Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

CHM3100

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

BASIC QUANTUM THEORY


Lecture 1: Revision on Chemistry

1
GROUP 2

CHM3100
Basics Physical Chemistry
(Kimia Fizik Asas)

Dr Norizah Abdul Rahman


Class: Wed (8-10am)
Fri (8-9am)
Practical: Mon (8-11am) (Dr Tan Yen Ping)
Code/Course/Group : CHM3100 / Basic Physical Chemistry / K2
Lecturer : Dr. Norizah Abdul Rahman (3+1)
:
Lab Officer :
Time/Location : Lecture : Wednesday (8-10) & Friday (8-9)
Time/Lab : Practical : Monday (8-11)

Week / Date on
Topic Practical Remarks
Monday
1
Basic Quantum Theory – 6 (3) Introduction L1 : Course Introduction
11 Sep 2017
2
Basic Quantum Theory (3) Experiment 2
18 Sep 2017
3
Sub-atom particles movement (3) Experiment 3
25 Sep 2017
4
Sub-atom particles movement (3) Experiment 4
2 Sep 2017

5
Atom electronic structure-4 (3) Experiment 5
9 Okt 17

Semester Break (14 Okt – 22 Okt 2017)


Test 1: 25 October 2017
(Wed) 8:30-9:30 am
6 Atom electronic structure- (1) Topics: Basic Quantum
Experiment 6a
23 Okt 17 Zero and First Law Thermodynamic-4(2) Theory Sub-atom particles
movement.

Zero and First Law Thermodynamic- (2)


7 Second and Third Law Thermodynamic- 6
Experiment 6b
30 Okt 17 (1)
Second and Third Law
8
Thermodynamic- (3) Experiment 7
6 Nov 17
Second and Third Law
9 Thermodynamic- (2)
Experiment 8a Chemical Kinetics (SCL)
13 Nov 17 Chemical Kinetic-3 (1)

Test 2: 22 Nov 2016 (Wed) 8:30-


9:30 am
Chemical Kinetics- (2)
10 Topics: Zero and First Law
Reaction Mechanism-3 (1) Experiment 8b
20 Nov 17 Thermodynamics, and Second
and Third Law Thermodynamic

11 Reaction Mechanism- (2)


Experiment 9
27 Nov 17 Equilibrium – 6 (1)
12
Equilibrium - (3) Experiment 10
4 Dis 17
13 Equilibrium –(1)
Experiment 11a
11 Dis 17 Electrochemistry – 4 (1) Electrochemistry (SCL)
14
Electrochemistry (3) Experiment 11b
18 Dis 17
15
Revision Week
25 Dis 17
16 & 17
Final Exam
2 Jan 18
Pembahagian markah akhir:
Amali : 20% (Dr Tan Yen Ping)
Ujian 1 : 10%

Ujian 2 : 20%
Peperiksaan Akhir : 40%
SCL : 10%

Pelaksanaan SCL
Pelaksanaan SCL ditumpukan kepada 2 tajuk iaitu:
(a) Chemical Kinetics (penyelaras: Dr. Norizah)
(b) Electrochemistry (penyelaras: Dr. Shahrul
Ainliah)

Attendance cannot be less than 80%, students


with <80% will not be allowed to seat for final
exam.
Kalender Akademik Semester Pertama Sesi 2017/2018

Minggu Isnin Selasa Rabu Khamis Jumaat


11 SEP 12 13 14 15
1
18 19 20 21 22 CUTI
2
MAAL HIJRAH
25 26 27 28 29
3
2 OKT 3 4 5 6
4
9 10 11 12 13
5 Polychar 9-13th Oct 2017
14-22 OKT Replacement class:
CUTI PERTENGAHAN SEMESTER
23 24 25 26 27
6
30 31 1 NOV 2 3
7
6 7 8 9 10
8
13 14 15 16 17 25 DIS 2017 – 1 JAN 2018: MINGGU
9
ULANGKAJI
20 21 22 23 24 2 JAN 2018 – 14 JAN 2018: MINGGU
10 MODERASI MODERASI
PEP AKHIR PEP AKHIR
PEPERIKSAAN AKHIR
27 28 29 30 1 DIS CUTI 15 JAN 2018 – 11 FEB 2018: CUTI
11 MAULIDUR ANTARA SEMESTER
RASUL
4 DIS 5 6 7 8
12
11 CUTI 12 13 14 15
13 SULTAN
S’GOR
18 19 20 21 22
14
References
What is chemistry is all about?
• Chemistry is explained through sharing or
transferring electrons

– How are the electrons arranged in an atom?


– What orbitals are preferentially filled by
electrons?
– What is an electron configuration?

CHM3010-Atomic Theory 8
What is an element?
• An element is the simplest type of matter with
unique physical and chemical properties.
• An element consists of only one kind of atom.

CHM3010-Atomic Theory 9
An Atom
Definition of an atom:
 The smallest bit of a chemical element that retains the
identity of that element is called an atom.

Is it possible to break down an element into a simpler type of


matter?
 No. It is impossible by any physical or chemical methods.
 Yes or No by nuclear methods.
 Each element has its own name such as hydrogen, sodium,
nickel, gold, etc
 specific macroscopic properties such as color, density,
combustibility, reactivity, etc because the properties of its
atoms are unique.
CHM3010-Atomic Theory 10
The existence of elements in nature
 As a populations of atoms – neon gas (randomly arrange)
 Metal ( crystal – periodical arrays of atoms)
 As molecules – a discrete structure consisting of two or
more atoms of the element that are chemically bound
together.
 As compounds. A type of matter composed of two or more
different elements that are chemically bound together. Can
be found in the form of molecules or non-molecular type of
compounds (ionic compounds).
 Examples molecular compounds
 Ammonia
 Methane
Microscopic view of the atoms Microscopic view of the
of the element argon (gas molecules of the element nitrogen
phase) (gas phase).
CHM3010-Atomic Theory 11
Non-molecular compounds
 Example of non-molecular compounds
 Sodium chloride, NaCl
 Copper sulphate, CuSO4

 Since a compound formed by a chemical process, its


properties are different from those of its component
elements.

 What is a mixture
A group of two or more substance (elements and/or
compounds) that are physically intermingled. The
composition of a mixture can vary.

CHM3010-Atomic Theory 12
Atomic Structure and Function:
Outline

• Early history in 18th and 19th centuries


• Discovery of elements and the Periodic Table (1869)
• Discovery of the electron (1897)
• Discovery of the nucleus (1911)
• Atomic structure with consternation
• Atomic structure: the Bohr atom (1913)
• Atomic Structure: Theory of Quantum Mechanics (1930’s)
• Applications of our understanding
Early History in 18th/19th Century:
Discovery of Elements

• 30 elements known in early 1800’s


• Mendeleev and the Periodic Table (1869)
– 63 elements known w/o any organization
– Ordering of elements
• Atomic weight from low to high
• Chemical property by column (all behave similarly in a chemical
sense); examples
– Column I: react with chlorine (1:1 ratio)
» Hydrogen (H), Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K)
– Column VII: react with chlorine in (2:1 ratio)
» Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr)
Mendeleev’s Contribution

• Arrange elements from light to heavy


• Arranged elements by chemical behavior
• Spatial ordering via rows and columns
• Product: Periodic Table of Elements
– Predictive tool
– Immensely creative insight (informatics)
– Example of missing elements and predictive
capability of Table
Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Beginning of 19th century John Dalton set down following principles


known as Dalton's atomic theory of matter
1. Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of a given element are identical (not exactly;
isotopes)
3. The atoms of a given element are different from those of
any other element.
4. Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other
elements to form compounds. A given compound always
has the same relative numbers and types of atoms.
5. Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes. That is, atoms
are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. A
chemical reaction simply changes the way the atoms are
grouped together.
Dalton’s Postulates

 All matter is composed of atoms

 Atoms cannot be made or destroyed

 All atoms of the same element are identical

 Different elements have different types of atoms

 Chemical reactions occur when atoms are rearranged

 Compounds are formed from atoms of the constituent


elements.

17
Dalton imagined atom as extremely small and indivisible but by
1850's investigations began to demonstrate that atoms possess
internal structure.

 Late 19th century J.J. Thomson used a cathode ray tube


to obtain mass to charge ratio of an electron.
 In 1908 Millikan determined charge of electron.
 Rutherford proposed that all positive charges are
concentrated in a central core called nucleus. (must
have same number as electrons since atom is neutral)
 In 1932 James Chadwick showed that there also existed
neutral particles he called neutrons. (need to account for
discrepancy in atomic mass of H and He)
Nuclear Atoms

• Dalton treated atoms like hard


billiard balls

• Experiments later showed that


parts of the atoms can be pulled
away

19
Thompson’s Experiment: Discovery of the
Electron

• Idea that there may be some smaller


components that comprise atoms
• Hypothesis: Atoms consist of some
subcomponents, one of which is negatively
charged
• Experiment to test hypothesis
J.J. Thomson used results from cathode ray tube
Cathode Rays (commonly abbreviated CRT) experiments to
discover the electron.
The CRT consists of several
elements starting with a tube that's
vacuum sealed to keep air out of it.
On one side of the inside of the tube
there's a cathode and an anode.

The cathode is a negatively-


charged conductor, and
the anode is a positively-charged
conductor.
Electrons, which have a negative
charge, flow off the cathode and are
Discharge Tube
attracted towards the anode.

A small hole in the anode allows


Electric Energy created stream of particles some electrons to pass through it,
Deflected by electric field (remember opposites attract, like repel) creating a beam of electrons.
Infers that these particles are negatively charged
No matter what element the cathode was made of identical negatively On the opposite side of the tube is a
charged particles were generated coating that glows when struck by
The amount the cathode ray bent from the straight line using either the the electrons.
electric field or the magnetic field allowed Thomson to calculate
the e/m ratio.
This allowed J. J. Thomson to see
These particles are electrons where the electron beam was hitting.
21
Cathode Rays

Discharge Tube

Introducing a small amount of gas into tube


the stream of cathode rays interacts generating separating
electrons from the gas and generating positively charged
species
These positively charged species depended on the gas used.
Hydrogen produced the lightest of these positively charged species
This hydrogen ion was called a proton

22
• J.J. Thomson's experiments with cathode ray
tubes showed that all atoms contain tiny
negatively charged subatomic particles
or electrons.
• Thomson's plum pudding model of the atom
had negatively-charged electrons embedded
within a positively-charged "soup."

CHM3010-Atomic Theory 23
Used stream of alpha particles (Helium nuclei) to probe the make-up of
atoms
Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment

• Used stream of alpha particles (Helium nuclei) to probe


the make-up of atoms
– Most a particles passed straight through
– Some were deflected

25
Rutherford’s Interpretation

• Most a particles passed straight through


– Implies atoms are mostly empty space
• Some particles were deflected
– Implies atoms have concentrated bits of positively charged matter

26
Rutherford's gold foil experiment showed that the atom is mostly
empty space with a tiny, dense, positively-charged nucleus.

Based on these results, Rutherford proposed the nuclear


model of the atom.

CHM3010-Atomic Theory 28
Subatomic Particles (Building blocks of Atoms)

amu - Atomic Mass Units defined as 1/12 the mass of Carbon-


12
(abbreviated u)
These building blocks are put together to form atoms
Atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
of an element
29
Subatomic Particles (Building blocks of Atoms)

Particle Symbol Approx. Charge Location in Atom


Mass
Proton p+ 1 amu 1+ Nucleus
Neutron n 1 amu 0 Nucleus
Electron e- 1/1840 amu 1- Outside nucleus

amu - Atomic Mass Units defined as 1/12 the mass of Carbon-12


(abbreviated u)

These building blocks are put together to form atoms


Atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
of an element
30
General features of the atom today.
•The atom is an electrically neutral, spherical entity composed of a
positively charged central nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively
charge electrons.

•The atomic nucleus consists of protons and neutrons.

31
Sub-atomic particles

32
Atomic Number and Elements
Recall - an element is a substance that cannot be
broken down into simpler substances by chemical
reactions

All atoms of a given element have the same atomic


number (number of protons), which determines the
identity of the element

An elements identity comes from the number of protons in its nucleus

33
Nuclear Model of the Atom
• Helium atom example

Not to Scale!
+
- +
Electron

+ Proton

Neutron
-
2 Protons make this helium
2 Neutrons just add to the mass

34
Isotopes
• Hydrogen example
– All hydrogen atoms have 1 proton (atomic number 1)
– Some have a neutrons in the nucleus

Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium


- - -
2
1H
3
1
H 1H +
1 + +

1 Proton 1 Proton 1 Proton


Mass 1 amu 1 Neutron 2 Neutrons
Mass 2 amu Mass 3 amu
All the same element, but with different number of neutrons and hence different 35

masses
Isotopes
• Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of
protons—the same atomic number—but different
numbers of neutrons—different mass numbers.
• Most elements exist in nature as a mixture of
isotopes
• The atomic mass of an element is the average
of all the atomic masses of the isotopes.
– an isotopes contribution is determined by its
relative abundance.
Dalton thought all atoms of the same element would
have the same mass, but experimental observations showed
that all atoms of the same element have the same atomic number
36
Atomic Symbols, Isotopes, Numbers

A
Z
X The Symbol of the Atom or Isotope

X = Atomic symbol of the element

A = mass number; A = Z + N

Z = atomic number
(the number of protons in the nucleus)
N = number of neutrons in the nucleus

Isotope = atoms of an element with the same


number of protons, but a different number
of neutrons

37
Mass Number = number of protons + number of Neutrons

Charge
Mass Number

Atomic Number
Symbol (if ion)

Atomic number = number of protons

38
Hydrogen

1 H Protons: 1
Neutrons: 0
Electrons: 1

39
Sodium
Protons: 11
Neutrons: 12
23

11 Na Electrons: 11

40
Rhenium Protons: 75
Neutrons: 111
186

Re
Electrons: 75

75

41
Rhenium isotope Protons: 75
Neutrons: 112
187

Re
Electrons: 75

75

42
EXAMPLE
How many protons, neutrons and electrons are found in an
atom of

133
55 Cs
Atomic number = protons and electrons
There are 55 protons and 55 electrons

Mass number = sum of protons and neutrons


133 – 55 = 78
There are 78 neutrons

43
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts
the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

a mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample


90.51%

9.22%
0.27%

Relative Contribution to
Isotope Mass Abundance Average Mass
Neon-20 19.992 u 90.51 % 18.09 u
Neon-21 20.994 u 0.27 % 0.057 u
Neon-22 21.991 u 9.22 % 2.03 u

20.18 u
Atomic Mass of Neon
45
Many subatomic particles – but 3 fundamental
and particularly important to chemistry

1. Electron - mass = 9.1094 x 10 -31 kg,


light particle, negative charge = -1.6022 x 10 -19 C
2. Proton - mass = 1.6726 x 10 -27kg
positive charge = +1.6022 x 10 -19 C
1836 me
3. Neutron - mass = 1.67493 x 10 -27kg 1.00138 mp
no charge