Zinc coating test
6. Steel Plate (Tensile Test)
7. Angle Bar (Tensile Test)
8. Anchor Bolt (Tensile Test)


1. Penetration test
2. Flash point
3. Ductility
4. Solubility in Trichloroethylene
5. Loss on heating
6. Spot test
7. Specific Gravity


1. Viscosity
2. Storage Stability

Civil Engineering| 43
3. Cement Mixing
4. Sieve Test
5. Distillation
6. Penetration
7. Ductility
8. Solubility


1. Viscosity
2. Flash point
3. Specific Gravity
4. Distillation
5. Solubility
6. Ductility
7. Spot test
8. Penetration

1. Grading
2. Bitumen content by mix
3. Specific Gravity
4. Marshall Stability
5. Flow
6. Air void in mineral Aggregates
7. Voids Filled with Asphalt Cement

Asphalt Sealant / Joint Filler (QUALITY TEST)

8. Core boring of Asphalt pavement (Min. of 3 core)
9. Thickness Determination of asphalt core sample
10. Specific Gravity of asphalt pavement
8.A. Mobilization (negotiable depending on the location of the project)

1. PH value
2. Chloride Content
3. Sulfate Content ( Gravimetric Method)
4. Total Solid


1. Drying Time / Water Retention Test

1. PH Value
2. Specific Gravity
3. Total Solid (residue by oven drying)

Civil Engineering| 44
Materials Testing Equipment


Grid Sieve Set Laboratory Type Jaw Crusher Large Capacity Sample

Length Gauge Micro-Deval Apparatus Nordic Abrasion


Civil Engineering| 45
Riffle Boxes Shape Index Caliper Thickness Gauge


Cylinder mold Cement Flow Table Cylinder mold

Cube mold Three Gang Shrinkage Mould Two Gang Shrinkage


Civil Engineering| 46
Concrete compression Test MachinesSulfur Capping


Compaction mold and Rammer CBR Test Machine Liquid Limit Device
with Load Ring

Drying Oven Sand Replacement Test Sets

Civil Engineering| 47

Automatic Flexural Block Platens with Flexural Test

Testing Machine Ball Assembly Device For Concrete

Hand Operated Manual Compression Sieve analysis

Hydraulic Power Pack Testing Machine

Civil Engineering| 48

Asphalt Binder Analyzer Centrifuge Extractor Digital Engler


Civil Engineering| 49
Marshall Stability Test Machine Reflux Extraction Test Set Ring and Ball Test Set
with Proving Ring

Semi-Automatic Digital Travelling Beam Device Vibratory Compactor

Bitumen Penetrometer Set

Civil Engineering| 50