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Using new technologies BEFORE, DURING and AFTER
visiting a museum, cultural institution or art gallery



1.1 Before, during and after
1.2 ‘Blind’ in the digital age


2.1 Good practice examples BEFORE the visit

2.1.1 Applications for discovering exhibitions, cultural activities, etc.

2.1.2 Experiences related to Gamification
2.1.3 Electronic resources on websites of cultural institutions
2.1.4 Guided tours on Twitter
2.1.5 Need to redesign websites of cultural institutions
2.1.6 Enriching the navigation experience

2.2 Good practice examples DURING the visit

2.2.1 Semantic touch-screen devices

2.2.2 Using QR codes in exhibition halls
2.2.3 Live-streaming of the visitor experience
2.2.4 Using applications to enrich the visiting experience
2.2.5 Sensory technologies
2.2.6 Geolocation technology
2.2.7 Radios, audio files, podcasts, etc.

2.3 Good practice examples AFTER the visit


3.1 Poor interaction between museums and technology companies
3.2 Beyond social networks: different market priorities
3.3 Need for feedback in analog and digital actions
3.4 Redefining digital strategy and organization
3.5 Working towards improved collaboration in cultural management



This study has been published under a Creative Commons “Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivative license”; the work may be co-
pied and distributed by any other means provided that its authorship (Dosdoce.com) is credited, it is not used for commercial purposes
and is not amended in any way. The full license may be viewed at: http://creativecommons.org/


Although we may all more they deny spectators’ demands for facial recognition systems, smart sen-
1 or less agree that the Inter- interactive experiences, which are not sors, real satisfaction recommender
net has radically changed the always met in practice through the use systems, interactive applications for
way in which people look for and find of games. mobile devices, among other
all kinds of cultural and leisure con- novelties- offer cultural institutions an
tents, do we really believe that mu- The main purpose of this study is to amazing choice of opportunities
seums, cultural institutions and art analyze how museums, cultural institu- to enhance the visitor experience
galleries can offer the same experience tions and art galleries may benefit from at an exhibition, among other expe-
on visiting an exhibition or collection the latest technology on the Web and riences that may be offered by a
in the 21st century without embracing on the market, as well as that offered museum, cultural centre or art
any kind of change? by recently created technology compa- gallery.
nies, better known as startups, with a
Museums, cultural institutions and art view to improving their services within
galleries can’t afford to remain alo- gallery spaces, with virtual material and
of to this change, which is directly content, with a view to enriching the HOW CAN ART
affecting the consumption of cul- visitor experience. INSTITUTIONS
tural products and is consequently BENEFIT MOST FROM
influencing our access to art and cultu- The impact of third generation techno- TECHNOLOGY WITHIN
re from any perspective. Neither can logy in the cultural sector -such as THEIR REACH?



Contrary to previous stu- development of applications for smart applications, QR codes, gamification,
1.1 dies1 by Dosdoce.com, whe- devices); a diminished use of tools touch-screens, sensory technology,
re we analyzed whether or during the visit to the physical geolocation or augmented reality,
not a given cultural institution was installations of the corresponding among others, to develop new servi-
present on a social network and sub- institutions (mainly focused on the use ces for the purpose of enriching disco-
sequently provided a series of recom- of certain technologies for the purpo- very processes at museums as well as
mendations to improve its presence se of enriching the visit); and lastly, a promoting a connection among visi-
on those networks, this time we pre- low use of technologies to encou- tors.
ferred to analyze the degree to which rage the exchange of experiences
all kinds of technologies are used du- after the visit. Although museums have reached reco-
ring the three stages in which a citizen rd levels of visitors during the last few
may experience direct contact with a Cultural institutions and technology years (3 million annual visits to the
cultural institution: companies in the digital age need to Prado Museum; 1 million visits to the
work together more closely with a Bilbao Guggenheim Museum in 2012;
• Before the visit (discovery stage) view to benefiting from the opportuni- almost 400,000 visits to the Picasso
• During the visit (direct experien- ties offered by tools such as mobile Museum in Málaga, etc.), one of the
ce stage) most significant challenges these insti-
• After the visit (stage at which the tutions will have to face in the next
experience / satisfaction is shared) few years is the addition within
RECENT ATTENDANCE their gallery spaces of a broad
The results of this last study have re- RECORDS SHOULD NOT BE range of technology in order to
vealed a highly intensive use of USED AS AN EXCUSE TO enrich the visual experience
technology during the discovery POSTPONE THE USE OF for visitors and really meet
stage (mainly focused on promotional TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE the needs of 21st century
activities in social networks and the THE VISITOR EXPERIENCE clients.



Museums and cultural insti- mend visits in a highly personalized of their senses.
1.2 tutions are blind in this digital way since they will be familiar with
society because they are their clients’ real preferences as well One of the main conclusions of this
unaware of most of their visitors’ pro- as their degree of satisfaction. This study is that museums, cultural
files and cultural preferences. They information regarding visitors’ be- institutions and art galleries are
don’t know whether their visitors are haviour and their true level of satisfac- destined to get along with recen-
dealers, Fine Art students, tourists or tion, which are impossible to secure in tly created technology companies
town residents visiting a museum for the analog world, will become the ac- in order to benefit from the opportu-
the first time. This is due to the super- tive ingredient and competitive nities offered by the Internet. 90% of
ficiality of statistics controlling the advantage for museums in the new the companies participating in the sur-
number of visitors at museum entran- digital age. vey revealed that they were truly inte-
ces and to the failure to analyze speci- rested in new technologies and consi-
fic studies that institutions of these VIEWING AND dered it highly advisable to implement
characteristics should conduct. DISCOVERING AN them in their institutions to enrich the
EXHIBITION SHOULD NOT visiting experience before, during and
How can a museum recommend an after visits. However, the study also
exhibition or the contemplation of a
revealed that only 30% of the institu-
particular painting to potential visitors
PROCESS; IT SHOULD tions participating in the survey
if it is unaware of their cultural tastes? BE SHARED WITH claimed to have held one or two mee-
The real additional value provi- TECHNOLOGY tings with technology companies in the
ded by the Internet is the direct previous year. If museums, cultural
knowledge of its visitors and their The way an exhibition is discovered institutions and art galleries fail to ac-
behaviour during the process of and viewed in the digital age will no cept the challenge of thoroughly
discovery or consumption of any longer be a solitary analog activity and modernizing the discovery and
cultural content. New cultural content will turn into a process shared with visiting processes of their collec-
recommendation systems based on technology. Visitors in the 21st centu- tions and exhibitions, they will scar-
real satisfaction during previous visits ry need to be offered an online expe- cely remain as relevant cultural op-
will allow cultural managers to recom- rience in order to stimulate every one tions for citizens of the 21st century.



In this study we have sought highly intensive use of technology As has occured in relation to other
2 to analyze the extent to during the discovery stage (mainly activities in the cultural and creative
which all kinds of technolo- focused on promotional activities in industries, such as screen reading or
gies are used in three main stages du- social networks and the development music and film consumption by strea-
ring which a citizen has direct contact of applications for smart devices); a ming, the change in cultural visits
with a cultural institution: diminished use of tools during the will be much more radical than
visit to the physical facilities of the we suspect.
• Before the visit (discovery stage) corresponding institutions (mainly fo-
• During the visit (direct experien- cused on the use of certain Offering visitors a broad range of ex-
ce stage) technologies for the purpose of hibitions and activities is not enough,
• After the visit (stage at which enriching the visit); and lastly, they must be engaged by new, unique
the experience / satisfaction is a low use of technologies with experiences using the support of
shared) a view to encouraging the users’ mobile devices either during the
exchange of experiences after visit to the gallery spaces or on visiting
The results of this last study revealed a the visit. the museum website.


The discovery and subse- To understand all the implications of
2.1 quent visit to an exhibition in this change, we have chosen a
the digital age will no longer broad range of examples of
be a solitary analog activity but will VISITORS IN THE 20TH uses of all kinds of technologies
become a process shared with techno- CENTURY SHOULD BE by cultural institutions throughout
logy. Visitors in the 21st century must OFFERED ONLINE the world for the purpose
be offered an online experience to add EXPERIENCES TO of enriching the visitor
to their physical visit to stimulate each STIMULATE ALL THEIR experience before, during and
and every one of their senses. SENSES after the visit.




Our attention was particu-

2.1.1 larly drawn to an app2 used
in New York City
Subway, which provides comprehen-
sive details via a mobile application on
a wide variety of artwork installed
throughout the subway and rail system
in New York. Several contemporary
works of art are displayed at select
stations to accompany travellers. It is
almost impossible to know where each
of these works or art is exhibited.
However, the Meridian app provides
background information about each
piece of art and its creator. Apart Nuria Arbizu has compiled a broad selection of apps on Pinterest which is
from being a free app, works within extremely useful for the discovery of interesting technologies
the app are organized by subway or
railroad line and artist. Browsing on
the application from Kennedy Interna-
tional Airport allows you to check out
flights, restaurants, bars, stores… and
by its Institute of Culture and keep the app4 offering a magnificent virtual tour
a lot more. For example, at the Lan Su
public informed of exhibitions, confe- of the museum with 100 amazing 3D
Chinese Garden, you can use Meridian rences and publications as well as cul- panoramas as well as descriptions of
to tour the whole garden and learn tural initiatives in Spain, Latin America individual artworks.
about the fantastic world of plants and and Europe.
at the Fernbank Museum of Natural Considering the endless list of apps for
History in Atlanta, you can use the app The Musée du Louvre has created museums, cultural institutions and art
to learn everything you need to know an app which allows users to browse galleries, we recommend that readers
about dinosaurs (among many other through 100 artworks in the museum, visit Nuria Arbizu’s wall display on
things) through various games and discover the secret behind the Mona Pinterest, where she has chosen a bro-
challenges. Lisa’s enigmatic smile and explore ad range of apps5. We would like to
Napoleon’s apartments. take this opportunity to thank her for
Along these same lines, the Mapfre this initiative, as it is an extremely use-
Foundation has created an applica- The State Hermitage Museum in ful wall in discovering and narrowing
tion3 to share all the activities offered Saint Petersburg also has its own down all kinds of applications.




Using technologies derived Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum

2.1.2 from the gaming industry, (Educathyssen) offers a range of video
such as challenges and prizes, adventures8 based on the gamification
to transform everyday chores into fun concept, where art is discovered
activities can be extremely useful in through storytelling.
attracting audiences’ attention to acti-
vities offered by museums, cultural The Carlos de Amberes Founda-
institutions and art galleries. tion (Madrid) created a game on Fa-
cebook9, on a low budget and in a
The Metropolitan Museum of short space of time, allowing it to sha-
New York is a good example of how re the temporary exhibition
to apply gamification (defined by some Beatlemanía, 50 years later which in-
as the application of game theory con- creased the number of followers and
cepts and techniques with a view to The Metropolitan Museum visitors to the exhibition by 85%.
involving users) to increase interest in of New York proposes a scavenger
hunt through the gallery in search
the world of art. The MET, for exam- of an imaginary killer Similarly, the Museum of the City of
ple, has created the game Murder at New York includes a post every Fri-
the Met6, whereby a player must find day on its Facebook page10 of a
the killer of Madame X, the woman mystery image. Followers are
immortalized in John Singer Sargen’s challenged to identify its location and
painting by that name (at the MET co- must validate their responses.
llection), allowing users to explore
statues, paintings and objects with a Some museums are creating challen-
view to finding the evidence directly ging competitions based on their ex-
leading to the murderer and witnesses. hibitions using SCVNGR11, a social,
location-based, gaming platform for
The PradoMedia section at the Prado mobile phones. We found an example
Museum in Madrid offers a broad of the use of this platform at the
range of games7 inviting visitors to Smithsonian, which organized an
discover its works in detail through interactive game called The goSmith-
conceived entertaining techniques to HOW DOES GAMIFICATION sonian Trek, a scavenger hunt in which
develop their visual memory, among WORK? IT USES GAME museum visitors had to decode clues
other things. Along the same lines, the MECHANICS TO GET in nine of its museums to solve the
Education Department of the USERS INVOLVED mystery.




Many are the museums, cul-

2.1.3 tural institutions and art ga-
lleries, which allow us to
discover their collections and activities
on their websites, by the click of a
mouse, without having to move from
our computer or tablet screens.

The Bilbao Fine Arts Museum

offers multiple itineraries12 on its co-
llection, including comprehensive in-
formation and audio-guides; it has also
designed a multimedia section on its
website with videos of exhibitions and
activities where more than 145 of its
artworks are already part of the Goo-
gle Art Project.

The American Museum of Natural

History offers its future visitors an The American Museum of Natural History offers its future visitors an inter-
interactive map on its website13 to active map on its website to help plan their visit
help plan their visit.

The aforesaid PradoMedia section at

the Prado Museum in Madrid allows this particular section of the web are creation of a channel on YouTube
visitors the opportunity to visit the classified into five large areas: where the museum offers
museum in a dynamic and attractive Exhibitions, Collection, Education, users more than 100 videos
may with contents of interest to every Investigation and Games. Another, on current, past and future
age group. The electronic resources of important point to bear in mind is the exhibitions.



The Tate Gallery in Lon- hosted by a museum guide who discus-
2.1.4 don has, once again, de- sed and provided some of the keys to
monstrated its ability for the artist’s work. There was also a
innovation through the use of social question and answer session with one
networks to broadcast its exhibitions of the curators in charge of the virtual
and activities. It recently gave a guided tour. Photographs of the artworks
tweet and image based tour on Twit- being discussed accompanied the
ter of the pop artist Roy Lichtenstein’s tweets.
exhibition on display at the Gallery.
In this case, interaction and museum
We have seen other initiatives before activity were extremely well combined
with a view to promoting certain to provide a virtual service to
exhibitions or encouraging visits to potential visitors and consequently
museums via Twitter, with the attract visitors to the museum. It is
consequent hashtag (#). However, this also a great opportunity for anyone
was the first time a guided tour was wishing to receive real-time,
actually given on Twitter. significant information on a given The Tate Gallery recently hosted
the first guided tweet and image
exhibition, wherever in the world they based tour on Twitter
The tour lasted half an hour and was may be.



The arrival of smart to whether to visit a certain exhibi- Unfortunately, there are many cultural
2.1.5 phones is causing more tion. It is even influencing how we institutions that have still not adapted
changes in habits and on enjoy the experience of consuming their websites to be easily read on
the Internet than we are capable of these cultural contents. these new devices. It is of the utmost
understanding. This new mobile sup- importance to redesign the websites
port, in combination with tablets of of cultural institutions for their
various sizes, is prompting a radical ADAPTING WEBSITES adaptation to all kinds of mobile
change in the way in which we disco- TO BE EASILY READ ON devices if there is an intention to
ver all kinds of cultural contents MOBILE DEVICES IS project a good image and
(books, music, art, etc.) and is also ESSENTIAL FOR IMAGE provide a better service to
having an impact on our decisions as AND SERVICE visitors.


Apart from redesigning web- tion published by users, which would tion of key words will offer us con-
2.1.6 sites for their adaptation to assist in saving information as nections, for example, to pieces
all kinds of mobile devices, well as enriching it. New websites in a collection, exhibition or rela-
cultural institutions should focus to- along those lines will allow users to ted activity. The example of
wards a more semantic approach share, process and transfer informa- Cultural Surface, which we will
on their websites to enhance the tion in a simple fashion, consequently describe in the next section, will
navigating experience. At this par- obtaining better results in the search help the readers of this study
ticular stage in the evolution of websi- for information on the Web. Enriching to understand the evolution
tes, all their contents should be inter- the navigating experience for its users in the design of cultural
connected via supplementary informa- will be crucial to museums: a combina- websites.


The use of audio guides in allow visitors to watch video inter- JUST AS AUDIO GUIDES
2.2 gallery spaces was initially a views with their favourite creators, ARE NOW USED DESPITE
source of criticism for va- search for artworks, delve into details, INITIAL CRITICISM, WE
rious cultural managers. However, view related images or texts, scan QR WILL SOON SEE THIRD
practically every museum currently codes on a screen to obtain more GENERATION TECHNOLOGY
offers them and approves of the servi- information on a given work or pur- IN GALLERY AREAS
ces they provide for visitors. Similarly, chase the digital version of the exhibi-
we will soon witness the arrival of all tion catalogue, etc.
kinds of third generation technologies most apps developed by cultural insti-
in gallery spaces owned by museums, As we indicated in the introduction of tutions are focused on individual use,
cultural institutions and art galleries as the study, we detected a minor use of whereas we usually visit a museum or
a way of enhancing the visitor’s visual technologies during the visiting stage cultural institution in the company of
experience and really meet the needs to the physical installations of mu- others. Since we live in an era of co-
of 21st century clients. seums, cultural institutions and art llective participation, cultural institu-
galleries. Most of the tools used by the tions should develop applications
Enriching a visit means interac- institutions participating in our study that may allow a collective
ting or getting deeply involved in revolve around the development of use, with a view to assimilating
what we are discovering. Using applications for smart devices. analog experiences along with
these technologies in museums will We were surprised by the fact that virtual ones.




51.1% of the institutions 51% The museum offers interactive games

2.2.1 surveyed indicated that they through which to explore figurative
were contemplating the use sculpture via sensors, or to browse
of interactive touch-screens within 51% of the institutions through its collection of portraits via
their exhibition spaces to enhance and participating in this study claimed face recognition software, allowing
enrich visitor experience. that they were contemplating the use visitors to link their faces to the pain-
of interactive touch-screens in their ting that most closely represents their
gallery spaces
Some examples of the use of these facial expression, as you will see by
screens in cultural institutions are pro- clicking on the corresponding link be-
vided below. low. Another app invites visitors to
navigate and find a digital interpreta-
The Espacio Fundación Telefónica tion of their favourite artworks based
(a cultural space or surface located in on proximity. These are only some of
Telefónica’s historic headquarters in the examples of the initiatives of this
the heart of Madrid) offers the tool museum whose objectives are lear-
Cultural Surface14, which enables users ning and interpretation and the
to experience the sensory and seman- building of new audiences with a
tic browsing of its vast number of view to garnering interest in art.
works. Following the intense task of
cataloguing and labelling more than The Guggenheim Museum in
1,000 artworks comprising the collec- Bilbao offers its visitors the multime-
tion, visitors can gain access, in a re- dia orientation room, Zero Espazioa15.
markable way, to the digitized collec- It is a dynamic and interactive space
tions of the works constituting whose aim is to act as a meeting point
Telefónica’s artistic, historical and between the museum and its visitors,
technological heritage. Using various providing them with the necessary
touch-screens, users can filter tools to live a unique experience at
their searches by establishing The Espacio Fundación the Museum and get the most out of
Telefónica in Madrid offers a tool
different relationships between to navigate through its vast their visit: printable maps, activity gui-
works to be able to visualize the collection using sensory and de, audio-visual material on the Gug-
chosen works on another semantic technology genheim building and project, multime-
screen. dia games, digital catalogues, etc.


The Cleveland Museum of

Art’s Gallery One is one of the best
examples16 of enriching the visitor
experience in museums, fully benefiting
from the opportunities offered by
technology. Gallery One’s proposal is
to invite visitors to participate actively
during their visits through exploration
and creativity. Their different initiati-
ves are focused towards every age
where the combination of art and
technology achieve a greater unders-
tanding of the artworks and artists on
display. For example, it is possible to
discover different artistic objects in
detail through touch screen technolo-
gy encouraging visitors to browse The Cleveland Museum of Art’s Gallery One allows visitors an extensive
and allowing a deep interpreta- use of multi-touch screen devices as a way of enriching the visitor experience
tion of the artworks.


48.2% of the institutions We will gradually grow accustomed to
2.2.2 surveyed indicated that they these small square shapes everywhere:
used QR codes to enhance in newspapers, on restaurant menus,
the visitor experience. household goods, etc. Soon these
grids incorporating black and white
Since their invention in 1994 by a shapes will revolutionize the way in
company belonging to the Japanese which we visit an exhibition.
Toyota group, QR codes have speeded
up management processes in sectors An example of such use may be found
such as the automobile and mass con- at the exhibition Los espejos del alma
sumption sectors. Their recent appea- (The mirrors of the soul) at the Mu-
48% rance in the cultural sector will cause a seum of Romanticism in Madrid.
real revolution as to the way in which The exhibition includes QR codes that
cultural contents are discovered as allow visitors to access a playlist on
48% of the participants indicated well as having a huge impact on them Spotify of German pieces of music
that they use QR codes to enhance
visitor experience since it will enrich the visitor expe- from the relevant period as a tool to
rience at museums, cultural institu- enhance the visitor experience beyond
tions or art galleries. the artworks on display.



2.2.3 real time streaming also

LIVE-STREAMING allow the audio and/or video

live streaming of the visitor experience
at any cultural institution.

OF THE VISITOR The Polemic Tweet project, developed

thanks to the collaboration of

IRI - Institut de Recherche et
d'Innovation du Centre
Pompidou (The Pompidou Centre’s
Institute for Research and Innovation),
indexes audiovisual contents being
streamed live, registers their scope on
Twitter and transforms them into a
series of images appearing on the
video timeline.


55.6% of the institutions Museum of Modern Art is the ideal
2.2.4 participating in this study tool for obtaining more information
expressed their extreme on the artwork being viewed at a given
interest in enhancing the visitor expe- time and it also allows visitors to take
rience through the use of mobile appli- a virtual tour of the museum, secure
cations18. comprehensive information on exhibi-
tions and listen to curators’ com-
Throughout the last few years, a large ments.
number of institutions have developed
apps enabling visitors to enrich their The Art Museum app goes a step
physical experience with the aid of 55% further and assumes that we are alrea-
technology. dy familiar with the exhibition but
want to intensify our knowledge on a
We will comment on various applica- given work or artist. In other words,
tions with different focuses so that 55% of the participants expressed
a keen interest in implementing the Art Museum seeks to be our private
they may serve as a reference to cultu- use of mobile apps during visits Art teacher, for example, by showing
ral managers who may be thinking of us the differences between Renoir and
incorporating all kinds of technologies Rembrandt. The app uses gamification
to their gallery spaces with a view to techniques to help us become acquain-
enhancing their visitors’ experiences. ted with art history.

The app used by the New York Likewise, Art Authority offers


comprehensive information on the

great works of over 1,000 artists, from
the Renaissance to Romanticism. You
can dive into the depths of an image to
view every last detail or simply allow
the app to walk you through the art-

Another essential application for lear-

ning more on artworks being viewed
in a museum or art gallery is
ArtFinder, which includes artists
from the present and the past. If you An app created by the Fine Arts Museum in Budapest features videos in
have a particular interest in a specific various international sign languages
work you can hold it in your hands (or
rather, your device), download it and
use it, for example, as your wallpaper.
works are available for viewing and are The Fine Arts Museum in Buda-
The Maurizio Cattelan app19, develo- classified by nationality and the period pest also offers a rather unique appli-
ped by the Guggenheim Museum in which they were created. The app cation. The Museum recently launched
in New York, allows visitors to ac- clearly focuses on interaction since the its SzépMu SL (sign language) app21 for
cess a video featuring the exhibition top right hand corner includes a but- visitors with hearing problems. It fea-
curator, Nancy Spector, who examines ton to enable users to share files on tures videos in various international
Cattelan’s oeuvre, and over 20 more Facebook and Twitter. sign languages and about 150
videos on the artist including inter- paintings from the collection,
views with his friends, partners… As The Tate Gallery can boast of no in conjunction with an interactive
well as reflections by the artist him- fewer than 16 applications. Most of map.
self . them are free and cover topics from
art glossaries to leisure related apps The Andy Warhol Museum in
The Prado Museum has recently such as Muybridgizer20, which features Pittsburgh, the artist’s native city,
launched a new application for mobile the creation of animated shots, features an application22 that allows
devices rich in imagery, with great Eadweard Muybridge style, simply visitors to create screen prints of
attention to detail and excellent inte- using the iPhone camera. Although themselves, Andy Warhol style,
raction design. The app allows visitors most of these apps are only available and share them on the
to explore the museum through five for iPhones, Android users will soon Internet via social
thematic groupings. A total of 400 also have access to them. networks.



Museums will soon incorpo- relation to all kinds of activities (city different forms, which is subsequently
2.2.5 rate all kinds of third genera- walks, car trips, going to bars, etc.). displayed on a smartphone. This
tion technologies in their We will soon see their application to system combines a mobile eye tracker
gallery spaces such as facial recogni- all kinds of cultural activities (plays, (SMI Eye tracking Glasses) with an
tion, smart sensors, real satisfaction concerts, visits to book stores, exhibi- object recognition engine. An algo-
recommender systems, among other tions, etc.). We recommend that the rithm for distinguishing attentive gaze
novelties, offering them a huge range readers of this study pay close atten- from non-attentive gaze has been im-
of opportunities to enhance visitor tion to the preliminary conclusions of plemented to detect the viewer's in-
experience at exhibitions. the Museum Guide 2.023 due to the terest in a given object. Due to recent
large number of clues offered on the advances in sensory technology, future
Various cultural institutions are inves- benefits of using technologies of this eye trackers will be much smaller and
tigating the advantages of the use of kind in cultural institutions. easier to manage.
sensorial technologies to provide
a unique experience at a Museum Guide 2.0 is a sophistica-
museum. Although some cultural ted, automatic guide system for a
managers might consider them science visitor to a museum. It analyzes the FACIAL RECOGNITION,
-fiction contraptions, we can assure visitor’s eye movements and recogni- SMART SENSORS, REAL
you that they will be very commonly zes the objects to which most atten- SATISFACTION
used much sooner than expected. Re- tion is paid. When visitors view a spe- RECOMMENDATION SYS-
cently, everyone has been talking cific object for a certain length of time, TEMS … SCIENCE FICTION?
about potential applications and this sensory technology supplies infor- NO, THIS IS WHAT
projects such as Google Glass in mation about the object in several FUTURE HOLDS FOR US



Although 29.4% of the insti- the use of smartphones equipped with
2.2.6 tutions participating in the GPS technology that offer the possibi-
study alleged that they used lity of exploring open spaces with
geolocation technologies, we have sound, using stories specifically created
experienced difficulties in finding rele- by and in the Igartubeiti Estate Mu-
vant examples to share in this study. seum.

Areago, un paseo sonoro por We believe that the reason for the
Igartubeiti24, (Areago, an audio stroll limited use of technologies of this kind
through Igartubeiti), is an innovative is that cultural institutions are unaware 29%
heritage project which integrates the of their advantages. In order to un-
use of new technologies related to derstand their potential, these institu-
geolocation and heritage resources tions needs to reflect on how techno- 29% of the institutions alleged
from the Caserío Museo Igartubei- logy can help to provide a better servi- that they used geolocation
ti (Igartubeiti Estate Museum). This ce to clients and enhance users’ expe- technology
project proposes an audio guide via riences.



Various institutions offer and the radio as potential spaces of and by podcast subscription. The RRS
2.2.7 their visitors the possibility synthesis and exhibition. The RWM (Radio Reina Sofía Museum Ra-
of downloading audio files programmes are available on demand dio) project also has an extremely
(podcasts) to enrich the visitor expe- interesting approach26 since the sounds
rience with supplementary information that can be heard on the radio not
on exhibitions and activities. We DOWNLOADING PODCASTS only aspire to be an acoustic version
would like to specifically mention the ENHANCES THE VISIT TO THE of the museum experience, they are
RWM25 of the MACBA (Barcelona MUSEUM WITH ADDITIONAL also designed to become new conti-
Museum of Contemporary Art radio INFORMATION ON nents that can broadcast the ideas of
web), a radio project which explores EXHIBITIONS AND collection, exhibition and debate to
the possibilities offered by the Internet ACTIVITIES new territories.



As we mentioned in our of good practice, in most cases we will • A high percentage of visitors to
2.3 introduction to this study, simply mention the idea itself so that it cultural institutions and museums
we detected little to no use may serve as a topic for reflection by are foreign and it would therefore
by cultural institutions of technologies cultural institutions: be highly recommendable that the
that may encourage users to exchange galleries use different languages to
their visitor experience once it has • Offering free Wi-Fi throughout communicate on social networks
concluded. Users undoubtedly publish their entire installations so that apart from the official language of
all kinds of comments, photos and visitors may share their experien- the country of residence.
videos on social networks such as ces, sensations, opinions etc. This
Facebook and Twitter as a way of may be considered another crucial • Some museums publish information
sharing their experiences after a service at the “during” stage since it on the same profile of a social
visit to an exhibition but do so without is required for most of the apps network in various languages.
any kind of encouragement by the mentioned in this study: geoloca- This is not recommendable as it
galleries. There is no proactive policy tion, QR codes, etc.). confuses followers. It is best to
towards encouraging visitors to share open separate profiles, each in a
their experiences or rewarding them • We have not detected any signs different language. This is common
for doing so. in gallery spaces at most of the mu- practice in other sectors such as
seums mentioned in this study invi- sports, entertainment, etc. A report
This indicates a lack of feedback be- ting visitors to leave their rooms to drawn up by Dosdoce.com on the
tween digital strategies and the more share their experience on social presence of 2.0 technology in the
“traditional” communication activities networks. football27 sector revealed that many
in the good sense of the word. Most of the big clubs and the most popu-
cultural institutions are already well • In this regard, we would like to en- lar players (Ronaldo, Messi, Forlán,
represented on social networks. courage all cultural institutions to Iniesta) managed various profiles on
However, day-to-day and virtual incorporate their logos and social networks, each in a different
museum activities are not fully URLs relating to their presence language (Spanish, Catalan, English,
interconnected. on social networks such as Face- Arabic, etc).
book, Pinterest or Twitter on all
We will now go on to discuss some their information materials • We recommend offering
initiatives and ideas to be put into (catalogues, brochures, cafeteria, visitors a choice of reading
practice to encourage a greater store, etc.) and at exhibition entran- material associated with their
interaction among users after a visit ces and exits. Some cultural mana- exhibitions or recommendations
to a museum, cultural institution or art gers will consider it a horrifying to visit exhibitions in other
gallery, with a view to providing feed- suggestion to include these logos in art galleries in the same city
back to digital actions via analog activi- their physical spaces, but then, why related to the one they
ties. Since there are very few examples have virtual presence? have just visited.


• Why not include a QR code in the

entrance ticket that is purchased
before visiting the exhibition with
the possibility of downloading the
digital version of the catalogue?

• Why not offer the possibility of

downloading the digital
version of the catalogue on
leaving the exhibition without
having to visit the bookstore?

• We are already aware that the rea-

ding experience is not the same on
screen but the digital version
offers a certain dynamism and
interaction which is really appro-
priate for artistic contents. The
digitalization of contents is also a
way of enhancing the value of an
institution by placing its assets at
the public’s disposal. Many institu-
The Museum of Contemporary Art in New York (MOMA) offers a broad
tions already offer their contents in range of digital versions of catalogues without having to visit the museum
eBook format or as apps for tablets.
The Museum of Contemporary
Art in New York (MOMA) offers
a broad range of digital versions28 to
visitors and all the contents at
Medialab Prado are online and
downloadable29 free of charge.

• Museums and cultural institutions

should encourage the participa-
tion and contribution of con-
tents by their users much more
than they do now since they are
crucial elements in the web 2.0. For
example, why not allow users to
choose exhibitions or activities they
would like to see in art galleries? In
this context, the CA2M (Centro de
Arte Dos de Mayo or 2nd of May
Art Centre - Madrid) team
conducted a survey among their
visitors last December on
Facebook30, asking them to vote for
their favourite exhibition of the
year. These kinds of initiatives are
excellent with a view to obtaining
more information on the public’s The CA2M centre in Madrid asked their visitors to vote for their favourite
interests which may also be used exhibition of the year on Facebook
when programming future events.

• This doesn’t mean that we

should leave the programming professional team. We simply wish afford to remain aloof from their
of events of a cultural institution to draw attention to the fact that audiences. Taking their opinions
in the hands of users since that is due to the age of participation we into consideration can only enrich
the responsibility of the institution’s now live in, institutions cannot the relationship between them.


material had been submitted by ready to converse, exchange ideas

visitors31 to an exhibition on Pa- and suggestions and include them in
• When a user creates contents ral·lel, el mítico barrio barcelonés (the their programming? A close rela-
for a cultural institution (by legendary Barcelona neighbour- tionship with users should be one
sending a photo or video, participa- hood, Paral·lel), via different social of the keys to digital presence in
ting in a survey, giving an opinion on networks (Twitter, Instagram, Face- cultural institutions. Visitors should
a topic, criticizing certain activities, book…). The use of this tool by the feel free to converse and exchange
etc.), it establishes a close identifica- management team to supplement experiences in both the analog and
tion between the user and the insti- the exhibition was a great success virtual environments of any institu-
tution. Every cultural institution since visitors were able to submit tion. The entire digital content of a
should recognize the areas where all kinds of content (anecdotes, ma- cultural institution should be
their users may contribute to enri- terial and experiences) due to the predisposed to being shared by
ching its management. proximity of the topic. its audiences. Museums are no
longer places to simply visit:
• The facebook profile of the Centro • Digital strategies predispose or- physical, geographic and time
Cultural de la Ciudad de Barce- ganizations to communicate concepts fade away. Museums
lona (CCCB - Barcelona Cultural with users. In this context there- may be found in a tablet, a
Centre) posted a link to the Sto- fore, the following question should mobile application or a social
rify platform where a collection of be asked: Are cultural institutions network.



Unfortunately, the results of believe that their extensive knowledge
3.1 this study revealed that most of the sector, coupled with certain
museums, cultural institu- internal resources, are more than
tions and art galleries have failed to enough to meet any digital challenge.
build any collaborative bridges
with 21st century tech compa- Museums, cultural institutions and art
nies. Although over 90% of the insti- galleries will soon incorporate all
tutions claimed to have a great inter- kinds of third generation techno-
est in incorporating more technology logies to their physical installa-
into cultural management, less than 35% tions. As we have seen throughout
35% of the institutions surveyed stated the study, third generation technolo-
that they had held from one to five gies allow users to touch the contents
meetings with a tech company throug- Less than 35% of the participants of a work. Touching in the digital
hout the previous year. This informa- stated that they had held from one to age means interacting or delving
five meetings with a tech company
tion implies that cultural managers throughout the previous year deeper into what we are discove-
are predisposed to incorporating ring. Incorporating these technologies
more technology in their galleries but in cultural institutions will allow visi-
the fact of the matter is that these tors to exchange opinions in real time
intentions have not yet fully ma- companies is not necessary since they with other visitors, obtain personali-
terialized. consider the content of a museum zed recommendations, see video inter-
more than sufficient to attract visitors’ views of their favourite creators, dive
The underlying causes and interpreta- attention. Other managers arrange into works of art to discover more
tions of these low results in the survey meetings with tech companies to get details, see other, related images or
are numerous. We have learned from information out of them or any other texts, scan QR codes to purchase the
our experience in this line of work details on their technologies and po- digital version of the exhibition catalo-
that many cultural managers believe tential benefits without really intending gue, share the experience with other
that a close collaboration with tech to work with them. The most arrogant visitors, etc.



English speaking cultural What were the main objectives
3.2 institutions have diffe- of meetings with tech companies?
rent priorities from Spa-
English speaking segment – More than one response may be marked
nish speaking ones. The different
comparative analyses we have
conducted among Spanish and
English speaking cultural institu-
tions, following the results of the
study, indicate that the process
of incorporating technologies
in the cultural sector is
happening at different 65,6% 65,6% 62,5%
Enhancing visitor Attracting Improving communication
experience (QR codes, new strategies and online
While 65% of Spanish speaking touch screens) audiences positioning (web,
institutions have mainly met up social networks)
with companies specializing in web
design and social network positio-
ning, most English speaking cultu-
ral institutions have met up with
tech companies with a view to
enriching visitor experience
(65.6%) and attracting new audien- 56,3% 40,6% 34,4%
ces via digital initiatives (65.6%). In
other words, English speaking cul-
Improving Improving procedures for Personalizing the
tural institutions are already incor- accessibility the preservation of public’s attention
porating all kinds of technologies to the institution artworks, management in gallery spaces and
of the collection and its encouraging interaction
to enrich cultural experience, promotion and digitalization
beyond social networks.




The results of this study analog and digital actions pre- tional department, not failing to miss
3.3 revealed a highly intensive vents the broader development the conservation department.
use of technology during the of new services to enhance the dis-
discovery stage (mainly focused on covery process at exhibitions and Virtual and analog experiences do not
promotional activities in social net- museum activities as well as exclude each other. In fact, they mu-
works and the development of applica- obstructing a greater interconnection tually support each other. Let’s be-
tions for smart devices); a diminished between visitors. nefit from every experience lived
use of tools during the visit to the by users in the physical environ-
physical installations of the correspon- 65.6% of English speaking institutions ment to stimulate virtual visits
ding institutions (mainly focused on claim that their main priority is to and vice versa. Besides excellence
the use of certain technologies attract new audiences to their centres in contents, both from analog and
for the purpose of enriching the visit); via new technologies. To achieve this virtual standpoints, users should be
and lastly, a low use of technologies objective, the digital strategy of provided with unique experiences
with a view to encouraging the the organization must go hand in according to expectations of the digital
exchange of experiences after hand with its global strategy to age. Let’s find ways to personalize
the visit. extend, like the arms of an octopus as both real and virtual experiences.
it were, to every department: from the Museums should consider each user
This lack of feedback between education department to the promo- as being unique.


During the process of deve- we found it surprising that most of the plan for the next two years32 on its
3.4 lopment of this study, we institutions surveyed could not claim website. Its vision may be summarized
realized how difficult it to have an employee responsible for in one resounding statement, Digital as
was to identify the person respon- digital strategy. These tasks are a dimension of everything, which may be
sible for digital strategy in most currently distributed among seve- interpreted as the incorporation of
cultural institutions. In some institu- ral departments such as press, new technologies in all the activi-
tions, the responsibility was focused marketing, web maintenance, ties of the institution and the de-
on one person but in most cases there press contacts, etc., without anyone velopment of online skills throug-
wasn’t even a Department or person specific to define, co-ordinate and hout the whole organization.
considered responsible for the global supervise the global strategy of the We recommend that the readers
definition of digital strategy. cultural institution across all the of this study read the document in
departments of the organization. detail since it will provide the keys
Although most cultural institutions as to how to redefine their digital
employ a person responsible for con- In an exercise of admirable transparen- strategy and its impact on the
tact with the media, the education cy, The London Tate Gallery has reorganization of cultural
department or institutional contacts, recently published its digital strategy institutions.




In the age of participation, Sofía Museum, which has chosen the

3.5 every cultural institution idea of an open Museum33, a web
–regardless of its size and Museum, for its future development,
specialization– should establish contrary to the short-sighted and
strategic alliances with various centripetal notion of the traditional
tech partners to be able to museum . This institution enjoys a
confront challenges of the digital close relationship with various interna-
age. Considering that the State’s con- tional institutions such as the MoMA,
tribution to the cultural sector dimi- Tate Modern, the Pompidou
nishes year after year –due to conti- Centre, the Serralves Foundation 79%
nuous cutbacks in budgets– the role of in Oporto, the Moderna Galería in
technology and the contribution of Lubiana, the Van Abbemuseum in
citizens will keep on increasing. Eindoven, the Cisneros Foundation 79% of the institutions claimed a
and the MUAC in México City, low budget as the main obstacle to
Advances in technology during the last among others, all of which are incorporating more technology
few years have prompted such a chan- pioneers in experimenting and
ge in society that its impact in the or- redefining the philosophy and purpose
ganization and management of cultural of a museum in the 21st century.
institutions and the way in which these
institutions interact with their public is Cultural institutions should reflect on
irreversi- the internal and external processes not, control every process of the
ble. In this that may be more closely handled in institution they represent.
THE ROLE OF period of conjunction with tech companies and
TECHNOLOGY increasing users. The possibilities are endless: A more active association with diffe-
AND THE change from involving users in defining the rent startups would allow cultural ma-
CONTRIBUTION with no programming of activities, to financial nagers access to more innovative ideas
OF CITIZENS turning contributions via collective financing and would above all provide the keys
WILL KEEP ON back, we (crowdfunding). to the reorganization of their institu-
INCREASING will wit- tions to be able to thrive in the 21st
ness the Marketing and digital communication century. Recently created techno-
birth of strategies are no longer sufficient; logy companies usually handle
new models of creation, produc- technology companies and users will digital challenges with a different
tion and cultural management, have to be included in every creation, outlook. These young entrepreneurs
whose aim will be to involve the participation and promotional project always try to find a new way of resol-
highest number of cultural insti- where the management team believes ving a problem or meeting users’
tutions and tech companies with a they may make a valuable contribution. specific needs. Collaborating with
view to an increased sharing of cultu- Cultural managers in the 21st them will allow cultural managers to
re. In this regard, we would like to century should accept that they obtain a deeper understanding of new
highlight the initiative of the Reina will not be able to, and should and dynamic behaviours in the


digital age and of opportunities incorporate more technology to their

arising in this world on a daily. centres, wouldn’t it stand to reason to
share financial and human resources
79% of the institutions surveyed indi- with other institutions for any techno-
cated a low budget as the main obsta- logy project? In this context of colla-
cle for incorporating more technolo- boration, the New York Times has
gies. If this is the case, why not share decided to share its offices with va-
financial resources and experien- rious startups35 to work together to
ces among museums and cultural identify solutions to common challen-
institutions? Why should every ges. The honesty and simplicity on
museum have its own app? As a res- contemplating this collaboration agree-
ponse to these questions, 11 mu- 71% ment is worthy of mention: “The New
seums in Denmark have collabora- York Times, and the press in general,
ted in the development of an applica- are in the midst of an unprecedented
tion to access their collections 71% of the respondents claimed change. Our main objective continues
through mobile devices34. Collabora- not having sufficiently qualified to be to improve society through the
employees to incorporate more
tion agreements between cultural ins- technology creation, collection and distribution of
titutions and high quality news and information. We
startups could be unlimited. For exam- want to find the best way of doing this
ple, various museums or cultural and believe that this collaboration may
institutions could share the cost be part of the process.”
of developing apps for mobile devi-
ces or could negotiate jointly with OPEN QUESTION FOR FURTHER THOUGHT:
tech companies to share investigations How many museums or cultural
and results. centres are prepared to share
their offices with startups specia-
If 71% of the institutions participating lizing in the cultural sector with a
in the survey claimed that they did not view to jointly developing solu-
have enough qualified personnel to tions to common problems?


This study was entirely conducted between the months of
4 January and May 2013, following the steps briefly referred
to below:

1. Designing of a question- 5. Opening of preliminary 8. Compilation and analysis

naire made up of 13 ques- participation stage by invita- of the responses to the 136
tions with multiple answers tion. Personal e-mails were questionnaires that were
(January 2013). sent to a list of museum, filled out (April 2013): 103
cultural institution and art replied in Spanish (75.7%),
2. Internal testing of each gallery professionals, invi- 33 replied in English
questionnaire’s suitability by ting them to participate in (24.3%).
experts on the subject the survey. The results we-
(February 2013). re added following the de- 9. Interpretation of the re-
adline and a prior assess- sults and preparation of
3. Translation into English of ment was conducted. report with the main con-
both questionnaires for in- clusions of the study (April
creased international parti- 6. A second round of parti- 2013).
cipation. cipation was launched in
specialized social media. 10. Publication of the report
4. Publication of the ques- Following an assessment of (May 2013) on the occasion
tionnaires on the Survey- the results and a verifica- of Dosdoce.com’s partici-
Monkeys platform (March tion of no significant diver- pation in MuseumNext.
2013). sions between both groups,
the results of both rounds
were added to obtain a
broader sampling.

7. All the answers were trea-

ted confidentially. Any
records of respondents’
identity were deleted.


Museums in the digital age
May 2013
This study was conducted by Iñaki Saldaña and Javier Celaya of Dosdoce.com, in
collaboration with Clara Merín and Cristina González, of Endecomunicacion. We
would also like to thank the contributions made by Araceli Corbo, Gabriel Portell
and José Antonio Vázquez who have enriched the process of development of this
study. The study and questionnaires were translated into English by Annabelle Pratt-
McKiernan and the design and layout were handled by Ibai Cereijo of Woo Media.
The image on the cover belongs to the artist Fernando Martín Godoy.

Dosdoce.com was launched in March en las redes sociales" (Museum connec-

2004 for the purpose of analyzing the tions on social networks), the infographic
use of new technologies in the cultural "Derechos de los usuarios en la
sector. Throughout the years we have nube" (Users’ rights in the cloud) and
compiled over 20 studies and reports versions in Catalonian, English and
on the use of new technologies in dif- Portuguese of "The Social Networks
ferent areas of the cultural sector. In Cheat Sheet”. We began 2012 with the
November 2005 our first study was zación del libro en España” (Book digi- publication of "Cronología de la
published: “El papel de la comunica- talization in Spain) was published; in edición digital (1912-2012)" (Digital
ción en la promoción del libro” (The November 2009, “La visibilidad de los publishing. A chronology (1912 – 2012),
role of communication in book promo- museos en la Web 2.0” (The visibility of and the Catalonian and Basque ver-
tion). In 2006 two new studies were museums on the Web 2.0). In 2010 we sions of the infographic "Users’ rights in
published: “El uso de las tecnologías published the study “La visibilidad de the cloud”. We recently shared the
Web 2.0 en entidades culturales” (The las galerías de arte en Facebook” (The results of the survey "Anatomía del
use of Web 2.0 technologies on cultural visibility of art galleries on the Web 2.0) perfil del editor digital" (Anatomical
entities) and “Los retos de las editoria- and “Chuleta de las redes socia- profile of the digital publisher). In Sep-
les independientes” (The challenges les” (Social networks cheat sheet). We tember 2012 we published the study
faced by independent publishers). In Oc- began 2011 with the publication of the "El directivo y las redes socia-
tober 2007 the following study was second edition of the study "Las les" (Social media and management) in
published, “Tendencias Web 2.0 en el galerías de arte en la web 2.0" (Art partnership with the CEDE Foundation
sector editorial” (Web 2.0 trends in the galleries on the Web 2.0) and published and the BPMO Group. In February
publishing sector). In October 2008 the the study "Fútbol 2.0" (Football 2.0) 2013, Dosdoce.com’s study “Cómo
following study was published in con- which analyzes how football clubs are colaborar con startups” (Collaborating
junction with the social network Edi- incorporating 2.0 technologies to their with startups) was published.
ciona “La digitalización del libro en communication strategies and their
España“ (Book digitalization trends in team, player, event promotions etc.
Spain). We published the following We concluded 2011 with the publica- For further information:
study in March 2009 “Visibilidad de las tion in September of the study Javier Celaya
ciudades en la Web 2.0” (City visibility "Industria editorial 2.0" (Publishing in- Email: info@dosdoce.com
in the Web 2.0); in October 2009, the dustry 2.0) and the following study in Telephone number:
second edition of the study “La digitali- November "Conexiones entre museos 00.34.606.367.708

All of the above reports have been drawn up for information purposes and are particularly focused towards communication officers who
may be unfamiliar with these new tools but have a real interest in learning the benefits of using them in their companies. As we indicated
previously, all these studies are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivative license; they may be cop-
ied and distributed by any other means provided that their authorship (Dosdoce.com) is credited, they are not used for commercial pur-
poses and are not amended in any way. The full license may be viewed at: http://creativecommons.org/




(1) Section relating to Studies (13) Museum of Natural History (24) Geolocation technologies
conducted by Dosdoce.com http://www.amnh.org/plan-your-visit/ http://www.igartubeitibaserria.net/
http://www.dosdoce.com/archivo/ interactive-floorplan
estudios/ (25) Use of podcasts
(14) Cultural Surface of Telefónica http://rwm.macba.cat/es/sobre
(2) Applications for discovering contents http://espacio.fundaciontelefonica.com/
http://www.comunicacion- cultural-surface-una-nueva-forma-de- (26) Reina Sofía RRS
cultural.com/2013/02/14/museos-bajo- consultar-el-patrimonio-de-fundacion- http://radio.museoreinasofia.es/
tierra/ telefonica/ informacion
(3) Fundación Mapfre app (15) Multi-media orientation room (27) Study on the use of different
http://www.fundacionmapfre.org/ http://www.guggenheim-bilbao.es/ languages on social networks
fundacion/es_es/apps/default.jsp recursos/ http://www.dosdoce.com/articulo/
(4) Hermitage app with 3D images
http://www.hermitageapp.com/ (16) Multi-touch screens at the
Cleveland Museum of Art’s Gallery One (28) Offer of digital contents at the
e_press.html MOMA
(5) Apps on Pinterest momabooks
http://pinterest.com/arbizun/museums- (17) QR Codes at the Museum of
apps/ Romanticism, Madrid
http://museoromanticismo.mcu.es/ (29) Online downloading of contents
actividades/exposicionesTemporales/ http://medialab-prado.es/archive
(6) Murder at the MET
http://www.metmuseum.org/metmedia/ actuales.html (30) Participation by users in the
video/news/murder-at-the-met programming of a cultural institution
(18) Apps for enhancing museum http://www.facebook.com/CA2MMadrid
(7) PradoMedia by Madrid Prado Mu- experiences
seum http://www.comunicacion-
http://www.museodelprado.es/ cultural.com/2013/04/25/7-apps-para- (31) Users’ contributions to exhibitions
pradomedia/ enriquecer-el-arte/ http://storify.com/cececebe/paral-lel
(8) Gamification at the Thyssen Museum (19) Cattelan app at New York (32) Digital strategy definition by Tate
http://www.educathyssen.org/juegos Guggenheim Museum Gallery
http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/ http://www.tate.org.uk/research/
(9) Gamification at the Amberes Foun- press-room/releases/press-release- publications/tate-papers/tate-digital-
dation, Madrid archive/media-releases-2011/4313- strategy-2013-15-digital-dimension-
https://www.facebook.com/ mauriziocattelanapp everything
app_454196767974669 (20) Tate Gallery apps (33) Reina Sofía Musuem Web Project
http://www.tate.org.uk/context- http://www.museoreinasofia.es/redes/
(10) Gamification at the Museum of the comment/apps/muybridgizer presentacion.html
City of New York
https://www.facebook.com/ (21) App with sign language (34) Collaboration agreements between
MuseumofCityofNY https://www.gov.uk/government/world- museums
location-news/british-embassy-budapest- http://youtu.be/Sle3uQEdeNA
(11) Gamification platform used by va- supports-launch-of-new-sign-language-
rious museums app (35) Examples of collaboration with tech
http://www.gosmithsonian.com/scvngr/ companies beyond the use of their
(22) DIY app, Andy Warhol Museum technology
(12) Bilbao Fine Arts Musuem http://www.warhol.org/connect/mobile/ http://www.comunicacion-
http://www.museobilbao.com/ cultural.com/2013/02/27/el-new-york-
v.virtual_bilbao/virtual_tour.php (23) Sensory technologies times-comparte-sus-instalaciones-con-
http://museum20.dfki.de/ startups/



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