3 views

Uploaded by Kevin

- Digital CommunicationMCQ
- Anritsu Site Master S332C Antenna Cable and Spectrum Analyzer Users Guide
- Concept of Probability and Probability Distribution
- DFMA
- Ans Normal
- Midterm Solution - COSC 3213 - Computer Networks 1
- 3D Spectrum Analyser (1280 LEDs) - MAKING of
- Pocket Guide Statistical Analysis Techniques_tcm10-1249346
- PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
- Sd Article 51
- 5 LTE ERAN6.0 Compact Bandwidth Feature ISSUE 1.00
- PL Meyer.pdf
- Engineering journal ; Information Disseminated with Technology Firms on Social Media
- Basic Statistics for Researchers.pdf
- Wireless Design & Development - May-June 2013
- Lessons LearnedFromExtensiveSpectrumOccupancyMeasurementCampaign&a Stochastic DutyCycleModel Wellens Etal_SpringerMONET2009
- Excel Reg
- Unit-1
- rfsniffer3g
- Technical Data FinalABBETL600

You are on page 1of 9

Spectrum Analyzer

Application Note

Products:

| R&S FSV3 | R&S FSV30

| R&S FSV7 | R&S FSV40

| R&S FSV13

the measurement uncertainty calculation

for a modern spectrum analyzer and

provides a tool to calculate the total

measurement uncertainty for different

measurements.

Application Note

04.2010-<2>

Kay-Uwe Sander

Rohde & Schwarz Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer 1

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1 Abstract ............................................................................................... 3

2 Overview.............................................................................................. 3

3.1 Method of the Level Uncertainty Calculation............................................................4

3.2 Sources of Level Uncertainties ..................................................................................5

4.1 Example: Uncertainty calculation for phase noise measurements........................7

5 Literature ............................................................................................. 8

<2> Rohde & Schwarz Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer 2

Abstract

1 Abstract

Ensuring accurate RF level measurements is perhaps the most basic element in the

RF measurement process. Although a power meter can provide a high degree of

accuracy for moderate RF levels, a spectrum analyzer such as the R&S FSV can

provide more flexibility and measurement speed especially for low level signals.

This application note helps to understand the measurement uncertainty calculation and

provides a tool for a modern spectrum analyzer to calculate the total measurement

uncertainty for different measurements.

2 Overview

RF level or power measurement especially of modulated signals is one of the basic

tasks in RF measurements . Whereas the first choice in terms of accuracy for power

measurement of any carrier (modulated or non-modulated) is a power meter, level

measurement of spurious signals or in the adjacent channel of a transmission system

requires a selective measurement with high dynamic range like a spectrum analyzer.

A power meter is a non-selective device that measures power levels over a wide

bandwidth with limited dynamic range and is not appropriate for these types of

measurements.

A spectrum analyzer is the prefered solution because of its selectivity. Compared to a

power meter its power measurement accuracy is lower. In general this can be

overcome by substitution methods using a power meter, an attenuator and a signal

generator. But substitution is time-consuming and requires more investment in test

equipment than a single instrument. Therefore, it is most important to have a spectrum

analyzer, which can fulfill at least most of the requirements in terms of measurement

accuracy.

The R&S FSV signal and spectrum analyzer offers outstanding level measurement

accuracy. Where the power meter measures power levels with a wide bandwidth, a

spectrum analyzer benefits from a narrowband front-end architecture. When spurious

signals or adjacent channel power must be measured, filtering and frequency selection

become more critical to accurately determine low-level signals.

The R&S FSV incorporates a superheterodyne swept-frequency front end with analog

RF and intermediate-frequency (IF) Downconversion stages, leading to a high-speed

analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with excellent linearity. Once test signals are

digitized, additional signal processing is handled by means of a digital signal

processing and its digital filters to achieve power-meter-like accuracy during

narrowband, low-level measurements.

The uncertainty when measuring power can be divided into three classes:

• Inherent measurement uncertainty of the signal analyzer

• Error due to the device-under-test, e. g. impedance of the RF interface and

• Error due to limited signal-to-noise ratio

<2> Rohde & Schwarz Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer 3

Level Uncertainty Calculation

The overall measurement uncertainty with power measurement consists of different

errors contributing to the total error. The method of calculating the total uncertainty of

a measurement is to calculate the standard deviation for the distribution of the

accumulated error (BIPM method, International Bureau of Weight and Measures). It is

assumed that all errors are stochastic and the total error is Gaussian distributed. This

is true if the total error is a combination of many individual errors, where the latter are

not necessarily Gaussian distributed.

Therefore the measurement uncertainty can be calculated for a required confidence

level. Calculating the standard deviation of the accumulated error is achieved by

combining the standard deviations of the individual errors that contribute to the

measurement uncertainty. Therefore the distribution of the individual errors should be

known or assumed.

The standard deviation for the total accumulated error distribution corresponds to a

level of confidence of 68 %. This is true when the number of the individual errors is

high and all errors are of a similar magnitude. The resulting distribution of the

uncertainty can then be approximated by a normal distribution. Therefore other levels

of confidence can be calculated using a coverage factor (Confidence level should be

stated in test reports to allow users to calculate other measurement uncertainties).

Coverage factor for a level of confidence of 95 % is 1.96, for 99 % level of confidence

the coverage factor is 2.58.

distribution is known. This means that the error is distributed with equal probability

anywhere between the error limits. The error limits can be converted into the standard

uncertainty or the statistical variance:

2 a2

error limit ± a, variance = .

3

Systematic errors are for example the frequency response, the input attenuator

uncertainty or the linearity of the logarithmic display.

Random errors are Gaussian distributed (e. g. noise). Their standard deviation is

known or calculated by means of repetitive measurement. Insufficient signal-to-noise

ratio causes random errors.

Mismatch errors or errors caused by temperature deviations have a U distribution.

This reflects the fact that the error caused by mismatch is more likely to be close to the

limits than close to be small or zero:

2 a2

error limit ± a, variance =

2

<2> Rohde & Schwarz Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer 4

Level Uncertainty Calculation

2

The variance of the total combined measurement uncertainty tot is calculated by

2

summing the different variances i :

2 2 2

tot = 1 + .... + n

The total combined standard uncertainty of the measurement tot is calculated from its

variance by taking the square root:

tot = 2

tot

confidence the standard deviation has to be multiplied with the coverage factor. The

coverage factor for 95% confidence level is 1.96.

All errors have to be given in the same unit for calculation of the sum error. With the

R&S FSV most errors are available in dB. The bandwidth error is given in percent of

the nominal bandwidth. It has to be converted to dB. Assuming a power measurement

of a modulated signal the error related to the bandwidth error is as follows:

(RBWerror)/%

RBW_error [dB] = 10 lg(1 + )

100

In the data sheet of a spectrum analyzer the different errors contributing to the total

error are specified. To attain the overall level error for a specific measurement all

applicable errors have to be summed. This is a tedious procedure, if it has to be

performed at different levels or frequencies. With the signal and spectrum analyzer

family R&S FSV a total measurement uncertainty is specified for some specific

settings, for example 0.28 dB for frequencies up to 3.6 GHz and a level between

reference level and 70 dB below reference level. For frequencies up to 30 GHz the

specified total measurement uncertainty is 1.32 dB. This frees the user from the need

to calculate the error in many cases.

In cases when not all errors apply, for example with relative measurements, the

specific error can be calculated from the different error sources.

Different sources contribute to the overall level uncertainty of a spectrum analyzer.

These sources are:

• absolute level uncertainty of the internal calibrator source,

• frequency response of the RF input,

• uncertainty of the input attenuator switching,

• uncertainty of resolution bandwidth switching,

• display linearity of the detector

In the case of channel power measurement or adjacent channel power measurement

also the error of the resolution bandwidth contributes to the measurement uncertainty:

• Resolution bandwidth uncertainty

<2> Rohde & Schwarz Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer 5

Level Uncertainty Calculation in practice

The uncertainty of the IF gain setting (reference level switching) does not occur in the

R&S FSV as no IF gain switching is used in this instrument.

Another source of error is the signal-to-noise ratio. If it is insufficient, the noise signal

is added to the signal to be measured and the result is a value higher than the actual

value. The error depends on the detector used, as noise is weighted differently with

different detectors. It is worst using the peak detector and is less critical with the

sample or RMS detector.

If the signal-to-noise ratio is known, e.g. by measurement, the error can be corrected

by subtracting the respective correction factor.

For level uncertainty calculation a spreadsheet is provided with this application note. It

lists all the different items applicable for level uncertainty calculations.

The specified error limits are taken from the R&S FSV data sheet. They are valid in

the frequency range from 10 MHz to 3.6 GHz and from reference level to 70 dB below

reference level. For other frequencies and level ranges the respective values can be

inserted from the specifications.

Additionally the error due to the source mismatch can be taken into account by

entering the VSWR of the signal analyzer and the device under test.

<2> Rohde & Schwarz Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer 6

Level Uncertainty Calculation in practice

The spreadsheet calculates the uncertainty with 95 % level of confidence from the

individual errors.

If the R&S FSV is used in connection with other devices in a test system, the

calculated combined variance can be used to calculate the total uncertainty of the

system.

The variance of uncertainty of the R&S FSV is added to the variance of uncertainty of

the other devices of the system. By taking the positive square root of the combined

variance the overall uncertainty can be calculated with the requested level of

confidence.

measurements

Phase noise measurements are relative measurements of a CW signal. Therefore the

absolute error at 128 MHz can be set to zero.

The frequency response is typically very flat over small frequency ranges. Therefore,

the frequency response does not apply for phase noise measurements close to he

carrier. This is valid for frequency offsets up to 1 MHz.

In case of phase noise measurements the resolution bandwidth is not changed in the

measurement, the bandwidth switching error does not apply.

The IF gain switching error is always zero in the R&S FSV.

In case of noise power measurements also the error of the resolution bandwidth

compared to the nominal bandwidth contributes to the overall uncertainty. Therefore

the error of the resolution bandwidth is included in the uncertainty calculation.

<2> Rohde & Schwarz Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer 7

Literature

5 Literature

[1] ETSI Technical Report ETR 028: March 1994 Radio Equipment and Systems

(RES); Uncertainties in the measurement of mobile radio equipment characteristics

[2] Guide to the Expression of uncertainty in Measurement; International Organization

of Standardization, 1995

6 Ordering Information

Designation Type Order No.

®

Signal and Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSV3 1307.9002.03

®

Signal and Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSV7 1307.9002.07

®

Signal and Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSV13 1307.9002.13

®

Signal and Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSV30 1307.9002.30

®

Signal and Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSV40 1307.9002.40

<2> Rohde & Schwarz Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer 8

About Rohde & Schwarz

Rohde & Schwarz is an independent group

of companies specializing in electronics. It is

a leading supplier of solutions in the fields of

test and measurement, broadcasting,

radiomonitoring and radiolocation, as well as

secure communications. Established 75

years ago, Rohde & Schwarz has a global

presence and a dedicated service network

in over 70 countries. Company headquarters

are in Munich, Germany.

Environmental commitment

H Energy-efficient products

H Continuous improvement in

environmental sustainability

H ISO 14001-certified environmental

management system

Regional contact

USA & Canada

USA: 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)

from outside USA: +1 410 910 7800

CustomerSupport@rohde-schwarz.com

East Asia

+65 65 13 04 88

CustomerSupport@rohde-schwarz.com

Rest of the World

+49 89 4129 137 74

CustomerSupport@rohde-schwarz.com

programs may only be used subject to the

conditions of use set forth in the download

area of the Rohde & Schwarz website.

GmbH & Co. KG. Trade names are trademarks of the

owners.

Mühldorfstraße 15 | D - 81671 München

Phone + 49 89 4129 - 0 | Fax + 49 89 4129 – 13777

www.rohde-schwarz.com

- Digital CommunicationMCQUploaded byZahid Yousuf
- Anritsu Site Master S332C Antenna Cable and Spectrum Analyzer Users GuideUploaded bySukrit Chaudhary
- Concept of Probability and Probability DistributionUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- DFMAUploaded bykalaiselvan
- Ans NormalUploaded byMotasem Alkhayyat
- Midterm Solution - COSC 3213 - Computer Networks 1Uploaded byfaesalhasan
- 3D Spectrum Analyser (1280 LEDs) - MAKING ofUploaded byvedhh
- Pocket Guide Statistical Analysis Techniques_tcm10-1249346Uploaded byOmar Youns
- PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONUploaded byalborz99
- Sd Article 51Uploaded bylmpallas
- 5 LTE ERAN6.0 Compact Bandwidth Feature ISSUE 1.00Uploaded byAdifby
- PL Meyer.pdfUploaded byDurga Sivakumar
- Engineering journal ; Information Disseminated with Technology Firms on Social MediaUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Basic Statistics for Researchers.pdfUploaded bySiva Shanmugasundaram
- Wireless Design & Development - May-June 2013Uploaded byPrakash R Chetry
- Lessons LearnedFromExtensiveSpectrumOccupancyMeasurementCampaign&a Stochastic DutyCycleModel Wellens Etal_SpringerMONET2009Uploaded byPavan Reddy
- Excel RegUploaded byPradeep Dubey
- Unit-1Uploaded byRajesh
- rfsniffer3gUploaded byMohammed Shakil
- Technical Data FinalABBETL600Uploaded byVishwas Kale
- Wirelss RF Guide WPUploaded byAdam Ahmat
- Latih Tubi Mat Tam t5 Set 7Uploaded bycgnash
- 446 n 0035900Uploaded byEmilio Escalante
- RD-1932 DS 3-0-4Uploaded byJorge Apeto
- bbaldi_ips_chapter01Uploaded bycrutili
- Elipser Intra-Laboratory TestingUploaded byRoberto Torrez
- ProbabilityUploaded byAar Vee
- MeasurementsUploaded byhozra
- eqUploaded byloginsblow
- PRAKTIKUM KIMIA MEDISINAL.docxUploaded byPanser Biru

- Boost Network Capacity Performance by Huawei Dual-beam AntennaUploaded byOwen Simwanda
- 328520402-BEP-R2-0-Blueprint-02-Link-Planning-and-Design-v08.pdfUploaded byKevin
- 3G Fundamentals.pptUploaded byKevin
- 313953488-5-2-Bdays-Arg-Personal-Sran-Cran-20150903.pdfUploaded byKevin
- Benchmarking Service Sum [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byHà Thành
- Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced using ETOM AnalysisUploaded bybiancahasiandra
- 268474661-UTRAN-LR13-W-Radio-Fine-Tuning.pdfUploaded byKevin
- 286587775-Multi-Carrier-RF-Strategy-for-v-Project-in-Complicated-Scenario.pdfUploaded byKevin
- PCI AnalysisUploaded byserafettinb
- 322904208-03-RA41153EN162GLA0-Feature-Test-and-Verifcation-Introduction-FDD-LTE-16.pdfUploaded byKevin
- 3G New Site Capacity_V3.5.docUploaded byKevin
- 307294491-LTE-Deep-Concept-Part1.pptxUploaded byKevin
- 301722866-10-RA4535AEN09GLA0-WCDMA-Antenna-System-Features-RU40-pdf.pdfUploaded byKevin
- 312627693-Asset-ACP-User-Reference-Guide.pdfUploaded byKevin
- ALU RF Methodology Femto Deployment_Sep2014_Ed1Uploaded byPeter Boong
- 312628459-ASSET-Design-User-Reference-Guide.pdfUploaded byKevin
- 03_TM51153EN04GLA2_LTE-EPS Mobility and Session and Management.pdfUploaded byRishantThakur
- 277093050-Azimuth-and-TIlt-Optimization-pptx.pptxUploaded byKevin
- 3900 Series Multi-Mode Base Station Technical Description (V100R004_05)(PDF)-EN.pdfUploaded byKevin
- 03-BSC Architecture and FunctionsUploaded byGhaza Horra
- 3900 Series Base Station Used Reserved Parameter List(V100R008C00_02, eNodeB)(XLS)-EN.xlsUploaded byKevin
- 3g site engineering 3b.pptUploaded byKevin
- 01 Tm51151en04gla2 Lte-eps OverviewUploaded byArya Maulana Nugroho
- 2.6.4 SRAN5.0 3900 Series Multi-Mode Base Station Product Description.pdfUploaded byKevin
- 30059011-IuPS-IP.pptUploaded byKevin
- 1.5.1 Core Network overview - IMS.pdfUploaded byKevin
- Troubleshooting of 3G KPIUploaded byankurverma1987
- 2G_HUAWEI_BTS system and its main boards.pptUploaded byKevin
- Enterprise Design GuideUploaded byc_simos
- 3G_Network_Quality.pdfUploaded byKevin

- The Hukbalahap MovementUploaded byashgee1
- Chapter 3. BioenergeticsUploaded byMaria Montelibano
- FMSIBS BrochureUploaded byZahid Aziz
- Ugandhar 51-56Uploaded byMogle
- KEI-PL-2102T~0_Flowline Carbon Steel SpecUploaded byajaykg
- Saidai Duraisamy’s Manidha Naeyam _Uploaded byvijay_sudha
- Revised Student Data to Upload 8 AugUploaded byVasu
- Foucault Technologies of the SelfUploaded byfenixonline
- Watts - Stresses in a Pressure Vessel With a Conical HeadUploaded bym5416
- 2015 resume redactUploaded byapi-280996915
- codeUploaded byapi-254082633
- Front PageUploaded bySalmanZareez
- Episodic vs Thematic FramingUploaded byMae Dangoy
- Capstone 08.01 - Leadership ExpressUploaded byhutsup
- Types of Culture MediaUploaded byEmmanuelle Nazareno
- 7-DeJesusVsEstateDizonUploaded byWinter Bear
- No State Sovereignty (1215)Uploaded byJu
- Solving Circuits With Kirchoff LawsUploaded bynikolaka
- The Five Tibetan Rites or Postures of RejuvenationUploaded byprinchard35
- wto_at_twenty_eUploaded byNagesh K. Ojha
- NUTRITIONAL DISEASES new.pptUploaded byCarla Manis
- 23945 5 Romantic Workplace RelationshipsUploaded byRamona Bratu
- Quick Technology Intelligence ProcessesUploaded byBobby Wong
- Effective Wave Guide Model (Ewgm) for ResUploaded bywrite_to_sadia3005
- 2011 Nat ResultsUploaded byargus-eyed
- Balance SheetUploaded byElisa Linco
- Chapter 3Uploaded byChrisYap
- Cartier - Group 8Uploaded byAayanRoy
- Writing_scheme_for_Science_Project_Paper.pdfUploaded byNaswandi Nur
- SIT Guidelines _ver 04Uploaded byRuben Benjani