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2 – The Internet

Module 2 – The Internet

2.1 Vocabulary:
paraphrasing at sentence level
A- Study the words in the box.
1. Copy and complete the table. Put the words in one
or more boxes, in each case.
2. Add affixes to make words for the empty boxes
(some won’t be possible).
3. What is the special meaning of each word in Student A
relation to the Internet? 1. The proportion of P2P traffic has risen
4. Find a synonym for each word in the 1st box. considerably since 2007.
2. By 2010, data using VoIP protocols was
B. Study figure 1 on the opposite page. Discuss decreasing rapidly.
these questions using words from exercise A. 3. HTTP usage decreased sharply between 2007 and
1. What do the screenshots show? 4. Gaming has shrunk as a proportion of traffic
2. What are the similarities and differences between overall.
the two images? 5. Streaming more than halved between 2007 and
C. Study figure 2 on the opposite page. 6. P2P ceased to be the most common protocol on the
1. What does the graph show? Internet in 2010.
2. What connexion is there between Figure 1 and
Figure 2?
Student B
3. What use could be made of the data for each of the
protocols? a. In 2010, the P2P protocol was still used more than
any other protocol on the Internet.
D. Student A has written about changes in data b. After 2007, transfers of data using P2P protocols
transfer over the Internet, but there are some declined significantly.
mistakes. Change the underlined words, so the c. The rate of data using gaming protocols has
sentences are true. increased relative to overall traffic on the Internet.
d. The proportion of Internet data using streaming
E. Student B has also written about changes in protocols in 2009 was over twice as much as it had
data transfers over the Internet. Match each been in 2007.
sentence with a corrected sentence from exercise e. From 2007 to 2009, there was a gradual decline in
D. the use of HTTP protocol.
f. Beginning in 2010, there was rapid growth in VoIP
data traffic.
2 – The Internet
2 – The Internet

2.2 Reading: web browser.

Identifying subject-verb-object in long sentences; Introduced in 1996 as a web-based animation
Paraphrasing program, Flash ran as a freely available plug-in or
A. Discuss these questions. add-on.
1. What does Figure 1 show? In 2003, when a version of Flash was released which
2. What advantages does this form of network have included video streaming, a very high proportion of
when transferring data across the Internet? web users downloaded the plug-in.
3. What types of files might people transfer over this The first video was uploaded to Youtube, a web-based
type of network? video sharing application, in 2005.
4. What reasons might there be for the decline in this
type of data as a proportion of Internet traffic?
F. Work in groups. Write a paraphrase of a different
B. Look at the illustration, the title, the part of the text.
introduction and the first sentence of each
paragraph on the opposite page.
1. What will the text be about?
2. Using your ideas from Exercises A and B1, write
some research questions.

C. Read the text. Does it answer your questions?

D. Study the underlined sentences in the text. Find

and highlight the subject, verb and object or
complement in each sentence.

E. Two students paraphrased part of the text. Student B

1. Which part of the text are these paraphrases of? The ability, with web 2.0, to view pictures and video
2. Which paraphrase is better? Why? online, without having to download files, marked a
major advance.
Student A Originally introduced in 1996, Flash started out as a
An important Web 2.0 development was that users free animation program which could be run in a web
could now view video and images directly, using their browser.
When a new release of Flash appeared in 2003, which
included video streaming, the plug-in was
downloaded by a large number of web users.
Youtube, a web-based application which allowed
users to upload and view videos, was launched in

Web 2.0:
2 – The Internet

Real change it easy to move data between active web pages and
databases, making bulletin boards, blog services, and
or hype? early versions of social networking possible.
Around the year the Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, also grew from
2005, a series of this technology. However, these developments the
radical were limited by the need to load complete pages each
developments time new data was selected from the database, which
appeared to be made them relatively slow.
changing the way It was against this background that Flash and Ajax,
the Internet was used. Large numbers of new online the two technologies seen as key to Web 2.0,
services such as video sharing and social networking emerged. A major component of Web 2.0 was the way
were being developed, and huge numbers of people in which users could directly access visual and audio-
were signing up to use them. For some writers the visual material in their browser. The first release of
changes were so significant they used the term ‘Web Flash was introduced in 1996 as a freely available
2.0’ to describe them. In software engineering, when web-based animation program which could run in a
a new version of a software package is a huge browser plug-in or add-on. The software
improvement on the old version, the convention is to subsequently went through many incremental
add to the number before the decimal, so that 1.0 changes and became increasingly popular. When a
becomes 2.0, for example. Where the transition is version was released in 2003 which included video
more gradual, one is added after the decimal. Other streaming, a very high proportion of web browsers
writers, however, felt that the term Web 2.0 was had the plug-in installed. Flash fundamentally
unhelpful and the changes were evolutionary rather altered the way in which users could access visual
than revolutionary. So which view is correct? The and audio-visual material. Flickr, the online photo
best way to analyze Web 2.0 is to identify its key album service and Youtube, the video-sharing service,
technologies and services. By looking at each which both launched in 2005, were among the first to
service in the context of the developments in web use and to benefit from the new features of the Flash
technology which made it possible, we can evaluate package. By 2010, Flickr was hosting five billion
the nature of the changes. images and Youtube was serving over two billion
The first development we should look at is the videos per day. The other technology associated with
creation of static websites. Initially, these consisted Web 2.0 was Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and
of mainly text-based web pages, with the occasional XML), a client-side scripting language which allowed
image. The pages were written in HyperText Markup elements of a page to be refreshed without reloading
Language (HTML), which allowed the writer to vary the whole page. This allowed web pages to become
the size, colour and emphasis of the text, and to almost as interactive as desktop applications.
include hypertext links to other web pages. Some An important effect of these technologies was on
websites contained forms which allowed users to the use of peer-to-peer technologies for accessing
submit their details, but otherwise the pages were audio and video content. Since the late 1990’s, users
fixed and there was little interactivity. Over time, have exchanged music and video files over these
static websites became bigger, and web pages became networks, much of it copyright material. By making it
to be spidered, indexing the pages so they could be possible to listen to music and to watch video online,
found by search engines. They also began to use more there was less need to download files using P2P in
graphics, and to link to document and video files order to share files, and so this type of Internet traffic
which could be downloaded by users and viewed on experienced a drop. However, the fall was gradual
desktop applications. and P2P remains popular for higher quality video
The next stage to consider is the development of games and other materials, as well as in geographical
dynamic websites. These sites used server-side areas with low bandwidth. Although not everyone
scripting languages to extract data from databases, agrees on how significant technologies such as P2P
which was then used to create web pages. One of the continue to be, there is little doubt that the
most popular languages was PHP (Pre-Hypertext developments associated with Web 2.0 have changed
Processor), an open source product. From 1998 the way we interact for good.
onwards, PHP was routinely used with three other
open source products – the Linux operating system,
Apache web server and MySQL database packages –
to power dynamic websites, giving rise to the term 2.3 Extending Skills:
LAMP stack. Server-side scripting languages made understanding complex sentences
2 – The Internet

A. Study the words in box a from the text in 2.2.

1. What part of speech are they in the text?
2. Find a word in the text with a similar meaning to
each word.

B. Complete the summary with words from

Exercise A.

C. Study the words in box b. 2.4 Extending Skills:

1. What is each base word and its ICT meaning? Writing complex sentences
2. How does the affix change the part of speech?
3. What is the meaning in the text in lesson 2.2? A. Make one sentence for each box on the right,
using the method given in underlined text. Include
D. Study sentences A-E on the opposite page; the words in bold. Write the sentences as one
1. Copy and complete Table 1. Put the parts of each paragraph.
sentence in the correct column.
2. Rewrite the main part of each sentence, changing B. Study the notes on the opposite page which a
the verb from active to passive voice or vice versa. student made about the growth of social
networking services.
E. Look at the ‘Other verbs’ column in Table 1. 1. Divide the notes into sections to make suitable
1. How are the clauses linked to the main part of the paragraphs.
sentence? 2. Decide which ideas are suitable topic sentences for
2. In sentences A-C, what does each relative pronoun the paragraphs.
refer to? 3. Make full sentences from the notes, joining ideas
3. Make the clauses into complete sentences. where possible, to make one continuous text.

Open Diary launched a service which made it

possible to create an online diary.
Open Diary made it freely available to anybody.
Relative, passive in 1998

Users could comment on other people’s diary entries.

Users could decide whether to make their entries
public or private.
Users could add other users as their friends.
Active, ellipsis Key features

Open Diary laid the foundations of blogging.

Open Diary pioneered key features of social
Participle As a result
2 – The Internet
2 – The Internet
2 – The Internet