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The bar chart shows the number of overseas students enrolled in a third year Computer Science course at a Canadian college. Summarise the information by selecting and report in the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words

The bar chart shows the number of overseas students enrolled in a third year Computer ScienceDiscuss both sides  Give a reason why you think the problem exists  Express your views about the issue  Say whether you agree or disagree  Decide which side of the argument you support As always, first make sure to read the question carefully to identify every part. (If you do not address each part you will not get a good mark in this task.) EXAMPLE IELTS TASK 2 QUESTION: In general, people do not talk to one another when using public transport. Why is this so, and what could be done to change this situation? Next you should make a plan about what you will write and how you will arrange it. For example - 1. Identify a number of reasons 2. decide which will be primary and which will be supporting ideas 3. think about a number of possible solutions " id="pdf-obj-0-6" src="pdf-obj-0-6.jpg">

According to the bar chart, students from four Asian countries (China, Singapore, Malaysia and Sri Lanka) and one European country (France) are taking Computer Science at the collage. Some students are enrolled in the Database core option; the others are taking Networking.

Overall, the China has the largest number of enrolled students (17) and France has the smallest (5). Singapore and Sri Lanka both have 12 students; Malaysia has 11. It is noticeable that Singapore and Sri Lanka have similar profiles.

Students from all five countries are enrolled in Database, but more males are taking this option than females (21 and 9 respectively). For each nationality, the males taking Database outnumber the females, except in the case of French students with 3 females to only 1 male. The China has the most students studying Database (9); Sri Lanka is next with 7, while Singapore has 6. Malaysia and France have 4 Database students each.

As for Networking option, more females than males are enrolled from every country except France. In fact, no female French students are taking Networking. Only 1 male from each country is enrolled in Networking, except for 2 males from Sri Lanka.

EXAMPLES OF IELTS TASK 2 QUESTION TYPES:

  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages

  • Give a reason why you think the problem exists

  • Express your views about the issue

  • Say whether you agree or disagree

  • Decide which side of the argument you support As always, first make sure to read the question carefully to identify every part. (If you do not address each part you will not get a good mark in this task.)

EXAMPLE IELTS TASK 2 QUESTION:

In general, people do not talk to one another when using public transport. Why is this so, and what could be done to change this situation?

Next you should make a plan about what you will write and how you will arrange it. For example -

  • 1. Identify a number of reasons

  • 2. decide which will be primary and which will be supporting ideas

4.

organise your paragraphs

4. organise your paragraphs

USEFUL VOCABULARY

4. organise your paragraphs USEFUL VOCABULARY

Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members of society. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this.

Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Provide reasons for your answer. Include relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

A child’s education has never been about learning information and basic skills only. It has always

included teaching the next generation how to be good members of society. Therefore, this cannot be the responsibility of the parents alone.

In order to be a good member of any society the individual must respect and obey the rules of their community and share their values. Educating children to understand the need to obey rules and respect others always begins in the home and is widely thought to be the responsibility of parents. They will certainly be the first to help children learn what is important in life, how they are expected to behave and what role they will play in their world.

However, learning to understand and share the value system of a whole society cannot be achieved just in the home. Once a child goes to school, they are entering a wider community where teachers and peers will have just as much influence as their parents do at home. At school, children will experience working and living with people from a whole variety of backgrounds from the wider society. This experience should teach them how to co-operate with each other and how to contribute to the life of their community.

But to be a valuable member of any community is not like learning a simple skill. It is something that an individual goes on learning throughout life and it is the responsibility of every member of a society to take responsibility for helping the younger generation to become active and able members of that society.

(264 words)

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit more from attending mixed schools. Discus both these views and give your own opinion.

Give reason for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the children to decide which model is preferable.

Some educationalists think it is more effective to educate boys and girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment reduces distractions and encourages pupils to concentrate on their studies. This is probably true to some extent. It also allows more equality among pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose students more freely without gender prejudice.

For example, a much higher proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend girls’

schools than their counterparts in mixed schools do. Similarly, boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects for girls.

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare their pupils better for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live and work together form an early age and are consequently not emotionally underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also able to learn from each other, and to experience different types of skill and talent then might be evident in a single gender environment.

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to a mixed school, but feel that I myself missed the opportunity to specialise in science because it was seen as the natural domain and career path for boys when I was a girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go to a girls’

school .But hopefully times have changed and both genders of student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever type of school they attend.

Television dominates the free-time for too many people. It can make people lazy and prevent them from socialising with others. Do you agree or disagree?

Give reason for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Television plays a major part in the majority of peoples’ lives; soap operas, sports programmes, music programmes, everyone has their favourites. However, watching television can take up a lot of spare time which could be used for social or leisure activities. In my opinion, if we limit the amount of television we watch, we can also enjoy our free time.

Television in some ways is a device that allows the viewer to relate to what is happening on the screen. We choose our favourite music from videos, get news, watch our preferred football teams, connect to the characters in the family drama and watch educational documentaries. We discuss our preferences with friends and co-workers when we talk to them so it can be said that TV enriches our emotional and cultural selves.

On the other hand, television has negative effects on the body, as well as social interaction. Doctors tell us that too much time sat down can lead to weight gain and heart disease and if we are sitting in front of the TV all the time it means we are not going out to meet our friends. I believe, if we watch television in moderation, we can enjoy our favourite programmes as well as have an active social life.

As a child, my parents insisted that I only watched one or two programmes a night. Today I captain my

local football team and enjoy talking about the previous week’s programming after a match on

Saturday. It is my opinion that, if we sit at home all the time watching television and do not go out, then

it will have an unhealthy effect on our bodies, minds and friendships. However, if we regulate how much we watch and get on with other things, then TV can be a important part of our social lives.

(305 words)

Since the 18th century technological advances have replaced people in the workplace. With today’s technology this process is happening at a greater rate. Technology is increasingly responsible for unemployment. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

Technological advances always have an impact on people at work. Sometimes it can mean that people are no longer necessary in their job, but sometimes they make people work easier. We can define technology as scientific knowledge used for practical purpose in industry and commerce. I would also like to make a further distinction between this and high technology, which is electronic or information technology.

In my view, technology really began to have an effect on industry in the early of the 20th century. The result of this was that certain industries like the car industry did not really need as many people, as automated machines and robots were able to do jobs such as painting the car, or putting the car together.

However, if we now turn to look at the effect of high technology on the workplace, in my opinion, there

has been a different effect. It is true that computers are able to do some things that people used to do

and advanced in high technology have made people’s lives better through improvement in

communication. For example, now we have e-mail, MSN and some electronic tool to chat with friends or business partners. In addition, people working in service industries like banking use computers much more than pen and paper nowadays. In addition, some work can be done from home, which means that people do not need spend time travelling and can work where and when they want to.

In conclusion, technology has resulted in unemployment in some traditional industries like car industry. On the other hand, in other industries such as service industries, technology has improved the way the work.

It is advised that you learn synonyms and use them accurately in your writing in order to give an impression that you have a good range of vocabulary.

In conclusion, technology has resulted in unemployment in some traditional industries like car industry. On the

The general format for writing academic writing task 1 is as follows:

Introduction + Basic/ General Trends + Details Description + Conclusion(optional).

Each part has a specific format and therefore being equipped with the necessary vocabulary will help you to write the task 1 efficiently and will save a great deal of time.

In conclusion, technology has resulted in unemployment in some traditional industries like car industry. On the

Vocabulary for the Introduction Part:

Starting

Presentation Type

Verb

Description

The given / the supplied / the

diagram / table / figure / illustration / graph /

shows / represents / depicts / enumerates /

the comparison of… the differences…

presented / the

chart / flow chart /

illustrates / presents/

the changes ...

shown / the provided/ the

picture/ presentation/ pie chart / bar graph/ column graph / line

gives / provides / delineates/ outlines/ describes / delineates/

the number of… information on… data on…

graph / table data/ data / information / pictorial/ process diagram/ map/ pie chart and table/ bar graph and pie chart ...

Example :

expresses/ outlines/ denotes/ compares/ shows contrast / indicates / figures / gives data on / gives information on/ presents information about/ shows data about/ demonstrates/ outlines/ summarises ...

the proportion of… the amount of…

information on ... data about ... comparative data ... the trend of ... the percentages of ...

  • 1. The provided diagram shows data on employment categories in energy producing sectors in Europe starting from 1925 and till 1985.

  • 2. The given pie charts represent the proportion of male and female employee in 6 broad categories, divided into manual and non-manual occupations in Freedonia.

  • 3. The chart gives information on expenditures of 4 European countries on six consumer products namely Germany, Italy, Britain and France.

  • 4. The supplied bar graph compares the number of male and female graduated in three developing countries while the table data presents the overall literacy rate in these countries.

  • 5. The bar graph and the table data depict the water use in different sectors in five regions.

  • 6. The bar graph enumerates the money spent on different research projects while the column graph demonstrates the sources of the amount spent over a decade, commencing from 1981.

  • 7. The line graph delineates the proportion of male and female employees in three different sectors in Australia between 2010 and 2015.

Note that, some teachers prefer "The line graph demonstrates

"

...

format instead of "The given line graph

demonstrates

...

".

However, if you write "The given/ provided/ presented

"

....

it would be correct as well.

Tips:

  • 1. For a single graph use 's' after the verb, like - gives data on, shows/ presents etc. However, if there are

multiple graphs, DO NOT use 's' after the verb.

  • 2. If there are multiple graphs and each one presents a different type of data, you can write which graph

presents what type of data and use 'while' to show a connection. For example -'The given bar graph shows the amount spent on fast food items in 2009 in the UK while the pie chart presents a comparison of people's ages who spent more on fast food.

  • 3. Your introduction should be quite impressive as it makes the first impression to the examiner. It either

makes or breaks your overall score.

4. For multiple graphs and/ or table(s), you can write what they present in combination instead of saying which each graph depicts. For example, "The two pie charts and the column graph in combination depicts a picture of the crime in Australia from 2005 to 2015 and the percentages of young offenders during this period."

Caution:

Never copy word for word from the question. If you do do, you would be penalised. always paraphrase the

introduction in your own words.

General Statement Part:

The General statement is the first sentence (or two) you write in your reporting. It should always deal with:

What + Where + When.

Example: The diagrams present information on the percentages of teachers who has expressed their views on different problems they face when dealing with children in three Australian schools from 2001 to 2005.

What = the percentages of teachers ... Where = three Australian schools .... When = from 2001 to 2005 ... A good General statement should always have these parts.

Vocabulary for the General Trend Part:

In general, In common, Generally speaking, Overall, It is obvious, As is observed, As a general trend, As can be seen, As an overall trend, As is presented, It can be clearly seen that, At the first glance, it is clear, At the onset, it is clear that, A glance at the graphs reveals that ...

Example:

  • 1. In general, the employment opportunity has increased till 1970 and has dropped down afterwards.

  • 2. As is observed, the figures for imprisonment in the five mentioned countries show no overall pattern of increase or decrease rather shows the considerable fluctuation from country to country.

  • 3. Generally speaking, USA had a far more standard life than all the other 4 mentioned countries.

  • 4. As can be seen, the highest number of passengers used the London Underground station at 8:00 in the morning and at 6:00 in the evening.

  • 5. Generally speaking, more men were engaged in managerial positions in 1987 than that of women in New York.

7.

At the first glance, it is clear that more percentages of native university pupils violated regulations and rules than the foreign students.

  • 8. At the onset, it is clear that drinking in public and drink driving were the most common reasons for the US citizens to be arrested in 2014.

  • 9. Overall, the leisure hours enjoyed by males regardless of their employment status was much higher than that of women.

The structure of the IELTS Academic Writing Task 1 (Report Writing):

Introduction:

Introduction (Never copy word for word from the question.) + Overview/ General trend. (What the diagrams indicate at a first glance.)

Reporting Details:

Main features in the Details + Comparison and Contrast of the data. (Do not give all the figures.) + Most striking features of the graph.

Conclusion:

Conclusion (General statement + Implications, significant comments) [Conlcusion is optional.]

7. At the first glance, it is clear that more percentages of native university pupils violated

Tips:

  • 1. Write introduction and General trend in the same paragraph. Some students prefer to write the 'General

Trend' in a separate paragraph and many teachers suggest the both to be written in a single paragraph.

Unless you have a really good reason to write the general trend in the second paragraph, try to write them both in the first paragraph. However, this is just a suggestion, not a requirement.

  • 2. Your 'Introduction (general statement + overall trend/ general trend) should have 75 - 80 words.

  • 3. DO NOT give numbers, percentages or quantity in your general trend. Rather give the most striking

feature of the graph that could be easily understood at a glance. Thus it is suggested to AVOID -

"A glance at the graphs reveals that 70% male were employed in 2001 while 40 thousand women in this year had jobs."

And use a format /comparison like the following:

"A glance at the graphs reveals that more men were employed than their female counterpart in 2001 and almost two-third females were jobless in the same year. "

Vocabulary to Start the Report Body:

Just after you finish writing your 'Introduction' (i.e. General Statement + General overview/ trend), you are expected to start a new paragraph to describe the main features of the diagrams. This second paragraph is called the 'Body Paragraph / Report Body". You can have a single body paragraph/ report body or up to 3, (not more than 3 in any case) depending on the number of graphs provided in the question and the type of these graphs. There are certain phrases you can use to start your body paragraph and following is a list of such phrases ---

1. As is presented in the diagram(s)/ graph(s)/ pie chart(s)/ table ...

  • 2. As (is) shown in the illustration ...

  • 3. As can be seen in the ...

  • 4. As the diagrams suggest ...

  • 5. According to the ...

  • 6. Categorically speaking ...

  • 7. Getting back to the details ...

  • 8. Now, turning to the details ....

  • 9. The table data clearly shows that ...

  • 10. The diagram reveals that ...

  • 11. The data suggest that ...

  • 12. The graph gives figure ...

  • 13. It is interesting to note that ...

  • 14. It is apparently seen that ...

  • 15. It is conspicuous that ...

  • 16. It is explicitly observed that ...

  • 17. It is obvious ...

  • 18. It is clear from the data ...

  • 19. It is worth noticing that ...

  • 20. It is crystal clear/ lucid that ...

  • 21. It can be clearly observed that ...

  • 22. It could be plainly viewed that ...

  • 23. It could be noticed that ...

  • 24. We can see that ...

Vocabulary to show the changes:

Trends

Verb form

Noun Form

Increase

rise / increase / go up / uplift / rocket(ed) / climb / upsurge / soar/ shot up/ improve/ jump/ leap/ move upward/ skyrocket/ soar/ surge.

a rise / an increase / an upward trend / a growth / a leap / a jump / an improvement/ a climb.

Decrease

fall / decrease / decline / plummet / plunge / drop / reduce / collapse / deterioriate/ dip / dive / go down / take a nosedive / slum / slide / go into free-fall.

a fall / a decrease / a reduction / a downward trends /a downward tendency / a decline/ a drop / a slide / a collapse / a downfall.

Steadiness

unchanged / level out / remain constant / remain steady / plateau / remain the same / remain stable / remain static

a steadiness/ a plateau / a stability/ a static

Gradual increase

------------

an upward trend / an upward tendency / a ceiling trend

Gradual decrease

------------

a downward trend / a downward tendency / a descending trend

Standability/ Flat

level(ed) off / remain(ed) constant / remain(ed) unchanged / remain(ed) stable / prevail(ed) consistency / plateaued / reach(ed) a plateau / stay(ed) uniform /immutable / level(ed) out/ stabilise/ remain(ed) the same.

No change, a flat, a plateau.

Examples:

  • 1. The overall sale of the company has increased by 20% at the end of the year.

  • 2. The expenditure of the office remained constant for the last 6 months but the profit rose by almost 25%.

  • 3. There was a 15% drop in the student enrollment of the University.

  • 4. The population of the country remained almost the same as it was 2 years ago.

  • 5. The population of these two cities increase significantly in the last two decades and it is predicted that it will remain stable in the next 5 years.

Tips: 1. Use 'improve' / 'an improvement' to describe a situation like economic condition or employment

Tips:

  • 1. Use 'improve' / 'an improvement' to describe a situation like economic condition or employment status.

To denote numbers use other verbs/nouns like increase.

  • 2. Do not use the same word/ phrase over and over again. In fact, you should not use a noun or verb form

to describe a trend/change more than twice; once is better!

  • 3. To achieve a high band score you need to use a variety of vocabulary as well as sentence formations.

Vocabulary to represent changes in graphs:

Type of

Adverb form

Adjective form

Change

Rapid change

dramatically / rapidly / sharply / quickly / hurriedly / speedily / swiftly / significantly/ considerably / substantioally / noticably.

dramatic / rapid / sharp / quick / hurried / speedy / swift / significant / considerable / substantial / noticable.

Moderate

moderately / gradually /

moderate / gradual /

change

progressively / sequentially.

progressive / sequential.

Steady

steadily/ ceaselessly.

steady/ ceaseless.

change

Slight change

slightly / slowly / mildly / tediously.

slight / slow / mild / tedious.

Example:

  • 1. The economic inflation of the country increased sharply by 20% in 2008.

  • 2. There was a sharp drop in the industrial production in the year 2009.

  • 3. The demand for new houses dramatically increased in 2002.

  • 4. The population of the country dramatically increased in the last decade.

  • 5. The price of the oil moderately increased in last quarter but as a consequence, the price of daily

necessity rapidly went up.

Steady steadily/ ceaselessly. steady/ ceaseless. change Slight change slightly / slowly / mildly / tediously. slight

Vocabulary to represent frequent changes in graphs:

Type of Change

Verb form

Noun form

Rapid ups and downs

wave / fluctuate / oscillate / vacillate / palpitate

waves / fluctuations / oscillations / vacillations / palpitations

Example:

  • 1. The price of the raw materials fluctuated for the first three months.

  • 2. The graph shows the oscillations of the price of fuel from 1998 to 2002.

  • 3. The passenger number in this station oscillates throughout the day but early morning and evening are the two busiest time.

  • 4. The changes of car production in Japan shows a palpitation for the second quarter of the year.

  • 5. The number of students in debate clubs fluctuated in different months as rapid ups and downs could be observed in the last three months.

Tips:

1. 4. DO NOT try to present every single data presented in a graph. Rather pick 5-7 most significant and important trends/ changes and show their comparisons and contrasts. 2. The question asks you to write a report and summarise the data presented in graphs(s). This is why you need to show the comparisons, contrasts, show the highest and lowest points and most striking features in your answer, not every piece of data presented in the diagram(s).

Types of Changes/ Differences and Vocabulary to present them:

Great change / Huge difference:

Adjectives

Adverbs

Overwhelming

Overwhelmingly

Substantial

Substantially

Enormous

Enormously

Big change / Big difference:

Adjectives

Adverbs

Significant

Significantly

Considerable

Considerably

Medium change / Moderate difference:

Adjectives

Adverbs

Somewhat

Somewhat

Moderate

Moderately

Minor change / Small difference:

Adjectives

Adverbs

Fractional

Fractionally

Marginal

Marginally

Slight

Slightly

Dates, Months & Years related vocabulary and grammar:

» From 1990 to 2000, Commencing from 1980, Between 1995 and 2005, After 2012. » By 1995, In 1998, In February, Over the period, During the period, During 2011. » In the first half of the year, For the first quarter, The last quarter of the year, During the first decade. » In the 80s, In the 1980s, During the next 6 months, In the mid-70s, Next 10 years, Previous year, Next year, Between 1980 - 1990. » Within a time span of ten years, within five years. » Next month, Next quarter, Next year, Previous month, Previous year. » Since, Then, From.

Percentage, Portion and Numbers:

Percentages:

10% increase, 25 percent decrease, increased by 15%, dropped by 10 per cent, fall at 50%, reached to

75%, tripled, doubled, one-fourth, three-quarters, half, double fold, treble, 5 times higher, 3 timers lower, declined to about 49%, stood exactly at 43%.

Fractions:

4% = A tiny fraction. 24% = Almost a quarter. 25% Exactly a quarter.

26% = Roughly one quarter. 32% Nearly one-third, nearly a third. 49% = Around a half, just under a half. 50% Exactly a half. 51% = Just over a half. 73% = Nearly three quarters. 77% = Approximately three quarter, more than three-quarter. 79% = Well over three quarter.

Proportions:

2% = A tiny portion, a very small proportion. 4% = An insignificant minority, an insignificant proportion. 16% = A small minority, a small portion. 70% = A large proportion. 72% = A significant majority, A significant proportion.89% = A very large proportion. 89% = A very large proportion.

The general format for writing academic writing task 2/ IELTS Essay is as follows:

Introduction + your opinion/ your thinking/ your point of view/ whether you agree or disagree/ main

advantages or disadvantages + 2nd paragraph with example, explanation, evidence and extra details +

3rd paragraph with example, explanation, evidence and extra details +

4th paragraph with example, explanation, evidence and extra details +

................. ................. Conclusion + restating the main point of your discussion/ your position on the issue.

Vocabulary for the Introduction Part:

In the introduction part of your IELTS essay, you should write sentences relevant to the topic given

and generally accepted ideas about it. Use your best English here as it will attract or bore your reader about the whole writing. You will make or break your impression in this paragraph. Be very cautious about the introduction part. Never just copy the sentence of the question. If you really need to, use synonyms and different sentence structure.

Examples:

1) Mobile phone and the Internet are two great innovation of science for communication and had been facilitating people for a long time. These two technologies are widely used in almost all the

countries of the world and had become a part of our daily lives. We can't deny the usefulness of these technologies as they had made our life easier than it was ever before. In my opinion, the advantages of these two devices far outweigh the demerits they have. 2) Every human being with an ambition of getting higher knowledge requires attending colleges or universities. The main reason for attending universities or colleges may differ man to man. Someone may aspire to achieve greater knowledge, someone may just want to earn a certificate or someone might attribute it as a step towards career development.

3) Compared with people in the past, we concern far less on the preparation of food today, thanks to the development of agriculture and scientific technology. A fair amount of beneficial influence is occurring to us consequently.

Useful vocabulary/phrases to open/start the essay:

 

Many/some people claim/opine/believe that ... There is no denying that ... It is often said that ...

These days

/

Nowadays

/

In this day and age

... It goes without saying that ... It is universally accepted that ... We live in an age when many of us are ... People are divided in their opinion regarding ...

...

...

is one of the most important issues ...

Whether

or

is a controversial issue ...

Useful vocabulary/phrases to end the Introduction part:

Let us examine both views before reaching to a concrete decision.

The following paragraphs discuss whether

or

and reach a

reasonable conclusion. The following essay takes a look at the both sides of the argument. My two cents go for ... However, I strongly believe that ...

  • I oppose the view and my reasons will be explained in the following paragraphs.

  • I will support this view with arguments in the following paragraphs.

  • I personally believe that ... Thus the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages ...

 
  • I wholeheartedly believe that this trend should be changed.

Vocabulary for the opinion Part:

Vocabulary for the opinion Part:

 

According to the essay types (Learn what are the IELTS essay types) use one of the following

connective words/ linking phrases to write down your opinion However remember that if the question does not ask you to give your opinion but to compare advantages and disadvantages, then you should not strongly express your opinion. Opinion should only be written for opinion essays.

In my opinion ...

  • I strongly opine that ...

  • I strongly agree with the idea that ...

  • I strongly disagree with the given topic ...

  • I think ...

My opinion is that ...

Personally speaking ...

In my view ...

  • I believe ...

Apparently ...

Personally speaking ...

According to me ...

From my point of view

...

(Not 'In my point of view')

As far as I am concerned ...

From my perspective ...

  • I realise ...

To my way of thinking ...

It seems to me that ...

To me ...

My own view on the matter is ...

It appears that ...

  • I feel that ...

  • I understand ...

  • I suppose ...

Examples:

1) But in my opinion, giving access to a mobile phone & the internet to each and every unemployed

person is a matter of great dispute. I believe, this idea can help the countries who have sufficient funds for the whole fiscal year and already adopted technologies like the internet for a very long period. But this might turn out as a complete loss for an undeveloped country. 2) I believe parents are always teaching us in many ways intentionally and unintentionally; however, the contributions teachers have on our learning process can not be ignored.

3) I strongly agree with the idea that the gender issue is only a determinant in the battle of the sexes, not the battles among nations and peoples. It is therefore impertinent, if not irrational, to

conclude that world conflicts result from the rule of a particular gender and the finer sex would do a better job at prevailing peace if selectively put at the helm of human nations.

 Vocabulary for the 2nd paragraph Part:

Vocabulary for the 2nd paragraph Part:

It is true that ...

 
 

First ...

 

First of all ...

 

Firstly ...

Initially ...

To begin with ...

To start with ...

Let us take a look at ...

It is worth considering ...

In the first place ...

Though it is true that ...

Some people believe that ...

Many people think that ...

According to many ...

Some people believe that ...

Many support the view that ...

On the one hand ...

Examples:

1) It is true that an unemployed educated person with a mobile phone and the internet connection can get more access to the local and foreign job sectors and can use these technologies to get a job or become self-employed. 2) First of all, the maximum number of cars are owned by the rich people and fuel price would not restrain them from using the cars. The price of fuel, in fact, increased significantly over the past 12 years and that has done nothing to reduce the car usage.

3) To begin, houses that are being constructed by those in the lower income groups do look at the most cost-effective option. In this process, they invariably explore cheaper options that include a compromise on material and construction quality.

 Vocabulary for the 3rd, 4th paragraph Part:

Vocabulary for the 3rd, 4th

paragraph Part:

Second(ly)

...

Third(ly) ...

Then ...

Next ...

After that ...

And ...

(Not 'Second of all')

Again ...

Also ...

Besides ...

Likewise ...

In addition ...

Consequently ...

What’s more ...

Furthermore ...

Moreover ...

Other people think that ...

Other people believe that ...

On the other hand ...

Apart from that ...

Finally ...

Examples:

1) Besides, unemployed persons living in urban areas; can easily get the information related to the

job-offering companies with these technologies

Furthermore, the use of these

................ technologies give them advantages than others ....... 2) Besides, people would learn more about the outer space as the experiment and scientific research in outer space is going on more steadily than ever.

3) Apart from that, computers would become more powerful and they will have superior artificial intelligence. We will have robots to do the hazardous works like mining and outer space research. Surprisingly, e-commerce would be in more convenient form and most of the people will purchase online rather than going to shops in person.

Vocabulary to show the comparison:

Vocabulary to show the comparison:

In the same way ...

 

Likewise ...

Similarly ...

 

Like the previous point ...

 

Similar to ...

Also ...

 

At the same time ...

 

Just as ...

Examples:

1) Similarly, all the companies and offices are becoming automated and using computers, the internet and other technologies vastly than any other time in history ....... 2) At the same time software could be used for many purposes such as learning through computers, accounting in computers, drawing, storage of information, sending information from one person to other persons etc.

3) Also reading books is like peeking into the minds of the greatest people - A book is like a conversation with the writer and reading many books gives us an insight into the thinking process of different writers.

 Vocabulary to show contrast:

Vocabulary to show contrast:

On the other hand ...

 

On the contrary ...

However ...

 

Nevertheless

...

/

Nonetheless

...

But ...

Nonetheless/ Nevertheless ...

 

Oppositely ...

 

Alternatively ...

 

Unlike ...

While ...

Whilst ...

Although ...

 

Even though ...

 

Despite

...

/ In spite of

...

Alternatively ...

 

In contrast to this ...

 

Then again ...

 

On the other hand ...

 

Despite the fact that ...

Examples:

1) On the contrary, poor countries suffer from the lack of sufficient budgets to ensure some very basic needs of people like health, education, medicines etc. Then again, those countries don't have a chance to spend a lot of money to initiate a superficial project ........ 2) Unlike a TV, a radio cannot display an image or a video, and the communication is limited to voice only. Typically, a radio is used for access information such as news and live traffic updates .........

3) In contrast to this, the consumption of fuels to run the car is contributing to the rise if global warming and affecting the ozone layer. So, using bicycles in cities would be a better alternative .........

Vocabulary to show an example:

 

As an example ...

 

For instance ...

For example ...

Like ...

 

As ...

Such as ...

 

Particularly ...

 

In particular ...

Namely ...

 

To show an example ...

 

To give an example ...

To cite an example ...

As an evidence ...

To illustrate ...

To paraphrase ...

An example is ...

...

could

be a good/ideal example here

A case ...

Examples:

1) For instance, there is no guaranty that all unemployed person will use the technology positively ........ 2) As an example, many governments of the first world countries have initiated other projects like: .........

3) For example, if a public bus gets busted in the middle of a road, the passenger can easily leave it a look for another one.

Always use a comma (,) after 'For example', 'for instance' etc.

 Vocabulary to present an idea:

Vocabulary to present an idea:

 

Research shows that ...

Research has found that ...

When it comes to ...

With respect to ...

Not only

...

but also

...

In terms of ...

 

Examples:

 

1) Research shows that employment opportunity and crime ratio in a city has a deep underlying relationship and that is why ...

2) When it comes to deciding who should be responsible to teach children the discipline ...

3) With respect to mix-school classrooms, it is quite evident that ...

 Phrases to introduce more ideas/ examples:

Phrases to introduce more ideas/ examples:

Furthermore ...

In addition ...

 

On top of that ...

 

What is more ...

 

Another point worth noting is ...

Another factor to consider is ...

Examples:

1) On top of that, rich countries emit more CO2 than rest of the world does and this is why they

have greater responsibilities.

2) Another point worth noting is the number of TV channels we have these days.

3) What is more, leaders are born not made.

 Vocabulary to show consequence, effects or result:

Vocabulary to show consequence, effects or result:

As a result ...

 

Consequently ...

 

As an effect ...

Thus ...

So ...

 

The reason why ...

 

Therefore ...

Hence ...

Eventually ...

 

For this reason ...

 

Thereby ...

Examples:

1) Therefore, we should avoid using our budget in an uncertain project ........ 2) As a result, people are struggling much to lead a healthy and secure life .........

3) Consequently, local residents will be able to find more job opportunities in this factory and have a better socio-economic status .........

 Vocabulary to show result & reason:

Vocabulary to show result & reason:

As a result ...

 

As a result of ...

Due to ...

One reason behind this is ...

 

has led to/

has resulted in ...

 

Consequently ...

Therefore ...

Examples:

1) The overuse of natural resources has already resulted in the scarcity of such valuable resources

that we can not do without ...

 

2) This has led to a moral degradation and we are at a tough time to look back much behind.

3) One reason behind this is the negligence of individuals who are already suffering from minor health-related issues.

 Vocabulary to sum up at the end of a paragraph:

Vocabulary to sum up at the end of a paragraph:

To sum up ...

 

In short ...

In a word ...

To put it simply ...

That is to say ...

To repeat in short ....

To summarise ...

Examples:

1) In a word, I think, the idea can be very useful for the developing countries but for us, it might be sinister ... 2) That is to say, we must ensure the safety of our children first .........

3) In short, overall infrastructure of the area will develop.

N.B. The above vocabulary is specifically useful while finishing a paragraph. You can use these words/ phrases to re-state your topic of the paragraph.

 Vocabulary to make a point stronger:

Vocabulary to make a point stronger:

Although ...

 

Thought ...

Nonetheless ...

 

Nevertheless ...

Still ...

 

Yet ...

Must

....

After

After all ...

Even if ...

Therefore ...

 

Thus .....

 

Examples:

1) Although, Parents are important teachers in our lives and none can deny their invaluable role to make us what we are, but they aren't always the best teachers ....... 2) Thus air and water pollution caused by this factory will ruin the local environment and wildlife fundamentally .........

3) Although industrialisation is necessary for the growth of a country it must be regulated. The proper measures must be in place to reduce the negative impacts of byproducts on the environment.

 Other transitional words / connective words:

Other transitional words / connective words:

Then ...

 

Else ...

Otherwise ...

 

Besides ...

 

As soon as ...

 

As much as .....

Examples:

 

1) They take care of the children as much as parents do .................. 2) As soon as we realise the problem ..................

3) Otherwise, the unemployed graduates' number will keep on increasing ..................

 Some correct and incorrect expressions:

Some correct and incorrect expressions:

Correct

 

Incorrect

In my opinion…

From my point of view

...

From my opinion… In my point of view…

Second/ Secondly… On the other hand…

Second of all On the other hand

Last but not the least…

Last but not least…

In conclusion/ To conclude

In a nutshell.

 

...



Vocabulary for the conclusion part:

Vocabulary for the conclusion part:

In conclusion ...

 

In summary ...

To conclude ...

 

To conclude with ...

To sum up ...

In general ...

To summarise ...

 

In short ...

All in all ...

Overall ...

On the whole ...

 

To draw the conclusion ...

In a nut shell ...

To elucidate

...('To

elucidate' means - 'make something clear' or 'to

explain'.)

All things considered ...

 

Taking everything into consideration ...

Weighing up both sides of the argument ...

(Useful Tip: Avoid using 'In a nutshell' as it is not formal. Use 'In conclusion/ to conclude' instead.)

Examples:

1) In general, even though it is preferable to study English in an English-speaking country, a reasonable level of English can be achieved in one's own country, if a student is gifted and dedicated to studying.

2) To sum up, if the population explosion continues, many more people will die of starvation in poor countries, and life in the cities, even in affluent nations, will become increasingly difficult.

3) To conclude, I recommend that the only sensible way to solve this problem is to educate young people about the dangers of drug use and to take steps to reduce the pressure of competition placed upon them.

4) In conclusion, nuclear technology certainly has positive uses but is nonetheless dangerous. However, it would have been better if it had never been used to create nuclear weapons. If life on Earth is to continue, all the nuclear nations of the world should agree to disarm as soon as possible.

N.B. The conclusion part of the IELTS Essay or IELTS Academic writing task 2 usually begins with a special concluding phrase that links it to the rest of the essay. Notice that a conditional sentence can be very effective in the conclusion. One reason for this is that it can refer to what might occur as a result of your suggestions or recommendations. Of course, you can use conditional sentences elsewhere in your essay as well. If you do use conditionals, be sure that the construction of your sentences is grammatically correct. Also, in a short essay of approximately 250 words the conclusion can be just one or two sentences long. The conclusion should briefly sum up what you have said in your essay and does not usually contribute a new idea unless it is a minor point. However, it is a good place to make recommendations or suggestions or to give advice and offer solutions, if you are asked to do so.



Whenever you need to show a generalisation or general idea, you can use these vocabularies to present your point.

Generally .....

 

Generally speaking .....

In general .....

 

Overall .....

All in all .....

By and large .....

Basically .....

As a rule .....

Essentially .....

On the whole ....

All things considered .....

Examples:

 

1) All things considered, a certain reserved position for women in high-level jobs is actually a good idea to empower the women towards the overall betterment of the organisation and society.

2) In general, it can be stated that in upcoming few years human will be blessed with

adequate facilities, which definitely will make their lives quite easier, due to advanced technology. 3) As a rule, in most of the countries, a zoological garden is monitored strictly and the health, treatment and food are properly ensured for the animals they keep.

 Vocabulary for expressing condition:

Vocabulary for expressing condition:

Some arguments and statements in your essay would require you to show that it is dependent on

some condition. Following is the list of vocabularies you can use to present condition in your writing.

If .....

 

Provided that .....

 

Because of that .....

For this reason .....

 

Unless .....

Providing that .....

So that .....

In case .....

Whether ....

Examples:

1) If the proper measurements and initiatives are not taken, the pollution will keep on increasing and that would someday threaten the existence of our life. 2) Unless we change our diet and get involved in some sort of outdoor activities and sports, the average weight would keep on increasing.

 3) For this reasons, we should preserve a certain percentage of high-level jobs for qualified
3) For this reasons, we should preserve a certain percentage of high-level jobs for qualified
women.
Vocabulary for expressing Agreement:
In agreement/ disagreement essay you will often need to express whether you agree/ disagree or
partially agree with a given statement or opinion. Following vocabularies would be helpful to
express your agreement with something.
I quite agree that ....
I
strongly agree .....
I
completely agree that .....
I
totally agree with the given idea that .....
I
agree with the opinion that .....
I
am quite inclined to the opinion that .....
I
could not agree more .....
I
concur with the group who believe that .....
I
accept that .....
I
accept the fact that .....
I
approve the idea .....
I
am in agreement .....
I
consent that .....
Examples:
1) I quite agree that owning a car have far more advantages that disadvantages.
2) I am in agreement with the group of people who believe that the government should build
more sports facilitates to promote public health.
3) I agree with the opinion that more taxes should be imposed on fast food items.
Vocabulary for expressing Disagreement:

Following are some useful vocabulary to use whenever you want to express your disagreement with an idea, opinion or statement. You will usually use those in agreement/ disagreement type IETLS essay.

 I disagree with the opinion that .... I strongly disagree ..... I completely disagree with
I disagree with the opinion that ....
I
strongly disagree .....
I
completely disagree with .....
I
totally disagree with the given idea that .....
I
disagree with the statement .....
I
quite oppose the opinion that .....
I
disapprove that .....
I
totally do not accept the fact that .....
My own opinion contradicts .....
I
disagree with the group of people .....
However, my opinion is different .....
Examples:
1) I quite disagree that building more roads only can solve the ever increasing traffic
problem in most cities.
2) I oppose the opinion that government has no responsibilities for supporting the senior
citizens.
3) My opinion contradicts with the group of people who believe that space research has no
value for us.
Vocabulary for expressing partial agreement:

In some cases, you will have opinion or point of view that would not completely agree or disagree

with a given opinion or statement. In this case, you should clearly mention that you partially agree with the opinion but to some extent, you also disagree to this. In these cases, using the following vocabulary will be very helpful.

To some extent… ..

In a way… ..

  • I agree with the given statement to some extent… ..

Up to a point, I agree… ..

More or less… ..

So to speak… ..

Examples:

1) In a way, I agree that it is government’s responsibility to keep the environment clean, but without individual effort, it cannot be achieved. 2) To some extent, I agree with the opinion that space research is a waste of money but the invaluable effects these research can have could not be denied.

3) So to speak, mothers play the most important role in upbringing the children, however, the contribution a father can have to the children can't be ignored.

 Vocabulary for expressing certainty:

Vocabulary for expressing certainty:

To make a point or argument stronger, you often need to show the certainty of your expression. To

do so use the following list of vocabularies:

Certainly… ..

 

Definitely… ..

No doubt… ..

Of course… ..

Doubtlessly… ..

Without any doubt… ..

Undoubtedly… ..

 

Examples:

1) Of course, learning from books in a formal educational institution and learning from books for someone's own interest are highly important. 2) Definitely, practical lessons help us to have more deeply understanding, while theory learned from books will be forgotten far easier.

3) Undoubtedly ultimate exhaust of natural resources would create a chaos and many wild lives would be endangered as well.

Vocabulary for Adding further information:

In your essay, you need to present reasons and arguments to make your point of view stronger. For

this, you often need to add multiple examples or cases and those examples or cases should be connected using some linking words. Such linking words are given below so that you can use them in your IELTS essay.

In addition… ..

And… ..

Moreover… ..

Similarly… ..

Furthermore… ..

Also… ..

As well as… ..

Besides… ..

Even… ..

Too… ..

What’s more… ..

Again… ..

 

In a similar fashion… ..

 

Likewise… ..

Examples:

1) What's more, university education should be based on talent and performance, not based on equal gender opportunity. 2) Likewise, if the popular media provides good news such as educational, scientific and so

on, this can motivate the young generation to achieve more knowledge. 3) Even, second or third changes to those heinous criminals are often found fruitless and they committed crimes again.

 Vocabulary for presenting time or sequence:

Vocabulary for presenting time or sequence:

Expressing the time or sequence is important to show a natural flow in your arguments and

paragraphs. Important vocabularies that can be used to show time or sequence are given below.

First/ Firstly… ..

Second/ Secondly… ..

Third/ Thirdly… ..

Last/ Lastly… ..

Then… ..

At the same time… ..

Meanwhile… ..

Since… ..

As soon as… ..

After this / that… ..

Before… ..

After… ..

Afterwards … ..

During… ..

While… ..

Simultaneously… ..

Following this… ..

When… ..

Examples:

1) At the same time, the technological revolution affects all countries around the world in many ways significantly. 2) Meanwhile, we should try our best to put every effort to make our environment clean.

3) Afterwards, these steps could help mass people to be aware of the danger of their fast food intakes.