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V Cells 

Simplest units of all living things 

Some exist as independent organisms (Unicellular) 
Others exist as a part of a whole (Multicellular) 
Orchestrate all living processes 
10-15 micrometres 
Blood cell 7-5 micrometres 
Human egg is much larger- 100 micrometres 
Plasma Membrane 
Defines the boundaries of the cell 
Regulates passage of substances in and out of the cell 
Made of phospholipids 
Heads are hydrophilic 
Tails are hydrophobic 
Tails on the inside, heads on the outside 
Has cholesterol molecules interspersed throughout to stiffen up 
the layer 
Imbedded proteins allow passages of solutes 
Sometimes have carbs attached forming glycoproteins 
Identifies the cell 
Selectively permeable 
Lipid soluble passes easily 
Central part of the cell 
Acts as the control centre of the cell 
Contains all of the cell’s genetic information 
Most cells contain 1 nucleus 
Some like liver cells and skeletal cells contain multiple 
Some like red blood cells contain 0 
Double layered “nuclear envelope” surrounds the nucleus 
Has nuclear pores in it 
Allow for the passage of things like RNA and DNA when 
Chromatin in the centre of the nucleus 
Becomes chromosomes when the cells begins to divide 
Cytoplasm and other Organelles 
Gel-like substance that fills the empty space 
Organelles in the cytoplasm 
Endoplasmic Reticulum 
Rough ER contains ribosomes allowing it to synthesise 
proteins which move through the ER to the Golgi Apparatus 
Smooth ER synthesises certain lipids and carbohydrates 
On the ER and free in the cytoplasm 
Synthesises proteins 
Golgi Apparatus 
Made of stacked sacs 
Receives proteins from the ER and packages them to go to 
other cells of the body 
1) ER delivers proteins to the golgi body 
2) The protein passes through the golgi apparatus, undergoing 
changes throughout  
3) The Golgi apparatus enveloped the protein and pinches off, 
making a vesicle 
4) Vesicles travel to the surface of the cell, Some pop and release 
their insides, other stay and store, and still others become 
2 lie outside of the nucleus 
Used in cell division 
From the Golgi body 
Contains enzymes to break down anything unnecessary and 
Powerhouse of the cell 
2 membranes, outer and inner 
Inner folds are cristae 
Space between the 2 membranes make ATP 
Supporting framework for the cell 
Made of protein filaments and rods 
Gives shape, strength, and ability to move to the cell 
Organises contents of the cell 
Folds in the cell membrane that increase the surface area 
of the cell 
Hair projections from the cell surface 
Can move 
Large cilia 
Help move with a flicking motion 
Passive transport 
Uses no energy 
Movement of particles from higher concentration to an area 
of lower concentration 
When particles are evenly distributed, called “​Equilibrium” 
Diffusion of water down the concentration gradient 
Water, not the particles, move 
Causes hydrostatic pressure 
Caused by a difference in pressure 
Facilitated diffusion 
Uses a carrier  
Active Transport 
Up the concentration gradient 
Uses energy 
Phagocytosis and pinocytosis 
DNA Structure 
Made of nucleotides 
Phosphate + deoxyribose to make the backbone 
Bases in between the two backbones 
Provides instruction of how to make proteins 
Same as DNA but 
Single stranded 
Sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose 
Uracil instead of Thymine 
Segment of DNA unwinds 
RNA enzyme assembles RNA complementary to the strand 
mRNA goes to ribosome 
tRNA finds matches 
Chromatin coils into chromosomes 
Chromatids join at a centromere 
Move to opposite sides, spindle fibres appear 
Nuclear envelope dissolves 
Spindle fibres attach to chromosomes 
Chromosomes line up 
Centromeres divide, 2 chromosomes 
New nuclear envelope, cytokinesis