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Journal of Building Engineering 20 (2018) 173–178 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Building

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Building Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jobe

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jobe Detailed studies of cow dung ash modi fi ed concrete

Detailed studies of cow dung ash modi ed concrete exposed in fresh water

Ramachandran D, Vinita Vishwakarma , Viswanathan K

Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai 600119, India

T
T

ARTICLE INFO

Keywords:

Cow dung ash Concrete Strength Durability Microstructural

ABSTRACT

Concrete structures in proximity of water environment whether exposed directly or indirectly undergo physical and chemical changes. The water can be seeping into the porous concrete and this triggers the need to modify the exposed concrete with suitable add-ons. Cow dung ash is having pozzolanic qualities which can produce quality concrete structures. This study is focused on M30 grade concrete mix namely normal concrete and concrete modi ed with CDA. Concrete modi ed with CDA was prepared by 15% partial replacement of OPC with CDA. After 28 days of curing, specimens were exposed in fresh water for 56, 90, 180 and 365 days. Result showed that pH, compressive and split tensile strength and better durability was signi cant. X-ray di raction studies were done to nd out the crystalline structures whereas Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope studies were performed to analyze the structural morphology of concrete specimens. Both studies showed the presence of more calcium silicate hydrate and more cementitious products in concrete modi ed with CDA. Lesser bacterial density was observed on concrete modi ed with CDA compared to NC.

1. Introduction

Concrete is the second world's most commonly used construction material Some concrete structures are found in water in the form of tanks, pillars, dams, foundations, pipes, poles, etc [1] . The fresh water exposed concrete structures are constantly facing the degradation pro- blems which may be due to the freeze-thaw deterioration. As results it produces pressures in the capillaries and pores in the concrete which cause the signicant expansion, cracking and scaling of the concrete structures. The chemical attack of the fresh water with cement hydra- tion products, alkali-aggregates reactions, crystallization, frost action, corrosion, erosion etc is another problem with concrete [2,3] . These are the reason for decrease in strength and increase in permeability in concrete structures which is making concrete more susceptible for further attack and destruction [4] . The concrete industries are not only utilizing huge quantities of raw materials such as coarse aggregates, sand and water but also consume billions of tons of OPC. These activ- ities are not environment friendly from energy consumption point of view and release green-house gases (GHG) leading to global warming. Conservation of energy is an important step to overcome the energy crisis and environmental degradation. The cost of energy in most ce- ment production units accounts for more than 25% of the total pro- duction cost [5] . The manufacture of new materials and elements as construction resources support the energy e cient structural materials [6] . Development of new recycling green building material by reuse of

Corresponding author. E-mail address: vinitavishwakarma@sathyabama.ac.in (V. Vishwakarma).

daily waste improves the characters of green building [7] . Also recycled materials present good environmental behavior [8] . Now-a-days an increased amount of waste is being generated that leads to disposal crisis. The waste accumulation is mostly found in densely populated area and most of these materials are left as stockpiles, dumping garbage or illegal scrap materials in selected areas. The replacement of waste materials with cement, sand and coarse aggregates are limited to con- struction industry [9] . Cow dung ash (CDA) has pozzolanic qualities and thus considered as pozzolana for concrete production. In India, single cow produces dung per day approximately 30 kg and 12 tones in a year. So, there are su cient raw material is available to produce the cow dung ash at the industrial scale. The availability of cow dung is dispersed all over the India especially in the rural area. In an industrial scale (small and medium industry), approximately 3.5 t of raw cow dung is needed to produce 1 t of cow dung ash. This study has been planned to modify the concrete structures for the partial replacement of cement by cow dung ash (CDA) to determine the e ects of fresh water on the strength, durability and microstructural properties in concrete structures. Concrete structures in fresh water are also aected by mi- crobes, which colonize on the concrete surface, its pores, capillaries, micro-cracks and damage it. The attachment of bacteria in concrete of structures of bridges, tanks, pipelines and cooling towers has not re- ceived much attention. Literature says that dung may improve work- ability and durability or may act as additional binder [10] . Pam Billy Fom et al. studied the compressive strength of cement cow dung

Received 21 February 2018; Received in revised form 10 July 2018; Accepted 10 July 2018

2352-7102/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

R. D et al.

stabilized bricks and investigated the lateritic soil blocks treated with cow-dung and found it has higher compressive strength than ordinary lateritic blocks [11] . Yalley and Manu investigated into the strength

and the durability properties of earth brick stabilized with cow dung

[12] . Cow dung is considered as natural antiseptic and inhibitor for microorganism and when mixed in concrete structures acting as insect

repellent and prevents penetration of ultraviolet radiation.

In the recent years, many researchers have approached to modify

the concrete structure with cow dung as it improves the strength and

quality of concrete structures. Concrete corrosion and its resistance to

fresh water were studied with slag concrete with 20 30% substitution

has the best corrosion results [13] . Traditionally in India cow dung is

used as waterproo ng which consists of one-part of cow dung and ve parts earths by weight, made into a ne paste with water and used to ll up the surface cracks [14] . Sirri et al was studied the chemical prop- erties and pozzolanic e ects of partial replacement of cement with

Cattle Waste Ash (CWA) [15] . He found that 56-day compressive strengths of 5%, 10% and 15% CWA replacement had provided the best

results. Farmer says that students from Prasetiya Mulya Business School in Indonesia develop cow dung building bricks by using 75% of cow manure and found not only 20% lighter, but they have a compressive strength 20% stronger than clay bricks [16] . Juimo Tchamdjou et al.

also explained the importance of light weight concrete which has many

advantages such as higher strength to weight ratio, better tensile strain

capacity, lower coe cient of thermal expansion, and superior heat and sound insulation characteristic etc [17] . Some activities on the anti- bacterial corrosion of concrete have been also reported in the litera- tures. The micro-cracks in concrete are not having signicant in strength loss of concrete but presence of moisture may pose a threat to microbial growth in concrete. In India, a few groups are working on the

antibacterial corrosion studies on concrete modi cation by di erent admixtures like y ash and superplasticizer for prevention of biofouling [18] . Previous studies con rmed that among the ve-di erent concrete

mix of M30 grade such as 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, 12.5% and 15.0%

CDA replacement by OPC [19] , 15% replacement of CDA signi cantly

gained good strength, low permeability, less pH reduction and micro-

bial growth. So, this work was planned for one-year comparative study

of NC with concrete modi ed with CDA with 15% replacement of OPC to nd out its mechanical, durability, microstructural and antimicrobial activities in fresh water environment.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Preparation of specimens

Two types of concrete mix namely normal concrete (NC) and con- crete modi ed with CDA by 15% replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by CDA were prepared as per IS 8112:1989. The cow dung was collected, dried in sunlight, burnt to obtain the ash and sieved through 425 μ mesh [20] . The water was constant and superplasticizer percentage was attuned based on the requirements. The ingredients of

Table 1 Mix details of normal and CDA modi ed concrete.

Journal of Building Engineering 20 (2018) 173–178

the mixtures for NC and concrete modi ed CDA specimens for all mix are shown in Table 1. The cube of 150 × 150 mm, cylinder of

150 × 300 mm and 100 × 200 mm was casted for compressive

strength, split tensile strength as perthe procedure laid in IS 516 (IS

516-1959, IS 9103:1999 [21,22] and rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT) (ASTM C1202) [23] . The compaction of concrete mixture was done by internal vibration method to avoid the expelling the entrapped air from the concrete mixture during casting [24] All the specimens were withdrawn from the water after 7, 28, 56, 90, 180 and 365 days for further analysis.

2.2. Exposure studies in fresh water

All specimens of cube and cylindrical concrete were demolded after 24 h of casting and kept for 28 days in a laboratory curing tank lled with water at a temperature of 28 ± °C [25,26] ( Fig. S-1 ). After re- moving from the curing tank, the specimens were immediately exposed to fresh water in concrete tank. The fresh water was recycled every 15 days once for one-year study. The specimens were withdrawn after 56, 90, 180 and 365days. The post exposure analysis of the specimens was pH measurements (surface and internal), mechanical properties (com- pressive and split tensile strength), durability studies (RCPT), micro- structural properties (X-ray di raction studies {XRD} and Field Emis- sion Scanning Electron Microscope {FESEM}) and antibacterial activities by Total viable count (TVC) were evaluated.

3. Post exposure analysis

3.1. pH measurement study

The surface (WTW Sen Tix 3110) and internal (Hanna, HI-2211) pH of NC and concrete modi ed with CDA were performed for 28 days cured specimens and 56, 90, 180 and 365 days specimens were exposed in fresh water.

3.2. Mechanical properties

Compressive strength (IS 516) and split tensile strength (IS 5816) test results of fresh water exposed, 56, 90, 180 and 365 days were compared with 7 and 28 days cured concrete specimens. Both the test were performed by using automatic compression testing machine of 3000 kN capacity with di erent working force.

3.3. Durability studies

Rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT) was conducted to nd out the chloride resistance in both NC and concrete modi ed with CDA. The cylindrical specimens of 200 × 100 mm of 28 days cured and 56, 90,

180 and 365 days fresh water exposed were used to determine the

electrical conductance as per ASTM C 1202 97 [27] . The 50 mm thick slices and 100 mm diameter specimens was xed between two

Mix Proportion

Grade of Concrete: M30 - Water/Cement Ratio: 0.44

 

Free water

Cement

CDA

Total Binder

Fine Agg. (River sand)

Coarse Agg.

Super plasticizer

 

(Weight %)

Normal Concrete CDA Modi ed Concrete (15% by

0.44

1

1

2.18

3.12

0.01 (1% of Cement) 0.015 (1.5% of Binder)

0.44

0.85

0.15

1

2.18

3.12

weight of total binder) Details of Mix per m 3 of Concrete Free Water (Kg)

Cement (Kg) CDA

Total Binder

Fine Agg. (River sand)

Coarse Agg. (Kg)

 

Admixture (Kg)

(Kg)

Total C. A

20 mm

12 mm

 

(50%)

(50%)

Normal Concrete CDA Modi ed Concrete

160.6

365

365

794.97

1139.54

569.77

569.77

3.65

160.6

310.25

54.75 365

794.97

1139.53

569.77

569.77

5.48

R. D et al.

reservoirs using an epoxy bonding agent and one reservoir (connected to the positive terminal of the DC source) was lled with 0.3 N NaOH solution and the other reservoir (connected to the negative terminal of the DC source) with 3% NaCl solution. The set up was kept for the six hours to monitor the amount of electrical current passed through the specimens.

3.4. Microstructural properties

The X-ray diraction studies were performed by the X-ray dif- fractometer, Rigaku (9 kW) smartLab where Copper (K α) was used as a target material. The NC and concrete modi ed with CDA of 28, 56 and 365 days were crushed and made the powder. It was analyzed and identi ed the unknown crystalline compounds by Brag Brentano method. The scan step size was 0.02°, the collection time 1 s, and in the range 2 θ Cu Kα from 10° to 80°. The X-ray tube voltage and current were xed at 30 kV and 100 mA respectively. The standard database (JCPDS database) for X-ray powder di raction pattern was used for phase identi cation for a large variety of crystalline phases in NC and concrete modi ed with CDA. The FESEM study was carried out for cylindrical specimens of NC and concrete modi ed with CDA for 28, 56 and 365 days. The surface morphological characteristics of the specimens were observed under Carl Zeiss, SUPRA ® 55 with GEMINI ® Technology at 20 kV. All speci- mens selected for the analysis were coated with gold for electrical conduction.

3.5. Antibacterial activities

The bacterial density of cube concrete specimens exposed in fresh water of NC and concrete modied with CDA, exposed for 56, 90, 180 and 365 days was carried out. The total bacterial density of aerobic bacteria was evaluated as the Total Viable Count (TVC) by culture techniques using nutrient agar (NA) (Hi Media-M001). The density of di erent types of microbes such as Pseudomonas sp. , Manganese-oxi- dizing bacteria, algae, fungi and anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the bio lm was estimated by culturing in Pseudomonas Agar (PSA) (Hi Media-MM119), Manganous Agar (MnA) (Hi Media-M771), Cyanophycean Agar (CA) (Hi Media-M699), Czapek Dox Agar (CDA) (Hi Media-M1170) and modi ed Postgate [28] respectively. The concrete specimens were collected from fresh water and gently washed to get rid of loosely adhering cells. Using a sterile brush, the bio lm of cube specimens was dispersed into 70 ml of sterile phosphate bu er (0.0425 g KH 2 PO 4 , 0.19 g MgCl 2 per litre). Serial dilutions of the bac- terial cell suspension were prepared and 0.1 ml of each dilution was plated onto respective media. The plates were incubated for 24 48 h at 32 °C and the bacterial density was estimated [29] .

4. Results and discussion

4.1. Results of pH

The pH reduction was studied as surface and internal pH for NC and concrete modi ed with CDA from 28 to 365 days exposed in fresh water. It was found that there was a trend for the pH reduction in both surface and internal pH in both the specimens. Compared to NC, con- crete modi ed with CDA had less pH reduction in all the days (Table 2 ). This may be due to the leaching of free lime (CaO) from the NC and in concrete modi ed with CDA; the additional free lime (CaO) from ce- ment was reacted with CDA and formed the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH).

4.2. Mechanical properties

The compressive strength of 7, 28, 56, 90, 180 and 365 days were found increasing in strength. In NC, 7 and 365 days strength was

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Journal of Building Engineering 20 (2018) 173–178

Table 2 pH of NC and concrete modi ed with CDA exposed in fresh water.

Duration

Fresh water exposure

 

NC

CDA

Surface pH

Internal pH

Surface pH

Internal pH

28d

12.0

12.48

12.0

12.36

56d

11.79

11.80

11.82

11.88

90d

11.23

10.75

11.43

11.63

180d

9.65

10.20

9.90

9.80

365d

8.86

9.20

9.26

9.55

Table 3 Compressive strength and split tensile of NC and concrete modi ed with CDA.

Mix design Fresh water exposure

 

Before exposure

Specimens Compressive

Split tensile Strength

 

Strength (N/

mm

2 )

(N/mm 2 )

 

7d

28d

Mix design NC

 

CDA

NC

CDA

NC

23.32

38.82

56d

28.89

46.40

3.39

3.34

CDA

31.80

46.41

90d

38.23

48.39

3.46

3.14

 

180d

42.54

50.95

2.96

3.00

365d

47.70

53.35

3.22

3.31

23.32 N/mm 2 and 47.70 N/mm 2 for NC whereas concrete modi ed with CDA, it was 31.80 N/mm 2 for 7 days and 53.35 N/mm 2 for 365 days. It was observed that concrete modi ed with CDA attained more strength than NC. The variation in split tensile strength was found NC (3.39 3.22 N/mm 2 ) and concrete modi ed with CDA (3.34 3.31 N/

mm 2 ) from 56 to 365 days. The average results showed an increase in strength and then a decrease and again increase in the strength at a higher age ( Table 3 ). The standard deviation of average results of both compressive and split tensile strength was calculated ( Graph S-1 and S-

2 ).

4.3. Durability studies

RCPT analysis was showed the decreased in value from 56 (3012), 90 (2378) and 180 days (1318) and again increased on 365 days (1440) in NC. Concrete modied with CDA was showed a decrease in the value with age from 56 (1422), 90 (1117), 180 (1011) and 365 days (872) ( Table 4 ), indicating lower permeability and better durability than NC.

4.4. Microstructural properties

Fig. 1 represents the XRD image of 28 days cured concrete speci- mens of NC and concrete modi ed with CDA. The peaks at 20.7, 26.7, 50.1, 67.8, 80.4 and 83.6 represent the formation of silicon dioxide (JCPDS 46 1045). The peaks at 22.1, 29.4, 37.5, 40.4 conrm the formation of calcium silicate hydrate (JCPDS 33 0305). It was found that more calcium silicate hydrate peaks were and the formation of calcium silicate hydroxide at 18.1, 24.4, 27.8, 34.0, 36.5, 39.5, 45.7

Table 4 RCPT of NC and concrete modi ed with CDA.

Fresh water exposure -Average of chloride permeability (in coulombs)

Duration

NC

CDA

56d

3012

1422

90d

2378

1117

180d

1318

1011

365d

1440

872

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R. D et al. Fig. 1. XRD of 28 days cured concrete specimens. Fig. 2. XRD

Fig. 1. XRD of 28 days cured concrete specimens.

R. D et al. Fig. 1. XRD of 28 days cured concrete specimens. Fig. 2. XRD

Fig. 2. XRD of 56 days fresh water exposed concrete specimens.

2. XRD of 56 days fresh water exposed concrete specimens. Fig. 3. XRD of 365 days

Fig. 3. XRD of 365 days fresh water exposed concrete specimens.

54.5, 59.9 (JCPDS 29 0381) in concrete modi ed with CDA. The pre- sence of more calcium silicate hydrate in concrete modi ed with CDA is the sign of good strength compared to NC. Fig. 2 represents the XRD image of 56 days fresh water exposed concrete specimens where the formation of silicon dioxide peak at 20.9, 26.7, 50.1, 75.6 and 81.4 (JCPDS 461045) was found. The peaks at 28.2, 29.5, 40.6, 47.4 and 60.3 con rm the formation of calcium silicate hydrate (JCPDS

Journal of Building Engineering 20 (2018) 173–178

33 0305). It was observed, the presence of calcium silicate hydroxide at

36.8, 39.8, 42.2, 43.2, 46.0, 55.4 (JCPDS 29 0381). Fig. 3 shows the

XRD image of 365 days fresh water exposed concrete specimens. The formation of silicon dioxide peaks at 2 theta positions was 20.9, 56.7, 50.1, 75.8 and 81.5 (JCPDS 46 1045). The intensity of silicon dioxide peaks was decreased with the age. The intensity was high in 56 days specimens whereas it was decreased in 365 days specimens. The peaks at 28.2, 29.5, 31.2, and 40.4 indicate the presence of calcium silicate hydrate (JCPDS 33 0305). The peaks formed at 36.7, 39.6, 42.6, 46.1 and 55.2 con rmed the presence of calcium silicate hydroxide (JCPDS

29 0381). It was observed that the formation of ettringite at 18.1 and

34.2 (JCPDS 41 1451) in the fresh water exposed NC whereas, no et- tringite peak formation in fresh water exposed concrete modied with CDA. The comparative analysis of FESEM studies was done for 28, 56 and 365 days of specimens exposed in fresh water for both NC and concrete modi ed with CDA. More cementitious products were found in concrete modi ed with CDA than NC ( Fig. 4). The calcite formation and compact deposition density was initiated in concrete modi ed with CDA than NC from 56 to 365 days. The morphological changes from 56 to 365 days in concrete modied with CDA are showing the compact formation of calcium carbonate crystals.

4.5. Antibacterial activities

The TVC results were expressed as colony forming units (cfu/cm 2 ). The TVC of aerobic bacteria on NC was 4.2 × 105, 5.5 × 106, 7.7 × 106 and 8.5 × 106 for 56, 90, 180 and 365 days respectively. Whereas on concrete modi ed with CDA, the order was 6.9 × 103, 7.8 × 103, 7.2 × 103 and 7.6 × 104 showing less growth. There is also decrease in the population of bacterial density such as Pseudomonas , manganese oxidizing, Fusarium, blue-green algae and anaerobic bac- teria (SRB) in concrete modi ed with CDA compared to NC ( Table 5).

5. Discussion

This study was performed for signi cance of recycling of available resources with low cost material to achieve the major properties of concrete such as workability, mechanical and durability properties. Cow dung ash was used as supplementary cementitious materials for oor applications or as a building component but not for high structural stresses [30] . Ojedokun et al. explained an advantage of cow ding ash modi ed concrete that oers lightness of weight and low thermal conductivity [31] . The concrete structures were modied by partially replacing 15% of cow dung ash (CDA) of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). It was compared with M30 grade of normal concrete (NC). Both the specimens were exposed in the fresh water and withdrawn after 56, 90, 180 and 365 days and a comparative study of NC with concrete modi ed with CDA was done to nd out its mechanical, durability, microstructural and antimicrobial activities in fresh water. The di er- ence in pH reduction was compared with NC and concrete modi ed with CDA. pH was increased on concrete surface as it depends on the exposure conditions of the environment and gets a ected by external factors such as carbonation, free chloride ions, microorganism and other climatic conditions [32] . In this study, compared to cow dung ash (CDA) modi ed concrete, more pH reduction was observed in NC. This is also because of the reaction of free lime (CaO) of the cement with CDA and the formation of more calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), thereby strength of CDA modi ed concrete has been increased [20] . But in normal concrete (NC), unreactive free lime has been leached when it is exposed to fresh water. The compressive strength and split tensile strength showed appreciably high strength in concrete modi ed with CDA than NC after 365 days of exposure in fresh water. The RCPT values showed a better result in after 365 days in concrete modi ed with CDA, which indicated less durability. Further the studies were performed to know the changes in chemical composition and

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R. D et al.

Journal of Building Engineering 20 (2018) 173–178

D et al. Journal of Building Engineering 20 (2018) 173–178 Fig. 4. FESEM analysis of 28,

Fig. 4. FESEM analysis of 28, 56 and 365 days fresh water exposed NC and concrete modi ed with CDA.

morphology by XRD and FESEM for NC and concrete modi ed with CDA. XRD results showed the presence of more calcium silicate hydrate which is sign of enhanced strength in concrete modied with CDA than NC. The formation of silicon dioxide peak and presence of calcium si- licate hydrate from 56 to 365 days are responsible for strengthening process in concrete modied with CDA [33] . The FESEM study revealed the better structures in concrete modi ed with CDA because of presence

Table 5 TVC of NC and concrete modi ed with CDA exposed in fresh water.

of nanosilica seems to be homogenous in dispersion in concrete mod- i ed with CDA than NC. FESEM analysis showed needle like structure of calcite formation in concrete modi ed with CDA than NC which act as ller and reduce porosity [34] . The order of bacterial density was in decreased in concrete modi ed with CDA compared to NC. Overall, this study evaluates better results on concrete modi ed with CDA compare to NC with respect to pH degradation, strength, durability and less

No. of days

Type of Sample

NA (cfu/cm 2 )

PSA (cfu/cm 2 )

MnA (cfu/cm 2 )

CDA (cfu/cm 2 )

CA (cfu/cm 2 )

SRB (cfu/cm 2 )

Fresh water exposed concrete specimens

 

56d

NC

4.2 × 10 5 6.9 × 10 3 5.5 × 10 6 7.8 × 10 3 7.7 × 10 6 7.2 × 10 3 8.5 × 10 6 7.6 × 10 4

3.3 × 10 5 3.7 × 10 3 5.8 × 10 5 4.2 × 10 4 6.2 × 10 6 5.5 × 10 4 7.4 × 10 6 4.6 × 10 5

1.2 × 10 5 0.5 × 10 3 1.9 × 10 5 1.0 × 10 3 2.2 × 10 6 1.1 × 10 4 2.5 × 10 6 1.3 × 10 4

1.3 × 10 3 0.9 × 10 1 2.1 × 10 3 1.3 × 10 3 2.7 × 10 3 1.6 × 10 2 3.2 × 10 3 1.8 ×x10 3

– – – – 0.7 × 10 3 0.3 × 10 2 1.2 × 10 3 1.0 × 10 3

– – – – 0.3 × 10 3 0.2 × 10 2 0.4 × 10 3 0.6 × 10 2

CDA

90d

NC

CDA

180d

NC

CDA

365d

NC

CDA

R. D et al.

bacterial density.

6. Conclusion

This study has been drawn the attention on e cient use of waste materials and conservation of energy. CDA has potential to develop more durable and sustainable high-performance concrete. The reduc- tion of usage of cement is very important from economical as well as environmental point of view. The fresh water exposed concrete mod- i ed with CDA showed better concrete results in pH, mechanical properties, durability and antibacterial activities. However future stu- dies can be planned detailed comparative studies on chemical dete- rioration and biodeterioration on concrete modi ed with CDA with improved properties.

Acknowledgement

Financial support from Department of Biotechnology (Bioremediation), Government of India (BT/PR7436/BCE/8/946/ 2012) is greatly acknowledged.

Appendix A. Supplementary material

Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version at doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2018.07.008 .

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Journal of Building Engineering 20 (2018) 173–178

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