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Welding is a materials joining process which produces coalescence of materials by heating them to
suitable temperatures with or without the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use of
filler material.

Welding is used for making permanent joists. It is used in the manufacture of automobile bodies, aircraft
frames, railway wagons, machine frames, structural works, tanks, furniture, boilers, general repair work
and ship building.

There are two types of welding namely:

A. Fusion Welding-when the material at the joint is heated to a molten state and allowed to solidify.

B. Plastic Welding or Pressure Welding-when the piece of metal to be joined are heated to a plastic
state and forced together by external pressure.

*Fusion Welding are sub-divided into the below groups:

 Gas Welding
 Arc Welding
 Thermit Welding

*Pressure Welding or Plastic Welding is also sub-divided into following groups:

 Forge Welding
 Electric Resistance Welding

Gas Welding is a fusion welding process, in which the heat for welding is obtained by the combustion of
oxygen and fuel the gas may be acetylene, hydrogen or propane.

There are different types of gas welding:

 Air Acetylene Welding- is one type of gas welding process, where unit body is produced by the
heating work piece. Oxy Acetylene Welding- is one of the flame welding or gas weld process,
because the flame is produced of mixture of gasses in a combustion chamber for heat provided
to the job. Oxy-hydrogen Welding- is a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases, this gaseous
mixture is used for torches to process refractory materials and was the first gaseous mixture
used for welding.
 Pressure Gas Welding- is produced by the heating of weld metal and heat source is some gas of Arc
Welding is produced by heating with electrical spark. There are different types of Arc welding:
 Carbon-arc welding is the one type of arc welding, where carbon or graphite are used as an
 TIG welding means Tungsten Inert Gas welding is the special designed welding system. In this
type of welding there inert gasses are used and the arc is maintained between the tip of
tungsten which worked as an electrode and work piece.
 Metal Inert Gas or MIG weld process have in common the electrode used as the filler wire
which is continuously fed and heating the job with an arc is established on the work, total or
partial inert gas used for shielding the produced arc.
 Submerged welding is an arc welding process, where welding joint is made by producing an
electrical arc or arcs set up between the bare metal electrode and weld metal.
 Shielded metal arc welding is one type of arc welding process where weld joint is produced by
heating the work piece with an electrical arc which is produced between shielded or coated
electrode and work piece.
 Plasma Welding is the ionized state of gas atoms.
 Flux cored arc welding or FCAW arc welding method is fully automatic or semi automatic.
 Electro slag welding is a welding process where weld joint is made by molten slag, which
produce a heat and melt the filler metal or electrode and work piece which to be weld.

Thermit welding is a chemically reaction welding process where the weld joint is produced by pouring of
superheated molten metal around the joint to be welded, applying with or without of pressure.

Forge welding is oldest welding process wherein the metals which to be joint are heated in furnace or
some other source of heat to the plastic stage or just below the molten stage of metals (looks like very

There are 3 types of Forge welding:

 Hammer welding is done by heating the metal to the proper temperature, coating with flux,
overlapping the weld surfaces, and the striking the joint repeatedly with hammer.
 Roll welding here the heated metals are overlapped ad passed through the rollers.
 Die welding here the pieces of metal are heated and the forced into a die.

Electric resistance welding is produced by electric current flows through electrode and heat is
generated in between electrodes.






(mixture. http://www.typesofweldingprocess.com/pressure_gas_welding.html)