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Theoretical sources:

Boykin and Schoenhofer's Nursing as Caring began when they both recognized the importance and
human necessity continuing to develop ideas toward a comprehensive conceptual framework.
They both conceptualize the focus of nursing as "nurturing persons living, caring and growing in caring".
Their theory is grounded in caring that led Boykin and Schoenhofer to conceptualize the focus of nursing
as caring.

Anne Boykin
1944 - present

Savina Schoenhofer
1940 - present
born in Kansas.
The second child and the eldest daughter in a family of nine children
initial nursing study was completed at Wichita State University
completed a PhD in educational foundation and administration at Kansas State University in 1993
She has daughter, Carrie, and a grand-daughter, Emma

- nurturing persons living caring and growing in caring

- a well-being state of a person.

- illuminated as living grounded in caring.

- defines situationally to any context that is influenced by the client.

- is the universal human call.

- is the altruistic active
expression of love and the intentional and embodied recognition of value and connectedness.

Caring between
- the loving relation into which nurse and nursed enter and co-created by living the intention to care.
Knowing self and other as caring
- gaining self-awareness of how you care.
Growing in caring
- developing your caring capacity is a lifelong process. every situation and season is an opportunity for

Grounded in caring
- making caring the essence of your personhood.


To Nursing Practice
: The focus of nursing ... is person as living in caring and growing in care. Nursing practice has been
influenced by this idea.

To Nursing Administration
: Nursing profession has sub specialties and administration is one of the area. All activities under nursing
administration are concerned for creating, maintaining and supporting an environment which calls for

To Nursing Education
: In teaching nursing, teachers guide students to know, appreciate and celebrate both self and others as
caring persons.

To Nursing Research & Development

: The caring theory influenced nursing researcher and developer to explore and illuminate the patterns of
caring personality.


1.persons are caring by virtue of their humanness

2. persons live their caring moment to moment
3. persons are whole or complete in the moment
4. personhood is living life grounded in caring
5. personhood is enhanced through participating in nurturing relationships with caring others
6. nursing is both a discipline and a profession

Caring Theory is a grand nursing theory that can be used as a framework to guide nursing practice.

The focus on caring abilities of a nurse is a primary strength which was given emphasis on the theory of
Nursing as Caring.

The assumptions presented by Boykin and Schoenhofer sounds analytical and acceptable. In addition,
concepts and explanations are concise and easily understandable.

Development of emotional attachment to patients might be a weakness of this theory.

This theory can be used not only by nurses but by everyone who cares.

As a grand theory of Nursing as Caring, another major strength is it can be used with any other theory
regardless of time and place.

The elements that make a holistic individual whole and complete were not enumerated.

There are limited explanations regarding the concepts of a person, man, environment and nursing.

The incompatibility of nursing process to this theory may be considered a limitation since all of us are
using the nursing process in our profession.

Theory is highly applicable, useful and much effective if used together with other theories.