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# a) Operation of Inverter

i) Waveform of Vout

## iii) Gate voltage of thyristors

iv) Voltage of inductor

## vi) Voltage of bistable output

b) Operation of Centre Tapped Rectifier

## iii) Rectifier output voltage

iv) Inductor voltage
Discussion

## i) Comments on the waveforms

i) Waveforms observed in (a)
We can see that the output voltage Vo is very much a square wave with a slight ripple at the zero-
crossing points. This is due to the fact that the capacitor gets charged in the positive and negative
direction. The additional voltage required to charge the capacitor gets impressed on the output voltage.
We can see that the anode to cathode voltage of the thyristor has a slight ripple when the thyristor is
conducting this is due to the fact that when a thyristor is triggered the capacitor discharges through the
particular thyristor increasing the voltage across the thyristor momentarily. An impulse in the positive
half can be observed; this is the instant when the thyristor is turned off.
The gate voltage looks very much the same as the anode to cathode voltage of the thyristor.
The inductor voltage shows a sudden spike; this happens because when a thyristor is triggered, instantly
the capacitor impresses a reverse voltage across the other thyristor and gets discharged. This energy
gets stored in the inductor. We can also see that the inductor voltage becomes negative, this is because
the inductor gets discharged when the capacitor gets charged.
The voltage of the bistable output is a square wave, each half being an input to a thyristor.

## ii) Waveforms observed in (b)

We can see that the particular thyristor conducts only in the positive half of supply voltage since the
whole negative portion appears across the anode cathode terminals. The other thyristor conducts only
in the negative half of supply voltage
The rectifier output voltage is a DC waveform with a ripple component. This is due to the charging and
discharging actions of the inductor and capacitor.

## ii) Operation of control circuits

The control circuits are employed to generate the thyristor gate pulses.

In the inverter circuit, the oscillator block generates a reference dc signal. Using RV1 potentiometer,
we can vary the magnitude of the reference signal. The bistable block is a comparator which compares
the reference signal with a carrier signal (probably a sawtooth waveform) and outputs the gate pulse
signals for the two thyristors.

In the rectifier circuit, there is a separate AC to DC diode bridge rectified circuit to generate the gate
pulses for the thyristors. When the capacitor discharges in each cycle it discharges applying a voltage
between the Emitter and Base of the UJT. Due to this, Emitter current starts flowing into the UJT
forward biasing it. The DC voltage of the diode bridge circuit is across the two Base terminals of the
UJT. The current that flows through the UJT (from Base 1 to Base 2) can be varied using the RV2
potentiometer.
iv) Performance of the inverter circuit used
The inverter circuit outputs a square wave voltage of 160V with a slight ripple. By fine tuning the filter
values we can reduce the ripple further.