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# 1.

## Oil Gravity: 47.2 API

Specific gravity (sg) =141.5/ (131.5+API)
Sg= 0.79

## ρ(water)= 8.34 lb/gal

ρ(oil)= 6.6 lb/gal
ρ(oil)= 0.79 gm/cm^3

## For the rest of the life of the field:

while the water cut increase,the blended liquid Sg should follw the eqn:

S = Q 1∗S1Q
b
2∗S2...
Q 1Q 2...
where Specific gravity of the blended liquid
S b
Q1,Q2: Volume of each component
S1,S2: Specific gravity of each component

Water cut

Water cut Sg
25% 0.84
50% 0.9
75% 0.95
100% 1

## Water cut Density(lb/gal) Density(gm/cm^3)

0% 6.6 0.79
25% 7.04 0.84
50% 7.47 0.9
75% 7.91 0.95
100% 8.34 1

2. Calculate viscosity.

Cp=Vcs*density, gm/cm^3
Temperature(c) Viscosity(cp) Vcs
40C(104F) 2.46 3.11
50C(122F) 1.8 2.27
Temperature(c) Temperature(K)
40C(104F) 313
50C(122F) 323

## ASTM method is used here:

LogLog(Z)=A - B*Log(T)

## Z depends on the viscosity of the liquid V

V:viscosity of liquid, cSt
T=Absolute temperature, R or K
A and B are constants that depend on the specific liquid
Z= (Ѵ + 0.7 +C-D)
C=exp (-1.14883-2.65868(V))
D= exp (-0.0038138-12.5645(V))

1
C 0
D 0
Z 3.81

A 15.97
B 6.49

## the eqn LogLog(Z)=A - B*Log(T) can be rewrited as

LogLog(Z)=15.97 -6.49*Log(T)

Assuming the Temperature drop from reservoir to subsurface from 120C to 16 C(seab

120 393.15 -0.87
110 383.15 -0.8
100 373.15 -0.72
90 363.15 -0.64
80 353.15 -0.57
70 343.15 -0.49
60 333.15 -0.4
50 323.15 -0.32
40 313.15 -0.23
30 303.15 -0.14
20 293.15 -0.04
16 289.15 0

ν b=
Q Q
1 2

Q /  ν Q
1 1 2/ ν 2
ν b=
Q Q 1 2

Q /  ν Q
1 1 2/ ν 2

## Water cut Oil percentage ν b

0% 100% 7.65
25% 75% 7.03
50% 50% 6.5
75% 25% 6.05
100% 0% 5.66

3 Preliminary Sizing

If the flow velocity in an oil pipeline is high, the wall of the pipe can be eroded,and th
The allowable maximum velocity at which erosion will not occur is given by semi-emp

U max =
122
ρ
where U max

U max
4.34 m/s

For the production rate, let's say 12000bbls/D for the initial stage of production, runin

## Daily production 12000*4 = 48000

let's take
U= 3 m/s

we can calculate:

3
48000 b / day ∗0 . 159 m /b
24 ∗3600 s / day
2 2
=3m / s ⇒
π
4
Dm
4 Calculate the pressure drop due to friction.

## The Reynolds Number and flow regimes

Water cut ν b
Cp Density(gm/cm^3)
0% 7.8 0.79
25% 6.09 0.73
50% 4.43 0.53
75% 2.79 0.33
100% 1.11 0.13

## Reynolds mumber > 4000 Turbulent flow

0 . 3164
f= 0 . 25
R e
for Re=3000-100000

f = 0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

## Pressure drop due to friction:

2 Let L=
∑hf = f  L/ D u /2g 

240.56 m
∑ kf

2 2

2 1
2 1 2 1
∑ hf
2 2

## H e= z − z  p −ρg P  u 2g−u

2 1
2 1 2 1
∑ hf

2
 3m / s  240 . 5638121m
5

H  260 −10 ∗ 10 Pa
e= 1700 1600  m 3
 2 2
=
791 kg / m ∗9 . 81 m/ s 2∗9 . 81 m/ s

at 60 F
at 60 F

## follw the eqn:

ace from 120C to 16 C(seabed Temperature)
L
10
0.14
Z(cSt)
1.37
Z(Cp)
1.08
Z(SSU)

## 0.16 1.45 1.14

0.19 1.55 1.23
0.23 1.68 1.33
0.27 1.87 1.48
0.33 2.12 1.68
0.4 2.49 1.97
0.48 3.04 2.41
0.59 3.91 3.1
0.73 5.39 4.26
0.91 8.11 6.42
0.99 9.86 7.8 58.5
μ water 1.11 cSt @ 16 C
μ water 32 SSU

ν b SSU ν b cSt ν b Cp
58.5 9.86 7.8
49.42 7.22 6.09
42.3 4.95 4.43
36.61 2.95 2.79
32 1.11 1.11

## e pipe can be eroded,and the flow can be noisy.

occur is given by semi-empirical formula

Maxmum velocity

## al stage of production, runing 4 wells

bbls/D

0.04
ID = 0.19 m
7.62 in

Let's take 8 in
Re
58918.51
69604.14
69604.14
69604.14
69604.14

5000 m
2
/ s  240 . 5638121m = 6762.79 m
2
m/ s