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Physics

Robert Hutchings

University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom

Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.

It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of

education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.

Information on this title: education.cambridge.org

© Cambridge University Press 2015

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception

and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,

no reproduction of any part may take place without the written

permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2015

Reprinted 2016

Printed in the United Kingdom by Latimer Trend

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

ISBN 978-1-107-61684-4 Paperback

Additional resources for this publication at www.cambridge.org/delange

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy

of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,

and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,

accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other

factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but

Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information

thereafter.

NOTICE TO TEACHERS IN THE UK

It is illegal to reproduce any part of this work in material form (including

photocopying and electronic storage) except under the following circumstances:

(i) where you are abiding by a licence granted to your school or institution by the

Copyright Licensing Agency;

(ii) where no such licence exists, or where you wish to exceed the terms of a licence,

and you have gained the written permission of Cambridge University Press;

(iii) where you are allowed to reproduce without permission under the provisions

of Chapter 3 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, which covers, for

example, the reproduction of short passages within certain types of educational

anthology and reproduction for the purposes of setting examination questions.

All exam-style questions that appear in this title taken from past papers are reproduced by permission of Cambridge

International Examinations.

All Progress Check questions, samples answers for Progress Check questions and worked examples were written by the

author. In examinations, the way that marks would be awarded for questions like these may be different.

Contents

Introduction 21

Chapter 1 Physical Quantities and Units 1

Newton’s laws of motion 21

Physical quantities 1 Mass 21

SI units (Système International d’unités) 2 Linear momentum 22

Estimating physical quantities 2 Newton’s third law 23

Scientific equations 3 Conservation of momentum 24

Vectors and scalars 3 The deduction of the principle from Newton’s

Combining vectors 3 third law 24

Resolution of vectors 4 The use of the principle of conservation

Progress Check 5 of momentum 25

Elastic and inelastic collisions 25

Chapter 2 Measurement Techniques 6 Progress Check 27

Introduction 6

Record taking 6

Chapter 5 Forces, Density and Pressure 28

Graphical work 7 Types of force 28

Analogue scales and digital displays 7 Forces in fluids 28

Experimental uncertainty 8 Resistive forces 29

Precision and accuracy 8 Centre of gravity 29

Choice of measuring instrument 9 Turning forces 30

Calibration curves 10 Equilibrium 30

Estimating uncertainties 10 The principle of moments 31

Progress Check 12 Density 32

Examination Questions I 12 Pressure 32

Atmospheric pressure 32

Chapter 3 Kinematics 14 Pressure due to a column of liquid of constant density 33

Progress Check 33

Distance and displacement 14

Examination Questions II 36

Speed and velocity 14

Acceleration 15

Graphs for motion 15

Chapter 6 Work, Energy and Power 37

Distance–time graphs 15 Work and energy 37

Velocity–time graphs 15 Work 37

Derivation of equations of motion for uniformly Energy 37

accelerated motion in a straight line 16 Examples of work done or energy supplied 38

Weight 17 Power 40

Measurement of the acceleration of free fall, g 17 Efficiency 40

The effect of air resistance on a falling body 18 Progress Check 42

Objects moving under gravity in two dimensions 18 Examination Questions III 43

Progress Check 20

iv Contents

Progress Check 80

Introduction 47

Tension and compression 47

Chapter 12 Direct Current (D.C.) Circuits 82

Springs 47

Elastic and plastic deformation of a material 48 Introduction 82

The Young modulus 48 Electromotive force, e.m.f. and potential difference, p.d. 83

Categories of materials 50 Internal resistance 83

Strain energy 51 Kirchhoff ’s laws 83

Progress Check 52 Kirchhoff ’s first law 84

Examination Questions IV 53 Kirchhoff ’s second law 84

Combinations of resistors 84

Chapter 8 Waves 56 Resistors in series 84

Resistors in parallel 85

Introduction 56 Electrical circuits 85

Wave motion 56 Warning of common mistakes 85

Wave terminology 57 Sample circuits 86

Energy transfer by a progressive wave 58 The effect of a voltmeter being used 86

Transverse and longitudinal waves 59 The potentiometer 87

Experimental techniques 60 Progress Check 89

The electromagnetic spectrum 61 Examination Questions VI 90

The Doppler effect 62

Progress Check 63

Chapter 13 Nuclear Physics: Part A 93

Chapter 9 Superposition 64 Introduction 93

Structure of the atom 93

Introduction 64 Discovery of the nucleus of atoms 93

Stationary waves 64 Isotopes 94

Diffraction 66 Definitions and data 94

Interference 66 Nuclear reactions 95

The diffraction grating 68 Experiments with radioactive materials 96

Progress Check 69 Properties of alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) radiations 97

Examination Questions V 70 Antiparticles 98

Fundamental particles 98

Chapter 10 Electric Fields: Part A 72 Beta decay 99

Electric field definition 72 Progress Check 100

Electric field diagrams 72 Examination Questions VII 101

Potential difference 73

The movement of charges in electric fields 73 Chapter 14 Physical Quantities, Units and

Progress Check 75 Measurement Techniques 103

Amount of substance 103

Chapter 11 Current of Electricity 76 Experimental techniques 103

Charge and current 76

Introduction 76 Chapter 15 Motion in a Circle 104

Conductors and insulators 76

Angular measure 104

Potential difference 77

Angular velocity 104

Resistance 78

The relationship between angular velocity w and speed v 104

Equation summary 78

Small angle approximations for angles 105

Current–potential difference (I–V) characteristics 79

Circular motion 105

1. A wire at a constant temperature 79

Acceleration at constant speed 105

2. A filament lamp 79

Acceleration in circular motion at constant speed 106

3. A semiconductor diode 79

The force required for a centripetal acceleration 106

Temperature characteristics 79

Progress Check 108

Ohm’s law 79

Contents v

Introduction 109 The piezo-electric transducer 149

Gravitational field strength 109 Ultrasound scanning 149

Newton’s law of gravitation 109 Absorption coefficients 151

The relationship between g and G 110 Progress Check 152

Gravitational potential 110

Space travel 111 Chapter 22 Communicating Information 153

Circular orbits 112

The principles of modulation 153

Geostationary satellites 112

Introduction 153

Progress Check 114

Signal modulation 153

Examination Questions VIII 114

Bandwidth 153

Comparison between amplitude modulation (AM) and

Chapter 17 Ideal Gases 117

frequency modulation (FM) 155

Introduction 117 Frequencies and wavelengths used in

The equation of state for an ideal gas 117 telecommunications 156

Standard temperature and pressure, S.T.P. 118 Digital information 156

The kinetic theory of gases 118 Sampling rates 156

The Boltzmann constant, k 119 Modes of communication 158

Progress Check 120 Attenuation 158

Comparison of channels of communication 159

Chapter 18 Temperature 121 Satellite communication 160

Satellite orbits 160

Introduction 121

Progress Check 162

Thermal equilibrium 121

Examination Questions XI 163

Measurement of temperature 121

The potential divider in use 122

Chapter 23 Electric Fields: Part B 164

The thermistor 123

Temperature scales 124 Introduction 164

Progress Check 125 Coulomb’s law 164

The electric field strength at a distance r from a

Chapter 19 Thermal Properties of point charge 164

Materials 126 Electrical potential 165

Comparison between electric fields and

Specific heat capacity 126 gravitational fields 165

Change of state 127 The definition of electrical potential 166

Melting 127 Progress Check 168

Boiling and evaporation 128

Internal energy 129 Chapter 24 Capacitance 169

The first law of thermodynamics 130

Progress Check 132 Introduction 169

Examination Questions IX 133 The definition of capacitance 169

Capacitors in series and in parallel 169

Chapter 20 Oscillations 136 Capacitors in parallel 169

Capacitors in series 170

Introduction 136 The energy stored in a charged capacitor 172

Patterns of oscillation 136 Progress Check 173

Wave terminology 137

Angular frequency (w ) 138 Chapter 25 Sensing Devices 174

The definition of simple harmonic motion (SHM) 138

Damped oscillations 140 Sensing devices 174

Forced oscillations and resonance 141 The light-dependent resistor 174

Progress Check 144 The negative temperature coefficient thermistor 175

Examination Questions X 144 The piezo-electric transducer 175

Strain gauges 175

Progress Check 177

vi Contents

Chapter 26 Electronics 178 Smoothing the output from a rectifier circuit 205

Progress Check 206

The operational amplifier (op-amp) 178 Examination Questions XII 207

The properties of an op-amp 178

The op-amp as a comparator 178

Chapter 30 Quantum Physics 211

Adjusting the gain of an op-amp 179

The non-inverting amplifier 179 Introduction 211

Output devices 180 The photoelectric effect 211

Progress Check 181 The Planck constant, h 212

Wave-particle duality 213

Chapter 27 Magnetic Fields 182 Spectra 213

Band theory 214

Introduction 182 Variation of resistance with temperature 215

Concept of a magnetic field 182 Variation of resistance with intensity of light 215

Making magnets 183 Absorption spectra 216

Magnetic flux density 184 The production and use of X-rays 216

The current balance 185 Introduction 216

The force on a charge q moving with velocity v The production of X-rays 216

in a magnetic field 185 The use of X-rays 217

Magnetic field patterns of electric currents in wires Computed tomography (CT) scan 218

and forces on the wires 187 Progress Check 220

The Hall probe 188

Velocity selection 189

Chapter 31 Nuclear Physics: Part B 221

A comparison between the effect on charges in

electric and magnetic fields 189 Energy and mass 221

Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI 190 Nuclear binding energy 221

Introduction 190 Variation of binding energy with nucleon number 222

Precession of nuclei 190 Nuclear fission 223

Nuclear resonance 191 Activity and half-life 223

The MRI scanner 191 Half life 224

Progress Check 192 Progress Check 225

Examination Questions XIII 225

Chapter 28 Electromagnetic Induction 194

Appendix A Quick tips on exam

Introduction 194

Experiments on electromagnetic induction 194 preparation 228

Definitions of terms used in electromagnetic induction 195

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction 195 Appendix B Physical quantities: symbols,

The a.c. generator, often called an alternator 195 definitions and equations 231

Lenz’s law 196

Progress Check 198 Appendix C SI units, symbols and

definitions 233

Chapter 29 Alternating Currents 199

Introduction 199 Appendix D Answers to Progress

Power in an a.c. circuit 199 Check questions 235

The transformer 200 Index 244

The theory of a transformer 201

Transformer Losses 203

Rectification 204

Half-wave rectification 204

Full-wave rectification 204

How to use this Book

Deformation of Solids 7

Introduction Introduction that when you reach the other side of the bridge, th

chains go back to their original length.

The application of a pair of squeezing or stretching

Explains the layout of each chapter, helps forces to a solid will cause a change in the shape

Changes in the separation distance between

molecules in the examples quoted above are small

with navigation through the book and of a solid. This chapter will deal only with solids,

and reversible. Any change in the shape of a solid

because for liquids and gases, changes in shape are

gives a reminder of what is important dependent on the container holding them.

as a result of forces being applied to it and which

returns to its original shape when the forces are

about each topic. removed an elastic deformation. Elas

is said to be125

Temperature

Tension and compression

deformation is very common with most objects w

temperature at which Whenice, water androd

a solid waterhasvapour

two forces applied to itTip

Teacher’s in use daily and is usually so small that it is not notic

co-exist (in the absence the way of air). By choosing

shown in Figure this7.1(a), its length increases

temperature as 273.16 K, the size of one degree is Be careful when subtracting temperatures.

Teacher’s tips by a small amount and the rod is said to undergo

almost identical to the size of the old centigrade

tensile deformation. If the forces are reversed

Springs

A temperature change from 6 °C to 80 °C is

degree. The discrepancy between 273.15 and 273.16 obviously 74and

°C. This could Thehave beendescribed

effects written in the previous section can

26 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

is because the triplethe

Quick suggestions to remind you about point rod is squeezed,

temperature as shown

of water is in Figure

353 K 7.1(b),

− 279 Kits = 74 K. Thebetemperature

exaggerated interval

if the solid is not a straight rod

one hundredth of a length decreases

degree higher thanathe little

ice and

point. it is said to undergo

between two temperatures butmust be theinto

is coiled samea spring. It then becomes easier

A

u

B

U

For elastic

key facts and highlight important points.

collisions only,

equals the velocity of separation.

the velocity of approach

compressive deformation. whether the Celsius scale or the Kelvin scale are

to measure any extension or compression that

Before collision m M used. You must not add on 273 when considering

temperature intervals. takes place. Figure 7.2 shows on the left-hand

Example 2 Rod in tension side a spring without any load on it attached to a

V

(a)

After collision m

v

M On a linear air track, a mass of 120 g is travelling horizontal support. The right-hand side shows the

to the right with a velocity of 83 cm s . It collides

−1

effect of attaching a load to the spring.

Chapter Summary

Figure 4.8 elastically with a mass of 200 g travelling with Rod in compression

velocity 47 cm s in the opposite

−1

✓ direction, as shown

Thermal energy is transferred from a region of higher ✓ The Celsius scale of temperature is based on the

Equating total momentum before the collision (b)

in Figure 4.9. temperature to a region of lower temperature. thermodynamic scale. It is defined by the equation

with momentum after gives ✓ The thermodynamic scale of temperature uses two q/°C = T/K − 273.15 exactly.

Figure 7.1

mu + MU = mv + MV 83 cm s −1 fixed points.

47 cmOne

s−1 is 0 K at absolute zero and the other (This is not a mistake. It makes the temperature of Extension

= 0.83 m s−1 is 273.16=K0.47

at m

thes−1triple point of water. the triple point of water just 0.01K higher than the

The corresponding equation for kinetic energy The fact that the rod can be deformed in these

ice point.)

LOAD

will be ways implies two things for the rod:

1 1 1 1 Figure 7.2

2

mu2 + 2 MU 2 = 2 mv2 + 2 MV 2 ● separation of molecules in the rod can be

A B

As a result of placing the load on the spring, a p

120 g Progress

200 gCheck affected by external forces applied to it, and

To simplify these two equations is not as easy as = 0.12 kg = 0.20 kg of forces causes the extension to occur. The first o

● percentage changes in the separation of

it might seem. It can be made easier by putting all After 18.1 Convert the following Celsius temperatures to kelvin. these forces

18.4 Make estimates of the following is theusing

temperatures, downward force the load exerts

Velocity U 0 °C V

(a)Velocity molecules

(b) 37.4 °C (c) 100are

°C usually very small. the Celsius scale. The temperature of

the terms with an m in them on the left-hand side of (d) 440 °C (e) –80 °C (f) −273.15 °C (a) dry ice,

on the spring. This will be equal to the weight of t

Figure 4.9

the equations and all the terms with M in them on In everyday life, the changes in shapes(b)ofbody most temperature, load provided the load is at rest. The second force

1

the right. The 2 may be cancelled from the kinetic With what velocity do the masses

(g) 5600 °C

18.2 travel

Convertafter solids are

the

the following

Examples

not

kelvin noticed. toWhen

temperatures Celsius.you put your (c) dinner the upward force the support exerts on the spring

hot water for a shower,

collision? (a) 0 K plate

(b) 220down

K on a table you do not notice (d) thathotthe

water in a room radiator

table Once the spring is at rest these two forces are equ

energy equation giving

Answer Before collision total

(c) 280 K

momentum to

(d)

has450

right

K

sagged A step

a little under by step approach

the weight; when (f) you

a hotsit onto

oven answering

(e) hot water in a pressure cooker,

cooking When an experiment is carried out, a graph

a cake,

mu − mv = MV − MU or 18.3 Temperatures at the centre

a swing youof stars are very

do not large.that the steel chain

notice holding

0.47) why it is unnecessary toquestions,

know whether kelvinguiding you through from start

(g) a red hot ring on an of extension

electric stove, against load might be as shown in

= (0.12 × 0.83) − (0.20 ×Explain

m(u − v) = M(V − U) and Equation I the seatarehasused

stretched as a result. As you(h) drive a car in a lamp.Figure 7.3. Note that when a pair of forces, each o

a filament

or Celsius temperatures in these cases.

mu2 − mv2 = MV 2 − MU 2 or

After the collision total momentum to

right = (0.12 × U ) + (0.20 × V )

over a suspension to fibridge

nish.you are not aware that the magnitude F, stretches a spring, the tension in the

m(u2 − v2) = M(V 2 − U 2) Equation II chains supporting the bridge have become longer, or spring is said to be F and not 2F.

These two terms are equal by the principle of

Now divide the Equation II by Equation I to get conservation of energy, so

m(u 2 − v 2 ) M (V 2 − U 2 ) (0.0996 − 0.0940) = 0.0056 = 0.12U + 0.20V

=

m(u − v ) M (V − U )

Sometimes it is worthwhile multiplying both sides

Both m and M cancel out and both top lines are of an equation by a large number to get rid of all the

differences of two squares so zeroes. Multiplying through by 100 gives

(u + v )(u − v ) (U + V )(U − V )

= (9.96 − 9.40) = 0.56 = 12U + 20V

(u − v ) (U − V )

Neither U nor V can be obtained from this equation

giving but using the fact that the velocity of approach

(u + v ) = (U + V ) equals the velocity of separation gives

or (u − U ) = (V − v ) (0.83 + 0.47) = V − U

The term on the left is the relative velocity of By substituting into the first equation we get

approach, i.e. how fast mass m is catching up mass

M. The term on the right is the relative velocity of 12U + 20(1.30 + U ) = 0.56

separation, i.e. how fast M is moving away from 12U + 26 + 20U = 0.56 so 32U = −25.44 and

mass m. U = −0.795 m s−1 = −80 cm s−1 to 2 sig figs. and

V = 0.505 m s−1 = 51 cm s−1 to 2 sig figs.

How to use this Book

20 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

Progress Check

3.1 A car travels a distance of 720 km in moving 480 km stopped. Two minutes must be allowed for the train to

south and 370 km west as shown in Figure

114 Cambridge3.11. What isInternational be stationary.

AS and Consider

A LevelaPhysicstrain travelling

Revision at 60 m s−1

Guide

the displacement of the car from its starting point after

completing the journey? Progress check questions

before braking with a deceleration of 2.0 m s−2.

(Deceleration is negative acceleration.) After stopping it

Progress Check

Starting can accelerate at a rate of 1.2 m s−2. Calculate

point

16.1 (a) Draw a diagram showing the gravitational

Check your own knowledge and see how

(a) the time taken for the train to stop,

(b) the time taken for the train 1to6.5 accelerate back to

Show that on a trip to the Moon, astronauts pass a point

Route distance

720 km 480 km Figure 16.5. well you are getting on by answering

top speed,

field between the pair of binary stars drawn in where the gravitational field strength of the Earth–Moon

(c) the distances the train takes to stopsystem is zero at a distance when the astronauts have

and to speed up,

regular questions. Sample answers for

(d) the delay time of the train as a result

the station.

of stopping at

travelled 90% of the distance to the Moon.

Finishing

point 370 km

these are provided at the back of the book.

3.9 A motorist travelling at 25 m s−1 is 40 m behind another

Figure 16.5

Mass of Earth = 5.98 × 1024 kg,

Mass of Moon = 7.35 × 1022 kg.

motorist also travelling at 25 m s−1. The first motorist

Figure 3.11 (b) How would your diagram change if the star on the

accelerates in 6.0 s to 30 m s−1 and 1maintains this speed

6.6 Using data from the text on space travel, calculate the

left was 20 times more massive than the star on the

difference until he is 50 m in front of thespeed required shortly after the launch of a rocket to be

other motorist,

3.2 A plane travels 2000 km east and 150 km south on a flight.

right? who keeps to his original speed. Deducetravelling at 5.0 km s−1 when far out in space.

What is the displacement of the plane from its starting

point at the end of the journey? 16.2 The radius of the Earth is 6370 km and g (a) the total at its surface

time this takes,

6.7 The distance of the Earth from the Sun is 1.50 × 10

(b) the distance the overtaking 1motorist has travelled.

11

m.

is 9.83 N kg−1. Calculate the value of the acceleration

3.3 When travelling in a straight line, a train increases its Use the value of G and the period of rotation of the Earth

due to gravity 3.10 A steel ball bearing is dropped from above gate 1 and is

velocity from 3 m s−1 to 50 m s−1 in a time of 107 s. What is around the Sun to calculate the mass of the Sun.

(a) at a distance of 12 740 km from the centre of the

timed as it passes through the three light gates shown in

its average acceleration during this time?

Earth, Figure 3.12. 16.8 Explain why a geostationary satellite

3.4 In an X-ray tube an electron has acceleration of

(b) at a height of 500 km above the Earth’s surface. (a) has to move from west to east,

8.4 × 1016 m s−2 from rest to a velocity of 3.8 × 107 m s−1. (b) must be directly over the equator,

16.3 The distance from the centre of the Earth to the centre

How long does the acceleration take? Gate 1 Lamp 1 (c) can have its rocket motors switched off.

of the Moon is 3.844 × 108 m. The radius of the Earth

3.5 What is the minimum time it will take for a racing m. Assuming that Moon travels on a

is 6.371 × 10 6

Explain also how a satellite with a period of one day

53 cm

Examination questions

car to increase its speed from 28 m s tocircular path, calculate

75 m s if the

−1 −1

Gate 2 Lamp 2 would appear to move to an observer on the ground if it

maximum grip between the car and the (a) racetrack enables

the centripetal acceleration of the Moon, was travelling with the centre of its path at the centre of

a maximum acceleration of 17 m s−2 ? (b) the angular velocity of the Moon, the Earth but was not travelling along the Equator.

Help prepare for examination by completing the questions

(c) the period of the Moon’s rotation around the Earth. 53 cm

3.6 In a sprint, an athlete maintains a constant acceleration of Gate 3 Lamp 3

16.9 Calculate, from g = 9.83 N kg−1 and the radius of the Earth

7.8 m s−2 for the first 1.5 s of the race. Calculate:

16.4 Calculate the gravitational field strength at the surface = 6.371 × 106 m, the period of a satellite in a circular orbit

taken from Cambridge past-examination papers.

(a) the velocity of the athlete after 1.5of Jupiter. Jupiter has a radius of 7.14 × 10

(b) the displacement of the athlete after

s,

the 1.5 s.

7

m and a

Path of ball between around the Earth, and hence its speed, when it is at an

mass of 1.90 × 10 27

kg. three light gates altitude of 500 km.

3.7 In an old castle there is a well that is so deep that when a

Figure 3.12

bucketful of water is dropped down the well it takes 4.0 s

before the dropped water hits theExamination Questions VIII

water in the well. The The separation between each pair of light gates is 53.0 cm.

acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m s−2. The time interval between gates 1 and 2 is 0.197 46 s and

Estimate: 1. (a) Define gravitational potential at a point. [1]

between gates 2 and 3 is 0.124 34 s.

(a) the speed of the dropped water when (b) itThe gravitational potential

hits the f at distance r from point mass M is given by the expression

1

water in the well, (a) Write equations using s = ut + at2 for

2

(b) the depth of the well. (i) the time betweenφgates Gm

= − 1 and 2,

Explain two factors that make your answers unreliable. r 1 and 3.

(ii) the total time between gates

3.8 A railway company is asked to allow a high-speed

where G is the gravitational constant.

train (b) Eliminate u, the speed of the ball at gate 1 and

to make a stop at a station where it had previously solve the equation to find g.

Explain the significance of the negative sign in this expression.

not [2]

(c) A spherical planet may be assumed to be an isolated point mass with its mass concentrated at its centre. A small mass m is

moving near to, and normal to, the surface of the planet. The mass moves away from the planet through a short distance h.

State and explain why the change in gravitational potential energy ΔEP of the mass is given by the expression

ΔEP = mgh

where g is the acceleration of free fall. [4]

(d) The planet in (c) has mass M and diameter 6.8 × 103 km. The product GM for this planet is 4.3 × 1013 N m2 kg−1.

Chapter summary

A rock, initially at rest a long distance from the planet, accelerates towards the planet. Assuming that the planet has

negligible atmosphere, calculate the speed of the rock, in m s−1 as it hits the surface of the planet. [3]

At the end of each chapter so you can (Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics 9702

Paper 41 Question 1 May/June 2012)

check off the topics as you revise them. Dynamics 27

Chapter Summary

✓ Newton’s first law. Every object continues in its state ✓ Weight is the force of gravitational attraction acting

of rest or state of uniform motion in a straight line on a body. It is measured in newtons.

unless acted upon by a resultant external force. ✓ Momentum is the product of an object’s mass and

✓ Newton’s second law. The rate of change of velocity. It is measured in N s. To determine the time

momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant t an object takes to stop when a force F is applied, use

force acting on it. its momentum in the equation mv = Ft.

✓ Newton’s third law. If body A exerts a force on body ✓ The principle of conservation of momentum states

B then body B exerts an equal and opposite force on that in all collisions the total momentum is constant

body A. provided that there is no resultant external force

✓ Mass is a measure of how difficult it is to accelerate a acting.

body. It is measured in kilograms.

Progress Check

3.72 kg. (a) a person standing on level ground and a case held

Physical Quantities

and Units 1

You are already familiar with much of this chapter but Other conversions are not necessarily so obvious.

it does contain a large amount of detail that you must Another matter of convention with units

use accurately. Using units and quantities correctly concerns the way they are written on graph axes

and showing your workings are very important and in tables of values. You might often use or

skills to practice so that you avoid making errors, see a statement such as ‘energy/joule’ or in an

particularly when writing up practical work or when abbreviated form ‘E/J’. This means the quantity

writing answers to tests. energy divided by its SI unit, the joule. For example

Physical quantities = = 780

joule joule

All measurements of physical quantities require

both a numerical value and a unit in which the The figure 780 is now just a number with no unit.

measurement is made. For example, your height That is what will appear in a table of values or on a

might be 1.73 metres. The number and the unit graph so there is no need to add the unit to every

in which it is measured need to be kept together value in tables or graphs, provided the unit is shown

because it is meaningless to write ‘height = 1.73’. on the heading or axis.

The numerical value is called the magnitude of the In order to answer the questions given, you will

quantity and the magnitude has meaning only when need to use the prefixes on multiples and sub-

the unit is attached. In this particular case it would multiples of units. Table 1.1 shows the meaning of

be correct to write ‘height = 173 centimetres’, since each term you might have to use.

there are 100 centimetres in a metre. You can help

avoid making mistakes when converting units by

Table 1.1

using this method.

Write the conversion as an equation. Prefix Abbreviation Multiplying factor

cm tera T 1012

1.73 m = 1.73 m × 100 m = 173 cm

giga G 109

The m on the top cancels with an m on the bottom mega M 106

so you are certain the conversion is the right way kilo k 103

round. Many students make the mistake of not

reviewing what they have written in an equation to deci d 10−1

make sure it makes sense. centi c 10−2

milli m 10−3

Teacher’s Tip

micro μ 10−6

Look out for incorrect statements. Check you

nano n 10−9

write numbers and units correctly and do not

write, for example, 1.73 cm = 173 m. pico p 10−12

2 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

a wavelength of 456 × 10−9 m. This will equate to

In making estimates of physical quantities it is

4.56 × 10−7 m or 0.000 000 456 m. Always be careful

essential that you do not just guess a value and

with any of these prefixes and double check to see

write it down. It is important to include the method

that you are not using them the wrong way round.

you use, not just the numerical values. Answers

It is amazing how often some students will, for

you write might have numerical values stretching

example, find the speed of a car as an unrealistic

from 10−30 to 1040. You need to remember some

0.0052 m s−1 when it ought to be 52 m s−1. The reason

important values, to one significant figure, in SI

for the difference is that at some stage in the

units. The following list is by no means complete

calculation the student has divided by 100 when

but is a starting point.

he or she should have multiplied.

Do not forget that various atomic sizes and

masses may be given in the exam paper data.

I units (Système International

S

d’unités) mass of an adult 70 kg

All the units you use during your AS course are mass of a car 1000 kg

called the SI units. They are derived from five base height of a tall man 2 m

units. These are, together with the abbreviation used

for each, as follows: height of a mountain 5000 m

●● the kilogram (kg) as the unit of mass, speed of car on a high-speed road 30 m s−1

●● the metre (m) as the unit of length, speed of a plane 300 m s−1

●● the second (s) as the unit of time,

speed of sound in air at sea level 300 m s−1

●● the ampere (A) as the unit of electric current

and weight of an adult 700 N

●● the kelvin (K) as the unit of absolute

energy requirement for a person for

temperature. 10 000 000 J

one day

The definition of these five units is amazingly power of a car 60 kW

complicated and you are not required to know

the definitions. Each definition is very precise and power of a person running 200 W

enables national laboratories to measure physical pressure of the atmosphere 100 000 Pa

quantities with a high degree of accuracy.

density of water 1000 kg m−3

Although you do not need to know these definitions,

you will need to know how many other definitions A few astronomical values are useful too.

of SI units are derived from the base units. All the distance from the Earth to the Moon 400 000 km

definitions and their corresponding units are given

distance from the Earth to the Sun 150 000 000 km

in this book, when required in appropriate chapters.

Knowledge of units is essential since every numerical radius of the Earth 6000 km

question you might have to answer will be dependent mass of the Earth 6 × 1024 kg

upon using units.

To find the expression of a unit in base units it is

necessary to use the definition of the quantity. For Once you have some basic data you can use it to

example, the newton (N), as the unit of force, is find an approximate value for many quantities. As

defined by using the equation a general rule, always get your values into SI units,

even though you may well remember some values in

force = mass × acceleration. non-SI units. Never use non-SI units such as miles,

So, 1 N = 1 kg × 1 m s−2 or 1 N = 1 kg m s−2. yards, pounds, etc.

Physical Quantities and Units 3

a value for the kinetic energy of a cruise liner.

‘Estimate’ means the values you choose do not have Scalars Vectors

to be precise, but they should be sensible. A suitable mass displacement

answer to this question might look like this:

length velocity

Mass of cruise liner estimated as 20 000 tonnes

time acceleration

1 tonne = 1000 kg

area force

so mass of cruise liner = 20 000 × 1000 = 2 × 10 kg 7

volume momentum

speed

1

Kinetic energy = 2 mv 2

pressure

= 0.5 × 2 × 107 × 152

work

= 2 × 109 J (to 1 significant energy

figure).

power

You also need to be able to check the homogeneity Adding or subtracting scalars is just like adding or

of any equation. This means that both sides of any subtracting numbers, as long as you always remember

equation must have the same units. to include the unit. Adding vectors can be difficult;

For example, consider the equation for kinetic subtracting vectors can be even more difficult.

1

energy Ek = 2 mv 2. Forces are vector quantities. When adding two

The unit of energy (the joule) is the forces together the total force is called the resultant

unit of force × distance, i.e. the unit of force. The resultant force is not an actual force at

mass × acceleration × distance. So the unit of Ek is all. It is just the sum of all the forces acting on an

kg × m s−2 × m, which simplifies to kg m2 s−2. object. The forces that we add might be caused by

Looking at the right-hand side of the equation for different things, for example one force could be a

1

kinetic energy, the unit of 2 mv2 is kg × m2 × s−2, which gravitational force and the other could be an electrical

1 force. It might seem impossible for a force of 8 N to

is the same as the unit of Ek (the 2 has no unit).

be added to a force of 6 N and get an answer 2 N,

This means that the equation for kinetic energy is but it could be correct if the two forces acted in

homogeneous. opposite directions on an object. In fact, for these

If you ever find that the units on both sides of an two forces a resultant force can have any magnitude

equation are not the same, then either the equation between a maximum of 14 N and a minimum of 2 N,

is incorrect or you have made a mistake somewhere. depending on the angle that the forces have with

one another. In order to find the resultant of these

Vectors and scalars two forces, a triangle of forces is used, as shown in

A vector is a quantity that has direction as well as Figure 1.1. The two vectors are drawn to scale, with

magnitude; a scalar is a quantity with magnitude 1 cm representing 2 N.

only. The mathematics of finding the resultant can be

Table 1.2 lists quantities in their correct category. difficult but if there is a right angle in the triangle

things can be much more straightforward.

4 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

Resultant 6N think ‘what needs to be added to 20 to get 37’.

2N To subtract vector B from vector A, a triangle

8N of vectors is used in which −(vector B) is added to

vector A. This is shown in Figure 1.2. Note that A +

Resultant (−B) is the same as A − B.

6N

4N

Resolution of vectors

8N

Not only is it possible for you to add vectors, it is

often useful to be able to split a single vector into

two. This process is called resolution of a vector and

Resultant 6N almost always resolution means to split one vector

10 N

into two components at right angles to one another.

This is illustrated in Figure 1.3.

In Figure 1.3(a) an object has velocity v at an

8N

angle q to the horizontal. The velocity can be

considered equivalent to the two other velocities

6N shown. v sin q is its vertical component and v cos q is

Resultant its horizontal component. In Figure 1.3(b), force F is

13 N the force the sloping ground exerts on a stationary

object resting on it. (This force will be equal and

Figure 1.1 Addition of vectors opposite to the weight of the object.) F can be re-

solved into two components. F sin f is the force along

the slope and is the frictional force that prevents the

Subtracting vectors also makes use of a vector

object sliding down the slope. F cos f

triangle. Note that you can always do subtraction by

is the component at right angles to the slope.

addition. If you want to know how much money you

can spend if you want to keep $20 out of a starting

B

F cos f F

f

A

v

v sin q

F sin f

A + (−B) −B q

v cos q f

(a) (b)

Chapter Summary

✓✓ Almost all physical quantities require a numerical ✓✓ Some physical quantities have direction. These are

value and a unit. called vectors and can be added using a vector triangle.

✓✓ The units used throughout the book are ✓✓ Quantities without direction are called scalars. These

SI units. are added arithmetically.

Physical Quantities and Units 5

Progress Check

1.1 Convert 1.7 Using a copy of Figure 1.2, determine the value of

(a) 2.86 kilograms into grams, vector B – vector A.

(b) 0.0543 kilograms into grams, 1.8 A car changes speed from 30 m s−1 to 20 m s−1 while

(c) 48 grams into kilograms, turning a corner and changing direction by 90°. What

(d) 3.8 hours into seconds, is the change in velocity of the car? State the angle of

(e) 6 500 000 seconds into days. the resultant velocity of the car relative to the initial

1.2 Convert velocity.

(a) 1.00 square metres into square centimetres, 1.9 The Moon moves around the Earth in a circular orbit

(b) 7.38 cubic metres into cubic centimetres, of radius 3.84 × 108 m. Its speed is 1020 m s−1.

(c) 6.58 cubic centimetres into cubic metres, Deduce

(d) a density of 3.45 grams per cubic centimetre into (a) the time taken for a complete orbit of the Earth,

kilograms per cubic metre, (b) the angle the Moon moves through in 1.00 s,

(e) a speed of 110 kilometres per hour into metres (c) the change in velocity of the Moon in 1.00 s.

per second. 1.10 An athlete, just after the start of a race, has a force of

1.3 Derive the base units for 780 N exerted on her by the ground and acting at an

(a) the joule, the unit of energy angle of 35° to the vertical. What is the weight of the

(b) the pascal, the unit of pressure athlete and what is the force causing her horizontal

(c) the watt, the unit of power. acceleration?

1.11 A kite of weight 4.8 N, shown in Figure 1.4, is being

pulled by a force in the string of 6.3 N acting in a

1.4 Use base units to show whether or not these

direction of 27° to the vertical.

equations balance in terms of units. (Note: this does

not mean that the equations are correct.) lift

(a) E = mc2

(b) E = mgh

(c) power = force × velocity

(d) p = rgh Force of

wind

1.5 Estimate the following quantities.

27°

(a) The energy required for you to go upstairs to bed.

(b) The average speed of a winner of a marathon. Weight 6.3 N

(c) The power requirement of a bird in a 4.8 N

migration flight.

(d) The vertical velocity of take-off for a good high Figure 1.4

jumper.

(e) The acceleration of a sports car. (a) Resolve the force in the string into horizontal and

(f ) The density of the human body. vertical components.

(g) The pressure on a submarine at a depth of 1000 m. (b) Assuming that the kite is flying steadily, deduce

1.6 Explain why these suggested estimates are incorrect. the upward lift on the kite and the horizontal

(a) The power of a hot plate on a cooker is 2 W. force the wind exerts on the kite.

(b) The speed of a sub-atomic particle is 4 × 108 m s−1.

(c) The hot water in a domestic radiator is at a

temperature of 28 °C.

(d) The pressure of the air in a balloon is 15 000 Pa.

(e) The maximum possible acceleration of a racing

car is 9.81 m s−2.

Measurement

Techniques 2

Introduction applying the relationship between the period T of a

simple pendulum, its length l and the acceleration g

Throughout this book reference will be made to

due to gravity.

many experiments that you could carry out yourself.

It will also describe some of the experiments done l

in the past that have had a great influence on our T = 2π

g

understanding of the physical world. In all of these

experiments, there are certain basic techniques

Table 2.1

that need to be used and in this chapter some of

the principles of experimenting will be explained. Length of Number of Total Period g / m s−2

Much of the importance of all experiments depends pendulum / m oscillations time / s T / s

on their reliability. An experiment will always be 0.980 50 99.3 1.986 9.81

unreliable if the experimenter changes results to try

to make the results fit what is expected. This does 0.885 50 94.4 1.888 9.80

not mean that all measured data must be exact, as 0.790 50 89.2 1.784 9.80

this is impossible. The data itself must be found 0.745 40 69.2 1.730 9.83

honestly and an estimate made of its uncertainty.

This chapter will explain the way uncertainties 0.665 40 65.4 1.635 9.82

can be evaluated, but first it will explain methods 0.545 30 44.3 1.477 9.86

for recording readings, for evaluating results from

0.460 30 40.8 1.360 9.82

graphs and with problems associated with obtaining

information from a mixture of both analogue and 0.335 30 34.8 1.160 9.83

digital equipment. 0.245 30 29.8 0.993 9.81

What should be a golden rule about recording the ●● The average value of g is 9.82 m s−2 with an

results of any experiment is that readings must uncertainty explained later in this chapter.

be written in the form they are taken. In other ●● Keep the number of significant figures constant

words, do not do any arithmetic on readings before in any column unless a figure is lost or gained

writing them down. A simple example is when naturally, as with 0.993 in the fourth column.

measuring the period of oscillation of a simple ll Four significant figures are given in most of

pendulum. If you are able to time 50 oscillations the fourth column in order not to reduce the

then the heading of the first column of your table accuracy given in the third column. 0.993 is

should read ‘length of pendulum’ and the second given to about one part in a thousand. If T

‘number of oscillations’ with 50 as the first entry. were quoted only to three significant figures,

The third column should be headed ‘total time / s’ the first of the period readings, for example,

and the time might be e.g. 86.5 s. Only at the fourth would only be given as 1.99 and be known

column should you include the heading ‘period T / s’. only to one part in 200.

A complete table might look like Table 2.1, after

Measurement Techniques 7

●● Do not drop off final zeroes. In the first column, 4π 2/g and since c is zero the graph will pass through

all the lengths are given to the nearest 5 mm. the origin.

If the first figure was quoted as 0.98, it would The graph is plotted in Figure 2.1.

imply less accuracy than the second figure 0.885.

T 2/s2

●● One important part of this experiment is to start

and stop a stopwatch after a complete number 4.0

of cycles. The amplitude of swing has made

it necessary in this experiment to reduce the

3.5

number of swings when the length is reduced.

●● Whenever swings are being counted, avoid

3.0

counting ‘one’ in your head at the start of the

first swing; ensure you count ‘zero’. If you start

at ‘one’ then all the periods will be too short. 2.5

●● It is preferable for you to time for a larger

number of swings in one count rather than 2.0

to make several repeats of a small number

of swings. Repeating introduces starting and 1.5

stopping errors; a larger number of swings

reduce these errors. 1.0

0

is to make use of a graph. Often an equation can 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 l /m

be rearranged into a form that enables a straight

line graph to be drawn. Graphs can be drawn very Figure 2.1 Graph of T 2 against l

accurately. It is important for you to use a sensible

scale and to mark the points on the graph accurately. When taking the gradient of a straight line graph,

This does mean using the whole range the graph choose two values on major lines as far apart as

paper allows. Do use fractional parts of a small possible. In this case, the obvious values of length

square when putting data on to the graph or when to choose are 0 and 1.

taking readings from the graph. The gradient of the graph is given by

The general equation of a straight line graph is

y = mx + c 4π 2 4.06 − 0

gradient = g = = 4.06

1.00 − 0

where x is the independent variable, y the dependent

variable, m the gradient of the graph and c is the 2

Hence g = 4π = 9.72ms−2

intercept on the y-axis. 4.06

How this graphical technique can be used will be

illustrated by using it for the pendulum experiment nalogue scales and digital

A

mentioned earlier. Since displays

T = 2π

l

, by squaring both sides we get T 2 =

4π 2

l. A simple metre rule gives an analogue reading

g g while a digital watch gives a digital reading. Do not

assume that a digital reading is more accurate than

This will give a straight line graph provided T 2 is an analogue reading. Most digital readings come

plotted against l. The gradient of this graph will be from analogue readings. A digital thermometer,

8 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

for example, will probably be using a thermistor as its a different meter and if it gives the same reading

source of information. The potential difference (p.d.) there is unlikely to be a serious systematic error.

across the thermistor will be measured; this will be

combined with a calibration curve available from Precision and accuracy

the manufacturer, that gives its resistance at different

temperatures. The value of the p.d. will then be Any readings taken to high precision have low

digitised and finally displayed. random uncertainty. Any readings taken to high

It may seem to you that a reading from a digital accuracy have low systematic uncertainty.

balance of, say, 486 grams, means that the mass This is illustrated in Figure 2.2 where an archery

is exactly 486 grams. This is not the case for three target is marked with the position of arrows fired

reasons. The first is that the original calibration at it.

might not have been done correctly, the second is ●● Figure 2.2(a) shows that the archer is very

that the calibration might have changed as a result skilled, so there is little random uncertainty but

of wear and tear or misuse and the third that any that his equipment has a systematic error in it.

mass between 485.5 and 486.4 would result in the ●● Figure 2.2(b) shows that the archer is

instrument reading 486 grams, if the instrument unskilled, so there is considerable random

reads to just three significant figures. uncertainty but that his equipment has no

systematic error in it. The average position of

his arrows is in the centre of the target.

Experimental uncertainty ●● Figure 2.2(c) shows that the archer is

Experimental uncertainty used to be called unskilled, so there is considerable random

experimental error. However, the change was uncertainty, and that his equipment has a

made because ‘error’ seems to imply that a systematic error in it.

mistake has been made and that is not the issue. ll Figure 2.2(d) shows that an archer has high

All readings have uncertainties. A ruler might precision equipment and great accuracy, so

measure to the nearest millimetre, a clock to the there is minimal random uncertainty and no

nearest second, a thermometer to the nearest systematic error.

degree; so one person using a metre ruler might

record the length as 86.0 cm and another person

measuring the same length might record it as

86.1 cm. This type of variation is called a random

uncertainty. It might come about through the

limitations of the scale on an instrument or

through the way the instrument is used. Checking

measurements will show up the random nature

of readings and taking an average of readings will (a) (b)

minimise the overall uncertainty.

If the instrument itself is faulty or if it is being

used incorrectly, there will be systematic

uncertainty. This might be an error in the

instrument. For example, its zero reading might

be incorrect. Systematic uncertainties or errors

are often much more difficult to detect. There

is no easy way to account for systematic errors

or uncertainties, though one check that can be (c) (d)

made with electrical instruments would be to use

Figure 2.2 Archery target

Measurement Techniques 9

suitable for measuring the diameter of a wire. For

To say that there is an uncertainty of 1 mm in

measurements such as this a micrometer is needed.

measuring a length is not very helpful by itself. The

This is illustrated in Figure 2.4.

length being measured also needs to be given. For

example, an uncertainty of 1 mm in a distance of Distance

2 km is of very high accuracy, the uncertainty is being Screw thread with

measured pitch of 1 mm

1 part in 2000 000, a fractional uncertainty of only

0.000 000 5 or 0.000 05%, the same uncertainty of 0 5 90

80

1 mm in a metre is a fraction of 0.001 or 0.1%. 70

60

1 mm in 20 mm is a fraction of 0.05 or 5%. 50

A reading that is uncertain to 1 mm when

measuring a wire’s diameter of 0.2 mm is useless. Rotating thimble

This shows that a choice of different instruments

will be necessary for measuring different lengths.

Figure 2.3 shows an instrument called a Vernier Fixed micrometer

frame

calliper. This instrument is useful in measuring

the internal or external diameter of tubes, for Figure 2.4 A micrometer screw gauge

example. It will give a reading to the nearest

0.1 mm or better. A micrometer uses a screw thread and, at its

When the two jaws of the calliper are closed, the simplest, divides up one rotation of the screw

zeroes on both the scales coincide. The jaws are then into 100 divisions. If the pitch of the screw is

opened and the object to be measured is placed 1 mm then each division represents one hundredth

between them as shown. From the diagram it is clear of a millimetre. (The pitch of a screw thread is the

that the object has a diameter of between 1.9 cm and distance the screw moves forward each rotation.)

2.0 cm. However, the size of the scale divisions on the The reading on the micrometer in Figure 2.4 is

sliding or moveable jaw is not quite the same size as 9.74 mm.

those on the fixed jaw. They differ, for this calliper, by Figure 2.5 shows the enlarged reading on a

a tenth of a millimetre. By looking along the Vernier micrometer in which the pitch is only 0.5 mm. This

scale you will see that at 5 divisions along the sliding pitch is very common on micrometers but it does

scale both the main scale and the Vernier scale need careful use. The rotating scale only goes up to

coincide. The distance arrowed, therefore, is 0.5 mm 50 but the main scale shows half millimetres, so you

and the diameter of the object is, therefore, 1.95 cm. need to know whether the reading is under or over

half a millimetre.

Jaw extensions for The reading on this micrometer is 2.5 mm on

measuring inside

diameters

the main scale and 28 divisions on the rotating

of pipes micrometer scale. The full reading is, therefore,

Main scale

2.5 mm + 0.28 mm = 2.78 mm.

0 1 2 3 4

40

0 5 10

35

0 1 2

Vernier scale 30 Micrometer

Fixed

jaw Sliding scale

Main scale 25

jaw

20

10 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

uncertainty. The final result of this procedure should

Many measuring devices are checked by the

be expressed in numerical rather than percentage

manufacturer against international standards of

uncertainties, for example as (4.73 ± 0.03) N for a

length, temperature, electric current. Details are

force measurement, rather than (4.73 ± 6%) N.

produced of how any particular instrument’s accuracy

The question that needs answering is “How do you

is dependent on external factors, such as temperature.

find the uncertainty of an experimental result?” The

These details are available from the manufacturer on

answer to the question comes in two stages.

request. The information will often be in the form of a

calibration curve in which the reading obtained under Stage 1 Estimate the uncertainty in each of the

particular conditions, is plotted against a corrected readings you take. The most straightforward way of

value under standard conditions. The shapes of two doing this is to use the smallest division available on

particular calibration curves are shown in Figure 25.1 the instrument you are using. On a clock this will

(the resistance of a light-dependent resistor at different probably be a second, on a stop-watch it might well

levels of illumination) and Figure 25.4 (the resistance be 0.01 s. Unfortunately, this method does tend to

of a thermistor at different temperatures). underestimate uncertainty for the following reasons.

●● All systematic uncertainties will not be

Estimating uncertainties accounted for.

●● It might underestimate some uncertainties

If finding the value of a physical quantity is difficult, badly. A stop-watch might give a reading to

finding the uncertainty in that quantity is even a hundredth of a second but you might have

more difficult. There is almost never any sense pressed the stop button at the wrong moment.

in quoting a result as, for example, ●● Poor technique might make readings far less

density = (7.805 ± 0.076) × 103 kg m−3. This reliable than the instrument might otherwise

shows that the uncertainty is much greater than

have given. e.g. If you hold a ruler in your

the final decimal place of the result and that

hand without a firm support, it will not give

density = (7.80 ± 0.08) × 103 kg m−3 would be more

reliable readings.

sensible. The third significant figure is very doubtful

●● An instrument viewed from the wrong

and density = (7.8 ± 0.1) × 103 kg m−3 can be stated

angle will give a parallax error. Keep your

with greater confidence.

eye vertically above a needle on an ammeter

Any reading has uncertainty. As explained above,

so that the scale reading is the one directly

if a measurement of length is made using a ruler,

beneath the needle.

the length obtained will usually be measured to the

●● Any mistaken reading from a scale will

nearest millimetre. If you measure a length as 249 mm

certainly increase uncertainty. The reading on

with an uncertainty of 1 mm at the zero and another

the scale in Figure 2.6 is NOT 2.4 but 2.8.

1 mm at the other end then the reading, together with

its uncertainty is (249 ± 2) mm.

This gives the actual uncertainty as 2 mm, the

fractional uncertainty as 2/249 or 0.0080 and the

2 4

percentage uncertainty as 0.8%. 6

measurements of several quantities. In order to

find the overall uncertainty of an experiment it is

necessary to know the uncertainty of each quantity Figure 2.6

separately. If these uncertainties are estimated as

percentages then they can be added together to Stage 2 Combine these individual uncertainties to

determine the overall uncertainty of the experiment. find the overall uncertainty.

Percentage uncertainties also make it easy to see Here, examples can show you how to proceed.

Measurement Techniques 11

(Uncertainty in addition of values.) = 260 m s−1 × 18 100 s = 4.71 × 106 m.

An object with momentum (85 ± 2) N s catches up 250 m s−1 × 18 000 s = 4.50 × 106 m so the

with, and sticks to another object with momentum uncertainty is 0.2 × 106 m. The answer should be

(77 ± 3) N s. Find the total momentum of the two written as (4.5 ± 0.2) × 106 m.

objects and its uncertainty after the collision. You can add percentage uncertainties here because

it is a multiplication. The percentage uncertainty in

Answer (162 ± 5) N s is a straightforward the speed is 4%, the percentage uncertainty in the

calculation. The maximum value is time is 0.6% and the percentage uncertainty in the

87 + 80 = 167 N s and the minimum is distance is, therefore, 4.6% and 4.6% of 4.5 is 0.2.

83 + 74 = 157 N s. In percentage terms, the

uncertainties of the initial values are 2.3% and 3.9%, Example 4

respectively. The percentage uncertainty in the answer (Uncertainty in values raised to a power.)

is 3.1% so you must not add percentage uncertainties. Determine the value of the kinetic energy, and its

Here you just add values and uncertainties. uncertainty, of a cyclist of mass (63 ± 1) kg when

travelling with speed (12.0 ± 0.5) m s−1.

Example 2

Answer Here the expression is

(Uncertainty in subtraction of values.) 1 1

A reading on a balance of the mass of an empty kinetic energy = 2 × m × v × v. The 2 has no

beaker is (105 ± 1) g. After some liquid is poured uncertainty. You must not divide your uncertainty

into the beaker, the reading becomes (112 ± 1) g. figure by 2. The percentage uncertainties of the

Deduce the mass of liquid added and its uncertainty. other three terms must be added together. This has

the effect of doubling the uncertainty for v, since it is

Answer (7 ± 2) g. 113 − 104 = 9 is the maximum squared. A cubic term would involve multiplying its

and 111 − 106 = 5 is the minimum. uncertainty by 3. A square root is a power of a half,

This is not straightforward. It shows that so uncertainty in a square root is halved.

subtracting two nearly equal numbers increases

Percentage uncertainty in m = 1.5%, uncertainty

the uncertainty appreciably. You must subtract

in v = 4% so in v2 is 8%. This gives a total percentage

the values but add the uncertainties. Two readings

uncertainty of 9.5%, round this up to 10%, therefore

with percentage uncertainties about 1% give an

the result is

uncertainty of 29% when subtracted.

Example 3 kinetic energy = (4500 ± 500) J

(Uncertainty in multiplication or division of values.) Note that in quoting the uncertainty only one

These are very common situations. A plane significant figure is used.

travels at a speed of (250 ± 10) m s−1 for a time of

(18 000 ± 100) s. Determine the distance travelled

and its uncertainty.

Chapter Summary

✓✓ When taking experimental readings, always record ✓✓ An instrument with incorrect calibration will result

actual readings as soon as you take them. in a systematic uncertainty.

✓✓ Keep the number of significant figures determined by ✓✓ All readings, even those given by a digital display, will

the instrument you are using. additionally have random uncertainties as a result of

✓✓ Plot graphs on as large a scale as possible but do not the way the readings are taken.

use awkward scales on the axes.

12 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

Progress Check

2.1 An experiment was performed to determine the resistivity r Plot a suitable graph and use the graph to determine

of copper. The resistance R of a length of wire is related to the resistivity of copper. Estimate the uncertainty in

its length l and area of cross-section A by the equation the value you obtain.

R= Its dimensions are: length (50.5 ± 0.2) cm, width

A

(7.60 ± 0.08) cm, depth (5.02 ± 0.02) cm.

The resistance of 1 metre length of copper wire of different

Deduce (a) the volume of the cuboid, together with

diameters was measured, with the following results: its uncertainty, and (b) the density of the metal of the

Length of wire Diameter of Resistance of cuboid.

l / m wire d / m wire R / ohm 2.3 Explain why the following statements of uncertainty are

1.000 0.559 × 10−3 0.0704 inappropriate. Give a possible correction.

(a) g = 9.81 ± 0.3

1.000 0.315 × 10 −3

0.225

(b) g = 9.810794 ± 0.3

1.000 0.234 × 10 −3

0.402

(c) g = 9.810794 ± 0.34781

1.000 0.152 × 10 −3

0.952 (d) g = 9.8 ± 0.369

1.000 0.122 × 10−3 1.47 (e) g = 9.81 ± 0.39

1.000 0.102 × 10 −3

2.09

Examination Questions I

1. (a) Two of the SI base quantities are mass and time. State three other SI base quantities. [3]

(b) A sphere of radius r is moving at speed v through air of density r. The resistive force F acting on the sphere is given

by the expression

F = Br 2r v k

where B and k are constants without units.

(i) State the SI base units of F, r and v. [3]

(ii) Use base units to determine the value of k. [2]

(Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics 9702

Paper 21 Question 1 October/November 2010)

2. The volume of fuel in the tank of a car is monitored using a meter as illustrated in Figure 1.

FUEL

1/2 3/4

1/4

0 1

The meter has an analogue scale. The meter reading for different volumes of fuel in the tank is shown in Figure 2.

Measurement Techniques 13

60

50

40

Volume/litre

30

20

10

0

0 1/4 1/2 3/4 1

empty full

Meter reading

Figure 2

The meter is calibrated in terms of the fraction of the tank that remains filled with fuel.

(a) The car uses 1.0 litre of fuel when travelling 14 km. The car starts a journey with a full tank of fuel.

(i) Calculate the volume, in litres, of fuel remaining in the tank after a journey of 210 km. [2]

(ii) Use your answer to (i) and Figure 2 to determine the change in the meter reading during the 210 km journey. [1]

(b) There is a systematic error in the meter.

(i) State the feature of Figure 2 that indicates that there is a systematic error. [1]

(ii) Suggest why, for this meter, it is an advantage to have this systematic error. [1]

(Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics 9702

Paper 21 Question 1 October/November 2009)

3. Make reasonable estimates of the following quantities.

(a) the frequency, in Hz, of an audible sound wave [1]

(b) the wavelength, in nm, of ultraviolet radiation [1]

(c) the mass, in grams, of a plastic 30 cm ruler [1]

(d) the density of air, in kg m−3 at atmospheric pressure [1]

(Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics 9702

Paper 02 Question 1 May/June 2008)

4. (a) The current in a wire is I. Charge Q passes one point in the wire in time t. State

(i) the relation between I, Q and t, [1]

(ii) which of the quantities I, Q and t are base quantities. [2]

(b) The current in the wire is due to electrons, each with charge q, that move with speed v along the wire. There are n of

these electrons per unit volume. For a wire having a cross-sectional area S, the current I is given by the equation

I = nSqvk,

where k is a constant.

(i) State the units of I, n, S, q and v in terms of the base units. [3]

(ii) By considering the homogeneity of the equation, determine the value of k. [2]

(Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics 9702

Paper 02 Question 1 October/November 2008)

Kinematics 3

Distance and displacement Speed is defined as the distance travelled per

unit time. It is a scalar quantity.

The distance you travel by a car on a journey, or since

Velocity is defined as displacement per unit time.

the car was bought, is recorded on the instrument

It is a vector and so the direction must be stated.

panel. The distance will be given in miles or

The defining equation for both of these terms is:

kilometres, usually to the nearest tenth of a unit. This

s

recorded distance makes no mention of the direction v=

t

in which any distance travelled has taken place. In SI

units, a distance such as this would be recorded using where v is the speed or velocity,

the standard unit of length, the metre. The metre is s is the distance or displacement, and

defined in a very accurate way, in terms of the speed t is the time interval.

of light, but you need to think of it just as being a Example 1

very accurately defined length, and metre rules

approximate to that accurately defined distance. What is the average speed on a journey of a car in

The term displacement differs from distance in which it travels 620 km in 8 h 25 m?

the sense that it is not only giving a distance but is Answer Distance (s) = 620 km = 6.2 × 105 m

also stating the direction in which any movement

Time (t) = 8 h 25 min = (8 × 60) + 25 = 505 min

has taken place.

Displacement is a vector quantity while distance 505 min = 505 × 60 = 3.03 × 104 s

is a scalar quantity. ∴ average speed =

When a ball is thrown vertically upwards a s 6.20 × 105 m

distance of 3.0 m, its displacement from its starting = = 20.5ms−1

t 3.03 × 104 s

point, when it reaches the top of its movement, is

3.0 m upwards. By the time it falls back to its point

of throw, its displacement is zero. On the way down Teacher’s Tip

only, its displacement from the top is −3.0 m upwards. Many careless mistakes are made when using

When a ship sails a distance of 3700 km between equations such as v = s/t. Some of these mistakes

Mumbai and Kolkata, its displacement from its can be eliminated if you put units into the

starting point on its arrival in Kolkata will be 1700 km working equation. For example, a train travelling

in a direction N 75° E. This difference arises from the at 136 km h–1 for 6 hours travels a distance of

fact that the ship will have to travel right around the km

south of India, a much greater distance than a straight 136 × 6h = 816km

h

overland distance. It is clear that the unit of time, the hour, cancels

Speed and velocity out from the top and the bottom, leaving the

answer in kilometres. A corresponding answer

As with distance and displacement, one of these for velocity can be worked out in exactly the same

terms, velocity, is a vector and other, speed, is a way, but the answer needs to have a direction

scalar quantity. Therefore, whenever velocity is used included. It could be 609 km due south.

a direction must be given.

Kinematics 15

the distance travelled in a small interval of time

Acceleration is a vector and is defined as the rate

needs to be taken. This could be from 3.9 s to 4.1 s or

of change of velocity.

even 3.99 s to 4.01 s. Each of these is getting closer to

The average acceleration a of an object is,

the gradient of the graph at a time of 4.0 s.

therefore, given by

The slope (gradient) of a distance–time graph

v −u

a= gives the speed.

t

The slope (gradient) of a displacement–time

where v is the final velocity, u is the starting velocity graph gives the velocity, provided the direction of

and t is the time interval. the change in displacement is given.

The SI unit of acceleration is m s–1 ÷ s or m s–2.

Velocity–time graphs

Graphs for motion

As acceleration is the rate of change of velocity, the

Distance–time graphs

slope (gradient) of a velocity–time graph will be the

A distance–time graph can be used to find the speed acceleration.

of an object. Figure 3.1 shows a distance–time graph Consider an object accelerating uniformly in a

for an object travelling with speed 6.0 m s–1. straight line from a velocity of 8.0 m s–1 to a velocity

of 23.0 m s–1 in a time of 5.0 s. A graph of this motion

30

is shown in Figure 3.3.

25

Distance/m

20 (23)

20

Velocity/m s−1

10

15 B

10

0 (8)

0 1 2 3 4 5

5 A

Time/s

0

Figure 3.1 A distance–time graph 0 1 2 3 4 5

Time/s

After 1 s the object has travelled 6.0 m, after 2 s Figure 3.3

12 m and so on until after 5 s it has travelled 30 m.

The slope of the graph, the acceleration, is given by

The object is travelling at a constant speed.

Figure 3.2 gives another graph where the object acceleration =

increase in velocity

also travels 30 m in 5 s but it has covered a greater time

distance in the last second than it did in the first =

(23.0 − 8.0)ms −1

second. Its speed is not constant. 5.0s

15ms −1

30 = = 3.0ms −2

5.0s

However, this is not the only information that

Distance/m

20

this graph of Figure 3.3 supplies. If the object had

10

remained at a constant velocity of 8.0 m s–1 for all of

the 5.0 s of travel, it would have had a displacement

0

of 8.0 m s–1 × 5.0 s = 40 m. This is shown as area A,

0 1 2 3 4 5 on Figure 3.3. Extending this idea to the accelerated

Time/s motion, the total displacement will be area A plus

Figure 3.2 area B.

16 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

Area A = 40 m 1

s = vt − 2 at2 Equation III

1

Area B = 2 × base × height of the triangle

or the average value of the velocity multiplied by

1 the time, namely

= 2 × 5.0 s × 15 m s–1

u+v

= 37.5 m s= ×t Equation IV

Total displacement = 40 m + 37.5 m 2

If you look at Equations I to IV, you may notice

= 77.5 m

that Equation I omits s, Equation II omits v,

Derivation of equations of motion for Equation III omits u and Equation IV omits a. All

uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line the equations require t, but this term may not be

given. An equation that does omit t can be obtained

In this section, the symbols used have the following

by some difficult algebra.

meanings:

v2 = u2 + 2as Equation V

s the displacement, The five equations all refer to uniformly

u the velocity at the start of the motion, accelerated motion in a straight line. In other

v the velocity at the end of the motion, words, they do not apply if the acceleration is

t the total time for the acceleration and changing or if the object is going round a corner.

a the acceleration. It is worthwhile for you to be able to quote all of

Directly from the definition of acceleration as the these equations. Two of them are given on the

increase in velocity per unit time, we get, Data and Formulae page of the exam paper.

v −u

a= which can be written as Teacher’s Tip

t

at = v − u OR v = u + at Equation I Whenever you use any of these equations always

carefully check the signs. For example, if movement

Figure 3.4 is a velocity–time graph that shows

upwards is positive then movement downwards

these terms as used with uniform acceleration and

is negative.

some connections between them.

v Example 2

at A ball is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity

B

of 28 m s−1 from a point 2.8 m above the ground.

Velocity

u

Calculate

A (a) the maximum height reached, and

0 (b) the time taken before it reaches the ground.

0 t

Time The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m s–2. Air

Figure 3.4 A velocity–time graph resistance can be neglected.

Area A is ut, Answer (a) u = 28 m s–1, v = 0, a = g = – 9.8 m s–2

1 1 Note the minus sign; u is taken as positive for

Area B is 2 × t × at = 2 at2

upwards so g must be negative as the acceleration

This gives the total displacement s the area due to gravity is downwards.

beneath the graph Here s is required, so use equation v2 = u2 + 2as to get

1 0 = 282 + (2 × (–9.8) × s)

s = ut + 2 at2 Equation II

This gives 282 = 2 × 9.8 × s

The total area under the graph could equally be 282

given by So, s = = 40 m

19.6

Kinematics 17

(b) The time taken to reach the top can be found force from the air you are passing through. Similarly

using v = u + at an astronaut in the space shuttle has no feeling for

0 = 28 + (–9.8 t) weight. In simulated free fall in a plane, people seem

t = 28/9.8 = 2.86 s to be weightless. This, too, is because we cannot feel

weight.

The time to fall a total distance of 42.8 m can now

1 When you are standing on the Earth you are

be found using s = ut + 2 at2 with all values in the not accelerating because the support force on you,

downward direction provided by contact with the Earth balances your

1 weight. Your weight is the same in both Figure 3.5(a)

42.8 = 0 + 2 × 9.8 × t2

and Figure 3.5(b).

t2 = 2 × 42.8/9.8 = 8.73 The weight of an object is defined as the product

so t = 2.96 of the object’s mass and the acceleration of free fall g.

From the start the total time will be So, if your mass is 68.0 kg and the acceleration of

(2.86 + 2.96) s = 5.82 s free fall is 9.81 m s–2 then your weight is given by,

Part (b) could have been done in one step using Weight = mass × acceleration of free fall

1 = 68.0 × 9.81 = 667 N.

s = ut + 2 at2 and getting

1 Note that weight, being a force, will always

–2.8 = 28t + 2 (−9.8)t2

be measured in newtons. Your weight will vary

But this does involve solving a quadratic equation. slightly from place to place on the Earth because the

What would the negative value of t give? acceleration of free fall varies from place to place on

the Earth’s surface.

Weight

easurement of the acceleration

M

The weight of any object is the gravitational pull on of free fall, g

the object. Our human body does not have any sense

organs that detect this pull but everybody knows that One way in which g can be measured in the

there is a pull towards the Earth because if we drop laboratory is to release a ball as a timer is started.

something it moves towards the Earth until it hits After falling through a distance s, the timer stops

something. When you stand on the Earth you can feel and records a time t for the fall.

the contact force of the Earth acting upwards on you, 1

Using s = ut + 2 at2, gives

because your body does have a sense of touch. The

forces acting on you when you fall or when you stand 1

s = 0 + 2 gt2

on the ground are shown in Figures 3.5(a) and (b).

and hence g = 2s /t 2

Upward contact One arrangement that will achieve this is shown

forces of the ground

on your feet

in Figure 3.6.

Weight Switch closed before

Weight start so electromagnet holds ball

Earth Earth Off to start

Electromagnet A

(a) (b) Timer

Figure 3.5 Forces acting on you (a) when you fall Steel ball

Off to stop

and (b) when you stand on the ground

S

The forces involved in these diagrams will be

considered in more detail in Chapter 4 but, at present, B

you to accelerate downwards. At this stage you have

no feeling for your weight, though you might feel a Figure 3.6 Laboratory set-up to measure g

18 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

When switch A is turned off the steel ball starts to The expression terminal velocity is used for this

fall and the timer starts. The ball falls onto switch B situation. For a falling person this happens at a velocity

and when it breaks the circuit the timer stops. of around 50 to 60 m s–1. A parachutist, in contrast,

Some problems with the method are: is slowed down by his parachute and usually hits the

●● t he ball is inclined to stick on the ground when travelling at about 2–3 m s–1. Graphs

electromagnet after switching off, so the showing how the downward acceleration and velocity

current in the electromagnet must be only change with time are given in Figures 3.8(a) and (b).

just large enough to hold the ball, and

●● air resistance increases as the ball falls, 9.8

Acceleration/m s−2

reducing the acceleration.

An improved method, using light gates, is

suggested in Progress Check Question 3.10.

The effect of air resistance 0

0

on a falling body Time/s

(a)

So far in this chapter, air resistance has largely been

ignored. In practice there are situations in real life Terminal

where air resistance is vitally necessary, a parachute Velocity/m s−1 velocity

being the best example. Air resistance on a falling

sphere increases with velocity. It is a force that acts

upwards. This is also true for most other falling

bodies, but area of cross-section also affects the

magnitude of air resistance. Sky divers, for example, 0

0 Time/s

usually spread themselves to give maximum air

(b)

resistance because it increases the time they can be

in free fall before they need to open their parachutes. Figure 3.8

Figure 3.7 shows how air resistance increases as

downward velocity increases. Objects moving under gravity in two

Air resistance increasing dimensions

R=0

Anything moving through the air near the Earth’s

surface is often moving sideways as well as up or

Velocity down. When a golf ball is hit cleanly with a golf club,

increasing W W it will start by moving forwards and upwards and,

W W R=W

W before it hits the ground, by moving forwards and

W

downwards. This is shown in Figure 3.9, where air

W

resistance has again been ignored.

W

Figure 3.7

body to decrease and so there is less acceleration. Horizontal ground

Provided the length of drop is sufficient, air resistance Horizontal velocity constant

magnitude to the body’s weight, at which point the

object has zero acceleration and constant velocity. Figure 3.9 The path of a golf ball when air resistance is

ignored

Kinematics 19

Initial velocity

64 m s−1

contact with the club there will be zero horizontal component

of initial

force on the ball. Its horizontal velocity, therefore, velocity 37°

remains constant. This is shown by black arrows of Horizontal

constant length. Vertically, however, the weight of component of

the ball will cause a downward acceleration of g. Its initial velocity

of 9.81 m s−2 to 0 at the top of the flight and then

increases at the same rate bringing the ball back to Horizontal component = 64 cos 37° = 51.1 m s−1

the ground. Vertical component = 64 sin 37° = 38.5 m s−1

The following example shows how to calculate the (a) Use v2 = u2 + 2as for the vertical motion only,

range of a golf ball in the absence of air resistance. so v = 0 at the top of the flight. This gives

Air resistance will decrease the range of the ball and

the maximum height it reaches. 0 = (38.5)2 − 2 × 9.81 × s

where s is the vertical rise.

Example 3 Therefore 2 × 9.81 × s = 38.52 and s = 75.5 m.

A golfer strikes a ball so that the ball has a velocity (b) The time for this vertical rise can be obtained

of 64 m s−1 at an angle of 37° to the horizontal. In 1

from s = vt − 2 at2

the absence of air resistance, calculate for horizontal 1

75.5 = 0 − 2 × (−9.81) × t2 and

ground,

so t2 = 2 × 75.5/9.81 = 15.4 and t = 3.93 s

(a) the maximum height reached, (c) Since both halves of this path are symmetrical,

(b) the time taken to reach maximum height, and the time taken to return to the ground will also

(c) the distance the ball travels horizontally before be 3.93 s. The total time is, therefore, 7.86 s. At

hitting the ground for the first time. a constant horizontal velocity of 51.1 m s−1, the

Answer Start by finding the horizontal and ball will travel a total horizontal distance of

vertical components of the initial velocity, using m

51.1 s × 7.86s = 400m (to 2 significant figures).

Figure 3.10.

Chapter Summary

✓✓ Speed is a scalar and is distance travelled per unit ✓✓ The gradient of a distance–time graph gives the speed

time. (or velocity).

✓✓ Velocity is a vector and is speed in a stated direction. ✓✓ The gradient of a velocity–time graph gives the

✓✓ Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. It is a acceleration.

vector. ✓✓ The area beneath a velocity–time graph gives the

✓✓ Equations of motion for uniform acceleration: distance.

1. vv = ✓✓ The pull of gravity on an object is its weight.

1. =uu++ at

at

1 2 ✓✓ For motion in two dimensions, horizontal velocity

2. ss =

2. = ut

ut + 1 at

+ at 2 is usually considered to be constant; vertical velocity

22 will have acceleration due to gravity downwards.

3. ss = 11 22

3. vt −

= vt − 2 at at These two velocities can be considered separately.

2

4. ss = u+

u + vv t

4. = 2 × ×t

2

5. vv 22 =

5. =u

2

u2 ++ 22asas

20 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

Progress Check

3.1 A car travels a distance of 720 km in moving 480 km stopped. Two minutes must be allowed for the train to

south and 370 km west as shown in Figure 3.11. What is be stationary. Consider a train travelling at 60 m s−1

the displacement of the car from its starting point after before braking with a deceleration of 2.0 m s−2.

completing the journey? (Deceleration is negative acceleration.) After stopping it

Starting can accelerate at a rate of 1.2 m s−2. Calculate

point (a) the time taken for the train to stop,

(b) the time taken for the train to accelerate back to

Route distance top speed,

720 km 480 km (c) the distances the train takes to stop and to speed up,

(d) the delay time of the train as a result of stopping at

the station.

Finishing

point 3.9 A motorist travelling at 25 m s−1 is 40 m behind another

370 km

motorist also travelling at 25 m s−1. The first motorist

Figure 3.11 accelerates in 6.0 s to 30 m s−1 and maintains this speed

3.2 A plane travels 2000 km east and 150 km south on a flight. difference until he is 50 m in front of the other motorist,

What is the displacement of the plane from its starting who keeps to his original speed. Deduce

point at the end of the journey? (a) the total time this takes,

(b) the distance the overtaking motorist has travelled.

3.3 When travelling in a straight line, a train increases its

velocity from 3 m s−1 to 50 m s−1 in a time of 107 s. What is 3.10 A steel ball bearing is dropped from above gate 1 and is

its average acceleration during this time? timed as it passes through the three light gates shown in

Figure 3.12.

3.4 In an X-ray tube an electron has acceleration of

8.4 × 1016 m s−2 from rest to a velocity of 3.8 × 107 m s−1.

How long does the acceleration take? Gate 1 Lamp 1

car to increase its speed from 28 m s−1 to 75 m s−1 if the 53 cm

Gate 2 Lamp 2

maximum grip between the car and the racetrack enables

a maximum acceleration of 17 m s−2 ?

53 cm

3.6 In a sprint, an athlete maintains a constant acceleration of Gate 3 Lamp 3

7.8 m s−2 for the first 1.5 s of the race. Calculate:

(a) the velocity of the athlete after 1.5 s,

Path of ball between

(b) the displacement of the athlete after the 1.5 s. three light gates

3.7 In an old castle there is a well that is so deep that when a

Figure 3.12

bucketful of water is dropped down the well it takes 4.0 s

before the dropped water hits the water in the well. The The separation between each pair of light gates is 53.0 cm.

acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m s−2. The time interval between gates 1 and 2 is 0.197 46 s and

Estimate:

between gates 2 and 3 is 0.124 34 s.

(a) the speed of the dropped water when it hits the 1

water in the well, (a) Write equations using s = ut + at2 for

2

(b) the depth of the well. (i) the time between gates 1 and 2,

Explain two factors that make your answers unreliable. (ii) the total time between gates 1 and 3.

3.8 A railway company is asked to allow a high-speed train (b) Eliminate u, the speed of the ball at gate 1 and

to make a stop at a station where it had previously not solve the equation to find g.

Dynamics 4

Introduction Newton’s second law

You need some background knowledge about The rate of change of momentum of a body is

motion to understand dynamics. In the proportional to the resultant force acting on it.

seventeenth century Sir Isaac Newton transformed More detail about momentum will be given

ideas about motion. He stated three laws of shortly. Here it refers to the product of the mass and

motion that are now known as Newton’s laws of velocity of an object. It is a vector quantity.

motion. The most important difference between Newton’s first law is actually the special case of the

pre-Newton ideas and his own ideas was that second law when the resultant force is zero. In that

Newton realised that increased force resulted in case there will be no rate of change of momentum,

increased acceleration and that zero force resulted so there will be a constant velocity.

in zero acceleration. Previously zero force was Newton’s third law

assumed to be the condition for zero velocity.

In its traditional wording, it is:

It may appear obvious that force is required for

If body A exerts a force on body B then body B

motion but it is not so. The Earth, for example,

exerts an equal and opposite force on body A.

is travelling at about 30 kilometres per second in

A different version of this law will be given in a

its orbit around the Sun. Nothing is pushing it to

Teacher’s Tip on page 24.

keep it at this speed and it has been travelling with

a speed like this for the last 4 500 000 000 years.

Similarly an artificial space probe, far out in space Mass

might be travelling with constant velocity of Whereas weight is a force and is, therefore,

5 km s−1 for years. It only requires its rocket motor measured in newtons, mass is not a force. Mass is

to be switched on when it is required to change its a measure of how difficult it is to accelerate a body.

velocity. It is often referred to as the inertia of a body or its

reluctance to accelerate. Mass is measured in the

Teacher’s Tip familiar unit, the kilogram.

Zero resultant force implies constant velocity and If an object has a mass of 100 kg, it will be 100

zero acceleration. A resultant force will cause an times more difficult to accelerate it than the standard

acceleration in the direction of the resultant force. 1 kilogram mass. Another way of looking at this

is that if a force can give the standard kilogram a

certain acceleration, then the same force on a 100 kg

Newton’s laws of motion

mass will cause one hundredth of this acceleration.

The formal statements of the laws are as follows. One important point about an object’s mass is that

it is constant throughout the Universe. The weight

Newton’s first law of a 5.000 kilogram mass on Earth may vary from

Every object continues in its state of rest or state 49.15 N at the North Pole to a lower force of 48.90 N

of uniform motion in a straight line unless acted at the equator. On the Moon the weight would be

upon by a resultant external force. about 8.0 N only. It would be very easy to lift the mass

22 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

on the Moon but if you kicked it, that is, accelerated change in momentum

it, the feel of it on your toes would be exactly the same This gives F = k × change in time

Equation I

as if you kicked it on the Earth. In all these situations, where k is a constant.

the mass remains the same at 5.000 kg. dp

It is confusing that in everyday life, weights are For those of you studying calculus this is F = k .

dt

given in kilograms. Postal services in many countries, For a constant mass this becomes

for example, charge for parcels according to weight—

m × change in v

and then give weights in kilograms. For your physics F=k×

change in t

course it is best to remember the difference between

mass and weight as shown in the Teacher’s Tip. Since change in v/change in t is the acceleration

we get

Teacher’s Tip F = kma Equation II

●● The mass of an object is always measured in

You may be familiar with this equation, apart

kilograms.

from the k term in it. Making k equal to 1 comes

●● The gravitational force pulling an object

about from the definition of the unit of force, the

towards the Earth, its weight, is always

newton.

measured in newtons.

A force of 1 newton (N) is the force that causes

If your own mass is 70 kg, your weight is a mass of 1 kilogram to have an acceleration of

70 kg × 9.81 m s−2 = 687 N. 1 m s-2.

Note that the unit for g, the acceleration of free fall So, 1 N = k × 1 kg × 1 m s−2

due to gravity, is not only m s−2 but since acceleration

can be calculated from force divided by mass, the unit This makes k = 1 so long as the units used are

of acceleration can also be written as newtons, kilograms and metres second−2. It also

N means that force in newtons can be defined as being

. equal to the rate of change of momentum.

kg

With k = 1, equation II becomes the familiar,

Therefore, 9.81 m s−2 is 9.81 newtons per kilogram,

F = m × a.

and when written this way it is referred to as the

In this equation F and a are vectors and m is a

Earth’s gravitational field strength. Gravitational field

scalar. This means that F and a must always be in the

strength is defined as the force per unit mass acting

same direction. A resultant force on an object will

due to gravity.

accelerate the object only in the direction that the

Linear momentum force is acting. This reinforces the comment made

in Chapter 3 about a ball travelling through the air

Momentum was stated earlier to be the product of a (see Figure 3.9). In Figure 4.1 the ball is following a

body’s mass m and velocity v. The symbol normally curved path.

used for momentum is p, so

p=m×v Path of ball

(There is another momentum called angular

momentum. It involves rotation and is not included Acceleration

Velocity

in this physics course. Therefore, whenever you see

Pull of Earth

the word momentum in this course you can assume

it is linear momentum for an object travelling in a Ground

straight line.)

Figure 4.1

Newton’s second law states that the rate of change

of momentum of an object is proportional to the

resultant force acting on the object.

Dynamics 23

The velocity of the ball is at a tangent to the curve, The gravitational force of the Earth on the apple

but the force acting on the ball is the gravitational downwards equals the gravitational force of the

attraction of the Earth pulling vertically downwards, apple on the Earth upwards.

so the acceleration must also be vertically downwards. The forces

Equation I gives a more meaningful SI unit for

●● are equal in magnitude,

momentum than the artificial kg m s−1. Rearranging

●● are opposite in direction,

the equation gives

●● are both gravitational

change in momentum = force × time ●● and act on different objects.

and, therefore, an SI unit of momentum is the The downward force on the small mass of the

newton second, N s. apple causes its acceleration, the force of the same

magnitude acting upwards on the vast mass of the

Newton’s third law Earth has virtually no effect on the Earth’s movement.

This law effectively states that forces always come in Now consider the situation at the instant the apple

pairs. A’s push on B is always accompanied by B’s push hits the ground. Figures 4.3(a) and (b) show so-called

on A, and that these two forces are equal in magnitude free-body diagrams for both the Earth and the apple.

and opposite in direction. The two forces are also always The apple is touching the Earth but the diagrams get

of the same type and never act on the same object. confused with one another if they are shown touching.

For example, when a tennis racket hits a tennis

Contact force Ground

ball, the contact force of the racket on the ball equals of ground on

the contact force of the ball on the racket. apple 15 N

This does not mean that they somehow cancel one

another out.

If the contact force on the ball is 60 N forwards

then it accelerates forwards at a rate dependent on

its mass. The contact force on the racket is 60 N Gravitational Contact force Gravitational

of apple on pull of apple

backwards and it will decelerate at a rate depending pull of Earth

ground 15 N on Earth 2 N

on apple 2 N

on its mass, and any other forces acting on it. (a) (b)

Now consider an apple falling from a tree. (This

is an appropriate example because Newton, by Figure 4.3

common agreement, is assumed to have written his The gravitational forces are exactly the same as

laws after thinking about a falling apple!) Figure 4.2 has just been discussed. They are now taken to be

shows the Earth and the apple. 2 N in magnitude. The difference is that now there

is an upward contact force of the ground on the

Apple

apple, taken as 15 N, and consequently a downward

Force Earth exerts contact force of 15 N of the apple on the ground.

Force apple on apple The apple is decelerated by a resultant upward force

exerts on

Earth of 13 N. The Earth is almost unaffected by the 15 N

Equator

downward contact force on it.

Once the apple has stopped, the free-body force

diagrams are shown in Figures 4.4(a) and (b).

Earth These diagrams are very similar to those in

Figures 4.3(a) and (b). The only difference is that the

15 N forces have dropped in magnitude down to 2 N.

Figure 4.2 As an apple falls the force the Earth exerts on

The resultant force on the apple is zero and so at rest

it is equal and opposite to the force the apple exerts on the on the ground it has zero acceleration.

Earth. (The figure is not drawn to scale!)

24 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

Contact force Gravitational

of ground on pull of Earth

stickiness. After the collision, the two blocks may stick

apple 2 N on apple 2 N together, may bounce off one another or may break up

into thousands of bits. To simplify things the following

(a)

analysis assumes that the blocks hit one another head

on but the analysis is equally true if done for two or

Contact force

of apple on three dimensions rather than one. Figure 4.5 shows

ground 2 N the arrangement with A, of mass M, moving in one

direction with velocity U. It also shows B, of mass m,

Gravitational moving in the opposite direction with velocity u.

pull of apple

on Earth 2 N

U u

(b) A B

does not, for a given object in a given place. When

walking, for example, you vary the contact force On hitting B, A will exert a force on it which

between your shoes and the ground in a complicated might vary with time as shown in Figure 4.6(a).

way. There are only a few special moments when the

magnitude of the contact force happens to be equal

to the magnitude of your weight.

Force A exerts on B

Teacher’s Tip

0

Learn Newton’s third law in a longer, but more Time

precise form.

If body A exerts a force on body B then

body B exerts a force on body A that is equal in

magnitude, opposite in direction, and the two

forces are of the same type. (a)

to two forces acting on the same body that might

happen to be equal and opposite to one another even

Force B exerts on A

0

third law says nothing about a gravitational force Time

being equal and opposite to a contact force. The two

different forces may be equal and opposite, but this is

not related to Newton’s third law.

Newton’s third law The area beneath this graph is a product of the

Consider a collision between two blocks of matter average force exerted F and the time t. F × t is the

far out in space. The blocks can be of any size, any change in momentum of B.

Dynamics 25

Newton’s third law states that if body A exerts a velocity v and velocities u and U and get masses m

force on body B, then body B exerts an equal and and M the wrong way round. A typical sketch is

opposite force on body A. The force that B exerts given in Figure 4.7.

on A is, therefore, shown in Figure 4.6(b). The Zero velocity

u

two graphs must be exactly mirror images of one

another. The area beneath the top graph shows the Before collision Car Car

950 kg

gain in the momentum of B. The area beneath the 1200 kg

by B is exactly matched by the momentum lost by A.

It is a loss of momentum of A because the force on A After collision 1200 kg 950 kg

7.3 m s−1

is in the opposite direction to its motion. The force

on A slows A down. Figure 4.7

Gain of momentum of B = loss of momentum of A.

The total momentum of the two bodies is

Using the principle of conservation of momentum

unchanged.

Total momentum total momentum

This is a fundamental principle of physics that has =

before collision after collision

never been known to have been broken. It is called

(1200 × u) = (1200 + 950) × 7.3

the principle of conservation of linear momentum.

Therefore, u = (2150 × 7.3)/1200 = 13.1 m s−1.

One interesting point about this collision is that

The use of the principle of conservation although momentum is conserved in the collision,

of momentum kinetic energy is not conserved. This must be the

A formal statement of the principle of conservation case, since even if no other energy is lost there will

of linear momentum is as follows. be a lot of sound energy produced in the crash.

In any collision between bodies the total You are probably familiar with kinetic energy being

momentum remains constant provided that there 1

2

mv2. This will be considered in more detail later

is no resultant external force acting.

but here,

The principle holds however many systems

Kinetic energy of 1200 kg car before the collision

are involved but, for example, when a collision 1

takes place between two cars, not only are the cars = 2 × 1200 × 13.12 = 103 kJ

involved but the ground has forces exerted on it as inetic energy of both cars after the collision

K

well and so does the air surrounding the collision 1

as air resistance might be involved. The following = 2 × (1200 + 950) × 7.32 = 57 kJ

example shows how this difficulty can be minimised So, 46 kJ has been lost in heating the road and the

and how the principle of conservation of momentum cars and in producing sound energy.

can be used.

Elastic and inelastic collisions

Example 1

A car of mass 950 kg is at rest and a car of mass A collision such as the one detailed in the example

1200 kg travelling at an unknown velocity u hits above is known as an inelastic collision because

it from behind. From skid markings on the road kinetic energy has been lost. In an elastic collision

an investigator deduces that the speed of both there is no loss of kinetic energy. A special situation

vehicles immediately after the collision was 7.3 m s−1. arises with an elastic collision.

Calculate the value of u. Consider the following elastic collision in a

straight line between body A of mass m and velocity

Answer It is always worthwhile with these u with body B of mass M and velocity U as shown

problems to sketch a diagram on which known in Figure 4.8. The velocities after the collision are

details can be added. It is all too easy to confuse v and V.

26 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

A

B For elastic collisions only, the velocity of approach

Before collision m

u

M

U equals the velocity of separation.

Example 2

V

After collision m

v

M On a linear air track, a mass of 120 g is travelling

to the right with a velocity of 83 cm s−1. It collides

Figure 4.8 elastically with a mass of 200 g travelling with

velocity 47 cm s−1 in the opposite direction, as shown

Equating total momentum before the collision

in Figure 4.9.

with momentum after gives

mu + MU = mv + MV 83 cm s−1 47 cm s−1

= 0.83 m s−1 = 0.47 m s−1

The corresponding equation for kinetic energy

will be

1 1 1 1

2

mu2 + 2 MU 2 = 2 mv2 + 2 MV 2

A B

120 g 200 g

To simplify these two equations is not as easy as = 0.12 kg = 0.20 kg

Velocity U Velocity V

the terms with an m in them on the left-hand side of

Figure 4.9

the equations and all the terms with M in them on

1 With what velocity do the masses travel after the

the right. The 2 may be cancelled from the kinetic

collision?

energy equation giving

mu − mv = MV − MU or efore collision total momentum to right

Answer B

= (0.12 × 0.83) − (0.20 × 0.47)

m(u − v) = M(V − U) and Equation I

After the collision total momentum to

mu2 − mv2 = MV 2 − MU 2 or right = (0.12 × U ) + (0.20 × V )

m(u2 − v2) = M(V 2 − U 2) Equation II

ese two terms are equal by the principle of

Th

Now divide the Equation II by Equation I to get conservation of energy, so

m(u 2 − v 2 ) M (V 2 − U 2 ) (0.0996 − 0.0940) = 0.0056 = 0.12U + 0.20V

=

m(u − v ) M (V − U )

Sometimes it is worthwhile multiplying both sides

Both m and M cancel out and both top lines are of an equation by a large number to get rid of all the

differences of two squares so zeroes. Multiplying through by 100 gives

(u + v )(u − v ) (U + V )(U − V )

= (9.96 − 9.40) = 0.56 = 12U + 20V

(u − v ) (U − V )

Neither U nor V can be obtained from this equation

giving but using the fact that the velocity of approach

(u + v ) = (U + V ) equals the velocity of separation gives

or (u − U ) = (V − v ) (0.83 + 0.47) = V − U

The term on the left is the relative velocity of By substituting into the first equation we get

approach, i.e. how fast mass m is catching up mass

M. The term on the right is the relative velocity of 12U + 20(1.30 + U ) = 0.56

separation, i.e. how fast M is moving away from 12U + 26 + 20U = 0.56 so 32U = −25.44 and

mass m. U = −0.795 m s−1 = −80 cm s−1 to 2 sig figs. and

V = 0.505 m s−1 = 51 cm s−1 to 2 sig figs.

Dynamics 27

Chapter Summary

✓✓ Newton’s first law. Every object continues in its state ✓✓ Weight is the force of gravitational attraction acting

of rest or state of uniform motion in a straight line on a body. It is measured in newtons.

unless acted upon by a resultant external force. ✓✓ Momentum is the product of an object’s mass and

✓✓ Newton’s second law. The rate of change of velocity. It is measured in N s. To determine the time

momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant t an object takes to stop when a force F is applied, use

force acting on it. its momentum in the equation mv = Ft.

✓✓ Newton’s third law. If body A exerts a force on body ✓✓ The principle of conservation of momentum states

B then body B exerts an equal and opposite force on that in all collisions the total momentum is constant

body A. provided that there is no resultant external force

✓✓ Mass is a measure of how difficult it is to accelerate a acting.

body. It is measured in kilograms.

Progress Check

4.1 (a) Calculate the weight of a new-born baby of mass 4.4 Draw free-body force diagrams for

3.72 kg. (a) a person standing on level ground and a case held

(b) Calculate the mass and the weight on the Earth of in their hand,

a satellite that has a weight on the Moon of 1130 N. (b) a person driving a car and the car accelerating in a

The gravitational field of the Moon at its surface is straight line,

1.62 N kg−1. (c) a car and a caravan, with the car accelerating.

4.2 For each of the following situations, which quantity, mass 4.5 A cannonball has mass 25 kg and it is fired horizontally

or weight, is mainly involved? Give reasons for your with velocity 75 m s−1 from a cannon of mass 320 kg.

answers. Calculate the initial velocity of recoil of the cannon.

(a) Buying a loaf of bread

(b) Lifting a group of people in a lift 4.6 A head-on elastic collision takes place between a

(c) Starting a Grand Prix racing car in a race stationary nucleus of uranium, mass 235 u, and a neutron,

(d) Posting a parcel mass 1.00 u. The neutron was travelling with velocity

(e) Hitting a wall in an accident in a car 4.70 × 106 m s−1. Calculate the speed of the two particles

(f) Checking the load in a helicopter after the collision.

(g) Rock climbing

[Note: Provided all the mass units are the same in the

4.3 In using the equation F = kma, what value will k have conservation of momentum equation, there is no need

if the mass is measured in grams, the acceleration is to convert masses in u to masses in kilograms because

measured in cm s−2 and F is to be found and measured the conversion factor would cancel out throughout your

in newtons? equation.]

Forces, Density and

Pressure 5

Types of force The definitions for gravitational field and electric

field are directly comparable. The definition for

A force is often described as a push or a pull, but if

magnetic field is more complicated, particularly

we want to know more about this term, then first we

concerning direction.

have to learn how a force can be produced.

These three causes of force appear to omit

Outside of the nucleus of an atom, there are three

ordinary forces between touching objects like

ways in which a force can be generated. It can be

knocks, hits, pushes, tensions, etc. This is because all

generated:

of these forces are actually electrical forces. It is the

●● on a mass in a gravitational field, electrical force that holds all solid objects together.

●● on a charge in an electric field, and All atoms contain charged particles and solid objects

●● on an electric current in a magnetic field. remain solid because of the attractive force between

these particles. All forces of contact are, in fact,

The first of these three has been mentioned

electrical forces, even though you do not regard

in Chapter 4. A mass m in a gravitational field g

touching a table as having an electric shock.

experiences a force mg. For example, in the Earth’s

gravitational field of 9.81 N kg −1 a 20.0 kg mass will Forces in fluids

experience a force of 20.0 kg × 9.81 N kg −1 = 196.2 N

in the direction of the field. Swimming is possible because the water you swim

The other two types of force will be considered in provides an upward force on you. This becomes

in more detail later in the book but, for the sake of very clear when you snorkel on the surface of deep

completeness they are given here and described in water. When you look down to the bottom of the

outline. sea, provided the water is clear and perhaps the Sun

A charge q in an electric field E experiences a force is shining, it almost looks as if you are in danger of

qE. For example, a charge of 3.6 microcoulombs (µC) falling from a great height, but you know that the

in an electric field of 23 000 N C −1 experiences a force water is holding you up. The support force acting on

given by you is a contact force from the water and is called an

upthrust. Upthrust is the force that allows all boats

F = qE = 3.6 × 10 −6 C × 23 000 N C −1 = 0.083 N in

to float. A boat in equilibrium will have an upthrust

the direction of the field.

on it that is equal and opposite to its total weight. If

A current I flowing through a wire of length l it rises a little, then the weight will be greater than

when placed at right angles to a magnetic field of flux the upthrust and if it falls a little, then the upthrust

density B will experience a force F given by F = BIl. will be greater than the weight. So, when out of

For example, a current of 6.2 A flowing through equilibrium, the resultant force will tend to push it

a 3.0 cm length of wire, when placed at right angles back into equilibrium.

to a magnetic field of flux density 0.026 tesla (T) will The origin of upthrust is due to the increase in

experience a force F given by pressure in a liquid with depth. More detail will

F = BIl = 0.026 T × 6.2 A × 0.030 m = 0.0048 N be given about pressure later in the chapter but its

This force will be at right angles to both the definition is that pressure is force per unit area. Be

current and the magnetic field. careful with the use of the word pressure because

Forces, Density and Pressure 29

in everyday speech people often use the term through a fluid, the terms viscous force or drag are

‘pressure’ when they should have correctly used used. Fluid means ‘something that can flow’ and so

‘force’. Pressure is correctly measured in the unit a fluid substance is a liquid or a gas. In air, the term

newtons per square metre unit or the pascal. air resistance is frequently used and fluid friction is

1 N m−2 is a pressure of 1 pascal, 1 Pa. another term used generally for viscous forces.

Generally the magnitude of viscous force

Atmospheric pressure is about 100 000 Pa. increases with speed but only under special non-

Meteorologists (scientists who study the weather turbulent conditions is viscous force proportional

and climate) use the unit 1 bar for 100 000 Pa and to speed. Friction between solids is usually

often measure atmospheric pressure as, say, independent of speed once the object is moving.

998 mbar (= 0.998 bar). You must have noticed that it is easier to keep

A cube submerged in a liquid will have forces something moving than it is to get it moving in the

acting on it due to the pressure of the liquid. This is first place. This is because the frictional force on a

shown in Figure 5.1. stationary object is greater than that on the same

object when it is moving.

Friction is frequently considered to be a nuisance.

However, friction is an absolutely essential force for

almost everything. Life, as we know it, would not

exist without friction. All clothing is held together

by friction. All houses require friction to remain

standing. Nails, screws, nuts and bolts all hold

together because of friction. Cars not only require

tyres to grip a road using friction, they are held

together by friction. Even mountains would not

Figure 5.1 Forces acting on a solid exist if there was no such force as friction.

submerged in a liquid

Centre of gravity

The sideways forces cancel out; the upward forces

are greater than the downward forces, so there is a Any large object may be made up of many parts and

resultant of all these forces in an upward direction. each part made of innumerable numbers of molecules.

This resultant is the upthrust. It is almost impossible to make any calculation about

the overall acceleration of the object by considering

Resistive forces each molecule separately. This problem is overcome by

When there is movement of an object across a using the concept of the centre of gravity of an object.

surface, there is usually a force on the object that The centre of gravity of an object is defined as

is in the opposite direction to its motion. The force the single point where the weight of the object

on the object is called friction when the object is may be considered to act. For most regular objects,

moving across a solid. When the object is moving the centre of gravity (c of g) of the object is at its

geometrical centre, as shown in Figure 5.2.

C of G C of G

C of G

C of G

Figure 5.2 For regular objects, centre of gravity is the geometrical centre

30 Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Revision Guide

Steel head of

sledge hammer

C of G

C of G

Wooden handle

C of G

Figure 5.3 For some objects, centre of gravity lies outside of the object

For some objects the centre of gravity may be Here, in Figure 5.4(a) a beam is pivoted at X with

difficult to find or may even be outside of the body a 200 N force applied to it at a distance of 1.4 m from

altogether, as shown in Figure 5.3. its axis of rotation. The clockwise moment of the

Note that the weight of an object does not act at the force is 200 N × 1.4 m = 280 N m.

centre of gravity. It acts on all the molecules that make When the force is not at right angles to the beam, in

up the object. It is just that for the sake of calculations, Figure 5.4(b) it is the perpendicular distance from the

the same answer is obtained by assuming that the line of action of the force to the pivot that is needed.

whole weight does act at the centre of gravity. With an angle of 25° the clockwise moment

becomes

Turning forces 200 N × 1.4 × cos 25° = 254 N m.

So far with the study of Newton’s laws of motion, it A couple is a pair of equal forces that tend to

has been stated that a resultant force will cause an produce rotation only. They will, therefore, not

acceleration of a body. This is true, but a force may produce any linear acceleration. See Figure 5.5.

also cause rotation of the body. 20 N

There is a series of terms associated with turning

forces. These are now defined with the warning that

they need to be used with care.

The moment of a force is the product of the 16 cm

force and its perpendicular distance from the axis of

rotation. This is illustrated in Figures 5.4(a) and (b).

1.4 m

X 20 N

Figure 5.5

200 N

The torque of a couple is equal to one of the forces

(a) multiplied by the perpendicular distance between them.

For Figure 5.5 the torque is 20 N × 0.16 m = 3.2 N m.

1.4

m Equilibrium

A body is said to be in equilibrium when there is

X 25° 200 N no resultant force or resultant torque acting on the

body. Note that this does not mean that the body is

not moving. When you are travelling at 800 kilometres

(b)

per hour in a comfortable airline seat during a smooth

Figure 5.4 flight, you are in equilibrium. This is because you are

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