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It is study about the structure and functions of the immune system consists of organs,
cells &molecules that mediate resistance to infections & toxic effect of pathogens.

Role of Immune system

Defence against microbes, kills growth of tumour cells and maintain homeostasis mechanism of body.

Types of immunity

1. Innate(non-adaptive)
It is the first lineof immune response exist before infection gives rapid response after infection &
has no memory.
It has mechanical barriers ( skin, cilia ), humoral mechanism (lysozymes, interferons) & cellular
defence mechanisms(neutrophils, basophils & eosinophils)

2. Adaptive immunity
 It is called the second line of response because it works innate immunity fails & handled
by T AND B lymphocytes
 Responds slowly to first attack i.e over few days
 It has anamnestic memory, longer in duration & larger in magnitude.
 It has cell mediated immune response (T- lymphocytes eliminate intra cellular
microbes.) & humoral immune response ex- B- lymphocytes eliminate extra-cellular
microorganisms & their toxins.

These are Y shaped or T shaped polypeptides having two identical light chains.
There are five types of antibodies.
Ex- IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
70-75% of total immunoglobulin are IgG

Herd immunity
The resistance generated by group of people after exposure towards a disease & maximum
number of people are immune to it.
- Disease agent must be restricted to a single host & transfer only to a susceptible individual.


In case of hypersensitivity reaction
immuno deficiency like congenital defect in lymphocyte maturation
& acquired Immuno deficiency in AIDS & Chronic leukemia

Vaccine mediate protection

 By influencing effector mechanisms aginst harmful replicating pathogen & their toxic effect.
 B lymphocyte produce immune effector antibodies. The other effectors are cytotoxic CD8+ T
lymphocytes limits the infected organisms & kill infected cell & sectrets antiviral cytokines &
CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes.
 Capsular polysaccharides elicit B-cell responces. The attachment of bacterial polysaccharides to
a protein carrier provides foreign peptide antigens & it appoints antigen specific CD4+ Tfh cells.
 Live attenuated vaccines influence CD8+ CYTOTOXIC T cells & CD4+ T cells influence to
macrophase activation.

From innate to adaptive immunity activation: The first steps after immunization

 The central role of mature dendrite cells in the induction of vaccine responces reflects their
unique capacity to provide antigen-specific binding signals to T-CELLS. These danger signals are
required to activate the T cells.
 Vaccine elicit sufficient danger signals through vaccine antigens or adjuvants to trigger an
Inflammatory reaction that is mediated by cells of innate immune system.
 After injection the dendrite cells , manocytes and
neutrophils are attracted towards vaccine antigen.
 Produce a very large danger signals by vaccine antigens.
 The activation changes their surface receptor and promote their migration along lymphatic
 Draining to lymph nodes where T & B lymphocytes activation takes place

Vaccine induces CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses.

When dendrite cells capture antigen in peripheral tissue and migrate to draining lymph nodes where T
cell vaccine responses are elicited in parallel to B-cell responses.

Vaccine responses towards the neonatal immunization

Shorter interval between the doses like 1month interval result in lower immune response while longer
interval doses like 3-7 month interval produce stronger response.